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  • 251.
    Bergsmark, Moa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Fernaeus, Ylva
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    From patchwork to appliqué: Reflections from an interaction design remake2016In: TEI 2016 - Proceedings of the 10th Anniversary Conference on Tangible Embedded and Embodied Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 236-244Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a case in which an existing tangible system and its core design values has been used to create a new variation with available standard technology exactly one decade later. We reflect on how the new technological setup fundamentally changed the interaction in terms of electronic media and behavior, as well as regarding perception, physical manipulation, and overall social activity. The new design is discussed in terms of transformations of practice, which shifted our conceptual understanding of the interaction from the metaphor of making a patchwork to that of an appliqué.

  • 252.
    Bergsten, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Communication and Resilience in a Crisis Management Exercise: A qualitative study of the communication of a staff leading the rescue work during a simulated ferry fire, understood through the systemic resilience model2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns communication in a crisis management exercise with a resilience perspective. The staff’s communication during a crisis management exercise, a simulating a ferry fire, facilitated by DARWIN, a European research project in resilience, is analysed with thematic analysis and understood through the Systemic Resilience (SyRes) model (Lundberg & Johansson, 2015)which combines different aspects of resilience.

    The main themes found are The Staff’s Decision MakingOperational Care of Affected Persons,and CommunicationThe staff’s decision makingconsist of the following subthemes: SituationAnalysisValue of Measuresand Delegation.Operational care of Affected Personsinvolves the themes Transport,and HealthcareCommunicationconsists of the subthemes Stakeholders, and External Communication. The themes are connected in the way that in order to make informed decisions about the operational care ofaffected persons, the staff need to communicate with external stakeholders. 

    The themes could be understood through the functions in the SyRes model as they share elements with, could be seen as parts of, or in another way could fit into the adaptive functions of the SyRes model.

    This study found themes in the communication of a staff in crisis management. These themes seem to be central for this staff, are reflected in the SyRes model and would reflect what is important for a staff to behave resilient. That is why it would be suggested to examine if the staff’s in crisis management are supported in their work involving these themes.

  • 253.
    Bergsten, Victor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Franzén, Gabriel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    När äldre vuxna möter ny teknik: En kvalitativ undersökning kring digitalisering och digitalatjänster bland äldre vuxna2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The survey has been conducted about how older adults use digital services on the Internet,

    what their thoughts are about them and the problems that can arise during use. The

    purpose of the survey is to treat the qualitative data to see what factors affect older adults

    to use various digital services to operate in society. This purpose has arisen from the

    problem which older adults are the smallest but fastest growing user group to take

    advantage of digital opportunities, today's society more or less requires that you have

    some sort of digital knowledge to be able to benefit from its services. Based on the

    objective, we have formulated our research question "Older adults are the fastest growing

    group of digital users, but in total still the lowest represented user group. What contributes

    to the rapid rise and what can we learn from the users of today on how to develop digital

    services for this age group in the future?" We chose to write about this project because we

    think that the subject is relevant and interesting to explore. Since one can see the obvious

    problems regarding this in everyday life, we chose to more deeply explore the area to give

    us a broader view. We have used qualitative methods like observations and semistructured

    interviews, these have been applied from prior knowledge of how to perform

    these methods to enable a good data collection. We have also created our own modified

    model based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Unified Theory of

    Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) used to measure technology acceptance.

    The modified model is applied to the information we developed from them qualitative

    methods. The results from four informants indicate that there are critical factors that

    influence the use of digital services such as experience and needs, but these factors are

    individual and varies from person to person resulting in that there is not a single answer to

    the question but must be answered for each individual service.

  • 254.
    Bergström, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Sambandet mellan användarupplevelse och tillit till företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Omfattande forskning har bedrivits för att öka förståelsen för vilka faktorer som frambringar känslan av hög tillit på internet och vilka komponenter som har störst påverkan på användarupplevelsen, men forskningen för att undersöka variablernas samband är begränsad. I studien undersöks korrelationen mellan användarupplevelsen och användarens tillit till företaget. Genom användartestning, där Tänka högt-metoden användes, framkom det att testdeltagarens frustration gradvis ökade i takt med att antalet problem ökade. Vid användartestets slut utvärderade deltagaren användarupplevelsen genom en enkät. Enkätens resultat jämfördes med testdeltagarens självuppskattade tillit till företaget. Resultatet visade att en signifikant korrelation mellan variablerna kan påvisas, vilket antogs bero på att deltagarens tro på att hen kontrollerade webbplatsen minskade och därmed påverkade tilliten till företaget negativt. Upptäckten tros få effekten att företag, vars verksamhet till stor del är internetbaserad, kommer eftersträva en bättre användarupplevelse för att sannolikt få högre tillit.

  • 255.
    Bergström, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Berg, Ivan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Mobilapplikationsutveckling för människor med kognitiv funktionsnedsättning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många människor lider av kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar. Det kan försämraförmågan att använda teknik och leda till att människor går miste om många verktyg och funktionersom andra tar för givet. Att ta hänsyn till kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar i utvecklingen avmobilapplikationer är utmanande då vissa gränssnitt och funktioner kan upplevas som för kompliceradeeller ostrukturerade. I denna uppsats presenteras designmönster som kan bidra till en inkluderandedesign enligt konceptet Design för alla. Design för alla innebär design som möjliggör användande föralla människor. Designmönstren har nåtts genom kvalitativ metod. Intervjuer med sakkunniga inomkognitiva funktionsnedsättningar och tekniska hjälpmedel har varit den huvudsakligadatainsamlingsmetodiken.

  • 256.
    Bergström, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Workshopmetodik för uppstart av nya projekt inom mobil IT2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Workshops have become a familiar phrase during the last decade. It is a useful and popular way of working, which has led to workshops methodology being of great interest to a numerous amount of companies. One type of workshop is the idea generating workshop. During these it is desirable that the participants have a common objective during the workshop, which at times can be hard to achieve.

    The purpose of the case study was to create a workshop methodology surrounding mobile applications. The workshop focuses on creating a common objective for the participants and letting the company representatives focus on their potential users.

    Several criteria were extracted from a literature study, interviews and requests provided from the company Sogeti. These criteria were then used to select suiting techniques and with them, create a workshop methodology. The workshop was tested and analyzed twice, by performing test runs. This was to be able to see whether the workshops would work as expected in a real life scenario or not.

    The end result is a workshop methodology with elaborately chosen techniques. During the test cases the workshop met its demands on a common objective, as well as having the participants centering their idea generation on their end users through the whole workshop.

    The conclusions made from the study were that this method should work fine when used as an idea generating workshop, especially when used in the context of mobile applications. The different parts of the workshop which are crucial for it to reach a desirable result have also been identified as; purpose description, Empathy map, Nominal group technique and 20-20 vision.

  • 257.
    Bergström Kousta, Lia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lättläst lättare: Utformningen av ett grafiskt gränssnitt för en automatisk textförenklare profilerat mot webbredaktörer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att ta fram ett förslag på hur ett gränssnitt för en automatisk textförenklare profilerad mot webbredaktörer vid Linköpings universitet skulle kunna se ut. För att åstadkomma en välgrundad utformning har studien undersökt webbredaktörers arbetssätt och behov, och utforskat lösningar på liknande problem i andra verktygsgenrer. För att uppnå syftet har tre frågeställningar ställts upp: 1) Hur kan ett stödverktyg för att skriva lättläst utformas för att passa webbredaktörer vid Linköpings universitet?, 2) Vad finns för existerande lösningar på liknande designproblem? Och 3) Givet funktionaliteten i verktyget, hur bör ett gränssnitt utformas? För att besvara den första frågeställningen utfördes intervjuer med sex olika webbredaktörer. I besvarandet av den andra frågeställningen utfördes en förebildsanalys på liknande verktyg för att identifiera potentiella lösningar. Slutligen presenteras en prototyp baserad på de första frågeställningarna och vissa typografiska avväganden som ett svarsförslag till den tredje frågeställningen. Resultaten visar på att ett textförenklingsgränssnitt profilerat mot webbredaktörer kräver skilda funktioner från textförenklingsverktyg riktade mot en målgrupp med lässvårigheter.

  • 258.
    Bergvik, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Designing experiences for virtual reality, in virtual reality: A design process evaluation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Creating immersive experiences for virtual reality (VR) presents new design opportunities and challenges that do not appear when creating experiences on a screen. Creating prototypes and exploring concepts in VR is today limited to professionals with previous knowledge in 3D application development, and testing 3D experiences requires the usage of an Head-Mounted Display (HMD), which forces professionals to switch medium from the computer to an HMD. With new advances in this field, there have to be new solutions to these challenges. The goal of this thesis is to explore how VR technology can be utilized in the experience design process for VR. This is achieved through a literature study and conducting expert interviews, followed by a hardware evaluation of different HMDs and concept creation using rapid prototyping. From the interviews, a number of issues could be identified that correlates with the research from the literature study. Based on these findings, two phases were identified as suitable for further improvements; Concept prototyping and testing/tweaking of a created experience. Lo-fi and hi-fi prototypes of a virtual design tool were developed for HTC Vive and Google Daydream, which were selected based on the hardware evaluation. The prototypes are designed and developed, then tested using a Wizard of Oz approach. The purpose of the prototypes is to solve some of the issues when designing immersive experiences for HMDs in the suitable experience design phases that were identified by analyzing the interview results. An interactive testing suite for HTC Vive was developed for testing and evaluation of the final prototype, to verify the validity of the concept. Using Virtual Reality as a medium for designing virtual experiences is a promising way of solving current issues within this technological field that are identified in this thesis. Tools for object creation and manipulation will aid professionals when exploring new concepts as well as editing and testing existing immersive experiences. Furthermore, using a Wizard of Oz approach to test VR prototypes significantly improves the prototype quality without compromising the user experience in this medium. 

  • 259.
    Bergwik, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using the DIAL Protocol for Zero Configuration Connectivity in Cross-Platform Messaging2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's living room context offers more and more possibilities when it comes to when and how to interact with the television and media content offerings. Buzzwords such as "TV Everywhere" is something that both hardware manufacturers, content providers and television networks are pursuing to great lengths. At the core of such marketing schemes is the availability of platform-independent content consumption. In a Utopian setting, the end-user should never have to worry if he or she is currently using a smart TV, tablet, phone or computer to view a video or photos, play music or play games. Taking the concept even further, the devices should also be able to connect and communicate with each other seamlessly. Having for example a television set (first screen) controlled by a mobile phone (second screen) is commonly referred to as companion device interaction and is what this thesis has investigated. More specifically, a way of discovering and launching a first screen application from a second screen application using the zero configuration discovery protocol named DIAL has been implemented into a cross-platform messaging solution. A case study was conducted to gather data about the system and its context as well as what was needed of the framework in terms of architecture design, use cases and implementation details. A proof of concept application was developed for Android that used the proposed framework, showcasing the ease of use and functionality presented in integrating DIAL into such a solution. Since DIAL is so well-documented, easy to understand and is becoming one of the industry standards among consumer electronic manufacturers in terms of device discovery, I believe it should become a standard for so called zero configuration companion device interactivity.

  • 260.
    Berns, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lantz, Ann
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Toomingas, Allan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Special issue of Behavioural and Information Technology with key note lectures and selected papers from the 8th international conference on Work With Computing Systems 2007 - WWCS 2007 - in Stockholm May 21st-24th 2007 - Foreword2008In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 283-284Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 261.
    Bernson, Jesper
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lagras reklam i minnet under informationssökning på Internet?2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet fokuserar på frågan om reklam lagras i minnet under en van internetanvändares aktivitet på en webbportal, när denne inte uttryckligen söker efter reklam. Rapporten redovisar olika aspekter som kan inverka på användarnas beteende vid deras interaktion med Internet. Med hjälp av ett förtest i enkätform väljs 30 vana internetanvändare ut som försökspersoner. Dessa delas upp i två lika stora grupper och utför sedan en uppgift på en webbportal. Slutligen genomför de ett test som undersöker om de kommer ihåg de fyra reklamannonser som finns på webbportalen. Detta görs med metoderna fri återgivning eller igenkänning. Vid fri återgivning var det endast en person som kom ihåg en korrekt reklamannons. Igenkänningstestet resulterade i sammanlagt 19 korrekt utpekade reklamannonser. Resultatet visar på att försökspersoner som fick göra igenkänningstestet, kunde svara på vilka reklamannonser som fanns på webbsidan i högre grad än de som fick använda sig av testet fri återgivning.

  • 262.
    Bertheim, Jane
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Designing Digital Nudges to Encourage Sustainable Decisions: Developing and Testing a Framework2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The awareness of environmental impacts lead to that organizations are starting to work towards UN's global sustainability goals. To influence customers into a more sustainable behaviour, organizations have the potential to look at nudging as a tool. A nudge is a way to alter peoples behaviour into taking a certain decision. However, since many organizations offer their service or product in the digital environment, such as websites or apps, increased knowledge of digital nudging is required. This thesis aims to establish a framework for how nudges should be designed and used on digital platforms to encourage sustainable decisions. The purpose is to enlighten designers of digital environment of the potential of nudges, pitfalls to avoid, and a general design process to follow. The framework is based on a literature study and interviews with people familiar with the concept of nudging. To examine how the framework works a case study is performed, this includes a workshop, performing a user research, developing prototypes and finally, conduct user tests. By testing the framework further methods could be found, this meant that more practical steps could be included in the framework. The result of this thesis shows that the framework proved to be useful and functional to use when designing digital nudges to encourage sustainable decisions.

  • 263. Beskow, J.
    et al.
    Edlund, J.
    Granström, B.
    Gustafson, J.
    Gjermani, T.
    Jonsson, O.
    Skantze, G.
    Tobiasson, Helena
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Human - Computer Interaction, MDI (closed 20111231).
    Innovative interfaces in MonAMI: The reminder2008In: ICMI'08: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces, 2008, p. 199-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This demo paper presents an early version of the Reminder, a prototype ECA developed in the European project MonAMI, which aims at "mainstreaming accessibility in consumer goods and services, using advanced technologies to ensure equal access, independent living and participation for all". The Reminder helps users to plan activities and to remember what to do. The prototypemerges mobile ECA technology with other, existing technologies:Google Calendar and a digital pen and paper. The solution allows users to continue using a paper calendar in the manner they are used to, whilst the ECA provides notifications on what has been written in the calendar. Users may ask questions such as "When was I supposed to meet Sara?" or "What's my schedule today"?

  • 264.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Federal University of Fronteira Sul.
    Game-calibrated and user-tailored remote detection of emotions: A non-intrusive, multifactorial camera-based approach for detecting stress and boredom of players in games2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Questionnaires and physiological measurements are the most common approach used to obtain data for emotion estimation in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) and games research. Both approaches interfere with the natural behavior of users, which affects any research procedure. Initiatives based on computer vision and remote extraction of user signals for emotion estimation exist, however they are limited. Experiments of such initiatives have been performed under extremely controlled situations with few game-related stimuli. Users had a passive role with limited possibilities for interaction or emotional involvement, differently than game-based emotion stimuli, where users take an active role in the process, making decisions and directly interacting with the media. Previous works also focus on predictive models based on a group perspective. As a consequence, a model is usually trained from data of several users, which in practice describes the average behavior of the group, excluding or diluting key individualities of each user. In that light, there is a lack of initiatives focusing on non-obtrusive, user-tailored emotion detection models, in particular regarding stress and boredom, within the context of games research that is based on emotion data generated from game stimuli.

    This thesis proposal presents a research that aims to fill that gap, providing the HCI and the games research community with an emotion detection process, instantiated as a software tool, which can be used to remotely study user's emotions in a non-obtrusive way within the context of games. The main knowledge contribution of this research is a novel process for emotion detection that is remote (non-contact) and constructed from a game-based, multifactorial, user-tailored calibration phase. The process relies on computer vision and remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) to read user signals, e.g. heart rate (HR) and facial actions, without physical contact during the interaction with games to perform the detection of stress/boredom levels of users. The approach is automated and uses an ordinary camera to collect information, so specialized equipment, e.g. HR sensors, are not required.

    Current results of this research show that individualities can be detected regarding facial activity, e.g. increased number of facial actions during the stressful part of games. Regarding physiological signals, findings are aligned with and reinforce previous research that indicates higher HR mean during stressful situations in a gaming context. The findings also suggest that changes in the HR during gaming sessions are a promising indicator of stress, which can be incorporated into a model aimed at emotion detection. The literature reviews, the experiments conducted so far and the planned future tasks support the idea of using a set of signals, e.g. facial activity, body movement, and HR estimations as sources of information in a multifactorial analysis for the identification of stress and boredom in games. It will produce a novel user-tailored approach for emotion detection focused on the behavioral particularities of each user instead of the average group pattern. The proposed approach will be implemented as a software tool, which can be used by researchers and practitioners for games research.

  • 265.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Game-calibrated and user-tailored remote detection of emotions: A non-intrusive, multifactorial camera-based approach for detecting stress and boredom of players in games2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Questionnaires and physiological measurements are the most common approach used to obtain data for emotion estimation in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) and games research. Both approaches interfere with the natural behavior of users. Initiatives based on computer vision and the remote extraction of user signals for emotion estimation exist, however they are limited. Experiments of such initiatives have been performed under extremely controlled situations with few game-related stimuli. Users had a passive role with limited possibilities for interaction or emotional involvement, instead of game-based emotion stimuli, where users take an active role in the process, making decisions and directly interacting with the media. Previous works also focus on predictive models based on a group perspective. As a consequence, a model is usually trained from the data of several users, which in practice describes the average behavior of the group, excluding or diluting key individualities of each user. In that light, there is a lack of initiatives focusing on non-obtrusive, user-tailored emotion detection models, in particular regarding stress and boredom, within the context of games research that is based on emotion data generated from game stimuli. This research aims to fill that gap, providing the HCI and the games research community with an emotion detection process that can be used to remotely study user's emotions in a non-obtrusive way within the context of games.

    The main knowledge contribution of this research is a novel process for emotion detection that is non-obtrusive, user-tailored and game-based. It uses remotely acquired signals, namely, heart rate (HR) and facial actions (FA), to create a user-tailored model, i.e. trained neural network, able to detect the emotional states of boredom and stress of a given subject. The process is automated and relies on computer vision and remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) to acquire user signals, so that specialized equipment, e.g. HR sensors, is not required and only an ordinary camera is needed. The approach comprises two phases: training (or calibration) and testing. In the training phase, a model is trained using a user-tailored approach, i.e. data from a given subject playing calibration games is used to create a model for that given subject. Calibration games are a novel emotion elicitation material introduced by this research. These games are carefully designed to present a difficulty level that constantly and linearly progresses over time without a pre-defined stopping point. They induce emotional states of boredom and stress, accounting for particularities at an individual level. Finally, the testing phase occurs in a game session involving a subject playing any ordinary, non-calibration game, e.g. Super Mario. During the testing phase, the subject's signals are remotely acquired and fed into the model previously trained for that particular subject. The model subsequently outputs the estimated emotional state of that given subject for that particular testing game.

    The method for emotion detection proposed in this thesis has been conceived on the basis of established theories and it has been carefully evaluated in experimental setups. Results show a statistical significance classification of emotional states with a mean accuracy of 61.6\%. Finally, this thesis presents a series of systematic evaluations conducted in order to understand the relation between psychophysiological signals and emotions. Facial behavior and physiological signals, i.e. HR, are analyzed and discussed as indicators of emotional states. This research reveals that individualities can be detected regarding facial activity, e.g. an increased number of facial actions during the stressful part of games. Regarding physiological signals, findings are aligned with and reinforce previous research that indicates higher HR mean during stressful situations in a gaming context. Results also suggest that changes in HR during gaming sessions are a promising indicator of stress. The method for the remote detection of emotions, presented in this thesis, is feasible, but does contain limitations. Nevertheless, it is a solid initiative to move away from questionnaires and physical sensors into a non-obtrusive, remote-based solution for the evaluation of user emotions.

  • 266.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proposal for Non-contact Analysis of Multimodal Inputs to Measure Stress Level in Serious Games2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Henrik Engström & Fotis Liarokapis, Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 171-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of monitoring user emotions in serious games or human-computer interaction is usually obtrusive. The work-flow is typically based on sensors that are physically attached to the user. Sometimes those sensors completely disturb the user experience, such as finger sensors that prevent the use of keyboard/mouse. This short paper presents techniques used to remotely measure different signals produced by a person, e.g. heart rate, through the use of a camera and computer vision techniques. The analysis of a combination of such signals (multimodal input) can be used in a variety of applications such as emotion assessment and measurement of cognitive stress. We present a research proposal for measurement of player’s stress level based on a non-contact analysis of multimodal user inputs. Our main contribution is a survey of commonly used methods to remotely measure user input signals related to stress assessment.

  • 267.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Changes in heart rate and facial actions during a gaming session with provoked boredom and stress2018In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 24, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experiment aimed at exploring the relation between facial actions (FA), heart rate (HR) and emotional states, particularly stress and boredom, during the interaction with games. Subjects played three custom-made games with a linear and constant progression from a boring to a stressful state, without pre-defined levels, modes or stopping conditions. Such configuration gives our experiment a novel approach for the exploration of FA and HR regarding their connection to emotional states, since we can categorize information according to the induced (and theoretically known) emotional states on a user level. The HR data was divided into segments, whose HR mean was calculated and compared in periods (boring/stressful part of the games). Additionally the 6 h of recordings were manually analyzed and FA were annotated and categorized in the same periods. Findings show that variations of HR and FA on a group and on an individual level are different when comparing boring and stressful parts of the gaming sessions. This paper contributes information regarding variations of HR and FA in the context of games, which can potentially be used as input candidates to create user-tailored models for emotion detection with game-based emotion elicitation sources.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-01 00:01
  • 268.
    Beyene, Wondwossen
    et al.
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    Ferati, Mexhid
    Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway.
    A Case for Adaptation to Enhance Usability and Accessibility of Library Resource Discovery Tools2017In: Universal Access in Human–Computer Interaction. Design and Development Approaches and Methods, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10277, p. 145-155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Library resource discovery tools (RDTs) are the latest generation of library catalogs that enable searching across disparate databases and repositories from a single search box. Although such “Google-like” experience has been applauded as a benefit for library users, there still exist usability and accessibility problems related to the diversity of user goals, needs, and preferences. To better understand these problems, we conducted an extensive literature review and in this process, we initially grouped issues into three categories: interface, resource description, and navigation. Based on these categories, we propose adaptation as an alternative approach to enhance the usability and accessibility of RDTs. The adaptations could be conducted on three levels pertaining to categories of issues found, namely: interface, information, and navigation level. The goal of this paper is to suggest how the process of adaptation could be considered in order to mitigate usability and accessibility issues of RDT interfaces.

  • 269.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Freksa, Christian
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Spatial Computing for Design — an Artificial Intelligence Perspective2015In: Studying Visual and Spatial Reasoning for Design Creativity / [ed] Gero, John S., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands , 2015, p. 109-127Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The articulation of the Science of Design by Herbert Simon and the paradigmatic relevance of Artificial Intelligence in that context are closely intertwined topics: Simon elaborates the ‘Sciences of the Artificial’ in the context of the design of artefacts. Situated in this AI-centric view of design, we characterize “spatial computing for design” as a specialisation concerned with the development of the general representational and computational apparatus necessary for solving modelling and reasoning problems in spatial design. Several representation and reasoning problems are dis-cussed in the backdrop of relevant examples involving the formal modelling of structural form with respect to a desired/anticipated artefactual function. The discussion, although applicable to any spatial design activity, is grounded in the domain of assistive decision-support in the context of a conventional computer-aided architecture design workflow.

  • 270.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Cognitive Systems (CoSy), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Guesgen, Hans W.School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Situational Awareness for Assistive Technologies2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of smart assistive technology for personal living and public environments is an opportunity that has been recently recognized by research labs across the world. A particular theme that has garnered attention in many countries is the problem of an aging population. The combination of a much larger elderly population and the ever increasing cost of providing full-time human care for them means that finding practical assisted living solutions for this group is becoming increasingly important. Computing is the obvious choice to provide an answer to this growing problem, but to have a real impact, computer-based assistive technologies will need to possess the ability to interact with, and interpret, the actions and situations of those they are designed to assist.

    The papers in this book explore the diversity of the field of ambient intelligence, as well as the wide range of approaches and variety of applications that may prove to be possible. Consideration is given to how space, action, time, and other contexts can be represented and reasoned about for use in sensory mapping, multi-agent interactions, assisted living, and even emergency responses. Many techniques are examined; variety represents one of the most important strengths of this area, meaning that the weakness of one approach can be offset by the capability of others.

    The book consists of research contributions dealing with the crucial notion of situational awareness within assistive smart systems emerging as an overarching concept. An applied computer science character has been retained, whilst bringing to the fore research projects where formal knowledge representation and reasoning techniques have been demonstrated to be applicable to areas within the broader field of ambient intelligence and smart environments.

  • 271.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Lieto, AntonioUniversity of Turin, Turin, Italy; ICAR-CNR, Italy.
    Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Cognition and Artificial Intelligence for Human-Centred Design 2017 co-located with IJCAI 20172018Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Freksa, Christian
    The ‘Space’ in Spatial Assistance Systems: Conception, Formalisation and Computation2014In: Representing space in cognition: Interrelations of behavior, language, and formal models / [ed] Tenbrink, Thora; Wiener, Jan; Claramunt, Christophe, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is about ‘space’: empty space, spatial structures, and the process of structuring. We organize empty space by building-up structures and artefacts of our everyday existence. This structuring transforms empty space into something of a desired form (e.g. a balanced room, a visually pleasing scene), function (e.g. easily navigable), and semantic connotation (e.g. of a ‘place’). The chapter is written from the perspective of spatial informatics and addresses space at the scale of everyday human perception and thinking. The core of this chapter is to present the informatics of spatial structure; this is done at three levels: (1) the conception of structural form, as it accrues in the minds of people, and its expression, using spatio-linguistic modalities; (2) the formalization of space, using representational means for spatial abstraction; and (3) the computation of structural forms in a manner that constructively assures, assists, and empowers those who conceive of those forms. The chapter is grounded to reality with respect to a particular class of spatial assistance systems, e.g. for spatial design, where our interpretations of creative and constructive assistance are applicable. We also present case studies in domains such as design creativity for media pre-production, and real-time emergency assistance, though architectural design remains an area of special emphasis throughout the chapter.

  • 273.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Cognitive Systems Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Cognitive Systems Group, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Huang, Minqian
    Digital Media, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    The Shape of Empty Space: Human-centred cognitive foundations in computing for spatial design2012In: 2012 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, VL/HCC 2012, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2012, p. 33-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a human-centred model for abstraction, modelling and computing in function-driven spatial design for architecture. The primitive entities of our design conception ontology and computing framework are driven by classic notions of structure, function, and affordance in design, and are directly based on the fundamental human perceptual and analytical modalities of visual and locomotive exploration of space.

    With an emphasis on design semantics, our model for spatial design marks a fundamental shift from contemporary modelling and computational foundations underlying engineering-centred computer aided design systems. We demonstrate the application of our model within a system for human-centred computational design analysis and simulation. We also illustrate the manner in which our design modelling and computing framework seamlessly builds on contemporary industry data modelling standards within the architecture and construction informatics communities.

  • 274.
    Bhatt, Mehul
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Cognitive Systems, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Sonderforschungsbereich Transregional Collaborative Research Center 8, Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Suchan, Jakob
    Cognitive Systems, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Sonderforschungsbereich Transregional Collaborative Research Center 8, Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Schultz, Carl
    Cognitive Systems, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Sonderforschungsbereich Transregional Collaborative Research Center 8, Spatial Cognition, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Cognitive Interpretation of Everyday Activities - Toward Perceptual Narrative Based Visuo-Spatial Scene Interpretation2013In: 2013 Workshop on Computational Models of Narrative / [ed] Mark A. Finlayson; Bernhard Fisseni; Benedikt Löwe; Jan Christoph Meister, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik , 2013, Vol. 32, p. 24-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We position a narrative-centred computational model for high-level knowledge representation and reasoning in the context of a range of assistive technologies concerned with visuo-spatial perception and cognition tasks. Our proposed narrative model encompasses aspects such as space, events, actions, change, and interaction from the viewpoint of commonsense reasoning and learning in large-scale cognitive systems. The broad focus of this paper is on the domain of human-activity interpretation in smart environments, ambient intelligence etc. In the backdrop of a smart meeting cinematography domain, we position the proposed narrative model, preliminary work on perceptual narrativisation, and the immediate outlook on constructing general-purpose open-source tools for perceptual narrativisation.

  • 275.
    Bibri, Mohamed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    ICT Design Unsustainability & the Path toward Environmentally Sustainable Technologies2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study endeavors to investigate the negative environmental impacts of the prevailing ICT design approaches and to explore some potential remedies for ICT design unsustainability from environmental and corporate sustainability perspectives. More specifically, it aims to spotlight key environmental issues related to ICT design, including resource depletion; GHG emissions resulting from energy-intensive consumption; toxic waste disposal; and hazardous chemicals use; and also to shed light on how alternative design solutions can be devised based on environmental sustainability principles to achieve the goals of sustainable technologies. The study highlights the relationship between ICT design and sustainability and how they can symbiotically affect one another. To achieve the aim of this study, an examination was performed through an extensive literature review covering empirical, theoretical, and critical scholarship. The study draws on a variety of sources to survey the negative environmental impacts of the current mainstream ICT design approach and review the potential remedies for unsustainability of ICT design. For theory, central themes were selected for review given the synergy and integration between them as to the topic under investigation. They include: design issues; design science; design research framework for ICT; sustainability; corporate sustainability; and design and sustainability. Findings highlight the unsustainability of the current mainstream ICT design approach. Key environmental issues for consideration include: resource depletion through extracting huge amounts of material and scarce elements; energy-intensive consumption and GHG emissions, especially from ICT use phase; toxic waste disposal; and hazardous substances use. Potential remedies for ICT design unsustainability include dematerialization as an effective strategy to minimize resources depletion, de-carbonization to cut energy consumption through using efficient energy required over life cycle and renewable energy; recyclability through design with life cycle thinking (LCT) and extending ICT equipment’s operational life through reuse; mitigating hazardous chemicals through green design - low or non-noxious/less hazardous products. As to solving data center dilemma, design solutions vary from hardware and software to technological improvements and adjustments. Furthermore, corporate sustainability can be a strategic model for ICT sector to respond to environmental issues, including those associated with unsustainable ICT design. In the same vein, through adopting corporate sustainability, ICT-enabled organizations can rationalize energy usage to reduce GHG emissions, and thereby alleviating global warming. This study provides a novel approach to sustainable ICT design, highlighting unsustainability of its current mainstream practices. Review of the literature makes an advance on extant reviews of the literature by highlighting the symbiotic relationship between ICT design and environmental sustainability from both research and practice perspectives. This study adds to the body of knowledge and previous endeavours in research of ICT and sustainability. Overall, it endeavours to present contributions and avenues for further theoretical and empirical research and development.

  • 276.
    Bibri, Mohamed
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Sustaining ICT for Sustainability: Towards Mainstreaming De–carbonization–oriented Design & Enabling the Energy–Efficient, Low Carbon Economy2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study set out to understand and demonstrate the role the ICT sector could play as a critical enabler in the transition and progress towards an energy– efficient, low carbon economy. More specifically, the study of sustaining ICT for sustainability has twofold intent: (2) to investigate the direct footprint of ICT sector and explore how it can be tackled through adopting sustainable design–based solutions; and (2) to highlight the enabling potential of ICT sector to mitigate climate change and massively improve energy efficiency across the economy, identifying and quantifying the global ICT impacts and opportunities in the context of energy and carbon emissions savings. To achieve the aim of this study, a pertinent and extensive literature review covering theoretical, empirical, and critical scholarship was performed to investigate the phenomenon. The study draws on a variety of sources to survey the unsustainability of ICT sector pertaining to energy–intensive consumption and explore potential solutions through espousing environmental design practice, and also to examine the role of ICT in delivering energy–efficient solutions through its products and services. Validity was ensured through using quality academic and industry literature as well as relevant studies carried out by a range of eminent researchers, experts, and stakeholders (i.e. NGOs, research centers). Findings highlight the unsustainability of ICT sector regarding energy– intensive consumption and concomitant GHG emissions associated with its products and services. Of the whole lifecycle, the use phase of ICT is the most critical. Data centers and telecom networks devour energy. Planned obsolescence entrenched in software design shorten upgrade cycle, which makes software utilities a planet killer as to energy consumption. Alternative sustainable design–based solutions entail using renewable energy and most efficient energy required over ICT’s life cycle – de–carbonization strategy. Also, digitization is an effective strategy for ICT sector to slash energy use per unit. To reduce the footprint of data centers and telecom networks, design solutions vary from hardware and software to technological improvements. Designing out built–in obsolescence in software technology is a key factor in the energy equation. As for the enabling role of ICT, the findings are highly illuminating. The ICT sector must step up its efforts in reducing its direct footprint in order to claim a leadership role in an energy–efficient, low carbon economy. Although the ICT sector’s own emissions will increase because of global growing demand for its products and services, the real gains will come from its enabling potential to yield substantial energy efficiency improvements and emissions reductions across the economy. The sheer scale of the climate change challenge presents smart development mitigation opportunities for ICT sector to deliver environmentally sustainable solutions. The largest identified opportunities are: dematerialization; intelligent transport and logistics; intelligent buildings; smart power supply; and efficient industrial processes and systems. This study provides a novel approach into sustainable design in ICT, underlining unsustainable design practices in ICT sector. Review of the literature makes an advance on extant reviews by highlighting the synergic relationship between ICT design, sustainability, and the economy.

  • 277.
    Bibri, Simon Elias
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The human face of ambient intelligence: Cognitive, emotional, affective, behavioral and conversational aspects2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a socially disruptive technology, Ambient Intelligence is ultimately directed towards humans and targeted at the mundane life made of an infinite richness of circumstances that cannot fully be considered and easily be anticipated. Most books, however, focus their analysis on, or deal largely with, the advancement of the technology and its potential only. This book offers a fresh, up-to-date, and holistic approach to Ambient Intelligence. As such, it addresses the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary aspects of the rapidly evolving field of Ambient Intelligence by seamlessly integrating and fusing it with artificial intelligence, cognitive science and psychology, social sciences, and humanities. It is divided into two main parts: Part 1 is about different permutations of enabling technologies as well as core computational capabilities, namely context awareness, implicit and natural interaction, and intelligent behavior. It details the existing and upcoming prerequisite technologies, and elucidates the application and convergence of major current and future computing trends. Part 2 is an accessible review and synthesis of the latest research in the human-directed sciences and computing and how these are intricately interrelated in the realm of Ambient Intelligence. It deals with the state-of-the-art human-inspired applications which show human-like understanding and exhibit intelligent behavior in relation to a variety of aspects of human functioning - states and processes. It describes and elaborates on the rich potential of Ambient Intelligence from a variety of interrelated perspectives and the plethora of challenges and bottlenecks involved in making Ambient Intelligence a reality, and also discusses the established knowledge and recent discoveries in the human-directed sciences and their application and convergence in the ambit of Ambient Intelligence computing. This seminal reference work is the most comprehensive of its kind, and will prove invaluable to students, researchers, and professionals across both computing and the human-directed sciences. © 2015 Atlantis Press and the author(s).

  • 278.
    Biehl, Marten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Sketching Movement-based Interactions: Defining Guidelines for Tool Support in Interdisciplinary Teams2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the fields of Human-Computer Interaction and Interaction Design there is an increased interest in designing for leisure and fun in contrast to an understanding of technology primarily as part of the workplace. Along with this, the relevance of experiential aspects of design is heightened compared to usability in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. At the same time, this created an interest in the relationship between the human body and technology use in research and industry.

    The starting point for this thesis is the perceived difficulty to combine exploration and technology in early stages of the design process without becoming technology-focused. Instead of picking a technology early in the process and therefore letting the design process be shaped by it, this thesis advocates introducing technology in a way that designers can explore different technologies similar to sketching with different materials.

    This thesis aims to identify the needs of designers in inter- disciplinary teams when designing with movement-based interactions. This is done by first summarizing important aspects of sketching from the literature. Secondly, the tools that are currently available are reviewed. Finally, an observational study of a design situation is conducted to complete this investigation.

    The main outcome of this thesis is a set of guidelines for designing a sketching tool for movement-based interactions in interdisciplinary teams. The most important are low transaction costs, overview over sketches, integration into the existing ecosystem, optimization for the team setting and clear articulation of material qualities. 

  • 279.
    Bilal, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Sankar, Ganesh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Trust & Security issues in Mobile banking and its effect on Customers2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The invention of mobile phones makes the human life easier. The purpose of this study is to identify security risks in mobile banking and to provide an authentication method for mobile banking transaction by using bio-metric mechanism. Objectives: Current mobile banking authentication is challenging and identified as a major security risk. Literature review shows that customer distrusts mobile banking due to security issues. The authors discuss security risks in current authentication methods in mobile banking. Methods: There are different methods and approaches to handle authentication in mobile banking. In this thesis, we propose a new approach of authentication in mobile banking. The strengths and weaknesses of existing approaches of authentication are identified with the help of Literature Review and interviews. The authors present basic transaction model and include security risks. By Literature Review it is found that finger print mechanism is a suitable method for authentication. Authors focus on authentication method and present a biometric scanning device which can identify the customer’s finger print thus enabling the customer to access mobile banking facility. Results: An authentication model is proposed through design process. The proposed biometric design was validated by conducting a workshop. The analysis of the workshop’s results showed that customer’s trust in security for mobile banking will be increased by finger print mechanism. To promote mobile banking, it is necessary to improve customer trust in terms of security. Conclusions: The authors concluded that, only authorized person will be able to use mobile banking services by incorporating bio-metric finger-print mechanism. By literature review and interview it was found that finger-print mechanism is more suitable than other ordinary mechanisms like login and password mechanism, SMS etc.

  • 280.
    Bilius, Olle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Larsson, Julius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Persuasiv teknik i praktiken: en studie av två tjänsters tillvägagångssätt för att förändra användares attityder och beteenden.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 281.
    Billing, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Cognition Reversed: Robot Learning from Demonstration2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this thesis investigates techniques for learning from demonstration (LFD). LFD is a well established approach to robot learning, where a teacher demonstrates a behavior to a robot pupil. This thesis focuses on LFD where a human teacher demonstrates a behavior by controlling the robot via teleoperation. The robot should after demonstration be able to execute the demonstrated behavior under varying conditions.

    Several views on representation, recognition and learning of robot behavior are presented and discussed from a cognitive and computational perspective. LFD-related concepts such as behavior, goal, demonstration, and repetition are defined and analyzed, with focus on how bias is introduced by the use of behavior primitives. This analysis results in a formalism where LFD is described as transitions between information spaces. Assuming that the behavior recognition problem is partly solved, ways to deal with remaining ambiguities in the interpretation of a demonstration are proposed.

    A total of five algorithms for behavior recognition are proposed and evaluated, including the dynamic temporal difference algorithm Predictive Sequence Learning (PSL). PSL is model-free in the sense that it makes few assumptions of what is to be learned. One strength of PSL is that it can be used for both robot control and recognition of behavior. While many methods for behavior recognition are concerned with identifying invariants within a set of demonstrations, PSL takes a different approach by using purely predictive measures. This may be one way to reduce the need for bias in learning. PSL is, in its current form, subjected to combinatorial explosion as the input space grows, which makes it necessary to introduce some higher level coordination for learning of complex behaviors in real-world robots.

    The thesis also gives a broad introduction to computational models of the human brain, where a tight coupling between perception and action plays a central role. With the focus on generation of bias, typical features of existing attempts to explain humans' and other animals' ability to learn are presented and analyzed, from both a neurological and an information theoretic perspective. Based on this analysis, four requirements for implementing general learning ability in robots are proposed. These requirements provide guidance to how a coordinating structure around PSL and similar algorithms should be implemented in a model-free way.

  • 282.
    Billing, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Cognition reversed: Robot learning from demonstration2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this thesis investigates techniques for learning from demonstration (LFD). LFD is a well established approach to robot learning, where a teacher demonstrates a behavior to a robot pupil. This thesis focuses on LFD where a human teacher demonstrates a behavior by controlling the robot via teleoperation. The robot should after demonstration be able to execute the demonstrated behavior under varying conditions.

    Several views on representation, recognition and learning of robot behavior are presented and discussed from a cognitive and computational perspective. LFD-related concepts such as behavior, goal, demonstration, and repetition are defined and analyzed, with focus on how bias is introduced by the use of behavior primitives. This analysis results in a formalism where LFD is described as transitions between information spaces. Assuming that the behavior recognition problem is partly solved, ways to deal with remaining ambiguities in the interpretation of a demonstration are proposed.

    A total of five algorithms for behavior recognition are proposed and evaluated, including the dynamic temporal difference algorithm Predictive Sequence Learning (PSL). PSL is model-free in the sense that it makes few assumptions of what is to be learned. One strength of PSL is that it can be used for both robot control and recognition of behavior. While many methods for behavior recognition are concerned with identifying invariants within a set of demonstrations, PSL takes a different approach by using purely predictive measures. This may be one way to reduce the need for bias in learning. PSL is, in its current form, subjected to combinatorial explosion as the input space grows, which makes it necessary to introduce some higher level coordination for learning of complex behaviors in real-world robots.

    The thesis also gives a broad introduction to computational models of the human brain, where a tight coupling between perception and action plays a central role. With the focus on generation of bias, typical features of existing attempts to explain humans' and other animals' ability to learn are presented and analyzed, from both a neurological and an information theoretic perspective. Based on this analysis, four requirements for implementing general learning ability in robots are proposed. These requirements provide guidance to how a coordinating structure around PSL and similar algorithms should be implemented in a model-free way.

  • 283.
    Billing, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Representing behavior: Distributed theories in a context of robotics2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing body of research within the field of intelligent robotics argues for a view of intelligence drastically different from classical artificial intelligence and cognitive science. The holistic and embodied ideas expressed by this research sees emergence as the springing source for intelligence. Similar perspectives, where numerous interactions within the system lead to emergent properties and cognitive abilities beyond that of the individual parts, can be found within many scientific fields. With the goal of understanding how behavior may be represented in robots, the present review tries to grasp what this notion of emergence really means and compare it with a selection of theories developed for analysis of human cognition. These theories reveal a view of intelligence where common notions of objects, goals and reasoning have to be rethought. A view where behavior, as well as the agent as such, is in the eye of the observer rather than given. Structures in the environment is achieved by interaction rather than recognized. In such a view, the fundamental question is how emergent systems appear and develop, and how they may be controlled.

  • 284.
    Billing, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Representing behavior: Distributed theories in a context of robotics2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing body of research within the field of intelligent robotics argues for a view of intelligence drastically different from classical artificial intelligence and cognitive science. The holistic and embodied ideas expressed by this research sees emergence as the springing source for intelligence. Similar perspectives, where numerous interactions within the system lead to emergent properties and cognitive abilities beyond that of the individual parts, can be found within many scientific fields. With the goal of understanding how behavior may be represented in robots, the present review tries to grasp what this notion of emergence really means and compare it with a selection of theories developed for analysis of human cognition. These theories reveal a view of intelligence where common notions of objects, goals and reasoning have to be rethought. A view where behavior, as well as the agent as such, is in the eye of the observer rather than given. Structures in the environment is achieved by interaction rather than recognized. In such a view, the fundamental question is how emergent systems appear and develop, and how they may be controlled.

  • 285.
    Billing, Erik A.
    et al.
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A formalism for learning from demonstration2010In: Paladyn - Journal of Behavioral Robotics, ISSN 2080-9778, E-ISSN 2081-4836, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes and formalizes the concepts and assumptions involved in Learning from Demonstration (LFD), a common learning technique used in robotics. LFD-related concepts like goal, generalization, and repetition are here defined, analyzed, and put into context. Robot behaviors are described in terms of trajectories through information spaces and learning is formulated as mappings between some of these spaces. Finally, behavior primitives are introduced as one example of good bias in learning, dividing the learning process into the three stages of behavior segmentation, behavior recognition, and behavior coordination. The formalism is exemplified through a sequence learning task where a robot equipped with a gripper arm is to move objects to specific areas. The introduced concepts are illustrated with special focus on how bias of various kinds can be used to enable learning from a single demonstration, and how ambiguities in demonstrations can be identified and handled.

  • 286.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    A formalism for learning from demonstration2010In: Paladyn Journal of Behavioral Robotics, ISSN 2080-9778, 2081-4836 (e-version), Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes and formalizes the concepts and assumptions involved in Learning from Demonstration (LFD), a common learning technique used in robotics. LFD-related concepts like goal, generalization, and repetition are here defined, analyzed, and put into context. Robot behaviors are described in terms of trajectories through information spaces and learning is formulated as mappings between some of these spaces. Finally, behavior primitives are introduced as one example of good bias in learning, dividing the learning process into the three stages of behavior segmentation, behavior recognition, and behavior coordination. The formalism is exemplified through a sequence learning task where a robot equipped with a gripper arm is to move objects to specific areas. The introduced concepts are illustrated with special focus on how bias of various kinds can be used to enable learning from a single demonstration, and how ambiguities in demonstrations can be identified and handled.

  • 287.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Formalising learning from demonstration2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes and formalizes the concepts and assumptions involved in Learning from Demonstration (LFD), a common learning technique used in robotics. Inspired by the work on planning and actuation by LaValle, common LFD-related concepts like goal, generalization, and repetition are here defined, analyzed, and put into context. Robot behaviors are described in terms of trajectories through information spaces and learning is formulated as the mappings between some of these spaces. Finally, behavior primitives are introduced as one example of useful bias in the learning process, dividing the learning process into the three stages of behavior segmentation, behavior recognition, and behavior coordination.

  • 288.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Formalising learning from demonstration2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes and formalizes the concepts and assumptions involved in Learning from Demonstration (LFD), a common learning technique used in robotics. Inspired by the work on planning and actuation by LaValle, common LFD-related concepts like goal, generalization, and repetition are here defined, analyzed, and put into context. Robot behaviors are described in terms of trajectories through information spaces and learning is formulated as the mappings between some of these spaces. Finally, behavior primitives are introduced as one example of useful bias in the learning process, dividing the learning process into the three stages of behavior segmentation, behavior recognition, and behavior coordination.

  • 289.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Computer & Information Science, Linköping University.
    Robot-Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism2018In: Proceedings of the 14th SweCog Conference, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2018, p. 19-22Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 290.
    Billing, Måns
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Lindh, Jakob
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Berättande i digitala spel: En undersökning av monomyten och dess gestaltning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen undersöker monomytens två inledande steg The Ordinary World och The Call to Adventure samt hur dessa kan gestaltas i digitala spel. Syftet är att få insikt i hur spelmediet kan använda sig av de här teorierna om berättelsestrukturer för att skapa mer engagerande upplevelser. För att undersöka problemområdet konkretiserades teorierna i ett ramverk utifrån vilket en spelprototyp utvecklades och två redan existerande digitala spel analyserades. Prototypen jämfördes med de analyserade spelen för att undersöka på vilket sätt teorierna om The Ordinary World och The Call to Adventure gestaltats. Undersökningen visade på att spelmediet erbjuder en mängd olika sätt att gestalta teorierna på och vilka för- och nackdelar dessa gestaltningssätt har. Vidare pekade användandet av monomyten på dess fortsatta relevans inom spelmediet, men även på de problem som reproduktionen av monomytens struktur kan leda till.

  • 291.
    Birgersson, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Underlivskollen: Ett designförslag på ett läromedel för att öka kunskaperna kring det kvinnliga underlivet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society there are problems with how women look at themselves and their appearance, not least the appearance of their genitals. There are norms that say that genitals should look in a certain way. To prevent these problems, young persons need to learn in school how much variation there may be on the appearance of the genitalia. Therefore, this study aimed to create a design proposal on a digital teaching material which was based on the questions that young boys and girls have about the appearance of women’s genitals, and also what information today’s educational books contain. The result showed that girls have questions regarding, among other things, labia, pubic hairs and operations. The educational books which was analysed contained information restrained to a picture of the female genitalia, or a few sentences. The design proposal presented was a website where the user can see different looks on the female genitalia, read and answer questions that young girls have, as well as discuss issues with classmates.

  • 292.
    Bjarke, David
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Verksamhetsutveckling Spelföretag2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en kandidatuppsats som presenterar en analys av ett spelföretag och dess verksamhet med fokus på gruppdynamik, ledarskap och projektledning. Uppsatsen är indelad i tre delar, analys, genomförande och resultat. Analys delen beskriver följande verksamhetsområden; hur gruppen anställda på Black Drop Studios agerar i samspelet med varandra, vilken typ av ledarskap som bedrivs, hur produktionen är strukturerad, vilka projektledningsverktyg och metoder som används. Genomförande delen beskriver olika åtgärder för dessa verksamhetsområden, för att göra dessa mer effektiva. Resultat delen beskriver vilka åtgärder som införts samt vilka som planerade att genomföras. Sammanfattningsvis har gruppen utvecklats till en mer högpresterande grupp med en större insikt i vad som påverkar deras sätt att fungera som ett team och deras behov ledarskap, verktyg och arbetsmetoder inför framtida projekt och utmaningar.

  • 293.
    Bjurling, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Most Valuable Player?: Assessing the impact of individual team role activity on team performance in a microworld environment2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studying team performance dynamics in tasks and activities has proven difficult because of the dynamic and unpredictable nature of the real world. Microworld systems aim to address that issue by providing researchers with controllable simulated environments that captures the essence of their real-world counterpart activities. This study utilized one such microworld system, called C3Fire, to simulate a forest firefighting setting where 48 participants divided into 12 teams were tasked with cooperating in extinguishing the fires. Teams consisted of four roles – each with its different responsibilities and resources. The aim of this study was to determine whether any individual team role had a greater impact on team performance than the other roles. Each team encountered three distinct scenarios of varying difficulty. Command input action counts and self-assessed performance scores were collected for each participant. These measurements were tested for correlations with team scores. The logistics chief role, who was responsible for re-filling and re-fueling other units, stood out as being the only role whose command input count correlated with team score, and being one of only two roles for which command inputs and self-assessed performance scores were correlated, as well. Results of a multiple regression procedure also indicated that the command counts of the logistics chief was a significant predictor of team score.

  • 294.
    Björinder, Pontus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Utvärdering av mobila gränssnitt för användare med nedsatt syn: Evaluation of mobile interfaces for visually impaired users2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study came about during ongoing discussions with a newly started company that plans to launch an application focused on fitness and health. The application must be accessible to a broad user group, this include users with some kind of disability. A large percentage of the population and a potentially large percentage of the company ́s prospective users have some kind of disability that can complicate use of the service, impaired vision is the most common kind of disability today. This study is based on the need to develop a concise and effective evaluation model intended to evaluate usability and to detect any possible problems that exist for users with visual impairments when using mobile services. Qualitative data has been collected from user testing and subsequent interviews. All test participants have a mild alternatively moderate visual impairment, the usability expert who carried out the heuristic evaluation is not visually impaired. The presented usability model has been tested and analyzed by posing as the basis for the heuristic evaluation, results found in this stage are then compared with results obtained from user testing in order to determine whether satisfactory results are met. The model shows satisfactory results based on obtained data, problems detected during the heuristic evaluation corresponds in a consistent manner with problems that emerged during user testing. The study indicates that there is a lack of specific and easy to use usability models for the evaluation of mobile services with a focus on visually impaired users. Such a model can preferably be used in order to increase usability and provide a more accessible service. Existing usability frameworks are often extensive and targeted at a broad user group. They can be supplemented with a time and cost efficient usability model directed at evaluating accessibility for a specific user group. The presented model is based on the principles of Universal Design which will hopefully contribute to a greater usability for the general user as well. In addition to improved usability a potentially great economic profit can be made by developing a more accessible service that can be used by more users. The study is based on proven methods and has support in existing theory which contributes to a higher quality assurance, however, the narrow scope of the study contributes to the necessity of further testing. 

  • 295.
    Björk, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Hagemann, Andreas
    Department of Electrical Engineering.
    To start this vehicle, please verify yourself: Security and privacy, where shall we draw the line?2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Different security issues are a top subject around the world, especially since the terror threats seem to intensify. In the same time, the transport industry suffer from problems with smuggling and theft of valuable goods. One way to increase the security might be to have a verification system installed in commercial trucks, in order to assure that the driver is the proper one.

    This thesis has two purposes. One is to find appropriate methods for driver verification and build a prototype of a verification system which can be used for testing and further development. The other is to study how truck drivers perceive such a system and how their conception goes along with the growing demand for higher security. The present work is the result of a cooperation between an engineer and a cognitive scientist. The thesis focuses on the transport industry and was performed for Volvo Technology Corporation (VTEC), Gothenburg, Sweden.

    Eleven available verification methods were studied. To enable a well-based selection of methods to implement in the prototype, inquiries and interviews with truck drivers and haulage contractors were carried out to complement the theoretical study.

    One regular and three biometric verification methods were chosen for the test; fingerprint verification, face recognition, voice recognition and PIN verification. These methods were put together to a prototype system that was implemented in a truck simulator. A graphical user interface was developed in order to make the system user friendly. The prototype system was tested by 18 truck drivers. They were thoroughly interviewed before and after the test in order to retrieve their background, expectations and opinions as well as their perceptions and experiences of the test.

    Most of the test participants were positive to the prototype system. Even though they did not feel a need for it today they believed it to “be the future”. However, some participants felt uncomfortable with the system since they felt controlled by it. It became clear how important it is to have a system that respect the users’ privacy and to assure that the users are well informed about how the system is used. Some of the technology used for the verification system requires more development to fit in the automotive context, but it is considered to be possible to achieve a secure and robust system.

  • 296. Björk, Ingrid
    et al.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Language and teaching ethics2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All problems with learning are increased when using English to teach non-English native students because of the culturally-sensitive nature of the subject of ethics. Coming to teaching ethics we are confronted with more difficulties. What is right and wrong is often affected by the culture, and different cultures often have different languages. Ethics theories are also expressed in language terms and they can be more easily misunderstood or misinterpreted compared to natural science theories. The feelings and every-day life encounters with “right” and “wrong” are linguistically experienced, described, and mediated. Therefore, language has a strong impact on whether something is ethical or whether it makes sense as an ethical issue at all.

  • 297.
    Björk, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Robots, ethics and language2015In: Computers & Society: The Newsletter of the ACM Special Interest Group on Computers and Society Special Issue on 20 Years of ETHICOMP / [ed] Mark Coeckelbergh, Bernd Stahl, and Catherine Flick; Vaibhav Garg and Dee Weikle, ACM Digital Library, 2015, p. 268-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the classical philosophical definition of ethics and the psychological research on problem solving and decision making, the issue of ethics becomes concrete and opens up the way for the creation of IT systems that can support handling of moral problems. Also in a sense that is similar to the way humans handle their moral problems. The processes of communicating information and receiving instructions are linguistic by nature. Moreover, autonomous and heteronomous ethical thinking is expressed by way of language use. Indeed, the way we think ethically is not only linguistically mediated but linguistically construed – whether we think for example in terms of conviction and certainty (meaning heteronomy) or in terms of questioning and inquiry (meaning autonomy). A thorough analysis of the language that is used in these processes is therefore of vital importance for the development of the above mentioned tools and methods. Given that we have a clear definition based on philosophical theories and on research on human decision-making and linguistics, we can create and apply systems that can handle ethical issues. Such systems will help us to design robots and to prescribe their actions, to communicate and cooperate with them, to control the moral aspects of robots’ actions in real life applications, and to create embedded systems that allow continuous learning and adaptation.

  • 298.
    Björk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Jag ser inte vad du säger: En studie av dövas subjektiva upplevelse av kvaliteten på kommunikation via 3G-telefoner2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Teckenspråket är ett visuellt språk, med möjligheter att uttrycka mycket information simultant. Faktorer som har en avgörande betydelse för språket är handens form, placering och rörelse, i kombination med ögon- och munrörelser. Utvecklingen av videosamtal via 3G har inneburit att döva kan konversera mobilt på sitt modersmål. Tidigare har de i många situationer varit hänvisade till sitt andraspråk, svenska. Denna uppsats undersöker hur döva upplever kvaliteten på kommunikation via videosamtal, samt huruvida de för teckenspråket viktiga faktorerna får tillräckligt med utrymme i dagens 3G-telefoner. Studien är av kvalitativ art och metoden som använts är framför allt intervju. Resultaten visar att kvaliteten upplevs som sämre än vid kommunikation öga mot öga, bland annat till följd av att vissa teckenspråkliga element inte kan kommuniceras med dagens teknik. Språket anpassas på så vis att enklare tecken används, de utförs långsammare och upprepas oftare. Av studien framgår att det finns ett behov av vidare forskning inom området, för att mobil teckenspråkig kommunikation ska fungera på ett för döva tillfredsställande sätt.

  • 299.
    Björklund, Linnea
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Knock on Wood: Does Material Choice Change the Social Perception of Robots?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to understand whether there is a difference in how socially interactive robots are perceived based on the material they are constructed out of. Two studies to that end were performed; a pilot in a live setting and a main one online. Participants were asked to rate three versions of the same robot design, one built out of wood, one out of plastic, and one covered in fur. This was then used in two studies to ascertain the participants perception of competence, warmth, and discomfort and the differences between the three materials. Statistically significant differences were found between the materials regarding the perception of warmth and discomfort

  • 300.
    Björnberg, Marina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Conversational Effects of Gender and Children's Moral Reasoning2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aimed partly to examine the effects of gender on conversation dynamics, partly to investigate whether interaction between participants with contrasting opinions promotes cognitive development on a moral task. Another objective was to explore whether particular conversational features of interaction would have any impact upon a pair’s joint response or on each child’s moral development. The conversations were coded with regard to simultaneous speech acts, psychosocial behaviour and types of justifications used. The results show no gender differences regarding psychosocial processes, but the boys used more negative interruptions, more overlaps and significantly proportionately more justifications in the form of assertions than the girls in the study. Gender differences were often more pronounced in same-gender as opposed to mixed-gender pairs, but children also altered their behaviour to accommodate to the gender of their conversational partner. Children who participated in the interaction phase of the study showed more overall progress on an eight-weeks delayed post-test than those who did not. However the only conversational feature that was related to the outcomes of conversation and development was the use of expiatory force justifications which were associated with a more advanced reply immediately after interaction as well as two weeks later.

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