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  • 251.
    Justnes, Harald
    et al.
    NTNU.
    Dahl, P A
    Ronin, Vladimir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering. EMC Development.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Microstructure and Performance of Energetically Modified Cement (EMC) with High Filler Content2003In: Sixth CANMET/ACI International Conference on Recent Advances in Concrete Technology: Proceedings / [ed] Maria Venturino, American Concrete Institute, 2003, p. 15-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energetically Modified Cement (EMC) is produced by high intensive grinding/activation of Normal Portland Cement (NPC) together with different type and amount of filler. EMC consisting of NPC with 50 % quartz sand has been systematically investigated.

    Concrete with such EMC was compared to NPC based concrete in accordance with with prEN 206 using the k-factor concept in order to evaluate the contribution of the quartz. k = 0 means no contribution from quartz, k = 1 means contribution equal to cement. Alternatively, k > 0 would mean more effect of "activated" cement than NPC. The k-value for concrete with w/c = 0.60 - 0.45 was 0.7 - 0.9 for 1 day compressive strength and 1.1 - 1.3 for 28 day compressive strength. k > 1 for both capillary suction of water, water accessible porosity water vapor diffusion and chloride permeability. For carbonation resistance k was in the range 0.5-0.6.

    Microstructure of EMC paste with w/c = 0.40 was extensively investigated and compared with simple blends of the same constituents, in order to explain mechanisms. The quartz was extensively ground, but the overall particle size distribution was similar to NPC. However, the BET surface was increased more, which was explained by agglomerates of the smallest cement and quartz grains with high "inner" surface. DTA/TG indicated that the degree of hydration of the cement in EMC was as high as 71% after 1 day compared to 45% for the blend. However, the refiend pore size distribution of EMC versus the blend means even at equal hydration EMC will perform better.

    The EMC concept with 50% filler replacing NPC is of particulat interest with respect to environmental issues since it enables a 40% cut in CO2 outlet.

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    Justnes et al. (2003)
  • 252.
    Justnes, Harald
    et al.
    SINTEF Concrete, Trondheim.
    Dahl, Per Arne
    SINTEF Concrete, Trondheim.
    Ronin, Vladimir
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Microstructure and performance of energetically modified cement (EMC) with high filler content2007In: Cement & Concrete Composites, ISSN 0958-9465, E-ISSN 1873-393X, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 533-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energetically modified cement (EMC) has been produced by high intensive grinding/activation of normal portland caemnet (NPC) together with 20% and 50% quartz sand. EMC concretes were compared to NPC based concrete using the k-factor concept. The k-factor for concrete with w/c = 0.60 - 0.45 was 0.7 - 0.9 for 1 day and 1.1 - 1.3 for 28 days compressive strength. k > 1 for both capillay suction, porosity, vapor diffusion and chloride permeability. For carboantion resistance k was approximately 0.55.Microstructure of EMC paste with 50 % quartz sand and w/c = 0.40 showed that the quartz was extensively ground and formed agglomerates with concrete having a high inner surface. The degree of hydration of the cement in EMC was as high as 71 % after 1 day comparted to 45 % for untreated blend. Refind pore sizr distribution of EMC versus blend means that even for equal hydration at higher ages EMC will perform better.

  • 253.
    Justnes, Harald
    et al.
    SINTEF Civil & Environmental Engineering, Trondheim.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Ronin, Vladimir
    Mechanism for performance of energetically modified cement versus corresponding blended cement2005In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 315-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure of cement paste of 50/50 mixes of cement/quartz and cement/fly ash, both ground in a special mill [energetically modified cement (EMC) process] and simply blended, have been studied under sealed curing conditions. The grinding process reduced the size of both cement grains and quartz/fly ash markedly and created flaky agglomerates of high inner surface for the finer particles. EMCs had much higher degree of hydration at 1 day, but similar as blends at 28 days. The pores were much finer for EMC paste due to smaller particles as also reflected in the strength. The morphology of calcium hydroxide in EMC paste appeared more mass like. Pozzolanic reaction was insignificant for quartz in EMC, but increased for fly ash. Thus, improved performance of EMC versus OPC can be explained by increased early hydration and extensive pore size refinement of the hardened binder resulting in reduced permeability and diffusivity for concrete.

  • 254.
    Justnes, Harald
    et al.
    SINTEF.
    Ronin, Vladimir
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Mechanochemical technology: energetically modified cements (EMC) with high volume quartz or fly ash2007In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainability in the Cement and Concrete Industry / [ed] Stefan Jacobsen; P. Jahren; Knut O. Kjellsen, Oslo: Norsk Betongforening , 2007, p. 163-177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energetically Modified Cement (EMC) consists of a mechanochemical processed blend of ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and filler or pozzolan. The process is carried out in multiple high intensity grinding mills to increase surface activation of the OPC and filler/pozzolan particles. Performance of EMC with 50% quartz or fly ash is compared with simple blends of same components. Examples are also shown where fly ash of low reactivity can be activated as pozzolan by the same process and used as additive to concrete.

  • 255.
    Justnes, Harald
    et al.
    SINTEF.
    Ronin, Vladimir
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Mechanochemical technology: synthesis of energetically modified cements (EMC) with high volume fly ash content2007In: Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, 2007, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 256. Karlsson, Inge
    et al.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Förespända lädbalkar belastade med vridande och böjande moment samt tvärkraft1976Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five rectangular prestressed concrete beams have been tested. Dimensions of the beams were 0.3 x 0.6 x 2.5 m (three beams) and 0.4 x 0.8 x 4.2 m (two beams; flanges 0.35 m), The medium prestress level for the concrete varied between 2.1 and 3.2 MPa. 

    The beams were tested in combined torsion, T, bending, M, and shear, V. The ratio of the torsion to bending moment varied between T:M = 0.125:1 and 0.4:1. The ratio of the bending moment, M, to the shear force, V, times the beam depth, h, varied between M:Vh = 1:0.22 to 1:0.27. 

    In chapter 2, the beams and the testing arrangement are described (Figs. 2.1 - 2,11).

    In chapter 3, theoretical values are presented for bending and torsional stiffnesses and for cracking and ultimate strenghts. The theoretical values are calculated according to the truss analogy [3], [7] and according to the code for bridge design [10] issued by the Swedish Road Administration. 

    In chapter 4, experimental values are presented. Photos of the beams after failure are given in Figs. 4.1 to 4.5. Theoretical and experimental values are given for curvature (Figs. 4.9 - 4.11), twist (Figs. 4.12 - 4.15), bending stiffness (Figs. 4.16 - 4.18), and torsional stiffness (Figs. 4.19 - 4.22). Reinforcement strains are given for the prestressed reinforcment (Figs. 4.23 - 4.27), for the longitudinal compression reinforcement (Figs. 4.28 - 4.29) and for the stirrups (Figs. 4.31 - 4.35). Concrete stresses and strains are also presented (Figs. 4.36 - 4.40). 

    The ultimate strength is discussed. Comparisons of theoretical and experimental results are given in Table 4.1 and in Fig. 4.41. Generally the truss analogy has given a good estimate of the torsional stiffness and of the ultimate strength. 

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  • 257.
    Karlsson, Inge
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg: Division of Concrete Structures.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg: Division of Concrete Structures.
    Torsional stiffness of reinforced concrete members subjected to pure torsion1972In: Magazine of Concrete Research, ISSN 0024-9831, E-ISSN 1751-763X, Vol. 24, no 80, p. 149156-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is described for determining the torsional stiffness at the cracked stage of reingforced concrete members subjected to pure torsional moments. The method is based upon a truss analogy for torsion. Theoretical expressions are deduiced for the torsional stiffness of beams of arbitary and rectangular cross-sections. The theoretical values are compaerd with experimental results for rectangular beams. The applicability of the theory used is briefly discussed and a procedure is given to correct for its imperfections.

  • 258. Karlsson, Inge
    et al.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Losborg, Anders
    Long-time behavior of reinforced concrete beams subjected to pure torsion1974In: Journal of the American Concrete Institute, ISSN 0002-8061, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 280-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a theoretical and experimental investigation on cracked reinforced concrete members subjected to a long-time torsional load are presented. The theoretical relationships are obtained from a truss model. An expression for the torsional stiffness in the elastic stage is modified to take into account the effect of creep of the concrete. The experimental work comprised tests on eight rectangular beams with different amounts of reinforcement and subjected to different load levels.

  • 259.
    Liu, Dongyun
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Freeze-thaw damage evaluation and model creation for concrete exposed to freeze–thaw cycles at early-age2021In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 312, article id 125352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete subjected to freeze–thaw cycles action at early-age will suffer serious physical damage, resulting in degradation of the concrete’s performance. The subsequent curing conditions after early-age freeze–thaw cycles (E-FTCs) are critical to the development of the properties of frost-damaged concrete. Four test environments were set up for this study, based on different numbers of E-FTCs and subsequent curing conditions. The later-age resistance to freeze–thaw of concrete exposed to E-FTCs was evaluated by analysing the influence of pre-curing times and curing conditions. Results show that the earlier the FTCs occur, the worse the later-age freeze–thaw resistance is. In particular, for the frost-damaged concrete with a pre-curing time of 18 h, its freeze–thaw resistance is significantly worse than that of other concretes that have a longer pre-curing time. The increase in the number of E-FTCs exacerbates the damage to early-age concrete, which causes the reduced later-age freeze–thaw resistance. Subsequent water curing can significantly improve the freeze–thaw resistance of damaged concrete, while air curing is the least effective. Based on previous freeze–thaw damage models, prediction models for concrete exposed to E-FTCs were created by using the test data obtained in this study. The critical pre-curing strengths which can ensure that the damaged concrete has satisfactory frost resistance at later-age were thus obtained. For concrete structures expected to experience E-FTCs, adequate pre-curing strength and good re-curing conditions are essential.

  • 260.
    Liu, Dongyun
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    Shi, Pan
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. SINTEF Narvik AS, 8517, Narvik, Norway.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mechanical and durability properties of concrete subjected to early-age freeze–thaw cycles2021In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 54, no 6, article id 211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early-age frost damage to concrete used in winter construction or in cold environments negatively affects the development of the hydration process and the performance of the concrete, thereby reducing the service life of the building structure. Experimental research was carried out to investigate the compressive strength, resistance to chloride penetration and resistance to freeze–thaw of concrete specimens subjected to early-age freeze–thaw cycles (E-FTCs). The effects that different pre-curing times of concrete and mineral admixtures have on the properties of early-age frost-affected concrete were also analyzed. Results show that the earlier the freeze–thaw cycles (FTCs), the poorer the later-age performance. Later-age water-curing cannot completely restore the damage that E-FTCs do to concrete. In the same conditions used in this study, the effects of E-FTCs on later-age mechanical and durability properties of ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPC) are small. The incorporation of fly ash significantly reduces the resistance to freeze–thaw of concrete during early-age and later-age. The presence of silica fumes has an adverse effect on the later-age resistance to freeze–thaw. In general, the recovery percentage of later-age durability indexes of concrete subjected to E-FTCs is lower than that of compressive strength. For concrete subjected to E-FTCs, it is more important to ensure the recovery of later-age durability.

  • 261.
    Liu, Dongyun
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, P.R. China.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Gonzalez-Libreros, Jaime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Zhang, Yu
    School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, P.R. China.
    Resistance to salt-corrosion of concrete with externally bonded FRP sheets in marine environment2022In: Bridge Safety, Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle, Resilience and Sustainability: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management (IABMAS 2022), Barcelona, Spain, July 11-15, 2022 / [ed] Joan Ramon Casas; Dan M. Frangopol; Jose Turmo, Taylor & Francis, 2022, p. 2495-2502Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 262.
    Liu, Dongyun
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Gonzalez, Jaime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Enoksson, Ola
    Trafikverket.
    Höjsten, Tommy
    Trafikverket.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Numerical simulation of train-induced aerodynamic pressure on railway noise barriers2023In: XII International Conference on Structural Dynamics, Delft, Netherlands, July 2-5, 2023., 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise barriers built parallel to the railway to reduce noise pollution, will be subjected to strong aerodynamic pressure from high-speed trains and have significant dynamic responses under such pressure. Based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a numerical simulation of train-induce aerodynamic pressure on noise barriers was performed. Time-varying pressure and its distribution along height direction of noise barriers were analysed, and the effect of different factors on results, i.e., the distance from noise barriers to track centre and the height of noise barrier, were discussed. Results show that the geometric changes in train nose and tail cause the obvious transient pressure pulse, and the pressure magnitude from nose is higher than that from tail. When the measuring height increases, the pressure gradually decreases, which can be well characterized by a height coefficient equation from Germany DB code. The pressure magnitude increases non-linearly when the distance to track centre decreases. Importantly, the height of noise barrier is also an important factor affecting pressure magnitude on noise barriers and when the height of noise barrier increases, the pressure magnitude gradually increases but tends to be stable at higher heights. An exponential equation can well characterize such effect of height of noise barrier on train-induced aerodynamic pressure.

  • 263.
    Liu, Dongyun
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Gonzalez, Jaime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, China.
    Correlation between early- and later-age performance indices of early frost-damaged concrete2022In: IABSE Symposium Prague 2022: Challenges for Existing and Oncoming Structures - Report, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering / [ed] František Wald, Pavel Ryjáček, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2022, p. 934-941Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freeze‐thaw cycles can lead to serious damage of early‐age concrete and influence its behaviour at later ages. In this study, the later‐age compressive strength, resistance to chloride penetration and resistance to freeze‐thaw of early frost‐damaged concrete were experimentally studied and the relationship between its early‐ (i.e., strength and resistivity) and later‐age (i.e., strength, chloride ion electric flux and freeze‐thaw durability factor) performance indices were analysed. Results show that the later‐age performance of the concrete subjected to freeze‐thaw cycles at early age was generally worse than that of the control samples, which had not undergone early frost damage. This was especially significant for the concrete subjected to freeze‐thaw cycles before the age of 24 h. The compressive strength after early frost action had a higher linear correlation with the later‐age indices of the concrete than the compressive strength before early frost action. Results also showed that the early‐age resistivity is a good indicator for the later‐age performance of early frost‐damaged concrete if the pre‐curing time before frosting is at least 24 h. 

  • 264.
    Liu, Dongyun
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Gonzalez-Libreros, Jaime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Enoksson, Ola
    Trafikverket, Luleå, Sweden.
    Hojsten, Tommy
    Trafikverket, Luleå, Sweden.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Numerical Analysis of High-Speed Train Induced Aerodynamic Load on Noise Barrier Considering Wind Effect2023In: Building for the Future: Durable, Sustainable, Resilient - Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2023 - Volume 2 / [ed] Alper Ilki, Derya Çavunt, Yavuz Selim Çavunt, Springer, 2023, Vol. 2, p. 332-341Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Along the high-speed railway lines, the noise barriers need to be installed to protect nearby inhabitants from noise pollution caused by the running trains. When a high-speed train passes through the noise barriers, due to the blocking effect of noise barrier on air movement, transient train-induced aerodynamic pressure will increase significantly. Field measurement and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation are main ways to study the train-induced aerodynamic pressure on the noise barriers. Due to the complexity of the environmental conditions in field test, however, it is difficult to take into account the wind effects on measurement results. Based on CFD simulation, in this paper, the aerodynamic effects on noise barrier from high-speed trains was simulated by applying the wind flow in the opposite direction to the train running. Influences of train speed and distance from noise barrier to track centre on such aerodynamic pressure were analysed. In addition, by applying the wind flow perpendicular to the longitudinal of train body, the effect of cross wind on the train-induced aerodynamic pressure was evaluated. Results show that pressure magnitude on the noise barriers increases non-linearly with the train speed. There is good nonlinear relationship between the pressure and the square of the distance to track centre. Cross wind increases the magnitude of positive pressure and makes the duration of high-pressure zone longer and absolute value of negative pressure peak decreases. There is a coupling effect of cross wind effect and train-induced aerodynamic effect on noise barriers. 

  • 265.
    Liu, Dongyun
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Gonzalez-Libreros, Jaime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Guo, Tong
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, P.R. China.
    Cao, Jie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, P.R. China.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. SINTEF Narvik AS, Narvik 8517, Norway.
    A review of concrete properties under the combined effect of fatigue and corrosion from a material perspective2023In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 369, article id 130489Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When in use, reinforced concrete bridge structures not only experience high-frequency fatigue loading caused by passing vehicles, but also suffer from the effects of a corrosive environment. In addition to fatigue damage to reinforcement, long-term fatigue loading also causes concrete cracking and deterioration of pore structures, thereby accelerating the ingress of external corrosive substances and reducing concrete durability. Long-term exposure to a corrosive environment also reduces the performance of concrete and causes corrosion of reinforcement materials, affecting the fatigue performance of the structure. Therefore, there is a combined effect between fatigue loads and corrosion on concrete. This paper is a review of the current literature from a material perspective on the performance degradation of concrete under the combined action of fatigue loading and corrosion, that is, carbonation, chloride ion attack, freeze–thaw cycles, and sulphate attack. The paper includes (1) a description of a test method for examining the combined action of fatigue loading and corrosion, (2) a summary of performance degradation of concrete under the combined effect of fatigue loading and corrosion, and (3) an introduction to durability deterioration models considering fatigue damage, and fatigue models that can account for corrosion. Finally, potential future research on concrete under the combined effect of fatigue loading and corrosion is described.

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  • 266.
    Liu, Dongyun
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Gonzalez-Libreros, Jaime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, PR China.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    A review on aerodynamic load and dynamic behavior of railway noise barriers when high-speed trains pass2023In: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, ISSN 0167-6105, E-ISSN 1872-8197, Vol. 239, article id 105458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise barriers need to be installed along high-speed railway lines to protect nearby inhabitants from the noise pollution caused by the running of high-speed trains (HSTs). The vertical noise barrier is the main structural type. However, when an HST passes through the noise barriers sited along the track, significant and transient aerodynamic pressure will act on the surface of the noise barriers, resulting in strong dynamic responses and even fatigue damage. Therefore, it is important to determine the train-induced aerodynamic load on the barrier surface and analyze the dynamic behaviors of the noise barriers under such a load for its structural design and to guarantee its safety and durability. This paper is a systematic review of the current literature on the aerodynamic load and dynamic behavior of vertical noise barriers; it includes (1) a summary and analysis of characteristics of such aerodynamic pressure and relevant influencing factors, (2) an introduction to measurement methods of aerodynamic load and relevant pressure models on the surface of noise barriers, and (3) a description of the dynamic response and fatigue analysis of noise barriers under such loads. Finally, potential further studies on this topic are discussed, and conclusions are drawn.

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  • 267.
    Liu, Dongyun
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Gonzalez-Libreros, Jaime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, PR China.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Modified calculation model of train-induced aerodynamic pressure on vertical noise barriers considering the train geometry effect2024In: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, ISSN 0167-6105, E-ISSN 1872-8197, Vol. 249, article id 105750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-speed trains (HSTs) generate air disturbance, leading to significant aerodynamic pressure on the noise barriers. Differences in train geometry result in variations in the aerodynamic pressure on noise barriers, implying that existing European standard calculation models may not necessarily be suitable for all types of HSTs. In this paper, the influence of the width, height, and nose length of the train on the aerodynamic pressure on vertical noise barriers was studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Results showed that taller and wider trains result in greater aerodynamic loads on noise barriers. Conversely, an increase in the nose length of a train leads to a reduction in such pressure. Using grey relational analysis, correlation of various factors with the train-induced aerodynamic pressure is, from strong to weak: distance to the track center, width, height, and nose length of the train. Building upon the EN 14067-4 calculation model, the shape coefficients of trains with varying geometric characteristics were derived using the simulation data obtained in this study. A modified pressure calculation model was established accounting for the differences in geometric features of HSTs and pressure distribution in the vertical direction of noise barriers and validated using relevant data from the literature.

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  • 268.
    Liu, Dongyun
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, PR China.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Guo, Tong
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, PR China.
    Gonzalez-Libreros, Jaime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Ge, Yuanfei
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, PR China.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, PR China.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Time–depth dependent chloride diffusion coefficient of self-compacting concrete2024In: Magazine of Concrete Research, ISSN 0024-9831, E-ISSN 1751-763X, Vol. 76, no 12, p. 600-616Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Min, Xinzhe
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Zhang, Jiwen
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, China.
    Li, Xing
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, China.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, China.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. SINTEF Narvik AS, Narvik 8517, Norway.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    A nonlinear prediction model of the debonding process of an FRP-concrete interface under fatigue loading2023In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 369, article id 130583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Externally bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) strengthening has been proven to be an efficient and reliable method for structural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) members. However, the beneficial effects of this method can be diminished due to the debonding of the FRP laminates. The mechanism of FRP debonding still requires further research, especially for strengthened members under fatigue loading. To understand and predict the FRP fatigue debonding process better, eleven FRP-concrete joint specimens were tested under static or fatigue loading. Both the theoretical derivation and the experimental study indicated that the debonding growth rate of the FRP laminate depended not only on the mean level (), but also the amplitude () of the applied fatigue load. In addition, the debonded portion of the FRP laminate had a significant impact on the following debonding process due to the friction and mechanical interaction between the debonded FRP and the concrete surface. Therefore, a new nonlinear prediction model is proposed in this paper. The proposed model explicitly took into account the amplitude and the mean level of the fatigue loading, which enabled the effect of both to be modelled. Meanwhile, a correction term was also introduced into the model to account for the influence of the previously debonded FRP laminate. The predicted results of the debonding growth rate and the debonding length agreed well with the experimental results.

  • 270.
    Min, Xinzhe
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Zhang, Jiwen
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, China.
    Li, Xing
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, China.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189 Nanjing, China.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. SINTEF Narvik AS, Narvik 8517, Norway.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    An experimental study on fatigue debonding growth of RC beams strengthened with prestressed CFRP plates2022In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 273, article id 115081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Externally bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) laminates are increasingly used to strengthen Reinforced Concrete (RC) members. However, FRP debonding remains a major drawback of this strengthening method. To better understand the mechanisms of FRP debonding, six RC beams strengthened with prestressed or non-prestressed Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) plates were subjected to static and fatigue loading. CFRP plate debonding was observed in both cases. However, the mechanism of debonding differed: under cyclical fatigue loading, debonding was initiated under both loading points simultaneously and propagated synchronously towards the nearest support whereas in static tests debonding began under a single loading point and progressed suddenly towards its adjacent support. The results also showed that stress redistribution induced coupling between accumulated fatigue damage in the steel reinforcement and fatigue debonding of the CFRP plate, accelerating the fatigue failure of the specimens.

  • 271.
    Min, Xinzhe
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Zhang, Jiwen
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, China.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, China.
    Li, Xing
    Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Research Center for Prestressing Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, 211189, Nanjing, China.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    A full-range fatigue life prediction model for RC beams strengthened with prestressed CFRP plates accounting for the impact of FRP debonding2024In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 301, article id 117305Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 272.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Numerical Modelling and Experimental Verification of Pullout Loading of Anchor Bolts in Reinforced Concrete Structures2016In: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovativeand Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, p. 2172-2178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to provide a numerical model which can realistically present the failure load and failure mechanism of pullout loaded anchor bolts (headed studs) in reinforced concrete structures. The numerical analysis is carried out through a three-dimensional finite element (FE) code based on the Microplane constitutive law. The intension is to calibrate the FE model and to verify the numerical results against available test results. The calibrated FE model is intended to be used for an ongoing study to evaluate the influence of member thickness, surface reinforcement and size of anchor head on the tensile capacity and performance of anchor bolts.

    The simulation results showed very good agreements with the available test results. The objectivity of numerical modelling in respect to the size of finite elements as well as the defined boundary conditions was confirmed by additional numerical analyses.

  • 273.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Project: Anchorage in Concrete Structure2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 274.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sustained load performance of adhesive fastening systems in concrete2017In: Life-Cycle of Engineering Systems: Emphasis on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure / [ed] Jaap Bakker; Dan M Frangopol; Klaas van Breugel, Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema , 2017, p. 2365-2371Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influence of several sustained loading levels and various in-service conditions on the long-term performance of adhesive bonded anchors are experimentally evaluated. Adhesive bonded anchors with 16 and 20 mm diameters were subjected to sustained load levels between approximately 23 and 70% of their mean ultimate short-term capacities. The creep deformation of tested adhesive anchors was monitored over approximately 28 years. The tested in-service conditions were indoor, outdoor, wetness (i.e. water on the surface of concrete) and presence in the concrete of salt additives. The tested adhesive anchors in the indoor conditions could carry sustained loads up to 47% of their mean ultimate short-term capacities. However, the adhesive anchors under outdoor environment showed larger creep deformations and failure occurred for anchors subjected to sustained loads higher than 23% of the anchors’ mean ultimate short-time capacities. Wet condition seemed to have no adverse effect on the anchors’ creep behavior, but caused corrosion of the steel in the anchors over time. Salt additives in concrete had negligible influence on the long-term performance and creep deformation of the tested adhesive anchors

  • 275.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Bagge, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Wsp Bridges and Tunnels, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Puurula, A
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Fracture energy of concrete for bridge assessment2020In: 1st IABSE Online Symposium 2020: Synergy of Culture and Civil Engineering - History and Challenges / [ed] Jan Bien; Jan Biliszczuk; Pawel Hawryszkow; Maciej Hildebrand; Marta Knawa-Hawryszkow; Krzysztof Sadowski, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2020, p. 692-699Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In numerical assessments of concrete bridges, the value of the concrete fracture energy GF plays an important role. However, mostly the fracture energy is only estimated based on the concrete compressive strength using empirical formulae. In order to study methods to determine the concrete fracture energy for existing bridges, tests were carried out on 55-year-old concrete from a bridge tested to failure in Kiruna in northern Sweden. Uniaxial tensile tests are performed on notched cylindrical concrete cores drilled out from this and other bridges. In the paper, different methods to determine the concrete fracture energy are discussed and recommendations are given for assessment procedures.

  • 276.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Experimental Evaluation of Influence of Member Thickness, Anchor-Head Size, and Orthogonal Surface Reinforcement on the Tensile Capacity of Headed Anchors in Uncracked Concrete2018In: Journal of Structural Engineering, ISSN 0733-9445, E-ISSN 1943-541X, Vol. 144, no 4, article id 04018012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cast-in-place headed anchors with different head sizes embedded in plain and reinforced concrete members of various thicknesses were subjected to pullout tests. The influence of member thickness, size of the anchor head, and orthogonal surface reinforcement on the tensile capacity and performance of anchor bolts was evaluated. The member thickness varied from 1.5 to 3.0 times the anchor embedment depth and headed anchors with small, medium, and large heads were tested.

    The experimental results of the present study showed that increasing member thickness and/or the use of orthogonal surface reinforcement lead to increased anchorage capacity and anchorage ductility, whereas the anchorage stiffness decreases slightly. In contrast to the anchorage ductility, the tensile breakout resistance and the anchorage stiffness increase significantly with increasing size of the anchor head.

    The experimental results corresponded closely to numerical results from a previous study (Nilforoush et al. 2016 a & b), which suggested a modified model incorporating several modification factors for improving the predictive capability of the Concrete Capacity (CC) method. In the present study, these factors yielded improved prediction of the tensile breakout capacity of the tested headed anchors.

  • 277.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Experimental evaluation of tensile behaviour of single cast-in-place anchor bolts in plain and steel fibre-reinforced normal- and high-strength concrete2017In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 147, p. 195-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cast-in-place anchor bolts embedded in plain and steel fibre-reinforced normal- and high-strength concrete members were subjected to monotonic tensile loads. The influence of the concrete member thickness, concrete strength, and the addition of steel fibres to the concrete mixture, on the anchorage capacity and performance was evaluated. The experimental results were evaluated in terms of anchorage capacity, anchorage ductility and stiffness as well as failure mode and geometry. Furthermore, the validity of Concrete Capacity (CC) method for predicting the tensile breakout capacity of anchor bolts in plain and steel fibre-reinforced normal- and high-strength concrete members was evaluated.

    The anchorage capacity and ductility increased slightly with increasing member thickness, whereas the anchorage stiffness decreased slightly. In contrast to the anchorage ductility, the anchorage capacity and stiffness increased considerably with increasing concrete compressive strength. The anchorage capacity and ductility also increased significantly with the addition of steel fibres to the concrete mixtures. This enhanced capacity and ductility resulted from the improved flexural tensile strength and post-peak cracking behavior of steel fibre-reinforced concrete.

    The average ratio of measured strengths to those predicted by the CC method for anchors in plain concrete members was increased from 1.0 to 1.17 with increasing member thickness. In steel fibre-reinforced concrete, this ratio varied from 1.29 to 1.51, depending on the member thickness and the concrete strength.

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  • 278.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Numerical and Experimental Evaluations of Influence of Member Thickness, Anchor Head Size, and Surface Reinforcement on Tensile Breakout Capacity of Anchor bolts2017In: Connections between Steel and Concrete / [ed] Akanshu Sharma, Jan Hofmann, Stuttgart, 2017, p. 752-764Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of member thickness, size of anchor head, and orthogonal surface reinforcement on the tensile breakout capacity of cast-in-place headed anchors in uncracked concrete was studied both numerically and experimentally. The aim of this paper is to form a background for developing improved methods for the design of new fastenings as well as the assessment of current anchorages in practice. For this purpose, anchor bolts at various embedment depths (hef=50–500 mm) were simulated in plain and reinforced concrete members of various thicknesses (H=1.5–5.0∙hef). Three different head sizes of anchor bolts (i.e. small, medium and large) were also considered at each anchor embedment depth. Furthermore, to verify the numerical findings, a series of anchor pullout tests were carried out at which the testing parameters were similar to those in the numerical study.

    Numerical and experimental results show that the tensile breakout capacity of anchor bolts increases by increasing the member thickness or if surface reinforcement is present. The anchorage capacity further increases with increasing the anchor head size. The anchorage behavior becomes ductile by increasing member thickness or by having surface reinforcement, whereas it becomes stiff and more brittle by increasing the size of anchor head. To account for the influence of member thickness, size of anchor head, and orthogonal surface reinforcement on the tensile breakout capacity of headed anchors, the CC method was modified and extended by incorporating three modification factors.

  • 279.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tensile breakout capacity of cast-in-place headed anchors in concrete2017In: XXIIIth Symposium on Nordic Concrete Research & Developement / [ed] Marianne Tange Hasholt, Oslo, Norway, 2017, p. 235-238Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of member thickness, size of anchor head, and orthogonal surface reinforcement on the tensile breakout capacity of cast-in-place headed anchors was studied both numerically and experimentally. The aim of this paper is to form a background for developing improved methods for the design of new fastening systems as well as the assessment of the current anchorage systems in practice. Numerical and experimental results showed that the tensile breakout capacity of anchor bolts increases by increasing the member thickness or if surface reinforcement is present. Furthermore, the anchorage capacity increases with increasing the anchor head size.

  • 280.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Ožbolt, Joško
    University of Stuttgart .
    Hofmann, Jan
    University of Stuttgart .
    Eligehausen, Rolf
    University of Stuttgart .
    Influence of Surface Reinforcement, Member thickness and Cracked Concrete on Tensile Capacity of Anchor Bolts2017In: ACI Structural Journal, ISSN 0889-3241, E-ISSN 1944-7361, Vol. 114, no 6, p. 1543-1556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An extensive numerical study was carried out to evaluate the influence of concrete member thickness and orthogonal surface reinforcement on the tensile capacity and performance of anchor bolts in uncracked concrete members. Anchor bolts at various embedment depths (hef=50 to 300 mm (1.97 to 11.81 in.)) in unreinforced and reinforced concrete members of various thicknesses (H=1.5 – 5.0∙hef) were simulated. The reinforced concrete slabs were considered to be lightly-reinforced and over-reinforced to evaluate also the influence of amount of reinforcement. Furthermore, the behavior of anchor bolts at various embedment depths in pre-cracked reinforced concrete members was numerically investigated. The numerical results were compared with predictions from current design models including the Concrete Capacity (CC) method.

    The numerical results show that in uncracked concrete the tensile capacity of anchor bolts increases up to 20% and the anchorage behavior becomes more ductile with increasing member thickness or by having surface reinforcement. The numerical results also show that the CC method underestimates the tensile capacity of deep anchors (hef≥200 mm (7.87 in.)), while it slightly overestimates the capacity of short anchors (hef≤100 mm (3.94 in.)) in thin unreinforced members. It was also found that the over-reinforced concrete does not improve the anchorage capacity and performance any further than the lightly-reinforced concrete. Based on the numerical results, several recommendations are proposed to account for the influence of member thickness, surface reinforcement and cracked concrete. Further experimental studies are ongoing to verify and generalize the recommendations of this study.

  • 281.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Ožbolt, Joško
    University of Stuttgart .
    Hofmann, Jan
    University of Stuttgart .
    Eligehausen, Rolf
    University of Stuttgart .
    Tensile capacity of anchor bolts in uncracked concrete: Influence of member thickness and anchor’s head size2017In: ACI Structural Journal, ISSN 0889-3241, E-ISSN 1944-7361, Vol. 114, no 6, p. 1519-1530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the influence of concrete member thickness and size of anchor head on the tensile capacity and performance of anchor bolts in concrete. Anchor bolts at various embedment depths (hef=50 – 500 mm (1.97 – 19.69 in.)) in concrete members of various thicknesses (H=1.5 – 5.0∙hef) were simulated. Three different sizes of anchor head (small, medium and large) were considered at each anchor embedment depth. The numerical results were compared with predictions from several theoretical and empirical models, including current design models, as well as some test results.

    The numerical results show that the concrete cone resistance increases with increasing thickness of concrete member and/or size of the anchor head. Simulations also indicate that current design models generally underestimate the tensile capacity of large anchors.

    Two modification factors are proposed to account for the influence of the member thickness and the size of anchor head. Predictions of anchorage capacity using the proposed modification factors have good correlation with the available test results found in the literature.

  • 282.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Söderlind, Gunnar
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Long-Term Performance of Adhesive Bonded Anchors2016In: ACI Structural Journal, ISSN 0889-3241, E-ISSN 1944-7361, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 251-261, article id MS No. S-2014-302.R2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-installed adhesive anchors used for fastening nonstructural and/or structural elements to concrete structures are prone to creep under sustained loads over their service life, which may considerably affect their long-term performance. In this study, the influence of various in-service conditions and sustained loading levels on the long-term performance of adhesive anchors was experimentally examined. The tested adhesive was an unsaturated polyester resin and the bonded anchors were subjected to sustained loads of 23, 47 and 70% of their mean ultimate short-term capacities for up to 10376 days (28.4 years). The tested in-service conditions were indoor temperature, outdoor temperature and humidity variations, wetness and presence in the concrete of salt additives.Results indicate that the tested bonded anchors did not fail indoors when subjected to sustained loads up to 47% of their mean ultimate short-time capacity. However, the long-term performance was substantially impaired outdoors, presumably due to temperature and humidity variations, leading to failure for sustained loads higher than 23% of the anchors’ mean ultimate short-time capacity.

  • 283.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Pia, G.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Anchorage capacity and performance in plain and steelfibre-reinforced-concrete2020In: 1st IABSE Online Symposium 2020: Synergy of Culture and Civil Engineering - History and Challenges / [ed] Jan Bien; Jan Biliszczuk; Pawel Hawryszkow; Maciej Hildebrand; Marta Knawa-Hawryszkow; Krzysztof Sadowski, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2020, p. 700-709Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, prefabricated concrete components made from Steel-Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (SFRC) are widely used in the construction industry. These components are often connected to existing or new structural elements through various fastening systems. Previous studies have shown that the addition of steel fibers to concrete mixture substantially improves the fracture properties of concrete. To date, however, rather limited research is available on the behavior of fastening systems in SFRC. To improve the current knowledge of fastening systems to SFRC structures, a pilot experimental study is carried out on cast-in-place anchor bolts embedded in Plain Concrete (PC) and SFRC members. In this study, the influence of the presence of steel fibers and concrete compressive strength on the anchorage capacity and performance is evaluated. Furthermore, the applicability of current design methods is evaluated for anchorage systems in SFRC.

  • 284.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Bagge, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Häggström, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    More Realistic Codes for Existing Bridges2016In: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovativeand Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Elfgren, Lennart; Jonsson, Johan; Karlsson, Mats; Rydberg-Forssbeck, Laja; Sigfrid, Britt, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, p. 399-407Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Examples are given from comparisons of analyses based on (1) code models, (2) finite element models and (3) full scale tests to failure of three bridges. The analyses based on the code models gave very conservative results, while the finite element models could better predict the real behaviour.

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  • 285.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Kunskapsåterföring av erfarenheter från MAINLINE: Verktyg och metoder för att förbättra den svenska järnvägsinfrastrukturen - SBUF 13139 Slutrapport2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten redovisar resultat och erfarenheter från ett EU-finansierat forskningsprojekt MAINLINE. Tanken med rapporten är att samla och analysera den kunskap som tagits fram inom MAINLINE och anpassa den för den svenska byggindustrin.Tillväxten och efterfrågan av säkra och effektiva järnvägstransporter spås fortsätta att öka över hela Europa under de kommande decennierna. En stor del av denna transportökning måste fördelas ut på de järnvägslinjer som finns idag och består av en stor del gammal infrastruktur. Den ökade belastningen kommer att leda till ett ökat slitage på infrastrukturen och ett växande behov av snabbare underhållsarbeten som orsakar mindre trafikstörningar och framför allt kortare totalstopp. Vid planeringen av nya åtgärder bör hänsyn tas till att minimera störningarna och samtidigt reducera de ekonomiska behoven, samt de miljömässiga konsekvenserna. Nya metoder och tekniker kommer att behövas för att stödja och informera beslutsfattare om de långsiktiga ekonomiska och miljömässiga konsekvenserna av de åtgärder som planeras för järnvägen.Projektet MAINLINE, som står för MAINtenance, renewaL and Improvement of rail transport iNfrastructure to reduce Economic and environmental impacts, var en del i EUs 7e ramverksprogram. Finansieringen utgjordes av kontraktet SST.2011.5.2-6 mellan Europakommissionen och den internationella järnvägsunionen, UIC. UIC var även koordinator för MAINLINE.Tanken med MAINLINE var att utreda möjligheterna för ökad användning av den Europeiska järnvägen genom att öka nyttjandegraden och livslängden på befintliga konstruktioner och andra tillgångar. Projektet genomfördes i en serie av sammanhängande arbetspaket. Målsättningen var att resultaten ska leda till årliga kostnadsbesparingar på minst 300 miljoner Euro för den Europeiska järnvägen, och samtidigt minimera klimatpåverkan. Projektet MAINLINE har arbetat för att:a) tillämpa nya teknologier för att öka livslängden hos befintlig infrastrukturb) förbättra modeller för nedbrytning och strukturanalys för skapa mer realistiska livscykelkostnader och tillförlitlighetsmodellerc) undersöka nya konstruktionsmetoder för att ersätta/byta ut föråldrad infrastrukturd) undersöka mättekniker (tillståndsbedömning) som antingen kompletterar eller ersätter existerande undersökningsmetodere) utveckla förvaltningsverktyg som tar hänsyn till livscykelberäkningar för både miljö- och ekonomipåverkan (LCA och LCC analyser).

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  • 286.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Transversal post tensioning of RC trough bridges: laboratory tests2012In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 57-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Unbonded Transverse Posttensioning of a Railway Bridge in Haparanda, Sweden2014In: Journal of Bridge Engineering, ISSN 1084-0702, E-ISSN 1943-5592, Vol. 19, no 3, article id 4013001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of railway lines in Sweden are designed to support axle loads of up to 250 kN. Because of increased transport needs on some lines, an axle load limit of at least 300 kN would be beneficial. To upgrade the Haparanda line in northern Sweden to 300 kN, the slabs in existing concrete trough bridges require a higher transverse shear resistance. Methods for in situ strengthening of bridge slabs in this way have not been fully developed, and this paper discusses the possibility of increasing the load capacity by horizontal prestressing. Internal, unbonded posttensioning was performed on one bridge on the Haparanda line, and the strengthening effects were investigated. The strengthening was designed according to the European Eurocode design regulations, and testing was conducted before and after the implementation. Strains in the main transverse reinforcement, caused by a train with an axle load of 215 kN, were completely counteracted by eight prestressing bars, stressed with 430 kN/bar. The results indicate that the actual strengthening effect is larger than what is predicted by the design equations. The Haparanda project showed that unbonded posttensioning can be implemented relatively fast and does not obstruct the ongoing railway traffic during installation

  • 288.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Paulsson, Björn
    Trafikverket.
    Extended Life of Railway Bridges. Results from EC-FP7-project MAINLINE2013In: Assessment, Upgrading and Refurbishment of Infrastructures: IABSE Conference Rotterdan 2013 / [ed] Philippe Van Bogaert, Zürich: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2013, p. 314-315Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to extend the life of many existing railway bridges. To facilitate this is one of the objects of the EC-FP7-Project MAINLINE, covering a period from 2011 to 2014. Three case studies are presented in which existing bridges are being studied in order to extend their life length: First a concrete trough bridge strengthened with post stressed bars in drilled holes through the slab is considered; followed by another concrete trough bridge strengthened with sawn in Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (NSMR) of Carbon Fibre Reinforce Polymers (CFRP); and finally a steel truss bridge which will be loaded to failure to calibrate the assessment methods.

  • 289.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Paulsson, Björn
    UIC, Trafikverket.
    Extending the life of elderly rail bridges by strengthening2014In: Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management and Life Extension: proceedings of the Seventh International Conference of Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management, 7-11 July 2014, Shanghai, China / [ed] Airong Chen; Dan M. Frangopol; Xin Ruan, London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group , 2014, p. 1082-1088Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to extend the life of many existing railway bridges. To facilitate this is one of the objects of the EC-FP7-Project MAINLINE, covering a period from 2011 to 2014. New or improved technologies are investigated to help with this. For bridges, the most promising techniques are enhanced inspection, assessment and strengthening methods. Case studies are presented where three different strengthening techniques have been applied to existing concrete trough bridges. First, sawn in Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (NSMR) of Carbon Fibre Reinforce Polymers (CFRP) are used; followed by a bridge where carbon fibre cables were drilled through the bridge and finally a bridge was strengthened with post tensioned bars in drilled holes through the slab in the transverse direction. All three methods proved to be very successful.

  • 290.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Häggström, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Bagge, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Bernspång, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Björn
    Trafikverket, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Maintenance and Renewal of Concrete Rail Bridges - Results from EC project MAINLINE2014In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 50, p. 25-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to extend the life and capacity of many existing railway bridges. One of the objects of the EC-FP7-Project MAINLINE, 2011-2014, is to facilitate this. Guidelines for assessment and strengthening methods are presented as well as case studies in which existing bridges are being studied in order to extend their life length. Case studies on bridges tested to failure in order to calibrate assessment methods are also presented. Fatigue is often a vital question. A Life Cycle Assessment Tool (LCAT) is being prepared to enable Infrastructure Managers to choose optimal maintenance strategies.

  • 291.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Häggström, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket, Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Paulsson, Björn
    Trafikverket, UIC, Banverket.
    Extend the life of existing railway bridges: Results from EU FP7 project MAINLINE2015In: IABSE Conference Geneva 2015: Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges, Geneva: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2015, p. 1219-1226Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to extend the life and capacity of many existing bridges. One of the objects of the EU FP7 Project MAINLINE, 2011-2014, was to facilitate this. Guidelines for assessment and strengthening methods are presented as well as case studies in which existing bridges are studied in order to extend their life length. One example is the prestressing of the slab in a one-span concrete trough bridge in order to increase its load-carrying capacity. Horizontal holes were drilled trough the slab and in them steel bars were placed and post-tensioned. In this way a compressive stress was introduced into the concrete section so that it’s bending and shear capacity was increased.In another study a metal truss bridge was monitored in order to check strain and stress ranges in critical connections to enable an enhanced evaluation of the remaining fatigue resistance. The studied bridge was then replaced and loaded to failure to study its robustness and the reliability of applied assessment methods. The results could then be applied to prolong the life of an identical twin bridge located in the northern part of Sweden. A Life Cycle Assessment Tool (LCAT) has been developed to enable Infrastructure Managers to choose optimal maintenance strategies.

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  • 292.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Bagge, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Testing to Failure of a 55-year-old Prestressed Concrete Bridge in Kiruna: Bending, Shear and Punching of Girders and Slab. Fracture Properties of Materials. Test Results, Modelling and Assessment. Final Report BBT 2017-0302020Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results are presented from the testing to failure of a 55-year-old prestressed concrete bridge with five continuous spans and a total length of 121.5 m. The bridge was situated in Kiruna in northern Sweden. Results are given from load, deflection and strain measurements during bending-shear tests of the girders and from a punching test of the slab. The testing was carried out in June 2014.

    Extensive assessment and modelling of the bridge with finite element methods have taken place and is summarized. The strength of the bridge was much higher than what could be found with ordinary code methods. The advanced non-linear models were, after calibration, able to predict the behaviour in a good way.

    In numerical assessments of concrete bridges, the value of the concrete tensile strength fct and the fracture energy GF plays an important role. However, mostly these properties are only estimated based on the concrete compressive strength using empirical formulae. In order to study methods to determine the concrete tensile strength and fracture energy for existing bridges, tests were carried out in 2019 on notched cylindrical concrete cores drilled out from the Kiruna Bridge. Different methods to determine the concrete fracture energy are discussed and recommendations are given for assessment procedures.

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  • 293.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Bagge, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. WSP, Göteborg.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Testing to Failure of a 55-year-old Prestressed Concrete Bridge in Kiruna: Bending, Shear and Punching of Girders and Slab. Fracture Properties of Materials. Test Results, Modelling and Assessment. Final Report BBT 2017-0302020Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results are presented from the testing to failure of a 55-year-old prestressed concrete bridge with five continuous spans and a total length of 121.5 m. The bridge was situated in Kiruna in northern Sweden. Results are given from load, deflection and strain measurements during bending-shear tests of the girders and from a punching test of the slab. The testing was carried out in June 2014.

    Extensive assessment and modelling of the bridge with finite element methods have taken place and is summarized. The strength of the bridge was much higher than what could be found with ordinary code methods. The advanced non-linear models were, after calibration, able to predict the behaviour in a good way.

    In numerical assessments of concrete bridges, the value of the concrete tensile strength fct and the fracture energy GF plays an important role. However, mostly these properties are only estimated based on the concrete compressive strength using empirical formulae. In order to study methods to determine the concrete tensile strength and fracture energy for existing bridges, tests were carried out in 2019 on notched cylindrical concrete cores drilled out from the Kiruna Bridge. Different methods to determine the concrete fracture energy are discussed and recommendations are given for assessment procedures.

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    BBT 2017-030 Appendices
  • 294.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Uniaxial tensile test method for cylindrical concrete cores from existing structures2022In: 24th NCR Symposium Proceedings / [ed] Johan Silfwerbrand, Nordic Concrete Federation , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for direct tensile tests on cylindrical concrete cores from existing structures was developed at Luleå University of Technology and the method was tested on concrete from a 55 year old bridge from northern Sweden. The tests showed that the tensile strength of the concrete could be upgraded to a higher value.

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  • 295.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sabau, Cristian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Bagge, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. WSP.
    Puurula, Arto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Savonia University.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Skanska.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Trafikverket.
    Paulsson, Björn
    Charmec Railway Center.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Assessment and Loading to Failure of Three Swedish RC Bridges2018In: Evaluation of Concrete Bridge Behavior through Load Testing: International Perspectives / [ed] Eva Lantsoght and Pinar Okumus, Faarmington Hills, MI: American Concrete Institute, 2018, Vol. 323, p. 8.1-8.18, article id SP-323-8Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current codes often underestimate the capacity of existing bridges. The purpose of the tests presented here has been to assess the real behaviour and capacity of three types of bridges in order to be able to utilize them in a more efficient way.

    The three studied bridges are: (1) Lautajokk – A one-span trough bridge tested in fatigue to check the shear capacity of the section between the slab and the girders; (2) Övik – A two span trough bridge strengthened with Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (NSMR) of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) tested in bending, shear and torsion; and (3) Kiruna – A five-span prestressed three girder bridge tested to shear-bending failures in the girders and in the slab.

    The failure capacities were considerably higher than what the code methods indicated. With calibrated and stepwise refined finite element models, it was possible to capture the real behaviour of the bridges. The experiences and methods may be useful in assessment and better use of other bridges.

  • 296. Nilsson, Martin
    et al.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Partial coefficient for thermal cracking problems determined by a probabilistic method2003In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 27, p. 107-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to calculate partial coefficients for thermal cracking problems of young concrete and to compare the results with the values stated in the Swedish building code for bridges, [1]. The code values are only based on experiences and logical reasoning, whereas the calculated values form a more theoretical base for their determination. The coefficients are calculated with a probabilistic method. Various different possible variations of the used variables have been studied showing the wide range of possible results depending on the input. However, with use of material properties and reasonable assumptions related to thermal cracking problems, fairly good agreement has been found between the stated values in the Swedish code [1] and the values obtained through the probabilistic method. The calculated values are based on many assumptions and assumed values and should therefor not be seen as what is right but rather more as an indication on the reasonableness of the values stated in the Swedish code. Further investigations, calculations and judgements should be performed before wider conclusions can be drawn.

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  • 297.
    Nilsson, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Wallin, Kjell
    Emborg, Mats
    Bernander, Stig
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Crack prevention in walls and slabs: the influence of restraint1999In: Innovation in concrete structures: design and construction: design and construction ; proceedings of the international conference held at the University of Dundee, Scotland, UK on 8-10 September 1999 / [ed] Ravindra K. Dhir; M. Roderick Jones, London: Thomas Telford Ltd , 1999, p. 461-471Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 298.
    Nilsson, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Effects of surface reinforcement on bearing capacity of concrete with anchor bolts2011In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 2011, no 44, p. 161-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    66 tests of the influence of surface reinforcement on the tensile load capacity of cast-in fasteners have been carried through. In the tests threaded rods ∅30 mm with a ∅45 mm nut at the end were cast-in centrically in concrete slabs (1.2 m × 1.2 m × 0.3 m up to 2.2 m × 2.2 m × 0.6 m). The amount of surface reinforcement was varied from 0% up to about 1.2%. There is a considerable increase in the load capacity with surface reinforcement present. The increase depends on the geometry and the amount and placement of the reinforcement.

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  • 299. Nilsson, Martin
    et al.
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Partialkoefficienter för hållfasthet i betongbroar längs Malmbanan1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redovisar två metoder att bestämma nyanserade värden på betonghållfasthetens partialkoefficienter för befintliga betongbroar längs Malmbanan. Rapporten presenterar därefter dimensionerande drag- och tryck-hållfasthetsvärden för sju broar mellan Luleå och Boden. Hållfasthetsvärden är baserade dels på de nya partialkoefficienterna, dels på provresultat, Thun et al (1999). Provresultaten ligger till grund för karakteristiska hållfasthetsvärden som bestämts enligt BBK94 (1995). Partialkoefficienter för hållfasthetsvärdena har bestämts med vad som i rapporten benämns tabellmetoden och sannolikhetsteoretisk metod. Tabellmetoden är hämtad från NKB (1978) och NKB (1987). Metoden bygger, som namnet indikerar, på tabeller varur fyra delfaktorer till partialkoefficienten bestäms. Faktorerna behandlar (1) osäkerheter i karakteristiska värden och i förhållandet mellan hållfasthet i konstruktion och i provkropp etc.; (2) osäkerheter i beräk-ningsmodeller; (3) brottkaraktär (segt eller sprött) och (4) omfattningen av kontroll vid uppförandet av broarna. Den sannolikhetsteoretiska metoden för att bestämma partialkoefficienter tar i sin tur också hänsyn till osäkerheter i karakteristiska värden, i förhållandet mellan hållfasthet i konstruktion och i provkropp och osäkerheter i beräkningsmodeller. Metoden tar även med partialkoefficienter för laster, vilka här har satts till normenliga värden förutom tåglastens partialkoefficient som satts till 1,1 enligt en utredning av Östlund (1997) i bilaga A och används här endast vid statistiska beräkningar och godtas därför inte av Banverket. Inverkan av tåglast och last av betong och ballast ingår. Även broarnas individuella längder beaktas då tåglasternas dynamiska förstoringsfaktorer bestäms. Resultaten av bestämning av partialkoefficienten med tabellmetoden och den sannolikhetsteoretiska metoden ger för de sju broarna mellan Luleå och Boden något skilda resultat. Tabellmetoden ger generellt högre värden än den sannolikhetsteoretiska metoden. Tabellmetodens värden varierar mellan 1,44 och 1,95 för draghållfastheten och mellan 1,44 och 1,48 för tryckhållfastheten. Värdena från den sannolikhetsteoretiska metoden ligger ca 15% lägre. Vi förordar i första hand, på grund av sin enkelhet, att tabellmetoden används vid bestämning av partialkoefficienten. Den sannolikhetsteoretiska metoden är något mer komplicerad och måste ofta kompletteras med kvalificerade bedömningar. De dimensionerande hållfasthetsvärdena som bestäms i rapporten är betydligt högre än de värden som föreskrivna hållfasthetsklasser ger. Den största inverkan på detta har de provade hållfasthetsvärdena, som ligger väsentligt över de föreskrivna värdena. Partialkoefficienternas inverkan är mindre. Rapporten avslutas med en diskussion om inverkan av hållfasthetens variation inom konstruktionsdelar, vilken kan ha stor inverkan på bärförmågan. Likaså har läget för uttagna provkroppar i förhållande till aktuellt beräkningssnitt betydelse. Båda dessa faktorer bör ingå vid en bestämning av hållfastheters partialkoefficienter i befintliga konstruktioner.

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  • 300.
    Nilsson, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Fastenings (anchor bolts) in concrete structures: influence of surface reinforcement2012In: Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community: proceedings of the International FIB Symposium 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, 11 - 14 June 2012 / [ed] Dirch H. Bager; Johan Silfwerbrand, Stockholm: Swedish Concrete Association , 2012, p. 419-422Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests have been carried out to study the influence of surface reinforcement on the load bearing capacity of cast-in headed bars. In 66 tests, rods with a diameter of Φ30 mm and a Φ45 mm nut at the end, were cast-in place centrically in concrete slabs. Width, length and thickness of the slabs varied from 1.2 m × 1.2 m × 0.3 m up to 2.2 m × 2.2 m × 0.6 m. The top reinforcement varied from 0% to about 1.2% (Φ 16 #100). A considerable increase in the load-bearing capacity was noted. The increase depends on the geometry and the amount and placement of the reinforcement. A numerical model to evaluate the influence is proposed.

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