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  • 251.
    Ekman, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The fool, the virtous citizen, and the pernicious philosopher: Carl Christopher Gjörwell's images of Rousseau in Den Swenska Mercurius 1755-17652017In: Kritik och förnuft: Jean-Jacques Rousseau och Sverige 1750-1850 / [ed] Jennie Nell & Alfred Sjödin, Lund: Ellerströms förlag, 2017, 1, p. 411-414Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 252.
    Ekman, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Tilda Maria Forselius God dag min läsare!: bland berättare, brevskrivare, boktryckare och andra bidragsgivare i tidig svenska veckopress 1730-17732017In: Sjuttonhundratal, ISSN 1652-4772, Vol. 14, p. 137-139Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 253.
    Elsweiler, David
    et al.
    I:IMSK University of Regensburg Germany, Germany.
    Ludwig, Bernd
    I:IMSK University of Regensburg Germany, Germany.
    Said, Alan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Schäfer, Hanna
    RG: Social Computing TU, Munich, Germany.
    Trattner, Christoph
    Know-Center, Graz, Austria.
    Engendering Health with Recommender Systems: Workshop abstract2016In: RecSys '16: Proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Recommender Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, , p. 2p. 409-410Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Elsweiler, David
    et al.
    University of Regensburg, Germany.
    Schäfer, Hanna
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Ludwig, Bernd
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Torkamaan, Helma
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
    Said, Alan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Trattner, Christoph
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Third international workshop on health recommender systems (HealthRecSys 2018)2018In: RecSys 2018 - 12th ACM Conference on Recommender Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, p. 517-518Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 3rd International Workshop on Health Recommender Systems was held in conjunction with the 2018 ACM Conference on Recommender Systems in Vancouver, Canada. Following the two prior workshops in 2016 [4] and 2017 [2], the focus of this workshop is to deepen the discussion on health promotion, health care as well as health related methods. This workshop also aims to strengthen the HealthRecSys community, to engage representatives of other health domains into cross-domain collaborations, and to exchange and share infrastructure. 

  • 255.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A model for conducting and assessing interdisciplinary undergraduate dissertations2015In: Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, ISSN 0260-2938, E-ISSN 1469-297X, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 725-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an effort to create a unified model for conducting and assessing undergraduate dissertations, shared by all disciplines involved in computer game development at a Swedish university. Computer game development includes technology-oriented disciplines as well as disciplines with aesthetical traditions. The challenge has been to create a unified process and assessment procedure while maintaining the individual disciplines? academic standards. The unification has been achieved through the development of the Interdisciplinary Dissertation Model ? a shared model where the assessment is focused on fundamental academic principles, and there is a clear separation between summative and formative assessment and well-defined interaction loops between examiners, supervisors and students. Examiners from all involved disciplines have regular meetings focusing on creating an interdisciplinary view on the summative assessment of undergraduate dissertations. The model developed has been successful in that it allows for a unified process for disciplines from fundamentally different academic traditions. The quality of the examined dissertations has been evaluated in a national evaluation. The result shows that all participating disciplines meet the requirements from their respective communities. This shows that the proposed model successfully unifies disciplines without sacrificing the quality in any discipline.

  • 256.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    GDC vs. DiGRA: Gaps in Game Production Research2019In: DiGRA '19 - Proceedings of the 2019 DiGRA International Conference: Game, Play and the Emerging Ludo-Mix / [ed] Akinori Nakamura, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have revealed a gap between game research and industry game production. This article presents an analysis of this research gap using the tracks and summits at the Game Developers Conference (GDC) as a point of reference. The result shows that there are several areas where there exists very little research. The DiGRA conference is no exception – since 2006, only a handful of papers present empirics from game production. Studies are in particular rare for content producing areas, such as audio, visual arts, and narrative. There are plenty of opportunities for researchers to extract experiences and knowledge from game professionals and to identify problems to be addressed. To do this, collaboration models need to be established that endure non-disclosure agreements and crunch cultures.

  • 257.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    ‘I have a different kind of brain’: a script-centric approach to interactive narratives in games2019In: Digital Creativity, ISSN 1462-6268, E-ISSN 1744-3806, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a computer game narrative, a user influences the ordering of events. To model this behaviour, game designers and writers need to use some kind of programming primitives. A computer game script will hence differ from, for instance, a movie screenplay in that traditional dialogue text is complemented with some textual or visual logic formalism. Not all groups involved in production of a game have a programming background and may therefore be unable to easily comprehend such formalisms. This paper presents a novel approach to game dialogue writing where traces from play-throughs are used as the core of the script. Alternative branches are identified and presented in relation to the main trace. The approach has been implemented in a tool that has been used successfully by three professional writers in mobile game production. The results indicate that this is a promising approach to enable non-programmers to work with interactive narratives.

  • 258.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ambring, Erik
    Immersive Learning, Gothia Science Park, Skövde, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Carl-Johan
    Immersive Learning, Gothia Science Park, Skövde, Sweden.
    Sjöstrand, Erik
    Immersive Learning, Gothia Science Park, Skövde, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Peter
    Tidaholms församling, Church of Sweden, Tidaholm, Sweden.
    Making a Game of the Old Testament Balancing Authenticity, Education and Entertainment2011In: IADIS International Journal on WWW/Internet, ISSN 1645-7641, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the process of creating the game Testament; an action role-playing game for PC which uses the Old Testament as its setting. The game is primarily designed for confirmation education in the Church of Sweden, with the purpose to create interest in the Old Testament. In this paper we describe our experiences with the process of creating a game where the work has been guided by three, in some cases, contradictory goals; the source authenticity, the educational value, and the gaming entertainment. A pilot study is also presented in which confirmands have been interviewed focusing on their experiences from playing the game, as part of their confirmation studies.

    Our conclusion is that clear requirements for the entertainment must be created as a counterweight to the practical aspects' requirements, e.g. education and authenticity. To create requirements for game expericene, it can be useful to identify a game genre and find a game that can serve as a template. One consequence of the fact that a specific goal for entertainment and a very clear requirement on content existed was that a number of fundamental contradictions could be identified (e.g. narrative, game mechanics, adaptation). When these inconsistencies were encountered, a suitable approach could be chosen in order to reach a compromise. If an existing game used as a reference wasn't available, it is likely that the entertainment would have suffered for the benefit of the educational aspects and biblical authenticity. The pilot evaluation shows that the confirmands appreciate Testament for its gaming qualities and that they express a positive and curious attitude towards the biblical content presented in the game.

  • 259.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden / Swedish Armed Forces Centre for Defence Medicine, Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sterner, Anders
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Swedish School of Library and Information Science, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    The impact of contextualization on immersion in healthcare simulation2016In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The aim of this paper is to explore how contextualization of a healthcare simulation scenarios impacts immersion, by using a novel objective instrument, the Immersion Score Rating Instrument. This instrument consists of 10 triggers that indicate reduced or enhanced immersion among participants in a simulation scenario. Triggers refer to events such as jumps in time or space (sign of reduced immersion) and natural interaction with the manikin (sign of enhanced immersion) and can be used to calculate an immersion score.

    Methods

    An experiment using a randomized controlled crossover design was conducted to compare immersion between two simulation training conditions for prehospital care: one basic and one contextualized. The Immersion Score Rating Instrument was used to compare the total immersion score for the whole scenario, the immersion score for individual mission phases, and to analyze differences in trigger occurrences. A paired t test was used to test for significance.

    Results

    The comparison shows that the overall immersion score for the simulation was higher in the contextualized condition. The average immersion score was 2.17 (sd = 1.67) in the contextualized condition and −0.77 (sd = 2.01) in the basic condition (p < .001). The immersion score was significantly higher in the contextualized condition in five out of six mission phases. Events that might be disruptive for the simulation participants’ immersion, such as interventions of the instructor and illogical jumps in time or space, are present to a higher degree in the basic scenario condition; while events that signal enhanced immersion, such as natural interaction with the manikin, are more frequently observed in the contextualized condition.

    ConclusionsThe results suggest that contextualization of simulation training with respect to increased equipment and environmental fidelity as well as functional task alignment might affect immersion positively and thus contribute to an improved training experience.

  • 260.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Game development from a software and creative product perspective: A quantitative literature review approach2018In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 27, p. 10-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the methodology and initial analysis of a systematic literature review that aims to explore how the craft and processes of game development have been studied in previous research. In particular, the review focuses on how previous research treats the inherent duality of video game development, since it both involves computer software development and creative production. Researchers are often in a position where they need to emphasize game development’s relation to one of these disciplines, and it is not unusual for game development to be treated as a direct offspring of one field with some mild influences from another. Employing a more all-encompassing review approach, that includes research conducted from the perspectives of both com- puter science and the arts and humanities equally, makes the presented study different from previous literature reviews. The results show that there is a tendency that the management of software development has a negative correlation with the management of creativity in the studied material. The heterogenity of the fields and the limited amount of studies that focus on the duality of game development suggest that there is a need for a deeper analysis of the individual components and to synthesize results from disparate fields. 

  • 261.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Erlandsson, Patrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Prototyping Tools for Game Writers2018In: The Computer Games Journal, E-ISSN 2052-773X, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 153-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A game is best evaluated by playing it and prototyping is therefore an important activity in game development. Game writers and narrative designers are responsible for the narrative structure of a game, which may have a varying degree of interactivity to it. The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of prototyping tools for game writers. There is a limited range of such tools available, of which Twine is one of the most established. Most of these tools have a text-based programming interface for modelling of game mechanics. This paper presents Deig—a proto- typing tool for creating point-and-click adventure games. In Deig, game mechanics is modelled graphically using nodes from a set of primitives. We present an interview study where game writing students reflect on their experience of using Deig and Twine as prototyping tools. The result shows that both tools have their merits and complement each other. Deig was found to be intuitive for modelling of game mechanics, which lead students to create interactive narratives. Twine was found to be more useful for experimental writing. The conclusion of this work is that there is a need for a diverse set of prototyping tools to support game writing.

  • 262.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Östblad, Per Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A comparison of immersion between players playing the same game with and without graphics2015In: Proceedings of the International Conferences on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction 2015, Game and Entertainment Technologies 2015 and Computer Graphics, Visualization, Computer Vision and Image Processing / [ed] Katherine Blashki & Yingcai Xiao, IADIS Press, 2015, p. 84-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project presented in this paper is that visually impaired and sighted players should be able to play the same game and share a gaming experience. The goal is that the game should be accessible to visually impaired players without any additional tools, such as text-to-speech, that may reduce the immersion. At the same time, sighted players should perceive the game as a regular game. This paper presents an evaluation of the game where the player immersion has been evaluated through a post test immersion questionnaire. The study was conducted with three independent groups: sighted players using graphics (n=10), blindfolded sighted players (n=10) and visually impaired players (n=9). Although progress in the game and the reported sense of control differed between groups, player immersion was very high in all groups. There were differences between the three groups only in one out of five immersion factors. The result shows that it has been possible to provide an immersive experience irrespective of whether the players are playing the game with graphics or using audio only. 

  • 263.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Östblad, Per Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Including Visually Impaired Players in a Graphical Adventure Game: A Study of Immersion2015In: IADIS International Journal on Computer Science and Information System, ISSN 1646-3692, E-ISSN 1646-3692, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 95-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project presented in this paper is that visually impaired and sighted players should be able to play the same game and share a gaming experience. The goal is that the game should be accessible to visually impaired players without any additional tools, such as text-to-speech, that may reduce the immersion. At the same time, sighted players should perceive the game as a regular game. This paper presents an evaluation of the game where the player immersion has been evaluated through a post test immersion questionnaire. The study was conducted with three independent groups: sighted players using graphics (n=10), blindfolded sighted players (n=10) and visually impaired players (n=9). Although progress in the game and the reported sense of control differed between groups, player immersion was very high in all groups. There were differences between the three groups only in one out of five immersion factors. The result shows that it has been possible to provide an immersive experience irrespective of whether the players are playing the game with graphics or using audio only.

  • 264.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Östblad, Per Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Using Text-to-Speech to Prototype Game Dialog2018In: Computers in Entertainment, ISSN 1544-3574, E-ISSN 1544-3981, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 2:1-2:16, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Voice acting is common in computer games in many genres. The recording and processing of voice acting is a time-consuming process that involves, for instance, voice actors, directors, audio engineers, and game writers. Changes to the script of a game after the voice acting has been recorded are expensive. At the same time, playtests of games without voice acting may give different results than testing where it is present. This creates a situation where improvements identified from play testing are either ignored or leads to extensive re-recording of voice acting. This article presents a design science research project where text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis is used as a substitute for recorded voice acting in the early stages of game production. We propose a set of design principles that have been evaluated in a sharp game production. Our results indicate several benefits of using TTS as a prototyping tool: It can be a source of inspiration for game writers, it gives good estimations on timing and pacing of the game, and it allows for early tests of how the dialog will be perceived by players. The quality and characteristics of the voices provided by the TTS system play an important role in this process. The rapid development in the speech technology field opens many future possibilities.

  • 265.
    Ericson, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hedenberg, Klas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Johansson, Ronnie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Information Fusion for Autonomous Robotic Weeding2009In: INFORMATIK 2009: Im Focus das Leben / [ed] Stefan Fischer, Erik Maehle, Rüdiger Reischuk, Köllen Druck + Verlag GmbH , 2009, p. 2461-2473Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information fusion has a potential applicability to a multitude of differentapplications. Still, the JDL model is mostly used to describe defense applications.This paper describes the information fusion process for a robot removing weed ina field. We analyze the robotic system by relating it to the JDL model functions.The civilian application we consider here has some properties which differ from thetypical defense applications: (1) indifferent environment and (2) a predictable andstructured process to achieve its objectives. As a consequence, situation estimatestend to deal with internal properties of the robot and its mission progress (throughmission state transition) rather than external entities and their relations. Nevertheless, the JDL model appears useful for describing the fusion activities of the weeding robot system. We provide an example of how state transitions may be detected and exploited using information fusion and report on some initial results. An additional finding is that process refinement for this type of application can be expressed in terms of a finite state machine.

  • 266.
    Ericsson, AnnMarie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Enabling Tool Support for Formal Analysis of ECA RUles2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rule-based systems implemented as event-condition-action (ECA) rules utilize a powerful and flexible paradigm when it comes to specifying systems that need to react to complex situation in their environment. Rules can be specified to react to combinations of events occurring at any time in any order. However, the behavior of a rule based system is notoriously hard to analyze due to the rules ability to interact with each other.

    Formal methods are not utilized in their full potential for enhancing software quality in practice. We argue that seamless support in a high-level paradigm specific tool is a viable way to provide industrial system designers with powerful verification techniques. This thesis targets the issue of formally verifying that a set of specified rules behaves as indented.

    The prototype tool REX (Rule and Event eXplorer) is developed as a proof of concept of the results of this thesis. Rules and events are specified in REX which is acting as a rule-based front-end to the existing timed automata CASE tool UPPAAL. The rules, events and requirements of application design are specified in REX. To support formal verification, REX automatically transforms the specified rules to timed automata, queries the requirement properties in the model-checker provided by UPPAAL and returns results to the user of REX in terms of rules and events.

    The results of this thesis consist of guidelines for modeling and verifying rules in a timed automata model-checker and experiences from using and building a tool implementing the proposed guidelines. Moreover, the result of an industrial case study is presented, validating the ability to model and verify a system of industrial complexity using the proposed approach.

  • 267.
    Ericsson, AnnMarie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    REX, the Rule and Event eXplorer2007In: the 2007 inaugural international conference on Distributed event-based systems, ACM Press, 2007, p. 71-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) is a technology with support for matching patterns in a cloud or streams of events in order to support detection of specific combinations of event occurrences. A clever specification of event patterns may, for example, detect fraud attempts in a banking system, fire an alarm in response to hazardous situations in a control system or report suspicious customer behavior.

    Several CEP engines have support for graphically modelling applications as well as perform tests and provide execution traces to verify the application behavior. We argue that it is beneficial to complement testing with formal verification in order to detect errors in early stages of development.

    In this paper, we present the research prototype tool REX. REX is built as a loosely coupled front end to the timed-automata CASE tool UPPAAL. CEP applications and application specific properties can be specified in REX. To support formal verification, REX seamlessly transforms the CEP application together with the specified properties to the timed automata CASE tool UPPAAL where the properties are verified by the model-checker provided by UPPAAL.

  • 268.
    Ericsson, AnnMarie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mellin, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Active Database Rulebase2009In: Encyclopedia of Database Systems / [ed] Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2009, p. 37-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 269.
    Ericsson, AnnMarie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mellin, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Composite Event2009In: Encyclopedia of Database Systems / [ed] Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2009, p. 418-419Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 270.
    Ericsson, AnnMarie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mellin, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Event in Active Databases2009In: Encyclopedia of Database Systems / [ed] Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2009, p. 1044-1045Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 271.
    Ericsson, AnnMarie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Pettersson, Paul
    School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Mälardalen University.
    Pettersson, Lena
    Volvo Information Technology, Skövde.
    Verification of an industrial rule-based manufacturing system using REX2008In: Proceedings of the 1st iCEP08 Workshop onComplex Event Processing for the Future Internet Vienna, Austria, September 28th, 2008 / [ed] Darko Anicic, Christian Brelage, Opher Etzion, Nenad Stojanovic, CEUR-WS.org , 2008, p. 1-10, article id 2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal methods are not used in their full potential for enhancing software quality in industry. We argue that seamless support in a high-level specification tool is a viable way to provide system designers with powerful and paradigm specific formal verification techniques. Event condition action (ECA) rules can be used to model and implement reactive behavior in, for example, the semantic web. Independently of target system, the behavior of rule-based systems are known to be hard to analyze. The REX tool is a rule-based front-end to the timed automata CASE-tool Uppaal. The model-checker in Uppaal is used by REX enabling seamless support for model-checking rule-based specifications in REX.

    This paper presents experiences from modeling and verifying a system of industrial complexity as interacting rules using EX. We conclude that repeatedly performing normal analysis when constructing a system with interacting rules is a viable way of coping with the complexity of the model. Additionally, we present an implemented algorithm for optimizing the model to reduce the effect of state-space explosion.

  • 272.
    Ericsson, AnnMarie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Department of Computer Science and Electronics Mälardalen University.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Seirio, Marco
    RuleCore, Sweden.
    Seamless Formal Verification of Complex Event Processing Applications2007In: the 2007 inaugural international conference on Distributed event-based systems, ACM Press, 2007, p. 50-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite proven successful in previous projects, the use of formal methods for enhancing quality of software is still not used in its full potential in industry. We argue that seamless support for formal verification in a high-level specification tool enhances the attractiveness of using a formal approach for increasing software quality.

    Commercial Complex Event Processing (CEP) engines often have support for modelling, debugging and testing CEP applications. However, the possibility of utilizing formal analysis is not considered.

    We argue that using a formal approach for verifying a CEP system can be performed without expertise in formal methods. In this paper, a prototype tool REX is presented with support for specifying both CEP systems and correctness properties of the same application in a high-level graphical language. The specified CEP applications are seamlessly transformed into a timed automata representation together with the high-level properties for automatic verification in the model-checker UPPAAL.

  • 273.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    UML Associations: Reducing the gap in test coverage between model and code2016In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development / [ed] Slimane Hammoudi, Luis Ferreira Pires, Bran Selic & Philippe Desfray, SciTePress, 2016, Vol. 1, p. 589-599Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the overall problem of estimating the quality of a test suite when testing is performed at aplatform-independent level, using executable UML models. The problem is that the test suite is often requiredto fulfill structural code coverage criteria. In the avionics domain it is usually required that the tests achieve100% coverage according to logic-based coverage criteria. Such criteria are less effective when applied toexecutable UML models than when they are applied to code because the action code found in such modelscontains conditions in navigation and loops that are not explicit and therefore not captured by logic-basedcoverage criteria. We present two new coverage criteria for executable UML models, and we use an industrialapplication from the avionics domain to show that these two criteria should be combined with a logic-basedcriterion when testing the executable UML model. As long as the coverage is less than 100% at the modellevel, there is no point in running the tests at the code level since all functionality of the model is not yet tested,and this is necessary to achieve 100% coverage at the code level.

  • 274.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Offutt, Jeff
    Software Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, United States.
    Model transformation impact on test artifacts: An empirical study2012In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Model-Driven Engineering, Verification and Validation, MoDeVVa 2012, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, p. 5-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development environments that support Model-Driven Development often focus on model-level functional testing, enabling verification of design models against their specifications. However, developers of safety-critical software systems are also required to show that tests cover the structure of the implementation. Unfortunately, the implementation structure can diverge from the model depending on choices such as the model compiler or target language. Therefore, structural coverage at the model level may not guarantee coverage of the implementation. We present results from an industrial experiment that demonstrates the model-compiler effect on test artifacts in xtUML models when these models are transformed into C++. Test artifacts, i.e., predicates and clauses, are used to satisfy the structural code coverage criterion, in this case MCDC, which is required by the US Federal Aviation Administration. The results of the experiment show not only that the implementation contains more test artifacts than the model, but also that the test artifacts can be deterministically enumerated during translation. The analysis identifies two major sources for these additional test artifacts. © 2012 ACM.

  • 275.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Offutt, Jeff
    Software Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, United States.
    Transformation rules for platform independent testing: An empirical study2013In: Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 202-211Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most Model-Driven Development projects focus on model-level functional testing. However, our recent study found an average of 67% additional logic-based test requirements from the code compared to the design model. The fact that full coverage at the design model level does not guarantee full coverage at the code level indicates that there are semantic behaviors in the model that model-based tests might miss, e.g., conditional behaviors that are not explicitly expressed as predicates and therefore not tested by logic-based coverage criteria. Avionics standards require that the structure of safety critical software is covered according to logic-based coverage criteria, including MCDC for the highest safety level. However, the standards also require that each test must be derived from the requirements. This combination makes designing tests hard, time-consuming and expensive to design. This paper defines a new model that uses transformation rules to help testers define tests at the platform independent model level. The transformation rules have been applied to six large avionic applications. The results show that the new model reduced the difference between model and code with respect to the number of additional test requirements from an average of67% to 0% in most cases and less than 1% for all applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 276.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Comparing Multi-Objective Approaches for Air Route Planning in Hostile Environments2015In: CD-ROM Proceedings of The 12th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence, 2015, p. 60-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Route planning for aircraft that should fly in hostile environmentscan be regarded as a multi-objective optimization problem, where the route should enable the aircraft to accomplish its mission tasks with a minimum risk exposure and minimum fuel consumption. This work compares different approaches for multi-objective route planning that have been suggested in the literature regarding their formulation of objectives as well as how they handle the decision maker’s preferences. It is concluded that most route planners minimize threat exposure and route length, but can also include altitude and flight dynamics constraints. Preferences regarding the objectives can be included in the route planning algorithms with weights or priorities. An alternative approach is that the route planner suggests a number of routes and thereafter lets the decision maker select the best one.

  • 277.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Tina.Erlandsson@saabgroup.com.
    Coordinated Target Assignment and Route Planning for Air Team Mission Planning2016In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference / [ed] Zdravko Markov and Ingrid Russell, Palo Alto, California: AAAI Press, 2016, p. 38-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning air missions for a team flying in hostile environmentsis a complex task, since multiple interrelated goalsneed to be considered, e.g., performing the mission tasks andavoiding enemy fire. The target assignment and route planningfor the team should therefore be performed in a coordinatedway. The mission planner suggested in this work combinesgenetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization inorder to solve these two problems in an interconnected manner.Simulations are used for testing and analyzing the approach.It is concluded that the mission planner is able tosuggest suitable plans in complex scenarios with three interrelatedobjectives: low risk exposure, high mission effectivenessand short route length.

  • 278.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Situation Analysis for Fighter Aircraft Combat Survivability2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fighter pilots operate in environments where an erroneous decision may have fatal consequences. A tactical decision support system (TDSS) could aid the pilots to analyze the situation and make correct decisions. The TDSS can, for instance, highlight important information and suggest suitable actions. The aim of this thesis is to provide a situation analysis model of combat survival that can be utilized in a TDSS.

    The first part of this thesis describes an analysis of what the model needs to describe and how it can be used. It is concluded that the model should evaluate the outcome of different actions with respect to combat survival. This evaluation can guide the pilot’s decision making, so that actions leading to dangerous situations are avoided. The analysis also highlights the need of handling uncertainties, both measurement precision uncertainty regarding the locations and capabilities of the threats (enemies) and inference uncertainties regarding the prediction of how the threats will act.

    Finally, arguments for focusing the rest of the work on a single fighter aircraft and threats located on the ground are presented. The second part of the thesis suggests a model, which describes the survivability, i.e., the probability that the aircraft can fly a route without being hit by fire from ground-based threats. Thus, the model represents the inference uncertainty, since it describes the probability of survival. The model’s characteristics are discussed, e.g., that the model is implementable and can be adapted to describe different kinds of ground-based threats. Uncertainty in terms of measurement precision influences the estimate of the survivability. Two different ways of representing this is discussed: calculating the worst case scenario or describing the input as random variables and the resulting survivability as a random variable with a probability distribution. Monte Carlo simulations are used for estimating the distribution for survivability in a few illustrative scenarios, where the input is represented as random variables. The simulations show that when the uncertainty in input is large, the survivability distribution may be both multimodal and mixed. Two uncertainty measures are investigated that condense the information in the distributions into a single value: standard deviation and entropy. The simulations show that both of these measures reflect the uncertainty. Furthermore, the simulations indicate that the uncertainty measures can be used for sensor management, since they point out which information that is the most valuable to gather in order to decrease the uncertainty in the survivability.

    Finally, directions for future work are suggested. A number of TDSS functions that can be developed based on the model are discussed e.g., warnings, countermeasure management, route-planning and sensor management. The design of these functions could require extending the threat model to incorporate airborne threats and the effects of countermeasures. Further investigations regarding the uncertainty in the model are also suggested.

  • 279.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Department of Decision Support and Autonomy, Saab AB, Sweden.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Information Fusion supporting Team Situation Awareness for Future Fighting Aircraft2010In: FUSION 2010: 13th international Conference on Information Fusion, 26-29 July 2010, EICC, Edinburgh, UK, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. Article number 5712064-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the military aviation domain, the decisionmaker, i.e. the pilot, often has to process huge amounts of information in order to make correct decisions. This is further aggravated by factors such as time-pressure, high workload and the presence of uncertain information. A support system that aids the pilot to achieve his/her goals has long been considered vital for performance progress in military aviation. Research programs within the domain have studied such support systems, though focus has not been on team collaboration. Based on identified challenges of assessing team situation awareness we suggest an approach to future military aviation support systems based on information fusion. In contrast to most previous work in this area, focus is on supporting team situation awareness, including team threat evaluation. To deal with these challenges, we propose the development of a situational adapting system, which presents information and recommendations based on the current situation.

  • 280.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Tina.Erlandsson@saabgroup.com.
    Marcus, Carina
    Saab AB.
    Boström, Per
    Saab AB.
    Distributed and Collaborative Sensing for Providing Situation and Option Awareness2016In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference / [ed] Zdravko Markov and Ingrid Russell, Palo Alto, California: AAAI Press, 2016, p. 704-704Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teams of manned and unmanned aircraft have the opportunityto gather a huge amount of information regardingthe situation at hand. Together they can cover larger areasas well as sensing the same objects from different directionsenabling triangulation using combination of activeand/or passive sensors as well as image recognition. Combiningthis data with intelligence, maps and weather informationhas the potential of providing both the teams andthe commanders with situation awareness. This informationshould aid the decision makers to identify possibleoptions and anticipate their consequences, which is alsoknown as option awareness. A number of challenges needto be resolved in order to actualize this scenario. Thecommander who is interested in the entire battlespaceneeds to decide how to distribute the teams in air. Eachteam needs to collaborate to perform its tasks, taking intoaccount the members’ capabilities and resources, such assensor and communication ranges. The teams should alsorequest support from each other when needed. At all levels,there is a trade-off between gathering valuable informationand avoiding risk exposure. In this initial work, we elaborateon the opportunities and challenges with distributedand collaborative sensing with the aim of providing situationand option awareness for both commanders and pilots.

  • 281.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Aeronautics, Saab AB, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    An Air-to-Ground Combat Survivability Model2015In: Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications, Methodology, Technology, ISSN 1557-380X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 273-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survivability model can be a useful component of a tactical support system able to aid fighter pilots to assess the risk of getting hit by enemy fire from ground-based threats. This work identifies three desirable properties of such a model: it should allow for evaluating actions; it should enable domain experts to incorporate their knowledge; and it should represent uncertainties both regarding the locations of the threats as well as their future actions. A survivability model issuggested, which calculates the probability that the aircraft can fly a route unharmed and allows for routes of different lengths to be compared. A domain expert can describe the threats by specifying the risk of getting hit at a position of the route without having to consider the earlier actions of the aircraft and the threats. Three different threat models are suggested and compared. The influence of uncertainties regarding the positions of the threats is studied by calculating the probability density function for the survivability. Different representations that take into account both the uncertainty regarding the present and future situation are discussed. The results indicate that the suggested survivability model could be a useful component of a future tactical support system, even though some further development is needed.

  • 282.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Sensor Fusion and Tactical Control, Aeronautics, Saab AB, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Automatic evaluation of air mission routes with respect to combat survival2014In: Information Fusion, ISSN 1566-2535, E-ISSN 1872-6305, Vol. 20, p. 88-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aircraft flying in hostile environments are exposed to ground-based air defense systems. It is not always possible to both accomplish the mission and fly outside the range of the enemy's weapon systems, especially if the positions of the enemy's systems are not perfectly known. Automatic evaluation of mission routes from a combat survival perspective could therefore aid the pilots to plan their missions. When updated information regarding the positions and capabilities of the enemy's systems is received during flight, the route could be re-evaluated and the mission could be re-planed or aborted if it is assessed to be too dangerous. The survivability model presented here describes the relation between the aircraft and the enemy's defense systems. It calculates the probabilities that the aircraft is in certain modes along the route, e.g., undetected, tracked or hit. Contrary to previous work, the model is able to capture that the enemy's systems can communicate and that the enemy must track the aircraft before firing a weapon. The survivability model is used to calculate an expected cost for the mission route. The expected cost has the attractive properties of summarizing the route into a single value and is able to take the pilot's risk attitude for the mission into account. The evaluation of the route is influenced by uncertainty regarding the locations of the enemy's sensors and weapons. Monte Carlo simulations are used to capture this uncertainty by calculating the mean and standard deviation for the expected cost. These two parameters give the pilots an assessment of the danger associated with the route as well as the reliability of this assessment. The paper concludes that evaluating routes with the survivability model and the expected cost could aid the pilots to plan and execute their missions. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 283.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Aeronautics, SAAB AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Calculating Uncertainties in Situation Analysis for Fighter Aircraft Combat Survivability2012In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2012), IEEE Computer Society, 2012, p. 196-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of situation analysis is to assess the relevant objects in the surroundings and interpret their relations and their impact in order for a decision maker to achieve situation awareness and be able to make suitable decisions. However, the information regarding the relevant objects is typically uncertain, which will induce uncertainty in the result from the situation analysis. If the kinematic states of the objects are estimated with a tracking filter, the estimates can be considered as random variables. Furthermore, the situation analysis algorithm is a function of these estimates entailing that the result from the situation analysis is random variable. This paper studies the fighter aircraft domain and a situation analysis algorithm that calculates the combat survivability, i.e., the probability that the aircraft can a fly a route inside hostile territory without getting hit by enemy fire. The survivability of different routes can be compared in order to decide where to fly. However, the uncertainties regarding the threats' positions imply that the survivability is uncertain and can be desribed as a random variable with a distribution. The unscented transform (UT) is here used for calculating the mean and standard deviation (std) of the survivability in a few scenarios with threats located on the ground. Simulations show that the position uncertainties affect both the mean and std of the survivability and that UT gives similar estimates as a Monte Carlo (MC) approach. UT therefore seems to be a promising approach for calculating the uncertainty in the survivability, which is more computational efficient than MC.

  • 284.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Comparing Air Mission Routes from a Combat Survival Perspective2013In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference / [ed] Chutima Boonthum-Denecke and G. Michael Youngblood, AAAI Press, 2013, p. 58-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An aircraft flying inside hostile territory is exposed to the risk of getting detected and tracked by the enemy’s sensors,  and  subsequently  hit  by  its  weapons.  This paper  describes  a  combat  survivability  model  that can be used for assessing the risks associated with a mission route. In contrast to previous work, the model describes both the risk of getting tracked and the risk of getting hit, as well as the dependency between these risks.  Three  different  ways  of  using  the  model  for comparing routes from a combat survival perspective are  suggested.  The  survivability  for  the  end  point, i.e., the probability of flying the entire route without getting hit, is a compact way of summarizing the risks. Visualizing  how  the  risks  vary  along  the  route  can be  used  for  identifying  critical  parts  of  the  mission. Finally, assigning weights to different risks allow the opportunity to take preferences regarding risk exposure into account.

  • 285.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Aeronautics, SAAB AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Threat Assessment for Missions in Hostile Territory - From the Aircraft Perspective2013In: Proceedings of the 16th international conference on information fusion (FUSION 2013), IEEE Press, 2013, p. 1856-1862Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 286. Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Uncertainty Measures for Sensor Management in a Survivability Application2011In: Informatik 2011 / [ed] Heiss, H-U., Pepper, P., Schlingloff, H. and Schneider, J., Bonner Köller Verlag , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When flying a mission, a fighter pilot is exposed to the risk of being hit by enemy fire. A tactical support system can aid the pilot by calculating the survivability of a given route, which is the probability that the fighter pilot can fly the route with-out being hit. The survivability estimate will be uncertain due to uncertainty in the information about threats in the area. In this paper, we investigate the uncertainty in the estimate of the survivability and compare two different measures of uncertainty; standard deviation and entropy. Furthermore, we discuss how these measures can be used for sensor management and discuss a few issues that need to be addressed in the design of a sensor management system in a fighter aircraft.

  • 287.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Aeronautics/Electronic Defence Systems, SAAB AB, Linköping/Göteborg, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nordlund, Per-Johan
    Aeronautics/Electronic Defence Systems, SAAB AB, Linköping/Göteborg, Sweden.
    Warston, Håkan
    Aeronautics/Electronic Defence Systems, SAAB AB, Linköping/Göteborg, Sweden.
    Modeling Fighter Aircraft Mission Survivability2011In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2011), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 999-1006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fighter aircraft flying a mission is often exposed to ground-based threats such as surface-to-air missile (SAM) sites. The fighter pilot needs to take actions to minimize the risk of being shot down, but at the same time be able to accomplish the mission. In this paper we propose a survivability model, which describes the probability that the aircraft will be able to fly a given route without being hit by incoming missiles. Input to this model can consist of sensor measurements collected during flight as well as intelligence data gathered before the mission. This input is by nature uncertain and we therefore investigate the influence of uncertainty in the input to the model. Finally we propose a number of decision support functions that can be developed based on the suggested model such as countermeasure management, mission planning and sensor management.

  • 288.
    Esteban, Pablo G.
    et al.
    Robotics and Multibody Mechanics Research Group, Agile & Human Centered Production and Robotic Systems Research Priority of Flanders Make, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Baxter, Paul
    Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems, Plymouth University, Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    Belpaeme, Tony
    Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems, Plymouth University, Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Cai, Haibin
    School of Computing, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
    Cao, Hoang-Long
    Robotics and Multibody Mechanics Research Group, Agile & Human Centered Production and Robotic Systems Research Priority of Flanders Make, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Coeckelbergh, Mark
    Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility, Faculty of Technology, De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Costescu, Cristina
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    David, Daniel
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    De Beir, Albert
    Robotics and Multibody Mechanics Research Group, Agile & Human Centered Production and Robotic Systems Research Priority of Flanders Make, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Fang, Yinfeng
    School of Computing, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
    Ju, Zhaojie
    School of Computing, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
    Kennedy, James
    Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems, Plymouth University, Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    Liu, Honghai
    School of Computing, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
    Mazel, Alexandre
    Softbank Robotics Europe, Paris, France.
    Pandey, Amit
    Softbank Robotics Europe, Paris, France.
    Richardson, Kathleen
    Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility, Faculty of Technology, De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Senft, Emmanuel
    Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems, Plymouth University, Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Van de Perre, Greet
    Robotics and Multibody Mechanics Research Group, Agile & Human Centered Production and Robotic Systems Research Priority of Flanders Make, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Vanderborght, Bram
    Robotics and Multibody Mechanics Research Group, Agile & Human Centered Production and Robotic Systems Research Priority of Flanders Make, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Vernon, David
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Yu, Hui
    School of Computing, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    How to Build a Supervised Autonomous System for Robot-Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder2017In: Paladyn - Journal of Behavioral Robotics, ISSN 2080-9778, E-ISSN 2081-4836, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 18-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robot-Assisted Therapy (RAT) has successfully been used to improve social skills in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) through remote control of the robot in so-called Wizard of Oz (WoZ) paradigms.However, there is a need to increase the autonomy of the robot both to lighten the burden on human therapists (who have to remain in control and, importantly, supervise the robot) and to provide a consistent therapeutic experience. This paper seeks to provide insight into increasing the autonomy level of social robots in therapy to move beyond WoZ. With the final aim of improved human-human social interaction for the children, this multidisciplinary research seeks to facilitate the use of social robots as tools in clinical situations by addressing the challenge of increasing robot autonomy.We introduce the clinical framework in which the developments are tested, alongside initial data obtained from patients in a first phase of the project using a WoZ set-up mimicking the targeted supervised-autonomy behaviour. We further describe the implemented system architecture capable of providing the robot with supervised autonomy.

  • 289.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Using a Uniform Declarative Model in 3D Visualisation of Medical Data2003In: Proceedings of Winter Meeting 2003, Nösunds Värdshus & Orangeri, January 15–17, 2003, Göteborg: Department of Computing Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden , 2003, p. 64-78Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 290.
    Falkman, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jontell, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Torgersson, Olof
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    SOMWeb: A Semantic Web-Based System for Supporting Collaboration of Distributed Medical Communities of Practice2008In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 10, no 3, p. e25-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Background: Information technology (IT) support for remote collaboration of geographically distributed communities of practice (CoP) in health care must deal with a number of sociotechnical aspects of communication within the community. In the mid-1990s, participants of the Swedish Oral Medicine Network (SOMNet) began discussing patient cases in telephone conferences. The cases were distributed prior to the conferences using PowerPoint and email. For the technical support of online CoP, Semantic Web technologies can potentially fulfill needs of knowledge reuse, data exchange, and reasoning based on ontologies. However, more research is needed on the use of Semantic Web technologies in practice.

     

    Objectives: The objectives of this research were to (1) study the communication of distributed health care professionals in oral medicine; (2) apply Semantic Web technologies to describe community data and oral medicine knowledge; (3) develop an online CoP, Swedish Oral Medicine Web (SOMWeb), centered on user-contributed case descriptions and meetings; and (4) evaluate SOMWeb and study how work practices change with IT support.

    Methods: Based on Java, and using the Web Ontology Language and Resource Description Framework for handling community data and oral medicine knowledge, SOMWeb was developed using a user-centered and iterative approach. For studying the work practices and evaluating the system, a mixed-method approach of interviews, observations, and a questionnaire was used.

    Results: By May 2008, there were 90 registered users of SOMWeb, 93 cases had been added, and 18 meetings had utilized the system. The introduction of SOMWeb has improved the structure of meetings and their discussions, and a tenfold increase in the number of participants has been observed. Users submit cases to seek advice on diagnosis or treatment, to show an unusual case, or to create discussion. Identified barriers to submitting cases are lack of time, concern about whether the case is interesting enough, and showing gaps in one’s own knowledge. Three levels of member participation are discernable: a core group that contributes most cases and most meeting feedback; an active group that participates often but only sometimes contribute cases and feedback; and a large peripheral group that seldom or never contribute cases or feedback.

    Conclusions: SOMWeb is beneficial for individual clinicians as well as for the SOMNet community. The system provides an opportunity for its members to share both high quality clinical practice knowledge and external evidence related to complex oral medicine cases. The foundation in Semantic Web technologies enables formalization and structuring of case data that can be used for further reasoning and research. Main success factors are the long history of collaboration between different disciplines, the user-centered development approach, the existence of a “champion” within the field, and nontechnical community aspects already being in place.

  • 291.
    Falkman, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Jontell, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Torgersson, Olof
    University of Gothenburg.
    Towards Pragmatic Patterns for Clinical Knowledge Management2007In: Building Common Ground on the Web: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Pragmatic Web (ICPW'07) / [ed] Simon Buckingham Shum, Mikael Lind, Hans Weigand, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2007, p. 65-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a research program for identifying, modeling, and making use of generic pragmatic patterns for clinical knowledge management that support evidence-based medicine (EBM). Part of this program is SOMWeb, a system based on Semantic Web technologies, which is used for knowledge sharing and dissemination within an oral medicine community. A study of the use of SOMWeb has been conducted as the first step in the elicitation of important contextual factors and communicative activities involved in knowledge sharing processes in oral medicine. One such activity, community discussion activation, is described using consultation patterns together with the collaboration patterns of [5]. The general need for context-aware health information systems and the prospective use of approaches within Pragmatic Web in the pursuit of EBM are also discussed.

     

  • 292.
    Falkman, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Torgersson, Olof
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Göteborg University.
    Jontell, Mats
    Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University.
    Collaboration Patterns in an Online Community of Practice in Oral Medicine2008In: eHealth Beyond the Horizon – Get IT There: Proceedings of MIE2008, The XXIst International Congress of the European Federation for Medical Informatics, Göteborg, Sweden, May 25–28, 2008, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2008, p. 175-180Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SOMWeb is an online collaboration system based on Semantic Web technologies, which is used for knowledge sharing and dissemination within an oral medicine community in Sweden. Based on a previous study of the use of SOMWeb, general patterns of interaction and communicative activities involved in community collaboration have been identified. The patterns for one such activity, distance consultation, are described and modeled using techniques from the Pragmatic Web. It is also shown how patterns could inform system design

  • 293.
    Falkman, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Gustafsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers, University of Technology/University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Torgersson, Olof
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers, University of Technology/University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Jontell, Mats
    Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The Origin, Representation, and Use of Collaboration Patterns in a Medical Community of Practice2008In: Emerging Technologies and Information Systems for the Knowledge Society: Proceedings of the First World Summit on the Knowledge Society, WSKS 2008, Athens, Greece, September 24–26, 2008 / [ed] Miltiadis D. Lytras, John M. Carroll, Ernesto Damiani, Robert D. Tennyson, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, p. 403-412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Founded on the Semantic Web technologies OWL and RDF, SOMWeb is an online community of practice that is used for knowledge sharing and dissemination within an oral medicine community in Sweden. It is shown how patterns for communication and collaboration within SOMWeb can be identified and represented in OWL, in terms of knowledge components, such as ontologies describing domain knowledge, user models, and organization models. It is described how patterns could be put into use and inform the design of future versions of SOMWeb.

  • 294.
    Falkman, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Torgersson, Olof
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jontell, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gustafsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    SOMWeb: Towards an Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing in Oral Medicine2005In: Connecting Medical Informatics and Bio-Informatics: Proceedings of MIE2005 – The XIXth International Congress of the European Federation for Medical Informatics, 28–31 August 2005, Geneva, Switzerland / [ed] Rolf Engelbrecht, Antoine Geissbuhler, Christian Lovis, George Mihalas, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2005, p. 527-532Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a net-based society, clinicians can come together for cooperative work and distance learning around a common medical material. This requires suitable techniques for cooperative knowledge management and user interfaces that are adapted to both the group as a whole and to individuals. To support distributed management and sharing of clinical knowledge, we propose the development of an intelligent web community for clinicians within oral medicine. This virtual meeting place will support the ongoing work on developing a digital knowledge base, providing a foundation for a more evidence-based oral medicine. The presented system is founded on the use and development of web services and standards for knowledge modelling and knowledge-based systems. The work is conducted within the frame of a well-established cooperation between oral medicine and computer science.

  • 295.
    Fast-Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Palmquist, Adam
    Insert Coin, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Romero, David
    Tecnologico de Monterrey, Mexico.
    Weichhart, Georg
    Profactor, Studgart, Austria.
    Conceptualizing Embodied Automation to Increase Transfer of Tacit knowledge in the Learning Factory2018In: "Theory, Research and Innovation in Applications": 9th International Conference on Intelligent Systems 2018 (IS’18) / [ed] Ricardo Jardim-Gonçalves, João Pedro Mendonça, Vladimir Jotsov, Maria Marques, João Martins, Robert Bierwolf, IEEE, 2018, p. 358-364, article id 8710482Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will discuss how cooperative agent-based systems, deployed with social skills and embodied automation features, can be used to interact with the operators in order to facilitate sharing of tacit knowledge and its later conversion into explicit knowledge. The proposal is to combine social software robots (softbots) with industrial collaborative robots (co-bots) to create a digital apprentice for experienced operators in human- robot collaboration workstations. This is to address the problem within industry that experienced operators have difficulties in explaining how they perform their tasks and later, how to turn this procedural knowledge (knowhow) into instructions to be shared among other operators. By using social softbots and co-bots, as cooperative agents with embodied automation features, we think we can facilitate the ‘externalization’ of procedural knowledge in human-robot interaction(s). This enabled by the capabilities of social cooperative agents with embodied automation features of continuously learning by looking over the shoulder of the operators, and documenting and collaborating with them in a non-intrusive way as they perform their daily tasks. 

  • 296.
    Feller, Joseph
    et al.
    University College Cork, Ireland.
    Gamalielsson, JonasUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.Hill, Benjamin MakoUniversity of Washington, USA.Robles, GregorioUniversidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain.
    Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium at the 15th International Symposium on Open Collaboration2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 297.
    Fischer, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Swedish Dissertations: Archived for the Future?2013In: Proceedings of International Conference on Making Sense of Converging Media (Academic Mindtrek ‘13), New York: ACM Press, 2013, p. 176-179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The publication and preservation of doctoral dissertations is fundamental to progression of research in a field. It allows future generations to 'stand on the shoulders of giants'.

    Archiving dissertations requires to store them in a way that they will be accessible even when technologies change. Classical paper publications fulfill those requirements but have disadvantages such as the need for physical storage or distribution. An increasingly popular alternative is to store dissertations as electronic documents such as PDF files.

    In this study, we analyze the extent to which electronically available doctoral dissertations published in Sweden fulfill the basic requirements of standard conformance and applicability for long-term archiving.

    We find that only a small proportion of dissertations' electronic publications follow the Swedish National Archive's requirements to conform to standards made for long-term archiving. Only at one Swedish university, a significant number of electronic publications does conform to PDF/A-1b. Interestingly, conformance to PDF/A-1b correlates to properly setting the title of a PDF document and choosing a paper format different from A4 (ISO 216). This suggests that the consequences of missed compliance for long-term archiving are not commonly known and authors have to make a conscious choice for PDF/A-1b compliance.

  • 298.
    Fooladvandi, Farzad
    et al.
    Saab Microwave Systems, Training systems and Information Fusion Skövde, Sweden.
    Brax, Christoffer
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab Microwave Systems.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Saab Microwave Systems, Training systems and Information Fusion Skövde, Sweden.
    Fredin, Mikael
    Saab Microwave Systems, Training systems and Information Fusion Skövde, Sweden.
    Signature-based activity detection based on Bayesian networks acquired from expert knowledge2009In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2009), ISIF , 2009, p. 436-443Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The maritime industry is experiencing one of its longest and fastest periods of growth. Hence, the global maritime surveillance capacity is in a great need of growth as well. The detection of vessel activity is an important objective of the civil security domain. Detecting vessel activity may become problematic if audit data is uncertain. This paper aims to investigate if Bayesian networks acquired from expert knowledge can detect activities with a signature-based detection approach. For this, a maritime pilot-boat scenario has been identified with a domain expert. Each of the scenario’s activities has been divided up into signatures where each signature relates to a specific Bayesian network information node. The signatures were implemented to find evidences for the Bayesian network information nodes. AIS-data with real world observations have been used for testing, which have shown that it is possible to detect the maritime pilot-boat scenario based on the taken approach.

     

  • 299.
    Francke, Helena
    et al.
    Swedish School of Library and Information Science, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Institutional repositories as infrastructures for long-term preservation2017In: Information research, ISSN 1368-1613, E-ISSN 1368-1613, Vol. 22, no 2, article id 757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. The study describes the conditions for long-term preservation of the content of the institutional repositories of Swedish higher education institutions based on an investigation of how deposited files are managed with regards to file format and how representatives of the repositories describe the functions of the repositories.

    Method. The findings are based on answers to a questionnaire completed by thirty-four institutional repository representatives (97% response rate).

    Analysis. Questionnaire answers were analysed through descriptive statistics and qualitative coding. The concept of information infrastructures was used to analytically discuss repository work.

    Results. Visibility and access to content were considered to be the most important functions of the repositories, but long-term preservation was also considered important for publications and student theses. Whereas a majority of repositories had some form of guidelines for which file formats were accepted, very few considered whether or not file formats constitute open standards. This can have consequences for the long-term sustainability and access of the content deposited in the repositories.

    Conclusion. The study contributes to the discussion about the sustainability of research publications and data in the repositories by pointing to the potential difficulties involved for long-term preservation and access when there is little focus on and awareness of open file formats.

  • 300. Frank, Roslyn M.
    et al.
    Dirven, RenéZiemke, TomUniversity of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.Bernández, Enrique
    Body, Language and Mind: Volume 22008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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