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  • 251.
    Blom, Carin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    “When fighting monsters …”: - How the post-9/11 propaganda contributed to the radicalization and totalization of the United States and its allies2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When President George W. Bush on September 11, 2001, said that USA was targeted because they were the beacon of light of justice and democracy in the world - and that those who conducted the attack were opposed to everything it entailed, he took the first step towards totalization and its handmaiden radicalization, as Lifton and Moghaddam describes it. The aim of this study is to explain the consequence’s when he labelled the act as a war instead of a criminal act and put forward that it was a deliberate rhetorical choice to detach the event from previous political and economic events. The word “war” frightens us and outmanoeuvre our rational thinking by activating adaptations such as predator-, pest- and infection control systems. These adaptations can be used in propaganda that are part of epideictic contexts where leaders want to arouse feelings for a favoured action and act on them. Fear becomes horror when propaganda dresses the conflict in apocalyptic terms. With the expression: "you are either with us, or with the terrorists", Bush created a thought-stopping cliché that prevented both self-reflection and alternative interpretations of the situation, thus helped free the monster within US-citizens and allies.

  • 252. Blom, Carin
    et al.
    Lindgren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Apocalyptic propaganda: how the U.S. government manufactured consent on the war on terror2023In: Al-Albab, ISSN 0216-6143, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 189-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    War and propaganda have been linked together for a long time because of a natural human inhibition against killing other humans. To get citizens to give their consent to go to war and kill, the leader(s) need to influence them. The aim of this study is to analyse the content and functions of the U.S. governments post 9/11 propaganda to find out how this where done. Coyne and Hall argue that propagandists need the publics enlighted consent to be able to influence them. This work will prove that the U.S. government used propagandistic tools, like the fear of our own and our civilizations annihilation through an apocalyptic language, to circumvent our rational thinking and talk unbridled to our emotions and thereby inhibit our higher cognitive functions. As method we use bricolage. Bricolage interpretations adapt different technical discourses to each other and move freely between different techniques and concepts. In this work it had an advancement over other methods because our field of investigation stretched over different fields of research and we were free to use the method that best suited our collected data. We demonstrate that the U.S. government functioned as fearmongers on their home audience to stir up emotions so the citizens would choose the path that best suited the leader(s), but that it was far from being enlighted.

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  • 253.
    Blomberg, Tina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Existentiell hälsa?: En analys om existentiell hälsa och hur begreppet används.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 254.
    Blomberg, Tina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Undervisning i ett förändrat landskap: En komparativ studie av synen på undervisning i Svenska kyrkan och den Evangelisk-lutherska kyrkan i Finland2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 255.
    Blomkvist, Alva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Same som same?: Hur uppdelningen av renskötande och icke renskötande samer diskuteras i Samefolket 1970-20002019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 256.
    Boberg, Felicia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Krigsfånge eller flykting?: Svenska interneringsläger för utländsk militär personal2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 257.
    Boberg Jegréus, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Gud som haver barnen kär: En undersökning om oäkta barn, barnamord och barnkvävning i Torneå lappmark 1650–1750.2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 258.
    Bodell, Kristian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Skogen i dialog med Sveriges natur: Konflikt eller samsyn på användningen av skogsmark 1977–2006?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines how the magazines Skogen and Sveriges Natur have used the concept ofsustainable forestry in their editorial pages, as opinion leaders, during the period 1977-2006and analyzes how the concept has changed in meaning during these years.

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  • 259.
    Bodestedt, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The Subject Summing Problem For Panpsychism2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Panpsychism is a theory of mind that has some strong arguments in its favour. However, it is thought to suffer from a major challenge – the Combination problem, and in particular, the version of the problem that I will call (following Goff, 2006) the Subject Summing problem. The panpsychist holds that our conscious experience is somehow made up from many smaller experiences – microsubjects– that are part of the fundamental furniture of the universe. This raises a question; how do subjects sum? A subjective experience is essentially only one viewpoint, one perspective. It seems incoherent to suppose that my subjectivity can consist in many smaller subjects somehow adding up to mine. In this essay I will argue that the Subject Summing problem is based on an assumption that the constitutive panpsychist does not share – the assumption that my conscious experience must be transparent, fully revealed, to me as I have it. When this assumption is rejected, the problem loses much of its force. I will argue that not only the demand for transparency, but the subject-summing problem in general, is based on an over abstracted, static picture of what the metaphysical nature of the micro-subjects that constitute our experience must be like. When we drop this picture, the whole question of subject summing takes on a very different light, and the demand for a full account of how subjects sum does not seem reasonable. It is asking the panpsychist for answers where we are normally happy to have reached the end of explanation.

  • 260.
    Bodén, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Holmöarna archipelago and its forgotten Iron Age period: Uncovering the past through morphology and GIS-analysis2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The geographical focus area of this essay is Holmöarna archipelago, which is a very large group of islands that are located a short distance to the east of the city Umeå, in northern Sweden, Västerbotten county. This essay is an attempt to uncover and provide knowledge regarding Holmöarna archipelago’s forgotten Iron Age period through the means of GIS-analysis, literary studies, a field visit, as well as morphological comparisons of ancient artefacts and monuments from the area.

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  • 261.
    Boekraad, Maria Doeke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ecological sustainability in traditional Sámi beliefs and rituals2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The book gives a detailed overview of relevant traditional indigenous Sámi myths, beliefs and rituals based on empirical findings. The author inquires whether and how they are related to an ecologically sustainable use of the natural environment. Her main sources are ancient missionary texts, writings by Sámi and contemporary interviews with Sámi individuals. The traditional value system included ecological sustainability as a survival strategy. Beliefs and rituals, transmitted via stories, incorporated these values and transmitted a feeling of a round life, despite the strict rules for right behavior and punishment for transgressions. The term round symbolized a sense of safety, interconnectedness, reliance on mutual help and respect, identification and empathy with all living beings.

  • 262.
    Boekraad, Maria Doeke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Reflections on ethic for ethnically non-indigenous researchers2016In: Agon Pohjoinen Tiede- ja Kulturuurilehti, ISSN 1799-1900, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What constitutes ethical behaviour within and among research related to First Nations? This text was born out of an urge to explore the challenges faced by ethnically non-indigenous researchers who wish to study a living indigenous culture in a way that contributes not only to increasing knowledge but also to improving indigenous communities' living conditions. The present article does not to seek to provide conclusive answers. Instead, it aspires to discuss some issues raised in relevant decolonizing literature and reflect on the challenges they raise.  The texts provides an overview over past and present critical discussions on research ethics in projects related to the indigenous Sami people in Scandinavia. It gives special attention to the perspectives of ethnically non- indigenous master- and doctoral students.

  • 263. Boethius, Adam
    et al.
    Hollund, Hege
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vanhanen, Santeri
    Kjällquist, Mathilda
    Magnell, Ola
    Apel, Jan
    Quantifying archaeo-organic degradation - A multiproxy approach to understand the accelerated deterioration of the ancient organic cultural heritage at the Swedish Mesolithic site Agerod2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 9, article id e0239588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a growing body of evidence concerning accelerated organic degradation at archaeological sites, there have been few follow-up investigations to examine the status of the remaining archaeological materials in the ground. To address the question of archaeo-organic preservation, we revisited the Swedish, Mesolithic key-site Agerod and could show that the bone material had been subjected to an accelerated deterioration during the last 75 years, which had destroyed the bones in the areas where they had previously been best preserved. To understand why this has happened and to quantify and qualify the extent of the organic degradation, we here analyse the soil chemistry, bone histology, collagen preservation and palaeobotany at the site. Our results show that the soil at Agerod is losing, or has already lost, its preservative and buffering qualities, and that pH-values in the still wet areas of the site have dropped to levels where no bone preservation is possible. Our results suggest that this acidification process is enhanced by the release of sulphuric acid as pyrite in the bones oxidizes. While we are still able to find well-preserved palaeobotanical remains, they are also starting to corrode through re-introduced oxygen into the archaeological layers. While some areas of the site have been more protected through redeposited soil on top of the archaeological layers, all areas of Agerod are rapidly deteriorating. Lastly, while it is still possible to perform molecular analyses on the best-preserved bones from the most protected areas, this opportunity will likely be lost within a few decades. In conclusion, we find that if we, as a society, wish to keep this valuable climatic, environmental and cultural archive, both at Agerod and elsewhere, the time to act is now and if we wait we will soon be in a situation where this record will be irretrievably lost forever.

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  • 264.
    Boge, Cecilie
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen.
    Larsson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Understanding pupil violence: Bullying theory as technoscience in Sweden and Norway2018In: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 131-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Around 1970, violence among pupils became conceptualised in a radically new way when the concept of “mobbing” was introduced into the Nordic school debate. The concept was immediately embraced by popular discourse with the result that significant attention and discussion followed. It was also soon picked up by researchers and became further developed within Swedish and Norwegian behavioural science. This article concerns how pupil violence in the form of bullying was understood and theorised in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s in Sweden and Norway. It shows how certain political and intellectual conditions, and events, in both national contexts were decisive for the development of bullying theory, eventually leading up to a commercialisation of bullying theory. This development is discussed with the help of the concept “psychology-commercial complex,” derived from Pickstone’s theory of technoscience.

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  • 265.
    Bogumił, Zuzanna
    et al.
    Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Yurchuk, Yuliya
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Introduction: memory and religion from a postsecular perspective2022In: Memory and religion from a postsecular perspective / [ed] Zuzanna Bogumił; Yuliya Yurchuk, Routledge, 2022, p. 1-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this introduction, we reflect on the relationship between religion and memory, a subfield that should, as we argue, become more visible within memory studies. First, we show how religion was originally conceptualized by the founders of memory studies and how it is being discussed today by contemporary memory scholars. Second, we demonstrate the memory-forming potential of religion. Finally, we call for a postsecular turn in memory studies. We claim that such a critical turn could help memory scholars be more reflective and become more aware of the religious roots of the concepts they are using when they approach memory. It would also help them to grasp how much the religious and the secular interwind in the memory processes occurring in the heterogenous societies of the present-day world.

  • 266.
    Bogumił, Zuzanna
    et al.
    Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Yurchuk, YuliyaUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Memory and religion from a postsecular perspective2022Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The book argues that religion is a system of significant meanings that have an impact on other systems and spheres of social life, including cultural memory.

    The editors call for a postsecular turn in memory studies which would provide a more reflective and meaningful approach to the constant interplay between the religious and the secular. This opens up new perspectives on the intersection of memory and religion and helps memory scholars become more aware of the religious roots of the language they are using in their studies of memory. By drawing on examples from different parts of the world, the contributors to this volume explain how the interactions between the religious and the secular produce new memory forms and content in the heterogenous societies of the present-day world. These analyzed cases demonstrate that religion has a significant impact on cultural memory, family memory and the contemporary politics of history in secularized societies. At the same time, politics, grassroots movements and different secular agents and processes have so much influence on the formation of memory by religious actors that even religious, ecclesiastic and confessional memories are affected by the secular.

    This volume is ideal for students and scholars of memory studies, religious studies and history.

  • 267.
    Bokma, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Finskspråkig själavård i Svenska kyrkan: Kartläggning av behovet och tillgängligheten av själavård på finska i Svenska kyrkan2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 268.
    Bokma, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Queer Mirjam: Queerläsning om Mirjam i Bibeln och i andra texter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 269.
    Bonneau, Leonard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bilden av den andre: Diskursanalys av kolonialismen och imperialismen mellan 1400-talet och nutid i svenskaläroböcker2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to ask and answer two questions: to which extent is South American colonialism represented in textbooks used in the current swedish curriculum, and furthermore can those textbooks enable intercultural teaching in swedish classrooms? To this end, the theory of intercultural teaching provided the framework and cultural discourse analysis was used as the tool by which the texts were analysed. The results showed that textbooks alone might not be enough to enable intercultural teaching, rather complimentary sources would be needed to buttress the teacher in their teaching. This opens up two main problems, the first being what resources does the teacher have available? By this I include time management and financial factors. Secondly, what level of interculturalism is considered correct and how many perspectives need to be taken into consideration? The answer to these two apparent problems has much relation to the amount of hours the teacher has to work with within the framework of a school year. The course History 1b, which has the broadestand most amount of classroom hours, has therefore been the subject of myexamination.

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  • 270.
    Bonnevier, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Från Framtidsland till Ödemark: Föreställningar om Norrland hos Ludvig Nordström och PO Tidholm2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay is an analysis of the ideas about problems and possibilities concerning the northern region in Sweden, as presented and discussed by authors and journalists Ludvig Nordström and Po Tidholm, in their books Norrland i stöpsleven (1937) and Norrland (2014). The essay draws on theoretical concepts such as center and periphery, Orientalism, progress, as understood by Bernt Skovdahl, and Nietzsche’s notion of ressentiment, as employed by Wendy Brown. The essay offers a discourse analysis of the representations and images of Norrland that the authors present in their works. Nordström portrays Norrland as a region with a bright future, predicated on its inhabitants’ capacity to improve their primitive mentality and start acting as entrepreneurs in the industrial age. Tidholm, though, is much more pessimistic: with bitterness and resignation, he sees a region that no one no longer cares about and where the people suffer from inferiority complex. In a comparison between the two authors three main themes are identified and developed. These are: utopia and dystopia, development and decline, and center and periphery. The essay concludes that Nordström’s and Tidholm’s views are historically conditioned. Nordström’s texts reflect notions of progress typical of modernity, whereas, produced in an era when all grand narratives have lost their credibility, Tidholm’s texts fail to imagine any potential alternatives to the situation he laments.

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  • 271.
    Boork, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Är kristen tro ”properly basic”?: En utvärdering av kritiken mot Alvin Plantingas modell för kristen tro.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 272.
    Boqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Estetiska omdömens paradoxala natur: En jämförelse av Hume och Kant2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 273.
    Boqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Skicklighetens metafysik: särskiljande egenskaper hos kunnande och vetande2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What is the relation between knowledge-that and knowledge-how? If I know that the earth is round I have knowledge of a fact and if I know how to ride a bicycle I have the ability to perform a certain action. On the surface it seems like this is about different things. The philosophical position called intellectualism claims that knowledge-how is a form of knowledge-that. In this essay I argue against intellectualism and try to show why knowledge-how cannot be a form of knowledge-that. One of the main objections to intellectualism iscalled "the novelty objection" (NO) and means that knowledge-how is far too nuanced and fine-grained in order to be covered by knowledge of facts. The question is if NO is a decisive argument against intellectualism. A skill, being a certain form of knowledge-how, is possible to exercise skillfully. Skill is strongly related to NO since skill means to be particularly good at adapting one's actions to the novelty of a situation. To improvise music is an example of a skill that is unfit to be explained in terms of knowledge-that and is a phenomenon that points to the core of NO. I argue that NO is a decisive argument against intellectualism.

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  • 274.
    Borg, Julius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Metalldetektorn som ett arkeologiskt redskap – ris eller ros?: En studie kring metalldetektorns bidrag till arkeologin med exempel från undersökningarna i Uppåkra och Gudme2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The metal detector as an archaeological tool: good or bad?

    Over the past six decades, the metal-detector has taken both the public as the archaeology by storm. The amount of people that has started to use it both as a hobby and in their jobs, is consistently growing, and the finds that it has provided has been of great value to the archaeologists. This paper examines how the metal-detector has been used and what kind of information it has provided for archaeologists.

    Firstly, there will be a short presentation of the metal-detector as a tool where its history and function get depicted. Thereafter a short summary around the legislation concerning metal-detectors follows of both Sweden and Denmark, which will end with a comparison.

    Then, the archaeological excavations with metal-detectors that has taken place in Uppåkra and Gudme during the last 40 years gets presented. There will be a short historical comprehension around both places which is followed by the surveys that has been conducted with metal-detectors and some of the finds that has been made.

    Finally, there will be a short summary around the debate in Sweden whether the legislation concerning metal-detectors should be liberalized or not. The text will end with a discussion where the author talks about his thoughts of metal-detectors in archaeology.

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  • 275.
    Boström, Annie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    En fantasifull inblick i religion: En kognitionsteoretisk analys av fantasins inverkan i gudsföreställningar2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att analysera fantasins kognitiva kapacitet och inverkan i religiösa uttryck för gudsföreställningar, utifrån tidigare forskning och teoribildning om fantasins funktioner och användning. Metoden innehållsanalys grundade sig på kognitiv religionsforsknings antaganden om människans dual-processtänkande och hur ontologiska kategorier, tillsammans med kognitiva verktygen HADD och ToM formar gudsföreställningar och gudstro. Resultatet visade att fantasins kognitiva processer formar gudsföreställningar utifrån perception och minne, samt syntetiserar omedvetna och medvetna innehåll. Fantasins medverkan i kultiverande processer är ett medel till kunskapsspridning och evidens för gudstro genom att upprätthålla samband mellan representationer och religiösa narrativ, symboler och semantiska begrepp. Fantasins neurofysiologiska grund bidrog till att emotionsdrivna religiösa praktiker som bönen, inverkade så att gudarna, konstruerade av kulturella- och intuitiva representationer, upplevdes som om de var verkliga. Slutsatserna betonar vikten av åtskiljandet av fantasi som kognitiv kapacitet eller semantisk kategori så att kognitionsforskning och filosofi inte reducerar gudars ontologiska status till fiktiva eller ”påhittade”.

  • 276.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Efter Gettier Kom Plantinga: En Fördjupning av Begreppet Berättigande2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After Gettier came Plantinga.In this essay I explore the concepts of justification and warrant. Are they just two words with the same meaning? Starting with Edmund Gettier’s famous 1963 paper Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? as a backdrop, I investigate Alvin Plantinga’s Proper Functionalism, his analysis of warrant, that property enough of which turns mere true belief into knowledge.

    Then we put Plantinga’s proper functionalism to the test with challenges from a selection of essays from philosophers critical to Plantinga’s views on warrant.

    We end up in a summary, where I defend the thesis that Plantinga’s proper functionalism has deepened our understanding of warrant to the point that we can say that it is the best starting point when investigating what warrant is, and how it thus helps us in our understanding what constitutes knowledge.

    The question of whether Plantinga’s account of warrant can be said to be a solution of Gettier cases will depend on our willingness to allow some vagueness in Plantinga’s definition of the cognitive ”mini environment”. Otherwise, a reductive analysis of knowledge and its parts seem doomed.

    In the end I give a slightly adjusted revision or addendum of proper functionalism, adding what I call the elements of recognition and surprise in being prepared for truth’s either validating or refuting my belief.

    I also shortly, in a postscript, discuss possible ways forward for those who want to explore more about Plantinga’s design plan condition, whether it should be interpreted in a theistic or naturalistic framework.

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  • 277.
    Boström, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    ”När man kollar på bilden tänker man så här”: en receptionsstudie av gymnasieelevers uppfattning om bilder som kunskapskällor i historieundervisningen2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Images are used in history education for a variety of reasons, not least to generate interest through a better understanding of historical events and people. The aim of this study was to investigate how historical pictures, either illustrated or documentary/photographic, can be used as a resource for activating and improving pupils' historical empathy, in the way described by Stéphane Lévasque.

    I conducted a reception study on five different focus groups consisting of pupils from different upper secondary schools in Sweden. The pupils varied with regard to number of credits for admission to upper secondary school. A sixth group of pupils was interviewed as a contrasting control group in order to add perspective to the results. The discussions were based on the pupils' interpretations of 34 selected pictures, all of which were taken from the most common history textbooks. Each pupil was asked to choose the picture he/she felt was the most representative historical image. On the basis of the strategies used by the pupils when interpreting the pictures and discussing them, the material was analysed in accordance with Lévesque's categories: imagination, historical contextualisation and morals. The last category, morals, was further divided into three sub-categories: sense of justice, sympathy and progression.

    The reflections of the pupils and the degree of contextualisation varied. It appeared that the pupils were less inclined to discuss assumptions about the persons in the pictures; instead they chose to discuss the historical context in question. The pictures in this study did not seem to trigger the pupils to fabricate anachronistic reasoning about history; when they did produce lengthy reasoning, it was contextual, structural and metahistorical. In this context, the pupils who belonged to the group with the highest average of credits showed some signs of reflection on the basis of historical context and some criticism about the historical sources. On no occasion did any of the pupils choose a picture as a concrete expression of injustice.

    One of the questions this study aimed to explore was whether a lack of historical context affects how pictures trigger emotions and reasoning on the basis of moral aspects. Some of the pupils displayed moral standpoints, primarily the degree of morals concerning injustice. One possible interpretation could be that the feeling of being unfairly treated and subjected to insulting behaviour and social injustice was something the pupils could relate to. The group of pupils who had not yet studied history at upper secondary school, the control group, generally made reflections using this sort of reasoning when they discussed the historical aspects of the pictures.

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  • 278.
    Boström, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Seeing is Knowing, or The Creation of a "New Real"2014In: Engaging with Educational Space: Visualizing Spaces of Teaching and Learning / [ed] Catherine Burke, Ian Grosvenor & Björn Norlin, Umeå: Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier , 2014, p. 68-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 279.
    Boucher, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Brièveté et prolixité des traducteurs en langue vernaculaire à la fin du moyen âge2007In: The Medieval Translator: Traduire au Moyen Age / [ed] J. Jenkins & O. Bertrand, Turnhout Brepols Publishers , 2007, , p. 271-238p. 271-283Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 280.
    Boucher, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Dumas, Genevieve
    Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Hist, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada.
    Medical Translations and Practical Compilations: A Necessary Coincidence?2012In: Early Science and Medicine, ISSN 1383-7427, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 273-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical Translations and Practical Compilations: A Necessary Coincidence? Fourteenth-and fifteenth-century medicine is characterised by a trickle-down effect which led to an increasing dissemination of knowledge in the vernacular. In this context, translations and compilations appear to be two similar endeavours aiming to provide access to contents pertaining to the particulars of medical practice. Nowhere is this phenomenon seen more clearly than in vernacular manuscripts on surgery. Our study proposes to compare for the first time two corpora of manuscripts of surgical compilations, in Middle French and Middle English respectively, in order to discuss form and matter in this type of book production.

  • 281.
    Boucher, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Pouzet, Jean-Pascal
    La Matière des Échecs amoureux, d’Evrart de Conty à Reson and Sensuallyte2009In: Lost in Translation? / [ed] Denis Renevey and Christiana Whitehead, Turnhout: Brepols , 2009, p. 157-172Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 282.
    Braas, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Föreställningar om psykiska funktionshinder: inom svensk nationell politik 1999-20162016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 283.
    Brandlöv Rova, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Lars Levi Laestadius, den lutherska bekännelsen och kyrkolivet i Tornedalen: En jämförande teologisk undersökning som belyser en väckelses påverkan på en bygd2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 284. Brandstrom, Sven
    et al.
    Przybeck, Thomas R.
    Sigvardsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Reliability of informant ratings and spouse similarity based on the temperament and character inventory2011In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 231-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cohort of 136 Swedish spouse pairs rated themselves and each other with the Temperament and Character Inventory. The data allowed assessment of the reliability of ratings by knowledgeable informants compared to self-rating for this personality test. The reliability of the informant rating was in the expected range, with an average correlation of .58. Agreement was slightly higher for the Temperament dimensions than for the Character dimensions. Additionally, the design allowed evaluation of the similarity between husbands and wives across the seven dimensions measured by the TCI. Correlations between spouses in self-reports were very low for Temperament, with only Harm Avoidance having a statistically significant correlation (.22, p < .05). On the other hand, all three Character dimensions were significantly correlated. These results support the conceptualization of Temperament and Character as separate components of personality. The results are consistent with previous reports on the personality of spouse pairs.

  • 285.
    Brandt, Acke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Norrlands fornborgar: Funktioner & Tolkningar2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study about Norrland’s hillforts has been a way to understand and figure out how the hillforts has been used. By reading previously published literature around mostly Scandinavian hillforts and what they may have had for functions and dating, if the assumed previously functions in Norrland was right or if there could be more to them. In this study it shows that functions for hillforts is mostly assumed with none or a few archaeological evidence. The first assumed function of Norrlands hillfort as refuge has been criticized by authors from Norway and Finland because of the distance between district and hillfort. The assumption suggested that it would have been too difficult to flee from an enemy if a raid would be of essence, and with published literature, GIS-analysis, and 3D pictures this can hopefully be shown for the reader.

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  • 286.
    Brandt, Majlis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    11 SEPTEMBER 2001: - från student till terrorist -2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande uppsats bygger på en litteraturstudie om bakgrunden till 11 september 2001.Syftet var att redogöra för hur den terroristiska gruppen formerades och utvecklades i sinpsykosociala kontext. Vilka var dessa flygplanskapare och vilka motiv hade de? Materialet till uppsatsen utgick ifrån facklitteratur, artiklar och offentliga dokument.Med hjälp äv en hermneutisk metod jämfördes tre teorier och förklaringsmodeller gällanderadikaliseringsprocessen, terrorism, martyrskap och död inom detta forskningsområde.Analysen visade att huvudmotivet bakom attentatet var ett politiskt krig mellan al-Qaida ochUSA. De som genomförde attacken var en sammansvuren grupp av studenter från Hamburg.Samtliga hade islamsk, religiös åskådning. Normer och kontroll utvecklades under åren ochgruppens täta kontakter med al-Qaida. Motivationen var prestation, tillhörighet och makt samtatt dö, döda och bli dödad.Nyckelord:

  • 287.
    Brattgård, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Den pliktetiska datorn: En diskussion om förutsättningarna för Kants pliktetik som etisk teori i datorer som har en plats i vardagen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many has asked themselves the question, now when technology gets a larger importance in everyday life, if it is necessary to give this technology the ability to act according to an ethical theory. In this paper I will say that it is a good idea to give computers that take part in everyday life an ethic, even though they are not conscious or ethically responsible to a higher degree. The choosen ethic for this paper is the deontological ethics of Kant, which initially seems very appealing as an ethic for computers. I write that even if that is the case, it is not suitable as a theory for computers. As a conclusion I have choosen to present questions that may be up for discussion later, or that will be interesting to discuss when computers work under new conditions. This paper is written in Swedish.

    Key words: Kant, ethics, technology, computers, consciousness, thinking.

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  • 288.
    Brauer, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Dygdig socionom: Om möjligheten att införliva dygdetik inom socialtjänsten2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Socionomer verksamma inom socialtjänsten möter ofta svåra etiska dilemman, hur kan dessa lösas på bästa sätt? Socialtjänsten som institution är baserad på en upplysningsbaserad moralfilosofisk tradition med hänvisning till mänskliga rättigheter. Ett förslag på alternativ professionsetisk grund är dygdetik, inte sällan med hänvisning till Alasdair Macintyres verk After Virtue. Denna uppsats syftar till att utreda möjligheten till att införliva Macintyres tolkning av dygdetik inom socialtjänsten. Slutsatsen är att ett sådant införlivande krockar med de universella anspråk som är grunden för socialtjänsten vilket blir problematiskt i ett mångkulturellt samhälle som Sverige. Att förorda dygdetik för socionomer som grupp eller enskilda praktiker skulle innebära att de arbetade i ständig opposition mot socialtjänsten vilket i längden bedöms vara ohållbart. Av dessa anledningar förkastas dygdetiken i Macintyres tolkning. Dock skulle det vara möjligt att införliva en mindre radikal tolkning av dygdetik vilken inte krockar med rättighetsbaserade teorier.

  • 289.
    Breimer, Matteus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Fäder på vakt.: Rikets Ständers debatt om giftomannarätten 1859-1860 och 1862-1863.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 290.
    Breitling, Rainer
    et al.
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, UK.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Epigean spiders at Abisko Scientific Research Station in Swedish Lapland (Arachnida:Araneae)2015In: Arachnology, ISSN 2050-9928, E-ISSN 2050-9936, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 287-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Torneträsk area, including the Abisko National Park, Sweden, is arachnologically one of the best explored sites of Fennoscandia. Here we report the results of pitfall trapping at Abisko Scientific Research Station during the summers of 2004 and 2005, recording 791 individuals of 62 species of spiders. As expected, at the species level, samples were dominated by members of the Linyphiidae, while at the level of individuals Pardosa hyperborea and other lycosids were dominant. Two subsites, on heath and bog, differed substantially in their species profile: 7 species were statistically overrepresented on the drier heath site, while 2 species showed a strong preference for the wetter bog site. The samples also contained the first reported lateral gynadromorph of Archaeodictyna consecuta (Dictynidae). This study, from 195 km north of the Arctic Circle, provides important reference data for continued studies on the long-term effects of climate change on arctic ecosystems.

  • 291.
    Brickner Ekanayake, Hirumali Rachel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    DIVING INTO RĀMĀYAṆA:: SITĀ & SURPANAKHĀ OF VALMIKI'S RĀMĀYAṆA COMPARED WITH ORAL NARRATIONS OF RĀMĀYAṆA BY PAULA RICHMAN2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is completely a literature study, where the limelight has been on Rāmāyaṇa. Focusing on the Rāmāyaṇa written by Valmiki and comparing it to the oral tradition (songs) from Andhra Pradesh, sung by Brahmin women presented in Paula Richman’s book Many Ramayanas (1991); The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia. Two female characters have been chosen to understand the polarities of ‘good’ versus ‘bad’ in woman characters presented within the story of Rāmāyaṇa; Sitā is compared therefore to Śūrpanakhā. Two primary questions have led the study forward, the first being to understand characteristical similarities and differences between the female characters; Sitā and Śūrpanakhā. and the other being narrational differences found in Valmiki’s Rāmāyaṇa compared to Paula Richman’s description of oral traditions of Brahmin women of Andhra Pradesh.

    Qualitative content analysis is the method that runs through the veins of this study, content analysis which is a branch of textual analysis is a method used to study and describe characteristics of written messages, which in this study is Rāmāyaṇa.

    In the conclusion the research question was answered and the result was that it could be argued that Sitā and Śūrpanakhā are both different but also similar to each other within the characteristical framework and also that Sitā and Śūrpanakhā are portrayed as each other's alter egos. Where Sitā is portrayed as light, good, pure, auspicious and submissive, Śūrpanakhā is portrayed as her opposite; dark, evil, impure, inauspicious and independent. And within a narrational framework it was clear that there were many differences between Valmiki’s narration  to the oral traditions, where Valmiki narrated Rāmā in limelight the oral traditions had women’s aspects of Rāmāyaṇa in focus.

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  • 292.
    Brink, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sydkoreansk propagandaföring i svensk press under 1970-talet2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 293.
    Briné, Jonathan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kunskap och kamp: Hyreskonflikterna i Umeå 1970–19722023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 294. Brodersen, Alma
    et al.
    Neumann, FriederikeWillgren, DavidUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Intertextualität und die Entstehung des Psalters2020Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psalms research has developed a new focus in recent decades, across both nations and denominations: exegesis of the Psalter as a whole is now discussed as a complement to the exegesis of individual psalms. In this focus, the relation between intertextuality and the formation of the Psalter has been highlighted. At the same time, the relation between the Masoretic Text and the psalms in both the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Septuagint has been critically reviewed. This volume contains the revised papers given at an international conference at LMU Munich in April 2018. All papers contribute new insights to the current discussion about the formation and purpose of the Psalter. The volume presents innovative methodological reflections as well as fresh historical and theological perspectives in order to shed further light on the formation of the Psalter.

  • 295. Bromander, Jonas
    et al.
    Straarup, Jørgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Stiftssammanställning av svenska kyrkans statistik 19961997In: Perspektiv på Svenska kyrkans statistik 1996 / [ed] Jørgen Straarup, Uppsala: Svenska kyrkans forskningsråd , 1997, p. 119-137Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 296.
    Brunet Johansson, Albert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kristen värdegrund: En studie av Kristdemokratiska samhällspartiets utbildningspolitiska ställning i frågan om konfessionella friskolor åren 1984-1994.2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has investigated how the Swedish Christian Democratic Party (KDS) argued for the right of private actors to operate tax-funded schools outside of the public sector – charter schools. The hypothesis of this study was that KDS were openly positive to such a reform and saw it as a chance to run state-funded confessional schools.The study examined political texts produced by the party during a ten-year period, ranging from 1984 to 1994. The study’s methodological approach was one of a qualitative textual analysis, aided by a theoretical framework adapted from Samuel Moyn’s thesis in his book Christian Human Rights.The study concluded that there is empirical support to the thesis, and that KDS were very positive to a reform of the public school system in order to enable publicly funded private schools. There is less evidence to conclude that KDS intended for these schools to be confessional, although this study proposes that there is evidence to suggest as much.

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  • 297.
    Brus, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Det ingen samtalar om: Samtalar kyrkan om porr och porrmissbruk?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats ska undersöka om och i vilken utsträckning kyrkorna i Sverige diskuterar frågan om porrberoende med ungdomarna i sin församling. Ett kvalitativt tillvägagångssätt användes, där sex olika församlingar intervjuades om huruvida de pratade om porr och porrmissbruk med ungdomarna i deras verksamhet. De tillfrågades också om vilken typ av material dem använde när det diskuterade frågan. Intervjuerna skedde via mejlsvar och via zoom. Resultatet visade på att det fortfarande är ett mycket känsligt ämne bland församlingarna och att dem få ungdomskonsulenterna som talade om det kände att de saknade både kunskap och material. Detta visar att kyrkorna fortfarande har mycket att jobba med när det gäller att arbeta med nya sociala frågor, som porrmissbruk bland ungdomar.

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  • 298.
    Brändström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    På återbesök i Nedertorneå: Spädbarnsdödlighet, utomäktenskaplighet och sociala nätverk2004In: Befolkningshistoriska perspektiv: Festskrift till Lars-Göran Tedebrand / [ed] Redaktionskommitté Anders Brändström, Sören Edvinsson, Tom Ericsson och Peter Sköld, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2004, p. 35-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 299.
    Brändström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The Silent Sick. Life-Histories of 19th Century Swedish Hospital Patients1988In: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, p. 343-368Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 300.
    Brändström, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ericsson, Tom
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Social mobility and social networks: the lower middle class in late nineteenth century Sundsvall1995In: Swedish Urban Demography during Industrialization / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1995, p. 251-283Chapter in book (Other academic)
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