Change search
Refine search result
3456789 251 - 300 of 442
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 251.
    Juhlin, Bo
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oceanografiska observationer runt svenska kusten med kustbevakningens fartyg 19901991Report (Other academic)
  • 252.
    Juhlin, Bo
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oceanografiska observationer runt svenska kusten med kustbevakningens fartyg 19911992Report (Other academic)
  • 253.
    Juhlin, Bo
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oceanografiska observationer runt svenska kusten med kustbevakningens fartyg 19921994Report (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Juhlin, Bo
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oceanografiska observationer runt svenska kusten med kustbevakningens fartyg 19931994Report (Other academic)
  • 255.
    Juhlin, Bo
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oceanografiska observationer runt svenska kusten med kustbevakningens fartyg 19941995Report (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Juhlin, Bo
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oceanografiska observationer utmed svenska kusten med kustbevakningens fartyg 19851986Report (Other academic)
  • 257.
    Juhlin, Bo
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Oceanografiska observationer utmed svenska kusten med kustbevakningens fartyg 19861987Report (Other academic)
  • 258.
    Juhlin, Bo
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Tobiasson, Stefan
    SMHI.
    Recipientkontroll vid Breviksnäs fiskodling 19871988Report (Other academic)
  • 259.
    Jutman, Torbjörn
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Analys av avrinningens trender i Sverige1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportens syfte är att analysera de långsiktiga förändringarna i avrinningen under perioden 1928-1987 som underlag för studier av eventuella uppkomna eller förväntade klimatförändringar.

    Alla tillgängliga kompletta avrinningsserier från stationer inom landet har analyserats för kartläggning av regionala trendmönster i olika tidsperioder. Stationer med grova inhomogeniteter har exkluderats. Analyserna är baserade på serier av årsvärden.

    Trendmönstren är generellt sett svaga. En relativt generös nivå (0.10) har därför valts för signifikanstestet. Resultaten visar att ett fåtal extrema år i följd kan ge stora återverkningar på trendmönstret.

    De regionala trendmönstren uppvisar för den senaste 60-års perioden en negativ trend för större delen av fjällområdet och en positiv för västkusten och sydöstra Norrland.

    Förändringar i fördelningen av vädersystemen mellan lågtrycksbanoma är en trolig delförklaring till den omfördelning av avrinningen som skett under den senaste 60-års perioden. Det blir fortsättningsvis nödvändigt att i större utsträckning utröna kopplingen mellan omfördelningen och förändringar i den atmosfäriska storskaliga höjdströmningen som i sin tur är beroende av den globala temperaturfördelningen, där växthuseffekten kan inverka. Det är även av vikt att ytterligare undersöka inverkan av andra mänskliga ingrepp som kan ha gett signifikanta förändringar av avrinningsförhållandena.

  • 260.
    Jönsson, Anette
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Rahm, Lars
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Variations in the Baltic Sea wave fields2003In: Ocean Engineering, ISSN 0029-8018, E-ISSN 1873-5258, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 107-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface waves in the Baltic Sea are hindcast with the spectral wave model HYPAS during a 12-month period. The model results show a strong temporal and spatial variation in the wave field due to the physical dimensions of the different basins and the predominant wind field. The highest waves in the area are found in the outer part of Skagerrak, as well as in the central and southern parts of the Baltic Proper. To get significant waves above 6 m high, strong winds (15-20 m/s) must have been blowing for 6 to 24 h from a favourable direction over a deep area. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 261.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    The Chattonella-bloom in year 2001 and effects of high freshwater input from river Göta Älv to the Kattegat-Skagerrak area2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In autumn year 2000 and winter-spring 2001 the precipitation in the catchment area of Lake Vänern was higher than normal. During spring 2001, the flow in river Göta älv was around 1200 m3/s, nearly three times higher than the average indicating extreme conditions. The flow in the smaller rivers entering the Bohus coast is minor compared to river Göta Älv. To investigate possible effects on the marine environment in the area close to the river mouth an investigation with weekly sampling at four locations was initated by SMHI. Physical and chemical variables in the water was measured as well as phytoplankton composition and abundance. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Water Quality Association of the Bohus Coast co-funded the investigation together with SMHI. Effects on the water quality such as low surface salinities, high concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved phosphate and silicate compared to monthly averages 1990-99 was observed close to the river mouth but not off shore. Effects on the Secchi depth were not observed. On a few occassion high phytoplankton biomass, measured as chlorophyll a, was observed. At other locations along the Bohus coast effects where absent or small. Primary productivity measurements at the mouth of the Gullmar Fjord, showed no effects from the river outflow. During the investigation a bloom of the harmful alga Chattonella sp. occurred in the Kattetat and the Skagerrak.. The bloom of this small flagellate, which is described in the report, is probably not connected to the river input. A unique or unusual feature of the Chattonella-bloom is that it occured in cold water right after the diatom spring bloom in early March. In conclusion the effects of the extreme flooding were less than expected, the fresh water from the river were quickly mixed with the water in the sea and only small effects were seen. No connection between the flooding and the Chattonella bloom was detected.

  • 262.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Andersson, Lars
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Kaitala, S.
    Kronsell, Johan
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Mohlin, M.
    Seppala, J.
    Wranne, A. Willstrand
    A comparison of FerryBox data vs. monitoring data from research vessels for near surface waters of the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat2016In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 162, p. 98-111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 263.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Eilola, Kari
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Johansson, Johannes
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Linders, Johanna
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Mohlin, Malin
    SMHI.
    Willstrand Wranne, Anna
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Wåhlstrom, Irene
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Distribution of cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea2017In: Marine and Fresh-Water Harmful Algae. / [ed] Proenca, L. A. O. and Hallegraeff, G., International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO , 2017, p. 100-103Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Karlson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Oceanography.
    Skjevik, Ann-Turi
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Algblomningar - en utmaning för miljöövervakning och forskning2017In: Västerhavet, ISSN 1104-3458, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 265.
    Karlsson, Bengt
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Bergström, Sten
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Brandt, Maja
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lindström, Göran
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    PULS-modellen: Struktur och tillämpningar1987Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    1982 inleddes ett forskningsprojekt vid SMBI, som syftar till modellering av hydrokemiska förhållanden i ett vattendrag. Huvudvikten lades vid de naturliga flödesbetingade kortvariga variationerna i alkalinitet och pH. Utgångspunkten i arbetet var HBV-modellen (Bergström, 1976) samt dess vidareutveckling för grundvattensimulering (Bergström och Sandberg, 1983).Under de följande åren utvecklades den modell, som fått namnet PULS. Namnet kommer av att varje puls av regn eller snösmältning kan följas individuellt vid transporten genom marken. Filosofin bakom modellen och dess funktion finns beskriven av Bergström m fl (1985). Avsikten med denna rapport är att ge en fördjupad inblick i PULS-modellen och dess tillämpningar.Modellen har hittills tillämpats för simulering av pH och alkalinitet i 14 områden, varav 12 i Sverige och 2 i Finland.Denna rapport omfattar dels en beskrivning av modellen, dels exempel på tillämpningar i ovan nämnda områden. Eftersom tillämpningarna sträcker sig över flera år, har för de äldsta fallen ej exakt samma modellstruktur som den här beskrivna använts. Avslutningsvis visas exempel på hur man ur simulering av långa serier preliminärt kan bedöma eventuella försurningstrender.

  • 266. Kaurola, J.
    et al.
    Lindfors, A.
    Lakkala, K.
    Hansen, G.
    Josefsson, Weine
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Vuilleumier, L.
    Feister, U.
    Slaper, H.
    On the usability of the ERA-40 reanalysis in the estimation of past surface UV radiation over Europe2010In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 115, article id D24107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Erythemal daily UV doses have been calculated using input data from the ERA-40 reanalysis for years 1958-2002. The quality of input parameters for UV calculations has been validated with available ground based total ozone data and estimates of Cloud Modification Factor (CMF), and the results have been compared with existing UV data. Owing to limited availability of validation data especially during 1960s and 1970s the analysis focused on sites located in central and northern Europe. The current work is the first step in deriving reliable long-term UV time series from the ERA-40 reanalysis. Total ozone from the ERA-40 reanalysis is affected by significant biases, especially before satellite ozone measurements were available for assimilation. Estimations of the effect of clouds on surface UV were made using global radiation (300-3000 nm) budgets at the surface because available ERA-40 cloud data do not allow good estimates of surface daily UV doses. There are some problems with ERA-40 solar radiation budgets which cause systematic biases in calculated daily UV doses. Comparison of calculated daily erythemal UV doses against ground-based UV data indicate that ERA-40 UV doses are typically overestimated by 6-18% in central and northern Europe and underestimated by 9-17% at Davos, Switzerland. Root-mean-square errors of the calculated daily UV doses are usually in the range of 30-40%. Trends of UV doses were calculated for the concurrent period of the TOMS satellite UV data (1979-2002). The trends of zonally averaged ERA-40 and TOMS UV agree well and are mostly of the same sign and magnitude.

  • 267. Kazadzis, Stelios
    et al.
    Kouremeti, Natalia
    Diemoz, Henri
    Grobner, Julian
    Forgan, Bruce W.
    Campanelli, Monica
    Estelles, Victor
    Lantz, Kathleen
    Michalsky, Joseph
    Carlund, Thomas
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Cuevas, Emilio
    Toledano, Carlos
    Becker, Ralf
    Nyeki, Stephan
    Kosmopoulos, Panagiotis G.
    Tatsiankou, Viktar
    Vuilleumier, Laurent
    Denn, Frederick M.
    Ohkawara, Nozomu
    Ijima, Osamu
    Goloub, Philippe
    Raptis, Panagiotis I.
    Milner, Michael
    Behrens, Klaus
    Barreto, Africa
    Martucci, Giovanni
    Hall, Emiel
    Wendell, James
    Fabbri, Bryan E.
    Wehrli, Christoph
    Results from the Fourth WMO Filter Radiometer Comparison for aerosol optical depth measurements2018In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 3185-3201Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 268.
    Kindell, Sven
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Wern, Lennart
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Luftvårdsstudie avseende industrikombinatet i Nynäshamn (koncentrations- och luktberäkningar)1985Report (Other academic)
  • 269.
    Kjellström, Erik
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Thejll, Peter
    Rummukainen, Markku
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Christensen, Jens H.
    Boberg, Fredrik
    Christensen, Ole B.
    Maule, Cathrine Fox
    Emerging regional climate change signals for Europe under varying large-scale circulation conditions2013In: Climate Research (CR), ISSN 0936-577X, E-ISSN 1616-1572, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 103-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large ensemble of regional climate model projections was investigated regarding if and when they show an emergence of significant climate change signals in seasonal temperature and precipitation within Europe. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), as simulated in the projections, was investigated. In most parts of Europe, the projections indicate robust emergence of temperature change in the first 2 decades of the 21st century, typically earlier for summer than for winter. For precipitation changes, signals generally emerge much later than for temperature. For Europe as a whole, the precipitation signals tend to emerge some 40 to 60 yr later than the temperature signals. In some sub-regions, robust signals for precipitation are not found within the studied period, i.e. until 2100. Some sub-regions, notably the Mediterranean area and Scandinavia, show different behaviour in some aspects compared to the ensemble-based results as a whole. NAO has some influence on the temperature change signals, which emerge earlier in winter for some models and regions if NAO is accounted for. For summer temperatures, the influence of NAO is less evident. Similarly, for precipitation, accounting for NAO leads to an earlier emergence in some regions and models. Here, we find an impact for both summer and winter.

  • 270.
    Klein, Thomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Persson, Christer
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Parameterization of dry deposition in MATCH2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report describes the calculation of dry deposition in the Multi scale Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry modeling system (MATCH) applied in environmental monitoring studies. For this type of applications dry deposition is parameterized by means of a resistance concept. Modeled dry deposition velocities for different surface types, a variety of meteorological conditions and several chemical species are presented. The deposition’s dependence on the individual partial resistances and their variation with the meteorological conditions are illustrated by means of time-series. The details of the resistance concept are discussed in a pedagogical way in order to both facilitate understanding and to point out different deposition paths.Sensitivity studies have been performed for the laminar sub-layer resistance of particles for which two different settings of resistance values are compared. The importance of SO2 and NO2 uptake by the stomata of plants and the deposition of SO2 to the external parts of plants have also been investigated by means of sensitivity studies. In addition, horizontal maps and monthly mean values of dry deposition velocities based on meteorological data for 1998 are presented.

  • 271.
    Klein, Thomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Karlsson, Per-Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Stefan
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Engardt, Magnuz
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Assessing and improving the Swedish forecast and information capabilities for ground-level ozone2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess and improve the Swedish forecast and information capabilities for ground-level ozone concentrations in ambient air. The assessment is based on a set of archived results from the Swedish operational chemical transport model MATCH and Swedish in-situ measurements of ozone covering the period of May 2008 to November 2010. The evaluation comprises two major activities: The first activity is an analysis of the overall model performance using standard statistical metrics suitable for longer time series. The second evaluation activity comprises in-detail analyses of the specific ozone episodes occurring in Sweden during the study period. In addition, trajectory modelling is used to investigate the meteorological conditions and transport patterns associated with those episodes. The evaluation of the model results shows that the model scores well according to standard evaluation criteria and confirms results of other studies in that the model easily meets the data quality requirements of the EU air quality directive 2008/50/EC. However, from an operational forecasting and information perspective it would be desirable to further improve the prediction of, in particular, high-level ozone episodes. Two different activities in our study are dedicated to the task of improving the forecast and information capabilities: The first activity tests the usefulness of statistical postprocessing of model results using regression techniques. The tests show promising results although the model performance during high-level ozone episodes is not improved. A limitation of our study is the relatively small archive of model data available for calibration andevaluation. Adaptive post-processing methods have not been tested in our study. The second activity aimed to improve ozone forecasting is a high-resolution model run for the year 2010. The higher reso-lution run gives slightly better results than the coarser operational model, which can be attributed to a better resolution of the physiography and thus certain physical and chemical processes. In particular, high-resolution simulations provide a more realisticrepresentation of the spatial ozone variation which is desirable for environmental assessments with a longer time horizon. However, from the perspective of operational ozone forecasting the increase in resolution cannot correct systematic problems such as an under-prediction of ozone if the source of ozone is non-local and the long-range transboundary transport is not correctly described by the European-scale model used as boundaries. Other potential sources of error are incomplete or erroneous emissions, representativeness issues, oversimplifications in the model’s physical or chemical processes, lacking data assimilation and initialization and oversimplifiedboundary conditions. While several of these issues are already addressed in current initiatives such as the EU FP7-project MACC, it is clear that further work will be needed during the coming years. Further work should also be invested in a better exploitation of the international developments within MACC and in the establishment of operational high-resolution air quality forecasts for Sweden, using boundary values from European-scale forecasts provided by theMACC-ensemble of regional air quality models.

  • 272.
    Klein, Thomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Kukkonen, Jaakko
    Dahl, Aslog
    Bossioli, Elissavet
    Baklanov, Alexander
    Vik, Aasmund Fahre
    Agnew, Paul
    Karatzas, Kostas D.
    Sofiev, Mikhail
    Interactions of Physical, Chemical, and Biological Weather Calling for an Integrated Approach to Assessment, Forecasting, and Communication of Air Quality2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 851-864Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews interactions and health impacts of physical, chemical, and biological weather. Interactions and synergistic effects between the three types of weather call for integrated assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality. Today's air quality legislation falls short of addressing air quality degradation by biological weather, despite increasing evidence for the feasibility of both mitigation and adaptation policy options. In comparison with the existing capabilities for physical and chemical weather, the monitoring of biological weather is lacking stable operational agreements and resources. Furthermore, integrated effects of physical, chemical, and biological weather suggest a critical review of air quality management practices. Additional research is required to improve the coupled modeling of physical, chemical, and biological weather as well as the assessment and communication of integrated air quality. Findings from several recent COST Actions underline the importance of an increased dialog between scientists from the fields of meteorology, air quality, aerobiology, health, and policy makers.

  • 273.
    Klein, Thomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Langner, Joakim
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Frankenberg, Britt
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Svensson, J
    SMHI.
    Broman, Barry
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    ECDS - a Swedish Research Infrastructure for the Open Sharing of Environment and Climate Data2013In: Data Science Journal, ISSN 1683-1470, E-ISSN 1683-1470, no 12, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 274. Koistinen, J
    et al.
    Michelson, Daniel
    SMHI, Core Services.
    BALTEX weather radar-based precipitation products and their accuracies2002In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 253-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper briefly reviews the measurement of precipitation by radar, discusses factors affecting the accuracy of such measurements, and outlines how such factors may be dealt with to improve the quality of precipitation measurements by radar for the purposes of the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX). Precipitation products from the BALTEX Radar Network (BALTRAD) are then briefly presented, along with descriptions of how their qualities are improved, as are some new results on their accuracies. Intelligent compositing of data from a heterogeneous network, combined with innovative quality control, is shown to give high quality high resolution information for monitoring relative precipitation variability simultaneously over land and sea in both time and space. Gauge adjustment of radar-derived accumulated precipitation is shown to efficiently minimize the radar data's bias with increasing distance, thus yielding quantitatively useful datasets for application by the BALTEX community.

  • 275. Konigson, Sara J.
    et al.
    Fredriksson, Ronny E.
    Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar
    Strömberg, Patrik
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Bergstrom, Ulf M.
    Cod pots in a Baltic fishery: are they efficient and what affects their efficiency?2015In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 72, no 5, p. 1545-1554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing grey seal population in the Baltic Sea, the inshore cod fishery has suffered dramatic increases in both catch losses and damage to fishing gear. To mitigate this situation, cod pots were evaluated as an alternative to traditional gillnets and longlines. During a 3-year study, cod pots were used by commercial fishers in two areas off the coast of Sweden. Using the data from this study, we evaluated catches from pots in relation to other gear types and investigated the effects of environmental and fisheries-related variables such as depth and soak time. The comparison of pots with other gear types showed that, during the first half of the year, the pot fishery generated lower daily catches than the gillnet and longline fisheries at comparable fishing efforts. During the second half of the year, catches in the pot fishery exceeded or were equal to those in the traditional fisheries. Using generalized additive models to evaluate the impact of environmental and fisheries-related variables on pot catches, we showed that, in both areas, the catch per unit effort (cpue) of legal-sized cod was affected by the water depth, the time of year (months), and the soak time. In one of the areas, cpue was also affected by the direction of the water current in relation to the orientation of the string of pots. The cpue of undersized cod was affected by topographic variables such as the slope and the complexity of the bottom, in addition to the water depth, month of the year, and soak time. The results from the study indicate that pots can be a useful alternative gear in the Baltic cod fishery, at least during part of the year. By using our information on how catches are affected by environmental and fisheries-related variables, the pot fishery may be further optimized to increase catches.

  • 276. Korpela, Aarno
    et al.
    Dybbroe, Adam
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Thoss, Anke
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Nowcasting SAF - Retrieving Cloud Top Temperature and Height in Semi-transparent and Fractional Cloudiness using AVHRR2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud top temperature and height estimates obtained from AVHRR infrared imagery require a correction for semi-transparency when cirrus layers are present. In this work we investigated the possibility of using the 11 μm and12 μm window channel brightness temperatures for the correction. We developed software which implements a method based on the work of Inoue (1985) and Derrien et al. (1988). In this method the cloud top temperature is derived for each small image segment by fitting a curve to . a twodimensional histogram of the segment, formed by using the brightness temperatureT ( 11 μm) and the brightness temperature diff erence T ( 11 μm) - T(l2μm). By extrapolating the model fit of the distribution to the opaque limit, a temperature estimate can be assigned to the semi-transparent cloud pixels, thereby replacing the measured brightness temperature which observes the combined background radiation and cloud emission. In this work, in addition to implementing data processing with the histogram based correction, we also developed a graphical user interface for testing the method, in order to provide a tool for the overall evaluation of the product.

  • 277.
    Krieg, Roland
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Fredriksson, Ulf
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Vindarna över Sverige1986Report (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Krieg, Roland
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Wern, Lennart
    SMHI, Core Services.
    En klimatstudie för Arlanda stad1986Report (Other academic)
  • 279.
    Krysell, Mikael
    SMHI, Core Services.
    How accreditation changed us1997In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 35, no 1-6, p. 167-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, laboratories involved in national or international marine monitoring programmes are strongly encouraged to seek accreditation or another formal proof of competence, The question often asked is whether a laboratory actually produces more reliable data when a quality system has been set up. A method of monitoring the differences in laboratory performance from year to year is presented in this paper. In the case of the SMHI Oceanographical Laboratory there has been substantial improvement in laboratory performance since formal quality assurance measures were introduced. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 280.
    Krysell, Mikael
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    FOGELQVIST, E
    TANHUA, T
    APPARENT REMOVAL OF THE TRANSIENT TRACER CARBON-TETRACHLORIDE FROM ANOXIC SEAWATER1994In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 21, no 23, p. 2511-2514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and carbon tetrachloride, CCl4) widely used as tracers for dating water masses, were measured in the Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea. At the time of the survey, the bottom water of the basin had remained stagnant for 15 years and anoxic for about the same period of time, and the concentrations of both CFC-11 and CCl4 decrease dramatically with depth below the mixed layer. Furthermore, the ratio of CFC-11 to CCl4 increases with depth under the mixed layer along with a steep decrease in oxygen concentration. This is contrary to what would be expected from the atmospheric histories. The most plausible explanation for this is that there is a mechanism whereby the CCl4 is removed from the water mass under anoxic and suboxic conditions.

  • 281.
    Kuentz, Anna
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Wagener, Thorsten
    Understanding hydrologic variability across Europe through catchment classification2017In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 2863-2879Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 282.
    Kuentz, Anna
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Mathevet, T.
    Gailhard, J.
    Hingray, B.
    Building long-term and high spatio-temporal resolution precipitation and air temperature reanalyses by mixing local observations and global atmospheric reanalyses: the ANATEM model2015In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 2717-2736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts to improve the understanding of past climatic or hydrologic variability have received a great deal of attention in various fields of geosciences such as glaciology, dendrochronology, sedimentology and hydrology. Based on different proxies, each research community produces different kinds of climatic or hydrologic reanalyses at different spatio-temporal scales and resolutions. When considering climate or hydrology, many studies have been devoted to characterising variability, trends or breaks using observed time series representing different regions or climates of the world. However, in hydrology, these studies have usually been limited to short temporal scales (mainly a few decades and more rarely a century) because they require observed time series (which suffer from a limited spatio-temporal density). This paper introduces ANATEM, a method that combines local observations and large-scale climatic information (such as the 20CR Reanalysis) to build long-term probabilistic air temperature and precipitation time series with a high spatio-temporal resolution (1 day and a few km(2)). ANATEM was tested on the reconstruction of air temperature and precipitation time series of 22 watersheds situated in the Durance River basin, in the French Alps. Based on a multi-criteria and multi-scale diagnosis, the results show that ANATEM improves the performance of classical statistical models - especially concerning spatial homogeneity - while providing an original representation of uncertainties which are conditioned by atmospheric circulation patterns. The ANATEM model has been also evaluated for the regional scale against independent long-term time series and was able to capture regional low-frequency variability over more than a century (1883-2010).

  • 283. Kukkonen, J.
    et al.
    Olsson, T.
    Schultz, D. M.
    Baklanov, A.
    Klein, Thomas
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Miranda, A. I.
    Monteiro, A.
    Hirtl, M.
    Tarvainen, V.
    Boy, M.
    Peuch, V. -H
    Poupkou, A.
    Kioutsioukis, I.
    Finardi, S.
    Sofiev, M.
    Sokhi, R.
    Lehtinen, K. E. J.
    Karatzas, K.
    San Jose, R.
    Astitha, M.
    Kallos, G.
    Schaap, M.
    Reimer, E.
    Jakobs, H.
    Eben, K.
    A review of operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe2012In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical models that combine weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry are here referred to as chemical weather forecasting models. Eighteen operational chemical weather forecasting models on regional and continental scales in Europe are described and compared in this article. Topics discussed in this article include how weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry models are integrated into chemical weather forecasting systems, how physical processes are incorporated into the models through parameterization schemes, how the model architecture affects the predicted variables, and how air chemistry and aerosol processes are formulated. In addition, we discuss sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the models, user operational requirements, such as model availability and documentation, and output availability and dissemination. In this manner, this article allows for the evaluation of the relative strengths and weaknesses of the various modelling systems and modelling approaches. Finally, this article highlights the most prominent gaps of knowledge for chemical weather forecasting models and suggests potential priorities for future research directions, for the following selected focus areas: emission inventories, the integration of numerical weather prediction and atmospheric chemical transport models, boundary conditions and nesting of models, data assimilation of the various chemical species, improved understanding and parameterization of physical processes, better evaluation of models against data and the construction of model ensembles.

  • 284.
    Lake, Irene
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Borenäs, Karin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lundberg, P
    Potential-vorticity characteristics of the Faroe Bank Channel deep-water overflow2005In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 921-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a 71-day deployment of three ADCP current meters on a section across the sill region of the Faroe Bank Channel are reported. The characteristic density structure of the channel, with warm, highly saline North Atlantic Ocean surface water overlying colder, less-saline deep water originating from the Nordic seas, lends itself well to a two-layer description of flow processes in this region. The dataset has been analyzed to describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of the deep-water potential vorticity. The most striking feature is a persistent cross-channel variation of this quantity, with higher values on the Faroe Bank side. In the 11/2-layer hydraulic calculations that were undertaken the potential vorticity was approximated as a linear distribution. The ADCP observations indicated that the deep-water flow was hydraulically controlled, and, using the direct observed transport, the analysis yielded diagnostic results for the upstream reservoir interface level that were in good agreement with observations. It was also concluded that the deviation of the potential vorticity from a constant value had no significant effects on the deep-water transport.

  • 285.
    Lake, Irene
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Seasonal barotropic modulation of the deep-water overflow through the Faroe Bank Channel2006In: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 2328-2339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a joint Nordic project, an upward-looking ADCP has been maintained at the sill of the Faroe Bank Channel from 1995 onward. Records from a period in 1998 with three current meters deployed across the channel were used to demonstrate that the Faroe Bank Channel deep-water transport from the Norwegian Sea into the North Atlantic Ocean proper can be reasonably well estimated from one centrally located ADCP. The long-term average of this transport over the period 1995-2001 was found to be 2.1 Sv ( Sv 10(6) m(-3) s(-1)). The transport record demonstrates a pronounced seasonality. Satellite altimetry shows that this is caused by the northbound Atlantic surface water inflow giving rise to a barotropic modulation of the deep-water flow through the Faroe-Shetland Channel and the southern reaches of the Norwegian Sea.

  • 286.
    Landelius, Tomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Andersson, Sandra
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Abrahamsson, Roger
    MODELLING AND FORECASTING PV PRODUCTION IN THE ABSENCE OF BEHIND-THE-METER MEASUREMENTS2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Landelius, Tomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Andersson, Sandra
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Abrahamsson, Roger
    System imbalance from solar energy trading2018In: 8th Solar International Workshop on Integration of Solar into Power Systems, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 288.
    Landelius, Tomas
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Andersson, Sandra
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Carlund, Thomas
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Josefsson, Weine
    SMHI, Core Services. SMHI, Research Department, Atmospheric remote sensing.
    Karteringen av solstrålningen i Sverige2018In: Polarfront, no 168, p. 31-40Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 289.
    Langner, Joakim
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Klein, Thomas
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Skagerström, M.
    SMHI.
    Nuläge och scenarier för inverkan på marknära ozon av emissioner från Västra Götalands län - Beräkningar för 19992004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SMHI har på uppdrag av Länsstyrelsen i Västra Götalands län studerat hur olikascenarier för reducerade NOx och VOC-utsläpp från Västra Götaland påverkarfördelningen av marknära ozon över södra Sverige. Studien har utnyttjat den atmosfärkemiskaspridningsmodellen MATCH (Multi-scale Atmospheric Transportand Chemistry model). Modellen har först applicerats över hela Europa förår 1999 med aktuella emissioner. Resultaten från dessa beräkningar har sedankopplats till en högupplöst modell, MATCH-O-län, som täcker södra Sverige.Beräkningar med MATCH har genomförts för ett nuläge (basfall) med utsläppsdataför år 2000/2001 och tre scenarier där utsläppen har reducerats. Scenariermed reduktion av NOx och VOC-utsläppen från Västra Götalands län med 45 respektive44% var för sig respektive sammantaget har studerats. För basfallet harjämförelser gjorts med mätningar av marknära ozon i området för år 1999. Medutgångspunkt från dessa jämförelser bedömer vi att MATCH ger en tillräckligtgod beskrivning av de verkliga ozonhalterna för att kunna utnyttjas för studier avscenarier.Beräkningarna visar att utsläppen från Västra Götaland har en signifikant påverkanpå halterna av marknära ozon i södra Sverige. Reducerade utsläpp leder generellttill reducerade halter av marknära ozon i södra Sverige och lägre värdenför olika mått på kritiska nivåer av halten av marknära ozon. Effekterna av reduceradeutsläpp berör inte bara närområdet utan täcker ett område som är fleragånger större än det område där utsläppen har ändrats.I området närmast Göteborg leder emellertid reducerade NOx-utsläpp till ökadehalter av ozon. Denna effekt är mindre vid en samtidig reduktion av NOx ochVOC.Bortsett från området med stora NOx-utsläpp i västra delen av Västra Götalandså är reduktioner av NOx effektivare när det gäller att reducera halterna av marknäraozon än reduktion av VOC-utsläpp. Reduktion av NOx-utsläpp är mer änsju gånger effektivare än reduktion av VOC-utsläpp när det gäller att reducerabildningen av ozon inom modellområdet för MATCH-O-län under periodenapril-september 1999.Reducerade utsläpp av NOx och VOC från Västra Götaland beräknas, i större delenav länet, leda till en viss minskning av antalet dagar med 8-timmars medelhaltersom överskrider 120 μg/m3 (60 ppb(v)) under sommarperioden aprilseptember.Reducerad NOx-utsläpp förväntas dock leda till ett ökat antal dagarmed överskridanden i Göteborgsområdet.Reducerade utsläpp från Västra Götaland leder till en reduktion av AOT401 med0.1 ppm(v) h över en stor del av södra Sverige under perioden maj-juli. Den2maximala reduktionen överstiger 0.5 ppm(v) i enstaka beräkningsrutor. För periodenapril-september reduceras AOT40 med mer än 0.1 ppm(v) h i en större delav södra Sverige och en reduktion med mer än 0.5 ppm(v) h beräknas för en stordel av Västra Götaland.

  • 290. Liblik, Taavi
    et al.
    Naumann, Michael
    Alenius, Pekka
    Hansson, Martin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Lips, Urmas
    Nausch, Gunther
    Tuomi, Laura
    Wesslander, Karin
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Laanemets, Jaan
    Viktorsson, Lena
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Propagation of Impact of the Recent Major Baltic Inflows From the Eastern Gotland Basin to the Gulf of Finland2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id UNSP 222Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 291.
    Liljas, Erik
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Analys av moln och nederbörd genom automatisk klassning av AVHRR-data1981Report (Other academic)
  • 292.
    Liljas, Erik
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Förbättrad väderinformation i jordbruket - behov och möjligheter (PROFARM)1988Report (Other academic)
  • 293.
    Liljas, Erik
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Torv-väder: Behovsanalys med avseende på väderprognoser och produktion av bränsletorv1989Report (Other academic)
  • 294.
    Liljas, Erik
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    MURPHY, AH
    ANGSTROM,ANDERS AND HIS EARLY PAPERS ON PROBABILITY FORECASTING AND THE USE VALUE OF WEATHER FORECASTS1994In: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS), ISSN 0003-0007, E-ISSN 1520-0477, Vol. 75, no 7, p. 1227-1236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anders K. Angstrom was known primarily for his contributions to the field of atmospheric radiation. However, his scientific interests encompassed many diverse topics. This paper describes the contents of two early, remarkable, and, until recently, largely unknown papers by Angstrom on probability forecasting and the use/value of weather forecasts. These papers, entitled ''Sannolikhet och Praktisk Vaderleksprognos'' (''Probability and Practical Weather Forecasting'') and ''On the Effectivity of Weather Warnings, ''were published in 1919 and 1922, respectively. Noteworthy features of these two papers include 1) a discussion of the sources of uncertainty in weather forecasting, 2) discourses on the problems of estimating probabilities by means of empirical relative frequencies and forecasters' subjective judgments, 3) the use of a Gaussian model to describe the accuracy of minimum temperature forecasts, 4) the identification of the ratio of the protection costa to the ''risked value'' if protective action is not taken b as a characteristic of users of forecasts, 5) analytical expressions for the economic value of weather warnings, 6) quantitative analysis of the problems faced by forecasters in deciding whether or not to issue weather warnings when they are uncertain about future weather conditions, and 7) arguments concerning the need to obtain estimates of the costs and losses that may be incurred by potential users in order to assess economic effectiveness. The contents of Angstrom's two papers are reviewed and summarized, making extensive use of quotations from the texts. An effort is made to place the papers and their contents in proper historical context. Two topics of current interest, namely, ensemble forecasting and the provision of specialized weather services, are discussed briefly in light of the results presented and issues raised in these papers.

  • 295. Lilley, M. K. S.
    et al.
    Beggs, S. E.
    Doyle, T. K.
    Hobson, V. J.
    Strömberg, Patrik
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Hays, G. C.
    Global patterns of epipelagic gelatinous zooplankton biomass2011In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 158, no 11, p. 2429-2436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is concern that overfishing may lead to a proliferation of jellyfish through a process known as fishing down the food web. However, there has been no global synthesis of patterns of gelatinous zooplankton biomass (GZB), an important first step in determining any future trends. A meta-analysis of epipelagic-GZB patterns was undertaken, encompassing 58 locations on a global scale, and spanning the years 1967-2009. Epipelagic-GZB decreased strongly with increasing total water column depth (r (2) = 0.543, p < 0.001, n = 58): in shallow (< 50 m) coastal waters, epipelagic-GZB was typically 742x the levels in deep ocean (> 2,000 m) sites. However, the ratio of GZB to primary productivity showed high values across a range of depths, i.e. this measure of the relative abundance of gelatinous zooplankton did not co-vary with depth.

  • 296.
    Lindell, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Sanner, Håkan
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Reihan, Alvina
    SMHI.
    Vedom, Rimma
    Application of the integrated hydrological modelling system IHMS-HBV to pilot basin in Estonia1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes calibration and application of the IHMS-HBV model on a daily time step to Kasari River basin in Estonia. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) have as consultant been responsible for the set-up, calibration, training and delivery of the Integrated Hydrological Model System with the HBV-model (IHMSHBV). The Swedish Board for lnvestment and Technical Support (BITS) financed the project. The training and transfer of technology were addressed to the Estonian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (EMHI).

  • 297.
    Lindell, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Ericsson, Lars O.
    SMHI.
    Sanner, Håkan
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Göransson, Karin
    SMHI.
    Integrated Hydrological Monitoring and Forecasting System for the Vistula River Basin1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a technical description on the project Integrated Hydrological Monitoring and Forecasting System for the Vistula River Basin. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological lnstitute in Nonköping, Sweden, (hereinafter called SMHI) and Institute of Meteorology and Water Management in Warsaw, Poland, (hereinafter called IMWM) has fulfilled and co-operated in this project. SMHI have as consultants been responsible for design and development of the Vistula River Monitoring and Forecasting System, for on-the-job training and education in Windows programming and development as well as in set-up, calibration and applications of the HBV-model. IMWM responsibilities has been to provide the project with hydrometeorological data and information on land use for the calibration activities and to supply the project with the hydrodynamic model in use at the polish institute. IMWM has been deeply involved in the design and development of the Vistula River Monitoring and Forecasting System and bad the main responsibility in the HBV-model calibration activities.

  • 298.
    Lindell, Sten
    et al.
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Sanner, Håkan
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Nikolushkina, Irena
    SMHI.
    Stikute, Inita
    SMHI.
    Application of the integrated hydrological modelling system IHMS-HBV to pilot basin in Latvia1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes calibration and application of the IHMS-HBV model on daily time step to Lielupe River basin in Latvia. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrologicalnstitute (SMHI) have as consultant been responsible for the set-up, calibration, training and delivery of the Integrated Hydrological Model System with the HBV-model (IHMSHBV). The Swedish Board for Investment and Technical Support (BITS) financed the project. The training and transfer of technology were addressed to the Latvia Hydrometeorological Agency (LHMA)

  • 299. Lindfors, Anders
    et al.
    Tanskanen, Aapo
    Arola, Antti
    van der A, Ronald
    Bais, Alkiviadis
    Feister, Uwe
    Janouch, Michal
    Josefsson, Weine
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Koskela, Tapani
    Lakkala, Kaisa
    den Outer, Peter N.
    Smedley, Andrew R. D.
    Slaper, Harry
    Webb, Ann R.
    The PROMOTE UV Record: Toward a Global Satellite-Based Climatology of Surface Ultraviolet Irradiance2009In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, ISSN 1939-1404, E-ISSN 2151-1535, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 207-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the PROMOTE UV Record, which aims to provide a global long-term record of the surface UV radiation. The algorithm developed takes as input cloud information from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and a recently developed multisensor assimilated record of the total ozone column. Aerosols and surface albedo are based on climatologies. Here, first validation results of the PROMOTE UV Record are presented through comparison against ground-based measurements of daily erythemal UV doses at eight European stations. The validation shows that the method is working reasonably, although there is a clear tendency toward overestimation. Typically, the median bias as compared to measurements is 3%-10% and 56%-68% of the daily doses are within +/- 20% from the ground-based reference. The prototype version of the PROMOTE UV Record included in this paper covers the period from July 2002 to June 2005. The time series will later be extended to start in 1983.

  • 300.
    Lindh, Markus
    et al.
    SMHI, Core Services.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Sensitivity of Bacterioplankton to Environmental Disturbance: A Review of Baltic Sea Field Studies and Experiments2018In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 5, article id UNSP 361Article in journal (Refereed)
3456789 251 - 300 of 442
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf