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  • 251.
    Benjaminsson, Josef
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Design av IT-stöd för rondmöten inom sjukvården: Vilken information är nödvändig för att stödja sjukvårdspersonal vid rondmöten i en intensivvårdssituation?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Patientövervakning och rondmöten är centrala aktiviteter i all sjukvård. Teknik som tagits fram för patientövervakning och rondmöten är relativt underutvecklad vad gäller överblick och mötesstöd. En fallstudie genomfördes med två observationer och en fokusgruppintervju på intensivvårdskliniken vid Linköpings universitetssjukhus. Syftet med fallstudien var att ta fram grundläggande informationskrav för att stödja sjukvårdspersonal vid möten och ronder i en intensivvårdssituation. Målet var att utveckla en övergripande design för ett digitalt arbetsbord. Designperspektivet utgick från Activity-centered design.

    Studien visar att sjukvårdspersonalen som stöd vid rondmöten behöver övergriplig information om patienten. En lägesvy för rond har därför utvecklats för ett digitalt arbetsbord.

  • 252.
    Bennerhed, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Investigating joint referencing between VR and non-VR users and its effect on collaboration2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Reality has until now seen limited actual use in society other than in the gaming industry. A reason for this could be its exclusively individual-viewpoint based nature and a lack of possible collaborative experiences together with people with no VR equipment. This study has investigated how joint visual reference points might help a VR and a non-VR user collaborate with each other using a repeated measures design with three conditions. In the experiment, where one user was equipped with a HTC Vive and the other stood in front of a large screen, the pair was presented 0, 4 or 9 joint visual reference points from their own viewpoint. Results of the tasks performed by the participants indicates that 9 joint visual reference points increased a pair’s collaboration efficiency. However, the effect was not present once joint attention had been fully established. Furthermore, non-VR users found it significantly harder giving instructions to the other user when there were no joint visual reference points available while the VR-users did not find it significantly harder to do so. Additionally, differences between VR users’ and non-VR users’ spatial orientation ability were found to predict different patterns over the three conditions. Judging from the results, it seems that for the VR-users, 4 reference points helped more than 0 and 9 helped more than 4. However, an interaction effect was found on the non-VR users between spatial orientation ability and visual reference points condition. 4 reference points had a counter-productive effect on task efficiency for the non-VR users with lower spatial orientation ability while 4 reference points did seem to help the higher spatial ability group. 9 joint visual reference points completely eliminated group differences between high and low spatial orientation ability groups for both VR users and non-VR users.

  • 253.
    Bennysson Nord, Cecilia
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Creating and Maintaining Well Being: The Relaxation Response at Work2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have presented physical and psychological benefits of meditation. Many of these are due to the so called Relaxation Response. In our study, we compared a concentrative meditation practice and a relaxation practice to investigate potential differences in the elicitation of the Relaxation Response. The study was performed during 12 weeks on 15 subjects employed by the Police Authority. We measured the subjective well-being, according to the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and by reading blood pressures. The descriptive analysis of the results, supports that the Relaxation Response is elicited by meditation and, although weaker, by physical relaxation. An elicited Relaxation Response is, however, maintained by relaxation. We also looked at the possibilities of introducing these practices in the work environment. There are several issues to deal with if the methods are to be applied in the work environment, mainly creating the time and place for the employees.

  • 254.
    Bensch, Suna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Drewes, FrankUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Proceedings of Umeå's 16th student conference in computing science: USCCS 20132013Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 255.
    Bensch, Suna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hellström, ThomasUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Proceedings of Umeå's 18th student conference in computing science: USCCS 2014.12014Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Bensch, Suna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Towards Proactive Robot Behavior Based on Incremental Language Analysis2014In: MMRWHRI '14 Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Multimodal, Multi-Party, Real-World Human-Robot Interaction / [ed] Mary Ellen Foster, Manuel Giuliani, Ronald P. A. Petrick, 2014, p. 21-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes ongoing and planned work on incremental language processing coupled to inference of expected robot actions. Utterances are processed word-by-word, simultaneously with inference of expected robot actions, thus enabling the robot to prepare and act proactively to human utterances. We believe that such a model results in more natural human-robot communication since proactive behavior is a feature of human-human communication.

  • 257. Bentley, F.
    et al.
    Tollmar, Konrad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Mobile Service Laboratory (MS Lab).
    The power of mobile notifications to increase wellbeing logging behavior2013In: CHI '13 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM Digital Library, 2013, p. 1095-1098Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-logging is a critical component to many wellbeing systems. However, self-logging often is difficult to sustain at regular intervals over many weeks. We demonstrate the power of passive mobile notifications to increase logging of wellbeing data, particularly food intake, in a mobile health service. Adding notifications increased the frequency of logging from 12% in a one-month, ten-user pilot study without reminders to 63% in the full 60-user study with reminders included. We will discuss the benefits of passive notifications over existing interruptive methods.

  • 258. Bentley, F
    et al.
    Tollmar, Konrad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Dernirdjian, D
    Koile, K
    Darrell, T
    Perceptive presence2003In: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, ISSN 0272-1716, E-ISSN 1558-1756, Vol. 23, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptive presence systems automatically convey awareness of user states to a remote location or application without the user having to perform explicit commands or mode selection. The article describes a component-based architecture for creating presence applications using perceptual user interface widgets. Each widget performs a machine perception function, such as tracking a face or monitoring activity in a specific 3D location. Widgets provide an abstraction barrier between the perception algorithms and the needs of application writers. Two example applications developed using this framework are presented: one uses a luminous display to express a user’s availability for communication to a colleague at a remote location, and a second uses activity to control devices in a context-aware environment.

  • 259.
    Benyon, David
    et al.
    Edinburgh Napier University.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    Blended Spaces and Cross-channel Ecosystems2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Creativity and Cognition, ACM Digital Library, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a contribution to creativity and codesign based on applying the theory of conceptual integration (also known as conceptual blending, or blending theory) to creative design and collaboration. Our approach is based on bringing the principles of conceptual blending and applying them to the creation of novel spaces, objects and services in creative industries. We couple this with the conceptualization of actor-driven cross-channel ecosystems as the extended digital / physical places where experiences occur.

  • 260.
    Benyon, David
    et al.
    Centre for Interaction Design, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Resmini, Andrea
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    User experience in cross-channel ecosystems2017In: HCI 2017 - Digital make-believe: Proceedings of the 31st International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2017), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in information and communication technologies have left interaction design and human-computer interaction (HCI) with something of a conceptual gap. The distinction between physical and digital spaces is increasingly blurred. Cloud-based services have enabled a separation of information content from device so that content can be accessed and manipulated across multiple devices and locations. The user experience (UX) frequently needs to deal with activities that transition across physical and digital spaces and ecosystems of devices and services. Designers can no longer prescribe the journey or curate experiences simply as isolated interactions. Instead, UX must be consistently spread across touchpoints, channels, and device ecosystems. Our contribution to the development of UX, interaction design, and information architecture is to appeal to the notions of cross channel user experiences and blended spaces. Information architecture is the pervasive layer that underlies interactions that cross services, devices and blended physical and digital spaces. Information architecture is the structure within which the UX unfolds. From this perspective, we highlight the importance of creating meaningful places for experience and navigation through blended spaces.

  • 261.
    Berg, Beatrice
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Greder, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Conceptual Design of Interaction between Driver and Automated Trucks For Connection to a Platoon2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The area of automated vehicles is currently emerging and the development of advanced automatic systems can be seen as an effort to better support humans by technology. Increased safety, reduction of emissions by fuel efficiency, increased comfort while driving and cooperation between vehicles by e.g. platooning (co-driving on a highway at close distances) is some of several benefits that are mentioned associated with automation in vehicles. Several challenges are also associated with the development of automated systems, such as creating a good interaction between the driver and the vehicle. The challenge is to develop a good user experience (UX) and a safe and simple interaction to better the chances of the driver using the automated functions, and thereby enable gaining the advantages associated with it.

    This thesis has focused on the area of human machine interaction (HMI) as a part of the European project AdaptIVe and has been conducted at ATR at Volvo GTT. The purpose of the thesis was to develop a concept for connection to a platoon initiated by the driver. The aim was to develop a concept that was perceived as novel (i.e. different than conventional solutions found in today’s trucks), coherent with the function of joining a platoon, and address user needs, HMI and UX aspects. The results were expected to contribute to finding new ways of interacting with trucks that could possibly be included into future Volvo trucks.

    The thesis was practiced through a user centred design process, divided into three phases; exploration, concept development and concept evaluation. The exploration phase explored the user, user environment and user needs, involved truck drivers, and defined use case and design criteria for the concept. The development phase was conducted to generate and select a concept based on the criteria. Expert users were involved in the ideation and selection. The concept evaluation was performed with lo-fi prototypes and expert users and, based on the results from the tests, improvements were made and a final concept was finished.

    The final concept ISSA is a concept for activation and connection to a platoon through swiping forward on an interactive lighted touch sensitive surface located in the middle of the steering wheel. The surface indicates by light when activation is possible and in which direction the swipe should be done. ISSA is also equipped with two lights, one at the bottom (manual mode) and one at the top (automatic mode) of the steering wheel. White light represents manual mode and blue light automatic mode. Additional information about available platoons, system state and lateral and longitudinal control is also given in the head-up display (HUD).

    ISSA addresses important criteria regarding user needs, HMI and UX. Results from the user test indicate that ISSA is easy to use and that it is perceived as safe. System status, intentions and transitions is indicated to be acknowledged by the users (given by information in HUD and mode indications on steering wheel). Results indicate that ISSA is perceived as easy to use, has good usability and that ISSA outperforms a conventional solution such as a button regarding novelty and pleasure of use. ISSA implies a new way of interaction between driver and automated trucks and is designed to be coherent with the function of connecting to a platoon in terms of transferring the control of the vehicle to the truck in front. ISSA fits into future truck driving, contributes to a good UX, has a familiar design and could contribute to the driver using the platooning function which enables gaining benefits associated with it. 

  • 262.
    Berg, Martin
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Man and Information technology laboratory (MI-lab).
    Smart jewellery: measuring the unknown2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-tracking devices and apps often measure and provide interpretations of personal data in a rather straightforward way, for instance by visualising the speed and distance of a run or the quality of sleep during a night. There is however a growing number of devices that take the data analysis further by providing insights and algorithmic advices about domains of our lives that are otherwise thought of as difficult to grasp. This paper explores two devices of this kind, namely the Moodmetric and the ŌURA which are two recently released smart rings with associated mobile apps that claim to measure emotions and rest, promote happiness and help users to perform better. Whereas several studies have shed light over how users engage with self-tracking apps and devices, little attention has been paid to how these technologies stem from dreams, hopes and imaginaries of designers and developers. This paper approaches self-tracking from a producer perspective in order to frame how users and their everyday lives are imagined by designers and how these assumptions are built into the technologies. Empirically, the paper is based on a content analysis of blog posts, marketing materials and user guides from the ŌURA and Moodmetric companies along with video interviews with company representatives as well as recordings of their public appearances. Engaging with the field of software studies as well as the emerging field of self-tracking studies, this paper aims at providing a basis for further design oriented studies of self-tracking.

  • 263.
    Berg, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Improving reading experience in digital newspapers2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reading news on mobile devices has during the past decade transcended into an every- day activity, which induce greater demands on design and presentation of news. Several researchers have examined essential components in the area of digital newspapers, despite this, there are few newspapers that have switched to a reader-friendly format.

    The objective of this thesis is to evaluate how the reading experience in digital newspa- pers can be improved by abandoning the traditional structure of today’s printed newspapers. Based on numerous tests and studies, as well as support from literature, a set of guidelines has been produced as a result of this thesis.

    The design guidelines contain recommendations for optimal line size, typeface, point size, appearance, functionality, placement, recognition factor and packaging. To ensure quality, all guidelines were validated in order to prove that the reading experience had increased. An evaluation was performed that attempted to determine that.

    The statistic result of this thesis showed a significant difference in both reading speed and the subjective experience. However no significant difference could be seen regarding the reading comprehension. The conclusions made was that structure and design of content can influence both reading speed and reading experience.

    All design guidelines can be used as guidance when developing templates for digital newspapers. 

  • 264.
    Berg, Samuel
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    User Interfaces and Immersion: The Effect Diegetic User Interfaces Have on Immersion in Third-Person Games2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to discover how the use of diegetic user interfaces (compared to non-diegetic user interfaces) affect immersion experienced in third-person video games. The main research question to be answered is: How does the use of diegetic user interfaces in third-person games affect the immersion experienced by players? To answer the main research question, the question was broken down into five different questions and online experiments were conducted. The experiments included six participants in which all of them played two different versions of the same computer game (one non-diegetic version and one diegetic version) as well as a survey (questionnaire) for each of the games including questions about the participants and numerical rating scales (on scales from 1 to 5) about their experiences with the game versions. In general, there did not seem to be a significant between the two versions of the game in terms of immersion. While the results suggest that the non-diegetic versions of the game causes players to become more frustrated, this could possibly just have been a coincidence due to the small sample size, and the difference was not “extreme” either (2.5 compared to about 1.833). Since the p-value generated was 0.32291 regarding frustration, which is several times more than 0.05, it suggests the statistical significance of the result is low. Enjoyability seemed to be about the same for the two versions of the game as well, and the variance was quite small compared to some other results (about 0.556). The variance regarding the visuals seems relatively small as well (0.25 to about 0.472) which tends to suggest that it might be unlikely that the non-diegetic user interface is heavily disliked. It might even be preferred. Either way, the results do not seem to be statistically significant.

  • 265.
    Bergdahl, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Användarens önskade upplevelse vid behandling av social fobi med virtual reality2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Social fobi är en ångeststörning som i stor utsträckning påverkar livet hos den som är diagnostiserad. Kärnan i social fobi ligger i rädslan att bli granskad och riskera att göra bort sig eller bli förlöjligad. Den behandlingsmetod som visats vara mest effektiv i behandling mot social fobi är kognitiv beteendeterapi (KBT). Det är en tidsbegränsad och nutidsorienterad psykoterapi där patienten lär sig både kognitiva och beteenderelaterade färdigheter som behövs för att denne adaptivt ska kunna fungera i både inter- och intrapersonella världar. I takt med att teknologin utvecklas blir det möjligt att flytta terapin till en virtuell miljö, där patienten kan exponeras för de stimuli som de anser vara ångestframkallande. Denna behandingsform kallas för Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) och tar terorier inom KBT och förflyttar dem till en miljö i virtual reality. User experience-mål beskriver den önskade upplevelsen hos användaren när denne interagerar med interaktiva system. UX-mål delas upp i pragmatiska och hedoniska aspekter. Resultatet av studien blev två pragmatiska och två hedoniska UX-mål som beskriver den önskade upplevelsen hos användaren när denne behandlas med VRET mot social fobi. De framtagna målen visar att känslor av kontroll, realism, belöningar och utmaningar är det som användarna anser vara de viktigaste aspekterna när en mjukvara för behandling av social fobi ska designas.

  • 266.
    Bergenbrant, Mikaela
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating Usability Work in the Development Process at a Consulting Firm2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When needing software, using the services of an IT consulting rm is todaya common solution for companies nowadays. To make a system suited forthe intended users it is important to focus on usability.There are many dierent approaches possible to use when developinga usable system. The purpose of this study was to study if any of theapproaches, goal-directed design, could be used when a customer orders asolution from a consulting rm. This was to be studied through a case studywhich was conducted at the IT consulting rm Sigma. One of Sigma's customersis Toyota Material Handling Group which is a supplier of forkliftsand additional services like the online eet management platform ToyotaISite. The platform is about to be further developed by connecting it to amobile application with the purpose of making the platform more accessibleand ecient. The assignment in the case study was to develop a prototypefor this mobile application. This was done using the goal-centered design approach.Further, in order to understand the work at Sigma today, interviewswere conducted with developers at the company.The data collected led to an analysis about how Sigma and other similarIT consulting rms could use the goal-centered design approach when developingsoftware. The conclusion drawn was that parts of the method couldbe motivated to the customer and thereby be used in future projects, whilesome parts would be harder to motivate for the customer. The includedsteps were user research, context scenarios, requirements and high-delityprototyping. These conclusions can be used to integrate usability work inthe development process in the context of an IT consulting rm deliveringa system to a customer.

  • 267.
    Berger, Tony
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Communication, Media and it.
    Törnqvist, Carl
    Södertörn University College, School of Communication, Media and it.
    EmoWheel: En metodutveckling för utvärdering av emotionellt engagemang2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of how emotional engagement can be measured and be taken into account in the development of websites. We believe that emotions become relevant only when viewed in correlation to how users experiencing a webpage. In this study, we developed a tool for use together with user tests where the information about the user's emotional engagement can add new value to the evaluation. The tool allows the user to mark, on the website, his/her emotions and level of engagement represented by colored circles, generating quantiative data on how users feel about the website. The tool is part of a method for evaluating the emotional engagement that we have developed which consists of user testing supported by the tool and accompanied by interviews.

  • 268.
    Bergfeldt André, Frans
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Från abstraktion till hyperrealism: En historisk exposé av stridsvagnsanimationer i elektroniska spel2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats presenterar en historisk exposé kring den visuella och tekniska utvecklingen av stridsvagnsanimationer. Detta med fokus på perception och kognition utifrån definitionerna abstraktion, realism och hyperrealism. Uppsatsen ämnar förklara i bild, text och rörlig media hur utvecklingen sett ut och hur långt den har nått. För att åstadkomma detta har en analysmatris tagits fram, ur vilken valda beståndsdelar i spelen Battlezone, Battle Tank och Battlefield 1942 dissekeras. För att ytterligare påvisa kontrasten i utvecklingskurvan, har jag haft Craft Animations och deras verktyg till min hjälp. Verktyget och resultaten detta genererar, analyseras med hjälp av samma analysmatris som för spelen.

    Resultatet visar en tydlig kontrast i utvecklingen, där Craft Animations verktyg representerar vad vi idag kan kalla för hyperrealism.

  • 269.
    Berggren, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Vikten av patientsäkerhet på förlossningsavdelningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete var att undersöka hur verksamheten vid en förlossningsavdelning fungerar med fokus på patientsäkerhet. Detta undersöktes genom att samla in data i form av intervjuer från Linköpings och Norrköpings förlossningsavdelningar. Materialet analyserades sedan genom en tematisk analys som resulterade i sex huvudteman (team, hälsa, information, träning, mål och system). Resultatet visar på att team, kommunikation och stresseliminering är de viktigaste fynden i studien. Dock är alla teman viktiga för patientsäkerheten då de tillsammans skapar ett säkrare system.

    För att dessa faktorer ska kunna samspela med varandra är det viktigt att systemet regelbundet utvärderas för att justeringar ska kunna göras. Detta för att systemet ska vara resilient och klara av de utmaningar som de ställs inför.

    Framtida studier som skulle vara intressanta att göra är att utöka insamlingen av data, undersöka hur små och stora förlossningsavdelningar i Sverige ser på patientsäkerhet och även jämföra den svenska verksamheten med exempelvis den kenyanska verksamheten. 

  • 270.
    Berggren, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring the Possibilities of Split Testing on Motion-Based Games2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Split testing is a popular practise to compare and evaluate design elements of web-sites. In this report, it is explored how split testing can be employed to test features of motion-based online games. This is done by applying theory taken from split testing of common web-pages and translating it to work with games. A pilot test is conducted on the newly developed game Phaseformer to evaluate two interaction techniques. With only 105 test participants, the results from the pilot test show with high statistical power that one variant provides the player with a higher level of control over the game than the other.

  • 271.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Assessing Shared Strategic Understanding2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the development of an instrument for assessing shared understanding in teams. The purpose was to develop an instrument that would be usable, understandable, objective, flexible and self-explanatory. Teams working in naturalistic settings are expected to have a shared understanding concerning common goals and how to achieve these. The problem investigated in this thesis is that current techniques and instruments for assessing shared understanding in teams generally suffer from one or more of the following drawbacks, namely that they are expensive, difficult to use, time-consuming, requiring expertise, and are often based on subjective perceptions. Departing from existing theory in team cognition techniques and theories, the research questions posed in this thesis are: 1) How can shared understanding be measured without the disadvantages of existing methods? 2) How can shared understanding be assessed without the bias of self-ratings and/or assessments by experts/observers? 3) Can team performance be better understood by the outcomes of an instrument that measures shared understanding?

    These research questions are answered through six studies that are presented in this thesis. Over the six studies an instrument was iterated and subsequently developed, called the “shared priorities instrument”. When using this instrument, team members are instructed to generate items and rank these in order of importance. By comparing these rank orders from different participants, a team measure of shared understanding can be calculated. The advantages of this instrument compared to earlier measures are that it is less expensive, easier to use, less time-consuming, does not require subject matter expertise, and that the instrument is distanced from subjective perceptions. Furthermore, the final study provides results where outcomes from the shared priorities instrument correlate with performance, supporting earlier research connecting shared understanding in teams with team performance. A structural equation model, a result of the final study, shows that the instrument is both valid and reliable.

  • 272.
    Berglind, Lotta
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Användbarhetsexpertens roll som representant och medlare i systemutvecklingsprocesser2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport talas det om användbarhetsexpertens roll som representant för användaren,medlare av termen användbarhet samt medlare mellan användaren och andra yrkesroller i en systemutvecklingsprocess. Denna roll har många gånger en tendens till att inte få tillräckligt med gehör av andra yrkesroller i utvecklingsprojekt. Det finns flera olika faktorer som kan bidra till detta. Vad som framkom i resultatet var en bekräftelse på att användbarhetsexpertens

    roll är viktig i fråga om representering och medling. Vad gäller faktorn samarbete anser respondenterna att samarbetet för det mesta fungerar bra mellan dem och andra yrkesroller. Samarbete ses därmed inte som en faktor som påverkar gehöret för en användbarhetsexperts roll i systemutvecklingsprocesser. Respondenterna tycker däremot att de inte alltid får gehör för sin roll som användbarhetsexpert fast att de tycker att samarbetet med andra yrkesroller fungerar bra. En faktor som bidrar till

    detta är den svårdefinierade termen användbarhet.

  • 273.
    Berglund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Chatbots as Interaction Modality: An Explorative Design Study on Elderly Classical Music Concert Subscribers2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a pilot study aimed at exploring how a chatbot can be designed to be used as a tool to give elderly classical music concert subscribers information about concerts they are attending. Previous works have indicated chatbots to be useful as information retrieval systems. To test this theory, a chatbot called “BerwaldBoten” was created and tested on eight elderly concert subscribers. Apart from testing the chatbot in everyday settings during a week leading up to a concert, the users also answered questionnaires before and after the study for qualitative data. Data from the chats was also collected for qualitative analysis. The results were generally positive, where most users found it easier to acquire concert information when using the chatbot. A need to provide the alternatives to interact using either quick reply buttons or free text was indicated. Furthermore, the importance of stating limitations and being transparent regarding the system state at all times is discussed.

  • 274.
    Berglund, Kalle
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Ysberg, Kim
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Nilsson, Hampus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Lundell, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Lakss, Dan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Captain Osprey and The Wings of Fate: En spelproduktion2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här slutreflektionen kommer ni att kunna läsa om vårt kandidatarbete i sin helhet. Ni får ta del av det koncept vi arbetade fram och strävade efter att realisera. Ni kommer att få följa med i arbetsprocessen där vi låter er få inblick i hur vi gick från idé till färdig produkt inom de tre avdelningarna programmering, grafik och ljud. Avslutningsvis kommer vi att reflektera över kandidatarbetstiden, både som grupp och på individnivå. Några av de frågeställningar vi tar upp handlar om hur vi har lyckats genomföra projektet trots bristande planering och utan någon hierarkisk ordning samt hur det har varit att arbeta i en grupp där majoriteten av medlemmarna har haft en ny roll för första gången i ett projekt. Throughout this final reflection you'll be able to read about our graduation project as a whole. You'll take part of the concept we developed and strived after trying to realize it. An insight of our work process where we describe how we transfered our idea from paper to a final product will be given. You will read about the work process from the programmers, sound designers and graphical artists perspective. Toward the end of the document thoughts about how we worked as a team and at an individual level are discussed. Some of the questions we bring up is about how we managed to complete the project despite the lack of planning, hierarchic structure and at last, how it was like working in a new area of expertise for the first time.

  • 275.
    Berglund, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Agility in Military Processes: Development of an Assessment Tool for Agile Command Teams2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agility is developing to a more and more central concept in the military domain and new war fare methods etc. is creating a greater demand on the Swedish Defence Agency to be more agile. The concept is very complex but could be described as the ability a command team has to discover threats and opportunities, and act with a response towards these to gain advantage in the situation.

    This report aims to develop an assessment tool for evaluating whether or not, or to which extent, a command team is agile. Discussions have been made in sessions with informants that somehow are connected to (working with or research about) agility in the Swedish Defence Agency to discuss the development of an assessment tool like this. Five sessions have been executed and after the first two respectively the last three, upgrades of the tool were made.

    The result of the study shows that it is not impossible to develop an assessment tool, but for a complex concept like agility, it is very hard. The conclusions drawn is that it might be possible to create a basic frame for a tool that further on can be shaped to fit the command team being evaluated.

  • 276.
    Berglund, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Samtalets byggstenar: Hur artefakter bidrar till att bygga upp samtalet under en överrapportering2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    "Det finns många arbetsplaster som klassas som kognitiva system och inräknat i den klassifikationen finns sjukhusmiljön. Det som dessutom gör sjukhusmiljön komplex är all den information som strömmar ut och in. Intensivvårdsavdelningar är inget undantag. Det är kanske där det strömmar som mest information då de ständigt får in nya patienter och de patienter som ligger där stannar för det mesta inte så länge.

    Överrapporteringar av olika slag är ett exempel på de informationsflöden som finns på olika avdelningar. En studie gjord av Joseph Sharit (2008) visar att det finns en koppling mellan de problem som finns i hanteringen av patienter på en avdelning och hur överrapporteringen går till. Överrapporteringen måste förändras för att hanteringen av patienterna ska bli bättre. De problem som finns i samband med en överrapportering är att den tar alldeles för lång tid och, är ostrukturerad och att alla som ger rapport har olika åsikter om hur detaljerad informationen som ges ska vara. Överrapporteringarna ser olika ut beroende på vilken sjuksköterska det är som ger rapport.

    Jag har tittat på hur artefakterna hjälper till att bygga upp samtalet under överrapporteringen. Med hjälp av en kvalitativ undersökning har jag kunnat visa att artefakter som används vid överrapportering hjälper till att bygga upp samtalet tillsammans med den kunskap som sjuksköterskorna har. Utan artefakter hade den här typen av överrapportering inte varit möjlig."

  • 277.
    Bergman, Mikael
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    Hertzberg, Tim
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Computer Science and Informatics.
    User Experience för mobila applikationer på iPhones med stora skärmar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Smartphone screens have in recent years increased greatly in size. This has created problems for the user experience. Thus, the purpose of the study is:

    How mobile applications for smartphones with larger screens should be developed in the future to provide as good UX as possible.

    In order to answer the purpose it has been broken down into three research questions:

    Which parameters (type of objects) are most affected by different screen sizes?

    Depending on the screen size, are different layouts preferred?

    How much of the screen can be reached by one handed use?

    Method

    A study of literature is made to answer the first research question. It became the basis of a questionnaire in the form of an application, which answered the study's second and third research questions. The test subjects ranked different layouts depending on their perceived user experience. The tests were conducted on an iPhone 4S and an iPhone 6S Plus to evaluate the differences between different screen sizes.

    Findings

    The study concluded that it is important to place essential items within the user’s reach when one hand is used. Items placed at the edges or corners of the screen are often difficult to reach on a larger screen, which means that avoiding such placement is preferred.

    Implications

    The study can both be of service in future research on user experience and reach, but also give recommendations on what is important to take into consideration when developing mobile applications for smartphones with larger screens.

    Limitations

    Since the study was conducted over a limited period of time there was no opportunity for more tests.

  • 278.
    Bergqvist, Emil
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Auditory displays: A study in effectiveness between binaural and stereo audio to support interface navigation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses if the change of auditory feedback can improve the effectiveness of performance in the interaction with a non-visual system, or with a system used by individuals with visual impairment. Two prototypes were developed, one with binaural audio and the other with stereo audio. The interaction was evaluated in an experiment where 22 participants, divided into two groups, performed a number of interaction tasks. A post-interview were conducted together with the experiment. The result of the experiment displayed that there were no great difference between binaural audio and stereo regarding the speed and accuracy of the interaction. The post-interviews displayed interesting differences in the way participants visualized the virtual environment that affected the interaction. This opened up interesting questions for future studies.

  • 279.
    Bergqvist, Emil
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Spatial orientation & imagery: What are the gender differences in spatial orientation and mental imaging when navigating a virtual environment with only auditory cues?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the gender differences in spatial orientation and mental imagery when navigating a virtual environment with only auditory cues. A prototype was developed for an iPod Touch device to evaluate possible gender difference in performance of orientation. A sketch map task was conducted to externalize the participants’ mental representation they achieved from the environment. Questionnaires were used to collect data on previous video game experience, spatial orientation self-assessment and spatial anxiety. A post-interview was conducted to gather qualitative information from the participants on how they experienced the experiment and to collect some background about them. In total, 30 participants (15 females, 15 males) with tertiary education participated in the experiment. The result indicates that there are gender differences in time to complete the tasks in the virtual environment. In the sketch map task, there were no gender differences in how well they sketch and externalize their mental representation of the environment. The post-interview showed tendencies that there are possible gender differences in vividness of mental imagery.

  • 280.
    Bergsmark, Moa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    From Patchwork to Appliqué: Exploring Material Properties Through an Interaction Design Remake2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Materials and materiality in interaction design has become more and more important perspectives within the field. Material explorations of a specific material could contribute to this ongoing discussion. As means to investigate how material properties affect interactive qualities for a tangible interaction design, a remake of an existing design was created. The starting point for remake is a tangible programming space for children called Patcher where custom built RFID readers is interacted with. For this investigation, Android mobile phones with NFC readers is the material of choice when recreating the same concept. Design values in Patcher are identified as collaborative play and open-ended programming play. The creation process of Alfombra Applique, the remake, is presented, the design choices and how they relate to the shift of material. This leads to learnings regarding how material properties differ when using the prebuild product with a lot of design possibilities in relationship to custom built hardware. These learning can be summarized into three topics. (1) When using a prebuilt product as material there will be more limitations to how a designer can change the material, it can only be bent using software. (2) A consumer market product opens up to getting the artefact available to more users, but it could depend on how the product normally is used. (3) The designer and users will have a lot more preknowledge of the material whish gives implications on expectations. Also, the paper investigates how exploring materials and having a bricolage mindset made it possible to create a meaningful remake with other material of an existing design. It is concluded that the choice of materials and how designers work with their properties changes what is relevant and possible to design. 

  • 281.
    Bergsmark, Moa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Fernaeus, Ylva
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    From patchwork to appliqué: Reflections from an interaction design remake2016In: TEI 2016 - Proceedings of the 10th Anniversary Conference on Tangible Embedded and Embodied Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 236-244Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a case in which an existing tangible system and its core design values has been used to create a new variation with available standard technology exactly one decade later. We reflect on how the new technological setup fundamentally changed the interaction in terms of electronic media and behavior, as well as regarding perception, physical manipulation, and overall social activity. The new design is discussed in terms of transformations of practice, which shifted our conceptual understanding of the interaction from the metaphor of making a patchwork to that of an appliqué.

  • 282.
    Bergsten, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Communication and Resilience in a Crisis Management Exercise: A qualitative study of the communication of a staff leading the rescue work during a simulated ferry fire, understood through the systemic resilience model2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns communication in a crisis management exercise with a resilience perspective. The staff’s communication during a crisis management exercise, a simulating a ferry fire, facilitated by DARWIN, a European research project in resilience, is analysed with thematic analysis and understood through the Systemic Resilience (SyRes) model (Lundberg & Johansson, 2015)which combines different aspects of resilience.

    The main themes found are The Staff’s Decision MakingOperational Care of Affected Persons,and CommunicationThe staff’s decision makingconsist of the following subthemes: SituationAnalysisValue of Measuresand Delegation.Operational care of Affected Personsinvolves the themes Transport,and HealthcareCommunicationconsists of the subthemes Stakeholders, and External Communication. The themes are connected in the way that in order to make informed decisions about the operational care ofaffected persons, the staff need to communicate with external stakeholders. 

    The themes could be understood through the functions in the SyRes model as they share elements with, could be seen as parts of, or in another way could fit into the adaptive functions of the SyRes model.

    This study found themes in the communication of a staff in crisis management. These themes seem to be central for this staff, are reflected in the SyRes model and would reflect what is important for a staff to behave resilient. That is why it would be suggested to examine if the staff’s in crisis management are supported in their work involving these themes.

  • 283.
    Bergsten, Victor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Franzén, Gabriel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    När äldre vuxna möter ny teknik: En kvalitativ undersökning kring digitalisering och digitalatjänster bland äldre vuxna2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The survey has been conducted about how older adults use digital services on the Internet,

    what their thoughts are about them and the problems that can arise during use. The

    purpose of the survey is to treat the qualitative data to see what factors affect older adults

    to use various digital services to operate in society. This purpose has arisen from the

    problem which older adults are the smallest but fastest growing user group to take

    advantage of digital opportunities, today's society more or less requires that you have

    some sort of digital knowledge to be able to benefit from its services. Based on the

    objective, we have formulated our research question "Older adults are the fastest growing

    group of digital users, but in total still the lowest represented user group. What contributes

    to the rapid rise and what can we learn from the users of today on how to develop digital

    services for this age group in the future?" We chose to write about this project because we

    think that the subject is relevant and interesting to explore. Since one can see the obvious

    problems regarding this in everyday life, we chose to more deeply explore the area to give

    us a broader view. We have used qualitative methods like observations and semistructured

    interviews, these have been applied from prior knowledge of how to perform

    these methods to enable a good data collection. We have also created our own modified

    model based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Unified Theory of

    Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) used to measure technology acceptance.

    The modified model is applied to the information we developed from them qualitative

    methods. The results from four informants indicate that there are critical factors that

    influence the use of digital services such as experience and needs, but these factors are

    individual and varies from person to person resulting in that there is not a single answer to

    the question but must be answered for each individual service.

  • 284.
    Bergström, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Sambandet mellan användarupplevelse och tillit till företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Omfattande forskning har bedrivits för att öka förståelsen för vilka faktorer som frambringar känslan av hög tillit på internet och vilka komponenter som har störst påverkan på användarupplevelsen, men forskningen för att undersöka variablernas samband är begränsad. I studien undersöks korrelationen mellan användarupplevelsen och användarens tillit till företaget. Genom användartestning, där Tänka högt-metoden användes, framkom det att testdeltagarens frustration gradvis ökade i takt med att antalet problem ökade. Vid användartestets slut utvärderade deltagaren användarupplevelsen genom en enkät. Enkätens resultat jämfördes med testdeltagarens självuppskattade tillit till företaget. Resultatet visade att en signifikant korrelation mellan variablerna kan påvisas, vilket antogs bero på att deltagarens tro på att hen kontrollerade webbplatsen minskade och därmed påverkade tilliten till företaget negativt. Upptäckten tros få effekten att företag, vars verksamhet till stor del är internetbaserad, kommer eftersträva en bättre användarupplevelse för att sannolikt få högre tillit.

  • 285.
    Bergström, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Berg, Ivan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Mobilapplikationsutveckling för människor med kognitiv funktionsnedsättning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många människor lider av kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar. Det kan försämraförmågan att använda teknik och leda till att människor går miste om många verktyg och funktionersom andra tar för givet. Att ta hänsyn till kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar i utvecklingen avmobilapplikationer är utmanande då vissa gränssnitt och funktioner kan upplevas som för kompliceradeeller ostrukturerade. I denna uppsats presenteras designmönster som kan bidra till en inkluderandedesign enligt konceptet Design för alla. Design för alla innebär design som möjliggör användande föralla människor. Designmönstren har nåtts genom kvalitativ metod. Intervjuer med sakkunniga inomkognitiva funktionsnedsättningar och tekniska hjälpmedel har varit den huvudsakligadatainsamlingsmetodiken.

  • 286.
    Bergström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Workshopmetodik för uppstart av nya projekt inom mobil IT2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Workshops have become a familiar phrase during the last decade. It is a useful and popular way of working, which has led to workshops methodology being of great interest to a numerous amount of companies. One type of workshop is the idea generating workshop. During these it is desirable that the participants have a common objective during the workshop, which at times can be hard to achieve.

    The purpose of the case study was to create a workshop methodology surrounding mobile applications. The workshop focuses on creating a common objective for the participants and letting the company representatives focus on their potential users.

    Several criteria were extracted from a literature study, interviews and requests provided from the company Sogeti. These criteria were then used to select suiting techniques and with them, create a workshop methodology. The workshop was tested and analyzed twice, by performing test runs. This was to be able to see whether the workshops would work as expected in a real life scenario or not.

    The end result is a workshop methodology with elaborately chosen techniques. During the test cases the workshop met its demands on a common objective, as well as having the participants centering their idea generation on their end users through the whole workshop.

    The conclusions made from the study were that this method should work fine when used as an idea generating workshop, especially when used in the context of mobile applications. The different parts of the workshop which are crucial for it to reach a desirable result have also been identified as; purpose description, Empathy map, Nominal group technique and 20-20 vision.

  • 287.
    Bergström Kousta, Lia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lättläst lättare: Utformningen av ett grafiskt gränssnitt för en automatisk textförenklare profilerat mot webbredaktörer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att ta fram ett förslag på hur ett gränssnitt för en automatisk textförenklare profilerad mot webbredaktörer vid Linköpings universitet skulle kunna se ut. För att åstadkomma en välgrundad utformning har studien undersökt webbredaktörers arbetssätt och behov, och utforskat lösningar på liknande problem i andra verktygsgenrer. För att uppnå syftet har tre frågeställningar ställts upp: 1) Hur kan ett stödverktyg för att skriva lättläst utformas för att passa webbredaktörer vid Linköpings universitet?, 2) Vad finns för existerande lösningar på liknande designproblem? Och 3) Givet funktionaliteten i verktyget, hur bör ett gränssnitt utformas? För att besvara den första frågeställningen utfördes intervjuer med sex olika webbredaktörer. I besvarandet av den andra frågeställningen utfördes en förebildsanalys på liknande verktyg för att identifiera potentiella lösningar. Slutligen presenteras en prototyp baserad på de första frågeställningarna och vissa typografiska avväganden som ett svarsförslag till den tredje frågeställningen. Resultaten visar på att ett textförenklingsgränssnitt profilerat mot webbredaktörer kräver skilda funktioner från textförenklingsverktyg riktade mot en målgrupp med lässvårigheter.

  • 288.
    Bergvik, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Designing experiences for virtual reality, in virtual reality: A design process evaluation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Creating immersive experiences for virtual reality (VR) presents new design opportunities and challenges that do not appear when creating experiences on a screen. Creating prototypes and exploring concepts in VR is today limited to professionals with previous knowledge in 3D application development, and testing 3D experiences requires the usage of an Head-Mounted Display (HMD), which forces professionals to switch medium from the computer to an HMD. With new advances in this field, there have to be new solutions to these challenges. The goal of this thesis is to explore how VR technology can be utilized in the experience design process for VR. This is achieved through a literature study and conducting expert interviews, followed by a hardware evaluation of different HMDs and concept creation using rapid prototyping. From the interviews, a number of issues could be identified that correlates with the research from the literature study. Based on these findings, two phases were identified as suitable for further improvements; Concept prototyping and testing/tweaking of a created experience. Lo-fi and hi-fi prototypes of a virtual design tool were developed for HTC Vive and Google Daydream, which were selected based on the hardware evaluation. The prototypes are designed and developed, then tested using a Wizard of Oz approach. The purpose of the prototypes is to solve some of the issues when designing immersive experiences for HMDs in the suitable experience design phases that were identified by analyzing the interview results. An interactive testing suite for HTC Vive was developed for testing and evaluation of the final prototype, to verify the validity of the concept. Using Virtual Reality as a medium for designing virtual experiences is a promising way of solving current issues within this technological field that are identified in this thesis. Tools for object creation and manipulation will aid professionals when exploring new concepts as well as editing and testing existing immersive experiences. Furthermore, using a Wizard of Oz approach to test VR prototypes significantly improves the prototype quality without compromising the user experience in this medium. 

  • 289.
    Bergwik, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using the DIAL Protocol for Zero Configuration Connectivity in Cross-Platform Messaging2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's living room context offers more and more possibilities when it comes to when and how to interact with the television and media content offerings. Buzzwords such as "TV Everywhere" is something that both hardware manufacturers, content providers and television networks are pursuing to great lengths. At the core of such marketing schemes is the availability of platform-independent content consumption. In a Utopian setting, the end-user should never have to worry if he or she is currently using a smart TV, tablet, phone or computer to view a video or photos, play music or play games. Taking the concept even further, the devices should also be able to connect and communicate with each other seamlessly. Having for example a television set (first screen) controlled by a mobile phone (second screen) is commonly referred to as companion device interaction and is what this thesis has investigated. More specifically, a way of discovering and launching a first screen application from a second screen application using the zero configuration discovery protocol named DIAL has been implemented into a cross-platform messaging solution. A case study was conducted to gather data about the system and its context as well as what was needed of the framework in terms of architecture design, use cases and implementation details. A proof of concept application was developed for Android that used the proposed framework, showcasing the ease of use and functionality presented in integrating DIAL into such a solution. Since DIAL is so well-documented, easy to understand and is becoming one of the industry standards among consumer electronic manufacturers in terms of device discovery, I believe it should become a standard for so called zero configuration companion device interactivity.

  • 290.
    Berns, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lantz, Ann
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Toomingas, Allan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Special issue of Behavioural and Information Technology with key note lectures and selected papers from the 8th international conference on Work With Computing Systems 2007 - WWCS 2007 - in Stockholm May 21st-24th 2007 - Foreword2008In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 283-284Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 291.
    Bernson, Jesper
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lagras reklam i minnet under informationssökning på Internet?2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet fokuserar på frågan om reklam lagras i minnet under en van internetanvändares aktivitet på en webbportal, när denne inte uttryckligen söker efter reklam. Rapporten redovisar olika aspekter som kan inverka på användarnas beteende vid deras interaktion med Internet. Med hjälp av ett förtest i enkätform väljs 30 vana internetanvändare ut som försökspersoner. Dessa delas upp i två lika stora grupper och utför sedan en uppgift på en webbportal. Slutligen genomför de ett test som undersöker om de kommer ihåg de fyra reklamannonser som finns på webbportalen. Detta görs med metoderna fri återgivning eller igenkänning. Vid fri återgivning var det endast en person som kom ihåg en korrekt reklamannons. Igenkänningstestet resulterade i sammanlagt 19 korrekt utpekade reklamannonser. Resultatet visar på att försökspersoner som fick göra igenkänningstestet, kunde svara på vilka reklamannonser som fanns på webbsidan i högre grad än de som fick använda sig av testet fri återgivning.

  • 292.
    Bertheim, Jane
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Designing Digital Nudges to Encourage Sustainable Decisions: Developing and Testing a Framework2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The awareness of environmental impacts lead to that organizations are starting to work towards UN's global sustainability goals. To influence customers into a more sustainable behaviour, organizations have the potential to look at nudging as a tool. A nudge is a way to alter peoples behaviour into taking a certain decision. However, since many organizations offer their service or product in the digital environment, such as websites or apps, increased knowledge of digital nudging is required. This thesis aims to establish a framework for how nudges should be designed and used on digital platforms to encourage sustainable decisions. The purpose is to enlighten designers of digital environment of the potential of nudges, pitfalls to avoid, and a general design process to follow. The framework is based on a literature study and interviews with people familiar with the concept of nudging. To examine how the framework works a case study is performed, this includes a workshop, performing a user research, developing prototypes and finally, conduct user tests. By testing the framework further methods could be found, this meant that more practical steps could be included in the framework. The result of this thesis shows that the framework proved to be useful and functional to use when designing digital nudges to encourage sustainable decisions.

  • 293. Beskow, J.
    et al.
    Edlund, J.
    Granström, B.
    Gustafson, J.
    Gjermani, T.
    Jonsson, O.
    Skantze, G.
    Tobiasson, Helena
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Innovative interfaces in MonAMI: The reminder2008In: ICMI'08: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces, 2008, p. 199-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This demo paper presents an early version of the Reminder, a prototype ECA developed in the European project MonAMI, which aims at "mainstreaming accessibility in consumer goods and services, using advanced technologies to ensure equal access, independent living and participation for all". The Reminder helps users to plan activities and to remember what to do. The prototypemerges mobile ECA technology with other, existing technologies:Google Calendar and a digital pen and paper. The solution allows users to continue using a paper calendar in the manner they are used to, whilst the ECA provides notifications on what has been written in the calendar. Users may ask questions such as "When was I supposed to meet Sara?" or "What's my schedule today"?

  • 294.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Federal University of Fronteira Sul.
    Game-calibrated and user-tailored remote detection of emotions: A non-intrusive, multifactorial camera-based approach for detecting stress and boredom of players in games2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Questionnaires and physiological measurements are the most common approach used to obtain data for emotion estimation in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) and games research. Both approaches interfere with the natural behavior of users, which affects any research procedure. Initiatives based on computer vision and remote extraction of user signals for emotion estimation exist, however they are limited. Experiments of such initiatives have been performed under extremely controlled situations with few game-related stimuli. Users had a passive role with limited possibilities for interaction or emotional involvement, differently than game-based emotion stimuli, where users take an active role in the process, making decisions and directly interacting with the media. Previous works also focus on predictive models based on a group perspective. As a consequence, a model is usually trained from data of several users, which in practice describes the average behavior of the group, excluding or diluting key individualities of each user. In that light, there is a lack of initiatives focusing on non-obtrusive, user-tailored emotion detection models, in particular regarding stress and boredom, within the context of games research that is based on emotion data generated from game stimuli.

    This thesis proposal presents a research that aims to fill that gap, providing the HCI and the games research community with an emotion detection process, instantiated as a software tool, which can be used to remotely study user's emotions in a non-obtrusive way within the context of games. The main knowledge contribution of this research is a novel process for emotion detection that is remote (non-contact) and constructed from a game-based, multifactorial, user-tailored calibration phase. The process relies on computer vision and remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) to read user signals, e.g. heart rate (HR) and facial actions, without physical contact during the interaction with games to perform the detection of stress/boredom levels of users. The approach is automated and uses an ordinary camera to collect information, so specialized equipment, e.g. HR sensors, are not required.

    Current results of this research show that individualities can be detected regarding facial activity, e.g. increased number of facial actions during the stressful part of games. Regarding physiological signals, findings are aligned with and reinforce previous research that indicates higher HR mean during stressful situations in a gaming context. The findings also suggest that changes in the HR during gaming sessions are a promising indicator of stress, which can be incorporated into a model aimed at emotion detection. The literature reviews, the experiments conducted so far and the planned future tasks support the idea of using a set of signals, e.g. facial activity, body movement, and HR estimations as sources of information in a multifactorial analysis for the identification of stress and boredom in games. It will produce a novel user-tailored approach for emotion detection focused on the behavioral particularities of each user instead of the average group pattern. The proposed approach will be implemented as a software tool, which can be used by researchers and practitioners for games research.

  • 295.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Game-calibrated and user-tailored remote detection of emotions: A non-intrusive, multifactorial camera-based approach for detecting stress and boredom of players in games2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Questionnaires and physiological measurements are the most common approach used to obtain data for emotion estimation in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) and games research. Both approaches interfere with the natural behavior of users. Initiatives based on computer vision and the remote extraction of user signals for emotion estimation exist, however they are limited. Experiments of such initiatives have been performed under extremely controlled situations with few game-related stimuli. Users had a passive role with limited possibilities for interaction or emotional involvement, instead of game-based emotion stimuli, where users take an active role in the process, making decisions and directly interacting with the media. Previous works also focus on predictive models based on a group perspective. As a consequence, a model is usually trained from the data of several users, which in practice describes the average behavior of the group, excluding or diluting key individualities of each user. In that light, there is a lack of initiatives focusing on non-obtrusive, user-tailored emotion detection models, in particular regarding stress and boredom, within the context of games research that is based on emotion data generated from game stimuli. This research aims to fill that gap, providing the HCI and the games research community with an emotion detection process that can be used to remotely study user's emotions in a non-obtrusive way within the context of games.

    The main knowledge contribution of this research is a novel process for emotion detection that is non-obtrusive, user-tailored and game-based. It uses remotely acquired signals, namely, heart rate (HR) and facial actions (FA), to create a user-tailored model, i.e. trained neural network, able to detect the emotional states of boredom and stress of a given subject. The process is automated and relies on computer vision and remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) to acquire user signals, so that specialized equipment, e.g. HR sensors, is not required and only an ordinary camera is needed. The approach comprises two phases: training (or calibration) and testing. In the training phase, a model is trained using a user-tailored approach, i.e. data from a given subject playing calibration games is used to create a model for that given subject. Calibration games are a novel emotion elicitation material introduced by this research. These games are carefully designed to present a difficulty level that constantly and linearly progresses over time without a pre-defined stopping point. They induce emotional states of boredom and stress, accounting for particularities at an individual level. Finally, the testing phase occurs in a game session involving a subject playing any ordinary, non-calibration game, e.g. Super Mario. During the testing phase, the subject's signals are remotely acquired and fed into the model previously trained for that particular subject. The model subsequently outputs the estimated emotional state of that given subject for that particular testing game.

    The method for emotion detection proposed in this thesis has been conceived on the basis of established theories and it has been carefully evaluated in experimental setups. Results show a statistical significance classification of emotional states with a mean accuracy of 61.6\%. Finally, this thesis presents a series of systematic evaluations conducted in order to understand the relation between psychophysiological signals and emotions. Facial behavior and physiological signals, i.e. HR, are analyzed and discussed as indicators of emotional states. This research reveals that individualities can be detected regarding facial activity, e.g. an increased number of facial actions during the stressful part of games. Regarding physiological signals, findings are aligned with and reinforce previous research that indicates higher HR mean during stressful situations in a gaming context. Results also suggest that changes in HR during gaming sessions are a promising indicator of stress. The method for the remote detection of emotions, presented in this thesis, is feasible, but does contain limitations. Nevertheless, it is a solid initiative to move away from questionnaires and physical sensors into a non-obtrusive, remote-based solution for the evaluation of user emotions.

  • 296.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proposal for Non-contact Analysis of Multimodal Inputs to Measure Stress Level in Serious Games2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Henrik Engström & Fotis Liarokapis, Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 171-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of monitoring user emotions in serious games or human-computer interaction is usually obtrusive. The work-flow is typically based on sensors that are physically attached to the user. Sometimes those sensors completely disturb the user experience, such as finger sensors that prevent the use of keyboard/mouse. This short paper presents techniques used to remotely measure different signals produced by a person, e.g. heart rate, through the use of a camera and computer vision techniques. The analysis of a combination of such signals (multimodal input) can be used in a variety of applications such as emotion assessment and measurement of cognitive stress. We present a research proposal for measurement of player’s stress level based on a non-contact analysis of multimodal user inputs. Our main contribution is a survey of commonly used methods to remotely measure user input signals related to stress assessment.

  • 297.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Changes in heart rate and facial actions during a gaming session with provoked boredom and stress2018In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 24, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experiment aimed at exploring the relation between facial actions (FA), heart rate (HR) and emotional states, particularly stress and boredom, during the interaction with games. Subjects played three custom-made games with a linear and constant progression from a boring to a stressful state, without pre-defined levels, modes or stopping conditions. Such configuration gives our experiment a novel approach for the exploration of FA and HR regarding their connection to emotional states, since we can categorize information according to the induced (and theoretically known) emotional states on a user level. The HR data was divided into segments, whose HR mean was calculated and compared in periods (boring/stressful part of the games). Additionally the 6 h of recordings were manually analyzed and FA were annotated and categorized in the same periods. Findings show that variations of HR and FA on a group and on an individual level are different when comparing boring and stressful parts of the gaming sessions. This paper contributes information regarding variations of HR and FA in the context of games, which can potentially be used as input candidates to create user-tailored models for emotion detection with game-based emotion elicitation sources.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-01 00:01
  • 298.
    Beyene, Wondwossen
    et al.
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Ferati, Mexhid
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    A Case for Adaptation to Enhance Usability and Accessibility of Library Resource Discovery Tools2017In: Universal Access in Human–Computer Interaction. Design and Development Approaches and Methods, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10277, p. 145-155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Library resource discovery tools (RDTs) are the latest generation of library catalogs that enable searching across disparate databases and repositories from a single search box. Although such “Google-like” experience has been applauded as a benefit for library users, there still exist usability and accessibility problems related to the diversity of user goals, needs, and preferences. To better understand these problems, we conducted an extensive literature review and in this process, we initially grouped issues into three categories: interface, resource description, and navigation. Based on these categories, we propose adaptation as an alternative approach to enhance the usability and accessibility of RDTs. The adaptations could be conducted on three levels pertaining to categories of issues found, namely: interface, information, and navigation level. The goal of this paper is to suggest how the process of adaptation could be considered in order to mitigate usability and accessibility issues of RDT interfaces.

  • 299.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Freksa, Christian
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Spatial Computing for Design — an Artificial Intelligence Perspective2015In: Studying Visual and Spatial Reasoning for Design Creativity / [ed] Gero, John S., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands , 2015, p. 109-127Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The articulation of the Science of Design by Herbert Simon and the paradigmatic relevance of Artificial Intelligence in that context are closely intertwined topics: Simon elaborates the ‘Sciences of the Artificial’ in the context of the design of artefacts. Situated in this AI-centric view of design, we characterize “spatial computing for design” as a specialisation concerned with the development of the general representational and computational apparatus necessary for solving modelling and reasoning problems in spatial design. Several representation and reasoning problems are dis-cussed in the backdrop of relevant examples involving the formal modelling of structural form with respect to a desired/anticipated artefactual function. The discussion, although applicable to any spatial design activity, is grounded in the domain of assistive decision-support in the context of a conventional computer-aided architecture design workflow.

  • 300.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Cognitive Systems (CoSy), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Guesgen, Hans W.School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Situational Awareness for Assistive Technologies2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of smart assistive technology for personal living and public environments is an opportunity that has been recently recognized by research labs across the world. A particular theme that has garnered attention in many countries is the problem of an aging population. The combination of a much larger elderly population and the ever increasing cost of providing full-time human care for them means that finding practical assisted living solutions for this group is becoming increasingly important. Computing is the obvious choice to provide an answer to this growing problem, but to have a real impact, computer-based assistive technologies will need to possess the ability to interact with, and interpret, the actions and situations of those they are designed to assist.

    The papers in this book explore the diversity of the field of ambient intelligence, as well as the wide range of approaches and variety of applications that may prove to be possible. Consideration is given to how space, action, time, and other contexts can be represented and reasoned about for use in sensory mapping, multi-agent interactions, assisted living, and even emergency responses. Many techniques are examined; variety represents one of the most important strengths of this area, meaning that the weakness of one approach can be offset by the capability of others.

    The book consists of research contributions dealing with the crucial notion of situational awareness within assistive smart systems emerging as an overarching concept. An applied computer science character has been retained, whilst bringing to the fore research projects where formal knowledge representation and reasoning techniques have been demonstrated to be applicable to areas within the broader field of ambient intelligence and smart environments.

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