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  • 251.
    Bilal, Yasir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Interactive and more usable approach towards Customer Product Information2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information about complex technical products such as Radio base Stations (RBS) needsto be presented in ways that make them easy to understand. The aim of this project was toinvestigate Ericsson´s Customer Product Information for complex technical productsfrom the users’ point of view and propose improvements to the user interface. Userrequirements were gathered from interviews and from literature on digital libraries,search and navigation. Several usability problems were identified and analyzed. Aprototype was made that demonstrate proposed design solutions to the found problems.General recommendations for digital libraries of customer information about technicalproducts are given.

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  • 252.
    Bilius, Olle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Larsson, Julius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Persuasiv teknik i praktiken: en studie av två tjänsters tillvägagångssätt för att förändra användares attityder och beteenden.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 253.
    Bill, Hannah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Olofsson, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Grävhörnor, Vita Fläckar och Tomma Sidor: En kvalitativ studie över journalistiska roller i Uppsala2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how local journalists in Uppsala would like to work with news reporting, based on their journalistic roles. To answer this main research question, the paper follows three more particular sub-questions: How do local journalists in Uppsala view their current journalistic role? What journalistic role would the journalists like to fulfill?  What do the journalists think about the future of local journalism? The chosen method of this exploration is qualitative interviews, with six journalists working at two different editorial offices in Uppsala. By drawing from the theoretic framework by Thomas Hanitzsch and his suggestions on journalistic roles, the paper found that the populist disseminator role is the most apparent among Uppsala’s journalists, in terms of the normative dimension. However, for practical reasons they often have to prioritize the entertainment factor, which is more in line with the accommodative role. In terms of their own preferences, most of the journalists express a deep wish for more investigative journalism in their work. In other words, their cognitive role is more in line with the detached watchdog. Despite current problems, all interviewed journalists are hopeful about the future of local journalism, believing people today need it more than ever before. They also suggest that the Covid-19 pandemic strengthened local journalism, reminding people of its necessity. Overall, this thesis gives an insight into the current situation for local journalists and provides both solutions to the challenges as well as reasons for its highly important place in society.             

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  • 254.
    Billman, Astrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Dyrhage, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Dataskyddsförordningens införande: Hur organisationer förhåller sig till dataskyddsförordningen, riskbedömning och efterlevnad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On May 25 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation from EU was introduced, which aims to protect individual fundamental rights and freedoms, in particular their right to protection of personal data. The data protection regulation replaces the EU's previous data protection directive and will help prevent the flow of data within the Union being hindered, as the data protection ordinance will apply to all members of EU. This case study aims to gaining an understanding of how different organisations’ risk management against the data protection regulation looks, and whether it will lead to compliance or not. Four Swedish organisations have been studied, presented, and then analysed based on a theoretical framework, designed after the different parts of a general risk management process. The study is of qualitative form and data have been collected through both semi structured and structured interviews. The data protection regulation was not yet implemented during the course of this study, and it was during this time that all parts were designed and the information was collected. The study concludes that the organizations will not be completely compliant against the data protection regulation, which has a number of reasons: They do not take the regulation seriously, they are wrongly doing the change which lengthens the processes, and they delay their compliance due to greater economic profit.

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  • 255.
    Binyamin, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Lundgren, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Nulägesanalys av informationssäkerhet gällande lösenord och dess policyer vid svenska lärosäten2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 256.
    Birch-Jensen, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Sylve, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Hur ser framtiden ut för mainframes?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Essay is meant to look into the possibilities of the mainframe systems and whether they have a spot as one of the leading information system service providers in the foreseeable future. In conclusion, “How does the future of the mainframe look?”. Numerous big IT media providers such as news services, blogs and forums have written about the subject of whether the mainframe is going to last as one of the go-to platforms for core operation information systems. This essay is going to look into the actual state of the mainframe, and where the mainframe is heading in the future. It also delves further into what options there currently are to the mainframe platform and why these options might be better or worse than the mainframe.To answer these questions the essay will present the results of research from multiple large international companies such as IBM, Ericsson and Volvo. During these interviews questions have been answered about the current situation of the mainframe, why it is currently suffering from rumors about being on the brink of death, and what the companies actually think about the mainframe.The Essay does not look too deeply into the technical aspects of the mainframe platform, but more at the system as a whole, and its organizational impact in larger companies. To help do this the essay makes use of the DeLean and McLone model of information system success.As with all matters regarding the future, even this essay could not with certainty state exactly what will happen with the mainframe platform in the future. However multiple interesting conclusions were made about the future and alternatives of the mainframe.

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  • 257.
    Birgander, Viktor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Bleckert, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Tillämpning av persuasive design på kursvärderingsverktyg2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid Institutionen för informatik och media vid Uppsala Universitet (IM) används ett digitalt kursvärderingsverktyg (IMKV) som en central metod att samla in feedback från kursdeltagare som underlag för kvalitetsarbete och för reflektion åt kursdeltagaren. Vid IM är svarsfrekvensen låg och således är underlaget för kvalitetsarbete lågt och IMKV riskerar visa på resultat som inte är reliabla eller representativa. Syftet med arbetet var att utveckla en it-artefakt som alternativ till IMKV med stöd från empirin om användarbeteende och persuasive design, följt av en utvärdering om huruvida denna prototyp skulle kunna förbättra användarupplevelsen och på så vis höja svarsfrekvensen. Problemet om låg svarsfrekvens med IMKV analyserades utifrån följande modeller om beteende: Foggs beteendemodell (FBM) som beskriver hur motivation och förmåga påverkar ett målbeteende, samt Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) och Hedonic-Motivation System Adoption Model (HMSAM) som beskriver hur användarbeteende styrs av användarupplevelse och den upplevda nyttan i användande. En klon av IMKV skapades (se bilaga 1) och en webbaserad prototyp (se bilaga 2) av ett nytt kursvärderingsverktyg togs fram ur designprinciper för persuasive designdär förbättringar i användarupplevelse och ökad upplevd nytta låg i fokus. Deltagare i studien delades slumpmässigt i två grupper där ena testade IMKV-klonen och andra prototypen och sedan utvärderade respektive version med det webbaserade verktyget AttrakDiff som kvantifierar användarupplevelsen. Datan analyserades med t-test. IMKV analyserades utifrån teori om persuasive design och beteende. Möjliga problem identifierades där persuasive design skulle kunna förbättra användarupplevelsen. Designprocessen började med brainstorm, sedan iterativ utveckling. I samtliga t-test påvisades en statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna, där de som testade prototypen hade en bättre användarupplevelse. Att utnyttja principer för persuasive designkan ge stor effekt på användarupplevelsen vid webbaserad kursvärdering och i längden eventuellt öka deltagandet. Resultaten i denna studie skulle kunna bidra vid framtida utveckling av kursvärderingsverktyg.

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  • 258.
    Bishehsari, Taraneh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    A Wearable Device for Physiotherapeutic Home Training2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Wearable for physiotherapy
  • 259.
    Bispfors, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Bäärnhielm, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Ekologiska attityder: En kvalitativ studie i attitydskapande gentemot ekologiska livsmedel.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    This essay aims to conclude which sources, actors and causalities individuals use to obtain and sustain certain attitudes towards organic products.

    Our thesis statements are framed as follows:

    • What causalities can be distinguished about university students positive attitudes towards organic products?

    • What sources shape university students positive attitudes associated to organic products?

    Method/Theory:

    The empirical data for this essay have been obtained by using qualitative interviews which have made it possible for us to get deep and meaningful data about the informants views on how they form their attitudes about organic produce. The theoretical framework have been Fishbein and Azjen’s (1975) Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) which have served the purpose of categorising and explaining the processes for individuals forming of attitudes and in extension their behavior.

     

    Main Results:

    The main results drawn from the empirical material show that the participants, through the process of inferential beliefs, themselves concludes that organic products are positive even though they find it hard to specify exactly where their information is gathered. However, the material show us that the informants listen to people in their close surrounding such as family and friends and that this is their primary reason for their attitudes towards organic produce. Furthermore the participants state that they do see information concerning organic produce on different media, but what stands out in the empirical data is that this type of information does not as clearly create the foundation for the participants attitudes as their surrounding and background, but rather serves as a way for the participants to confirm their beliefs and find new information surrounding this area.

    Lastly we suggest that the subjective norms, found in the surrounding of our respondents, have a bigger affect not only on the intention of our informants but also in the shaping of their attitude.

    We can see that the main attitude of our respondents is of a positive character and since our target group in a few years will have purchasing power we believe that the trend we see today will keep moving in the same positive direction.

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  • 260.
    Bizzarri, André
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Gröning, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Design och teknisk skuld i relationsdatabaser: En utvärdering av konsekvenserna av design och teknisk skuld i en driftsatt relationsdatabas2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie utvärderas designen i en befintlig databas som ska migreras från en lokal databashanterare till en molnbaserad lösning. Inför denna migrering har databasens normalisering och design varit ett föremål för diskussioner. Studien utreder vilka konsekvenser normalisering och design i relationsdatabaser har i en verksamhet. Studien presenterar teorin om normalisering i relationsdatabaser samt teknisk skuld. Som en del av studien testas och utvärderas en prototyp av en databas som antas vara normaliserad, ha god design och möta de behov som verksamheten har. Studien finner att teknisk skuld i databaser är tidskrävande, gör databaser opålitliga samt medför bristande kompatibilitet med andra artefakter. 

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  • 261.
    Bjellman, Evelina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Gunnarsson, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    “De är kompisar”: En studie om möjligheterna att utvinna affärsnytta utifrån den ökande mängd data Internet of Things genererar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 262.
    Bjerking, Felix
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Sverredal, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Simulering av indirekta val: en studie i att förbättra användbarhet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 263.
    Bjärnander Borrman, Vanessa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    ”Att hela tiden försöka förstå den andre, eller de andras perspektiv för det är där det börjar”: En fallstudie av ett webbutvecklingsteam utifrån ett Shared Mental Model perspektiv­2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is based on a web development team working within the confines of a Swedish authority. It has been recognized that web development teams are struggling to cooperate and work in high capacity efficiency, mostly due to the nature of the multifarious tasks at hand and their lack of understanding of each respective roles within the team. In lieu of this major downfall, establishing a mental model faceted way of thinking and working may improve effectiveness, communication and collaboration amongst all members of a functioning team. A shared mental model is developed through four stages of cognitive processes; knowing, learning, understanding and executing. The purpose of this study is to examine and show an example of how shared mental models can be developed in an existing web development team. By analyzing two workshop practices, this study aims to answer the following questions:

    • How can workshop practices “visualizing user stories” as well as facilitating “design studio sessions” be used to establish common understanding within the web development team?
    • How can four stages of cognitive processes (knowing, learning, understanding and executing) for developing shared mental models be understood?

    Participant observation and interviews are among research methods used. The ‘Shared Mental Model’ by Cannon-Bowers et al. (1993) is the primary theoretical framework used here. The results of this study indicate how workshop practices such as visualizing user stories well as conducting design studio sessions contribute to a common understanding due to increased social interaction among team members. The results also indicate that the web development team has been unable to process and exchange relevant information with each other during the initial stages of learning and development due to the lack of team building activities. This, in return affects further development of the shared mental model in the following steps. 

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  • 264.
    Björk, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Den sociala reklamen: Sociala mediers inverkan på svenska reklambyråer2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker sociala mediers inverkan på svenska reklambyråers arbetssätt. I syfte att utreda vilka förändringar sociala medier har medfört har sju svenska reklambyråer baserade i Stockholm intervjuats. För att få ut så mycket djupgående information som möjligt är intervjuerna semi-strukturerade, och följer en framtagen intervjuguide. Informationen som samlats in från respondenterna sammanställs och analyseras sedan utifrån medieforskaren Mark Deuzes kartläggning av reklambranschens medielogik. Deuzes ramverk består av fyra typer av funktioner som han menar måste analyseras för att förstå den förändring som digitaliseringen har medfört, nämligen institutionella, teknologiska, organisatoriska och kulturella funktioner. Detta ramverk har sedan applicerats för att undersöka hur reklambyråerna använder sig av sociala medier idag, samt hur byråernas arbete har förändrats i takt med sociala mediers framväxt. Studiens resultat visar att sociala medier i flera avseenden har förändrat sättet som svenska reklambyråer arbetar mot sina uppdragsgivare, men att användandet av byråernas egna sociala konton är begränsat. De förändringar som sociala medier har medfört inkluderar utökade, mer digitala, arbetsuppgifter för kreatörer och produktionsledare, vars kompetens flera byråer är måna om att bevara istället för att rekrytera yngre arbetskraft. Sociala medier har även medfört ett lättare system för trafikmätningar samtidigt som kraven på effektivt innehåll har ökat. Slutligen har sociala mediers framväxt även resulterat i vagare gränser dels mellan yrkesrollerna inom byråerna, men även i viss grad mellan olika byråtyper. 

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  • 265.
    Björk, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Elected Officials' View on Disinformation: On a Municipality Level2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 266.
    Björklund, Olivia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Tesanovic, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Strategisk legitimitet: En kvalitativ studie om Försvarsmaktens kommunikativa arbete ur ett nyinstitutionellt perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about how the Swedish Armed Forces, as a government organization, can communicate constructively in relation to legitimate communication on their official website. Today's communication as an official organization is increasingly dominated by the so-called marketization. This can lead to an effect of public organizations changing their structure of communication.

    The research questions of the essay has been answered using qualitative methods. Where the empirical material has been collected from the Swedish Armed Forces using visual image analysis, text analysis and an interview. The text analysis is performed at the Swedish Armed Forces official website and on six selected official documents published by the government organization. A qualitative image analysis is also performed on the website, to get an overview of their communication. To complement these methods, a structured mail interview has also been conducted with the Communications Department at the Swedish Armed Forces. 

    The study is using a new institutional perspective with Scott’s (2014) three pillars of institutions and DiMaggio and Powell’s (1983) isomorphic processes, which is used as a theoretical tool for our analysis. New institutional theory, assumes how organizations and organizational actions subconsciously and consciously relate to the expectations and demands posed by the environment. The theory is thus presented in connection with communication, identity creation, and legitimacy. The result indicates that the Swedish Armed Forces communication is facing challenges when it comes to reaching out to its stakeholders.

     

    Keywords: Governmental communication, organizational communication, legitimacy, strategic communication, digital media 

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  • 267.
    Björnsdotter, Matilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Designing functions aimed at users experiencing endometriosis or polycystic ovary syndrome within a reproductive health application2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People who are diagnosed with or suspect endometriosis or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are rarely included in the design of reproductive health applications, leading to a lack of functions useful to this user group. Non-normative user groups in general, including those experiencing endometriosis or PCOS, are also rarely mentioned in research of reproductive health applications or Human-Computer Interaction. Based on user requests, the aim of this thesis was to design new functions within the application Read Your Body aimed at their users experiencing endometriosis or PCOS. The project consisted of an iterative design process including research for design, sketching, prototyping, and user tests. It was found that this user group mainly wanted to track their symptoms and cycle to gain health insight, and a large number of tracking options and easy customisation was requested. The design process resulted in a design prototype that includes the ability to track symptoms, triggers, self-care practices and treatments as well as visualising and exporting data for personal health insight or to communicate with others. Knowledge created on the non-normative user group, their goals for tracking, and how to design reproductive health tracking applications for non-normative users could be useful in future research and design projects. The functions designed could improve understanding of self and communication with healthcare professionals, and inform diagnosis, treatment plans and self-care practices. 

  • 268.
    Blanc, Isabelle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Bergström, Fanny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    En human och rättvis värld: En studie om konsumenters syn på corporate social responsibility och den internetbaserade klädinsustrin2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: ”A more humane and equal world” A consumers view on corporate social responsibility and the internet based apparel commerce.

    Author: Fanny Bergström & Isabelle Blanc

    Mentor: Emma Svensson

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to examine the attitudes and experiences of consumers in relation to Internet based commerce and corporate social responsibility. The study is based on the following questions; 1. How do costumers perceive Internet based companies and their work with CSR-questions? 2. Is external communications, particularly social and environmental responsibility and transparency something that costumer’s request? And 3. Are there any differences between the different consumer groups’ opinions and attitudes on corporate social responsibility and sustainable development depending on their earlier experiences and understandings?

    Method/ Material: The results are based on a qualitative study built on four different focus group interviews. Each focus group consisted of five students studying at Uppsala University with either a main focus in sustainable development or any other subject. The interviews were constructed with the help of Krueger’s 1998 interview guide model and later vertically and horizontally analyzed.

    Main Results: The main results demonstrate that the interviewed consumers do not perceive that Internet based companies work with corporate social responsibility towards their costumers. Furthermore the results show that work with CSR is something that the participants find should be available for costumers, although other factors are of more value, for example price and product quality. The main results moreover demonstrate that there are significant differences between the two groups studied, where students with more knowledge about corporate social responsibility valued companies external communication on CSR more than students that did not have any previous knowledge.

    Number of Pages: 59

    Course: Media and Communication studies C

    University: Division of Media and Communications, Department of Information Science, Uppsala University

    Term: Fall 2013

    Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, consumption patterns, sustainable development, transparency, corporate abilities.

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  • 269.
    Blanc, Matilda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Carlsson, Amina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    It’s not easy being green: En kvalitativ studie om Na-Kd Circles CSR-Kommunikation2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate Social Responsibility or CSR has, in step with societal development and awareness, driven companies to take several aspects into account. Issues relating to climate, sustainability, social and financial issues are some of the meanings of social responsibility and to which companies are taking into account. The knowledge about the textile industry has broadened throughout society which has led to a certain awareness about what we buy. This makes CSR communication important. Recently, several companies in the fashion industry have chosen to introduce various recycling programs of clothing in an attempt to reduce its climate footprint and position themselves as more sustainable in the market. One example is the fast-fashion company NA-KD and their sustainable initiative NA-KD Circle. Previous research has demonstrated how the inclusion of CSR can be important for the brand's credibility and loyalty. Based on methods that have been linked to the theoretical framework studied, the study has applied rhetorical and semiotic analysis as well as Kim and Ferguson’s six dimensions of effective CSR. In addition to these, Stuart Hall's model of encoding and decoding has also been used to illuminate the reception of the respondents. With the help of semi-structured interviews, the study's second and third questions have been attempted to be answered. These have touched on the topics of whether NA-KD Circle can be perceived as effective CSR and how this affects young women's attitude towards NA-KD as a brand. The interviews were further analyzed with qualitative content analysis where two themes were identified. The women's attitude and influence towards NA-KD as a brand resulted in its image being more skeptical than unchanged. It can also be read that the recipients did not decode the material of NA-KD Circle in the way that the sender was striving for. The recipients partly received the message but applied their personal perspectives and interpretations to the material.

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  • 270.
    Blennå, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Jansson, Linnéa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Att försvara sin existens på sociala medier: En kvalitativ studie om hur Voi Technology kommunicerar externt för att uppfattas som en legitim aktör2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the past few years, the number of e-scooter rental services has rapidly increased in Sweden and across Europe. The increased usage of e-scooters has created problems, for example with accessibility on sidewalks and traffic safety. Consequently, the e-scooter industry has become a highly debated topic. This case study examined how Voi Technology communicate to profile themselves as legitimate, based on Max Weber’s principles of legitimation and Mark C. Suchman’s legitimation strategies. Three research questions were formulated to be able to fulfill the aim of the study: 1) Which of Suchman’s strategies to maintain legitimacy can be distinguished in Voi Technology’s external communication? 2) Which of Suchman’s strategies to repair legitimacy can be distinguished in Voi Technology’s external communication? 3) Which of Weber’s principles of legitimation can be distinguished in Voi Technology’s external communication? 30 posts from Voi’s social media accounts on Instagram, Facebook and Linkedin were analyzed with a qualitative content analysis and a semiotic analysis. The results showed that Voi are using the strategies “protect accomplishments” and “perceive change” to maintain legitimacy and the strategies “normalize” and “restructure” to repair legitimacy. The study did also find the legal-rational and charismatic principles of legitimation in Voi’s communication. The traditional principle of legitimation could not be found. Instead, Voi often presented themselves as non-traditional and innovative. This study contributes with more knowledge about how organizations can communicate to get legitimacy, when an organization or market is being questioned.   

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  • 271.
    Blix, Linnea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Ludén, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Legitimitet och förändring: En studie om privata assistansbolags kommunikation kring regeringens översyn av insatser enligt LSS och assistansersättningen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gaining or obtaining legitimacy is more and more important to all types of organizations. In the aspiration for an organization to achieve legitimacy, it is crucial to take the surrounding environment into account. The surrounding environment can for example include governing authorities or the general citizen. By using the “right” communication efforts, an organization can more or less maintain its legitimacy in the eyes of the public. Our study uses neo-institutional theory and its key concepts of legitimacy, isomorphism, rationalized myths and so on, to examine and analyze how private companies in Sweden who are operating in the arena for assistance care are affected by the Swedish government’s investigation of the Swedish law that regulates assistance care. The primary study perspective is how these companies act in their communication to assert its existence based on theoretical concepts within neo-institutional theory.

    The result of this thesis has concluded that the different assistance care companies communicate about this governmental investigation. However, one of the companies (Frösunda) did not communicate about the investigation very much compared to the other two companies (Särnmark and Humana). Särnmark and Humana usually used their communication to criticize or influence politicians to prevent the negative consequences of the investigation. The study connected the material to important concepts of neo-institutional theory and the result confirmed that most of the communication was used to gain or maintain legitimacy. Also most of the communication contains signs of isomorphism and rationalized myths.

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  • 272.
    Blixt, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Samuelsson, Viktor
    Organisationers inställning till informationssäkerhet i molntjänster: En studie av vilka faktorer som främst påverkar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie kartlägger vilka faktorer som främst påverkar organisationers inställning till molntjänster utifrån ett informationssäkerhetsperspektiv. Intervjuer och dokumentstudier har genomförts för att få reda på fem olika organisationers åsikter i ämnet. Dessa åsikter har sedan analyserats och jämförts med varandra samt med redan befintliga teorier inom ämnet. Studien visar att det framförallt är tre aspekter som påverkar hur organisationer ser på informationssäkerhet i molntjänster: tillit till leverantören, kontroll över sin egen data samt rådande lagstiftning.

  • 273.
    Blom, Erica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Säkerhet av e-valutor: Riksbankens e-kronaförslag och näthot2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 274.
    Blomberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Standardization and organizational change: Standardized ERP systems: a business development and change limitation?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When adopting standardized ERP systems organizations also adopt standardized processes. These processes are integrated in the organization. The integration of standardized business processes redefines the business while standardization also leads to more indistinguishable business processes. Standardization is a prominent property of SAP ERP. When organizations implement SAP they also implement the SAP way of doing business. The research question is based on a consideration whether increased standardization, as part of SAP ERP, may limit the organization’s possibility to change.To examine the question the thesis use interviews with a business organization and SAP consultants as well as document studies. The results of the empirical work point to the fact that standardization is not limiting opportunity to change. Rather standardization is viewed as a necessary structure that is more of an organizational change enabler than a limiter. The enabling view of standardization is a consistent finding from the empirical study.

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  • 275.
    Blomberg, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Russian and Eurasian Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Embracing Ambiguity: The Soviet Perception of The Islamic Revolution of Iran2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The revolution in Iran 1978-79 is still an enigma. Its roots, causes and effects are still open for debate. The Islamic revolution contradicts many of the fundamental concepts of a revolution and lacks many classic elements such as economic crises, labour, peasants or military rebellion(Arjomand, 1988, p. 3). The series of events that led to the fall of the Iranian monarchy and the rise of the Islamic Republic of Iran brought anticipation and anxiety to the USSR. Iran was its big southern neighbour, an autocratic Imperial State, and an ally to the West. The sudden fall of the Shah rule contradicted the Soviet understanding of revolution, social development, and progress. A few months after the Islamic revolution, USSR invaded Afghanistan, and in the late summer of 1980, Iraq invaded Iran(Reuveny & Prakash, 1999). What did the revolution in Iran mean for the Soviet Union? The most common answer to that question is that the revolution was an ultimate gain for USSR. This study argues that, in fact, the events were much more complicated than so.

  • 276.
    Blomqvist, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Henriksen, Theodor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    "Man gör underhållning och tjänar pengar på en tragedi": En kvalitativ studie om true crime-podcasts framställning av mord2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    True crime has rapidly become a large part of the podcast empire. Content based on tragic events has great demand in the form of entertainment. People are able to listen to in-depth dramatizations of how murder victims were killed and private information about murderers, victims and relatives. The large amount of material and the easy accessibility to it have been criticized for lack of ethics and morals. Unethical for victims, relatives and perpetrators, industries make money from people’s trauma. 

    The purpose of this study is to compare commercial and public service podcasts ways of narrating true crime-cases from an ethical point of view. The murder of Lisa Holm, 2015, and the murder of Lotta Rudholm, 2016, are both well known criminal cases in Sweden. Four podcasts on each case were collected for a qualitative critical discourse analysis. Initially, an overall analysis was performed on each episode where the central content and structure was summarized. Furthermore, additional aspects were implemented for an in-depth analysis. Finally, a comparative critical discourse analysis of the material was performed based on its publisher, public service and commercial. The results show that there is a difference in the portrayal of real crimes when comparing public service driven and commercially driven podcasts. Notably when studying language use and tools to dramatize a murder. 

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  • 277.
    Blume, Pontus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Evaluating Predictive AI for Taxi Fleet Positioning Management2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Predictive AI has huge potential to increase efficiency in taxi networks, improving incomes of drivers and passengers’ time, by calculating passenger demands and making the informationaccessible to drivers. However, to gain these benefits, drivers must accept the technology, and designers must understand how their perceptions govern acceptance. This study evaluates predictive AI applied to taxi fleet management from a user acceptance perspective, in the context of a proposed extended technology acceptance model, with added user experience constructs.Process modelling of a taxi organisation was performed to see how the algorithm fit into that context, and an app was designed to give taxi drivers access to its output. After a period, semistructured interviews were conducted, and thematic analysis was performed to identify what factors were important for their acceptance. The study found that visual design, interactivity, complexity, compatibility, utility, inclusivity, norms, presentation, and trustworthiness were factors that needed to be addressed by designers for successful implementation of predictive AI in the context of taxi fleet management. 

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  • 278.
    Blume, Pontus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Ekberg, Filip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Användbarhet vs Integritet: En fallstudie om hur användbarhet påverkar villighet att dela personlig information på Facebooks plattformar2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increased participation in various social media platforms have led to large amounts of user data being generated, creating an opportunity for businesses that run the platforms to store and sell the data. This has created a situation where users are forced to weigh the benefits of using the platforms against sharing their personal information, which is a risk to their privacy. To address this issue, this study investigates how users weigh usability benefits against the perceived risks of sharing personal information. A case study was conducted on platforms run by Facebook (FP). Data collection was done through interviews and by gathering previous research before the result was analyzed using a qualitative method. The interview questions addressed usefulness, perceived risk and integrity management and were, among other research, formulated from the Technology Acceptance Model. The study made several interesting findings about usefulness, users’ need for integrity and how they perceive and tolerate various risks. Conclusions could then be drawn about how these findings affect users’ decision making process regarding their intention to use FP. 

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  • 279.
    Boberg, Edvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Datadriven content marketing: Användning av sociala data inom content marketing på Facebook2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats innehåller en förståelseinriktad analys av hur sociala data från Facebook används inom Content Marketing bland ett urval av kommunikationsbyråer i Stockholm. Uppsatsen förklarar hur sociala data används för att skapa content, samt hur sociala data används för att mäta resultat av publicerat content på Facebook. Uppsatsen presenterar även en analys av begreppet Content Marketing genom att ställa olika vetenskapliga definitioner mot varandra. Uppsatsen belyser även den rådande bristen på aktuella vetenskapliga publiceringar inom området Content Marketing från ett datadrivet perspektiv, vilket motiverar uppsatsens relevans i ett vetenskaplig sammanhang.

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  • 280.
    Bogaerts, Jo
    et al.
    Université Libre de Bruxelles.
    Carpentier, Nico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    The postmodern challenge to journalism: Strategies for constructing a trustworthy identity2019In: Communication and Discourse Theory: Collected works of the Brussels Discourse Theory Group / [ed] Leen Van Brussel, Benjamin De Cleen, Nico Carpentier, Bristol: Intellect Ltd., 2019, p. 141-156Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Journalism scholars have noted a steady rise of skepticism among the public in the latter half of the past century. "The passing of the 'High Modernism'" of journalism as Daniel Hallin (1992: 14) famously put it, shows in a loss of faith in journalists (Kovach & Rosenstiel: 41) and a seeming dissolution of journalists' covenant with the public (Cappella and Jamieson, 1997). But the era of 'postmodernism' (McQuail, 1994) or 'liquid modernity' (Bauman, 2000) in journalism also fundamentally impacted upon journalists' self-perception - or the trust they have in their profession and their own practices. The "absence of a sense of doubt or contradiction," (Hallin: idem) on the part of journalists has in the past decades been challenged in the face of such developments as commercialization, cross-media mergers and the rise of new media that deprive the journalist of his/her privileged position as "society's truth-teller" (McNair 1998: 71). Since the above mentioned developments have contributed to the erosion of the status (and thus legitimation) of journalists (Hallin, 2006) and have evoked the claim of 'the end of journalism' in a traditional sense, we may expect journalists to invest more effort in generating trust in their profession both for the audience and themselves. In order to analyze these strategies we will take a discourse-theoretical perspective on journalism that regards the latter as a discourse centered on a number of privileged signifiers that are connected up in a hegemonic discursive formation. This theoretical model -mainly opened up by Foucault, Laclau and Mouffe and ?i?ek - allows us to analyze how this journalistic hegemonic discursive formation deals with so-called dislocations, i.e. events that destabilize and de-legitimize the dominant discourse by introducing elements that cannot be domesticated within its framework. More in particular we will be looking at how a number of the core journalistic values are being discredited in the era of 'liquid modernity'. Examples are the broad changes in the possibilities for circulating news (that challenge journalist's autonomy), in the attitude towards the representation of reality (that contest journalist's modernist bias towards truth (Zelizer 2004:112)) and the introduction of commercial imperatives in news production (that delegitimize journalist's claims on bringing service to the public). The actions journalists engage in as a means to deal with these changes and reaffirm their own status and professionalism in the face of challenge have been researched in a number of ways. These have, for instance, been investigated from a macro-perspective as actions of 'paradigmatic repair' (Reese 1990) that are directed at reaffirming the ideological model(s) of journalism (see Carpentier 2008 en 2009). Tightly interlinked with this are studies that address the meso-level of the newspaper institution (see Reese 1990; Tuchman 1972). This article proposes to look at the normalizing strategies that are at work at the level of the journalistic identity. In order to analyze these strategies we will turn to a specific field, namely that of online news, as this is one of the sites where the threats sketched out above have forcefully come to the surface. It is exactly at such moments of threat that the truth-claims and strategies of generating trust are most clearly at work. By investigating online journalism, we wish to shed light on three discursive strategies employed in reaction to these threats: A first strategy is the marginalization of rivaling media (through the logics of the constitutive outside) which disarticulates online journalists from the discourse of 'good' and 'professional' journalism. Secondly, mainstream journalism has tried to maintain its professional identity by normalizing the mainstream online environment which entails limiting the possibilities offered by the online environment and incorporating alternative voices in the mainstream model. Thirdly, we witness a rearticulation of the nodal points embedded in the mainstream discourse. We may here think of a tendency towards foregrounding the journalist as individual and thus of reinforcing his claims on trustworthiness. Of importance here is also the increasingly interpretative role taken on by the journalist (Hallin 1992: 19) and the growing importance of the public image of journalists in blogs and other writings of an autobiographical nature. We will contend that these all link up with a reinforcement of journalistic myths that (re)surface in the face of 'the end of journalism'.

  • 281.
    Bogren Ericsson, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Eklöf, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Social commerce: En studie om hur vårt nya sätt att kommunicera förändrar vårt sätt att konsumera2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Social commerce - A study of how our changing way of communicating affects the way we consume

    Number of pages: 39 (43 including enclosures)

    Author: Linda Bogren Ericsson, Sara Eklöf

    Tutor: Ann-Marie Morhed

    Course: Media and Communication Studies C

    Period: HT 2011

    University: Division of Media and Communication, Department of Information Science, Uppsala University.

    Purpose/Aim: The purpose with this thesis is to study the phenomenon social commerce in Sweden and investigate the reasons why Comviq, Pocket Shop and Lagerhaus have chosen to use social media as a platform for their e-commerce. Furthermore, we want to clarify what it is that makes social media a suitable platform for e-commerce and how e-commerce can take advantage of the unique features that social media possesses.

    Material/Method: The study was conducted through qualitative interviews with companies who are in contact with social commerce in different ways. The study was based on interviews with respondents from five Swedish companies. Three of these companies, Comviq, Pocket Shop and Lagerhaus are all engaged in social commerce, and the other two, Askås and Cloud Nine are developers of e- commerce services for the social media platform.

    Main Results: The result of our study showed that Comviq, Pocket Shop and Lagerhaus chose to use social media as a platform for e-commerce in order to increase their sales. Furthermore, social media holds important communicative features that facilitate the dissemination of information. The viral spread of online word-of-mouth can quickly and effectively reach many people through the connected network within social media. This ability is an important reason for why the three companies use social media as a platform for e-commerce. It also emphasizes how e-commerce can benefit from a presence on social media. In our conclusion, we note that the convergence of e-commerce and social media, and the consumer’s need for participation are signs of how our changing way of communicating affects the way we consume.

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    Social commerce - En studie om hur vårt nya sätt att kommunicera förändrar vårt sätt att konsumera
  • 282.
    Bogren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Chu, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Svenska ungdomars attityd till implantat av mikrochip i kroppen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mikrochip, eller integrerad krets, är en samling av elektroniska kretsar på en mindre platta. De går att finna i nästan alla elektroniska produkter, såsom i mobiler eller självkörande bilar. Idag har denna teknik blivit så liten att människor kan implantera den i kroppen, där användningsområdena är många och fortfarande relativt outforskade. Ny teknik kommer ofta med positiva och negativa aspekter, en teknik som kan integreras med kroppen kan för individen kännas integritetskränkande, främmande eller obehagligt. Detta är en kvalitativ studie där vi genom intervjuer har undersökt vilka attityder ungdomar i Sverige har till implantat av mikrochip. Studien har identifierat vad ungdomar har för attityder och åsikter kring mikrochip i kontexten av deras egna privatliv, hälsa, vardagsliv och datasäkerhet.

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  • 283.
    Bohlin, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Olsson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Att granska eller inte granska?: En studie av journalistiska roller i förändring under coronapandemin2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that journalistic roles change in times of crisis, from critically reviewing authorities to disseminating information. Why does this happen? And are these indications true within a Swedish context? The aim of this study is to investigate how journalistic roles in Swedish media has changed over time during the covid-19 pandemic and what factors that lies behind the change.[JB1]  To do this, a quantitative content analysis of Swedish news articles was used in combination with qualitative interviews with journalists. The content analysis found that the presence of critical roles (detached watchdog and critical change agent) decreased during the first months of the pandemic while the presence of informational and regime-friendly roles (populist disseminator and opportunist facilitator) increased. One year into the pandemic, the presence of critical roles resurged towards a normal level while the two informational and regime-friendly roles decreased. The qualitative interviews show that, whilst the perceived journalistic roles did not change during the pandemic, the ability to put those ideals to practice was affected by several external factors. These factors include: the dominance of corona-related news, the challenging nature of critically reviewing an ongoing crisis, a general lack of corona-related knowledge, changes in work practice and working environment, and a lack of previous experience from similar crises. The change in practiced journalistic roles was generally viewed by the respondents as unintended and problematic. This underlines the important difference between perceived and practiced journalistic roles.  [JB1]Reviderat.

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  • 284.
    Bohlin, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Molin, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Datormedierad kommunikation i politikens tjänst: En studie av attityder till datormedierad kommunikation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 285.
    Bohman, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Ismahil, Dlovan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Hur ska vi säkerställa arbetsmiljön vid distansarbete?: En studie om hur ledare använder digitala kommunikationsverktyg för att säkerställa arbetsmiljön2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problematization: Remote work is estimated to become an increasingly common solution for organizations in the future. However, when employees work from home it becomes more difficult to discover any shortcomings in the work environment. Previous research has not focused on how digital communication tools can be used to detect flaws in the work environment when working remotely, which means that there is a knowledge gap that this study intends to contribute to.

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to develop knowledge about what opportunities and limitations leaders experience with digital communication tools and how they use the tools to ensure the employees' work environment when working remotely.

    Method and materials: A qualitative deductive approach was used to answer the study’s two research questions. The primary data was conducted through ten semi-structured interviews with different leadership roles from various industries.

    Conclusions: The result showed that the leaders could ensure the employees psychosocial work environment by using different channels that digital communication tools offered. Those channels were mainly chat and video meetings. Chat made it possible for the leaders to quickly and easily communicate with their employees and ask about their health. Video meetings were the channel that gave the leaders the opportunity to see the employees, which made it easier to get a picture of their well-being. Furthermore, it also emerged that digital communication tools were not enough to ensure the employees' physical work environment. The leaders could only pay attention to small details, which was not enough to assess whether the employees had a suitable working environment at home from a physical perspective. In order to ensure the physical working environment, it would have been necessary for the employees to walk around and show their workplace at home with the help of the camera. However, this was not something that the leaders in this study advocated due to the employee’s personal sphere.

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  • 286.
    Bohman, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Murphy, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Bring Your Own Device: Analys av trenden, dess möjligheter och problem2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att få en grundläggande kunskap kring begreppet bring your own device. Eftersom ämnet är väldigt nytt och att det finns en viss okunnighet kring begreppet är det intressant att ta reda på varför BYOD är en uppgående trend, hur svenska verksamheter tänker inför tillåtandet, vilka krav som ställs och vilka problem som följer. För att komma fram till dessa slutsatser har intervjuer genomförts på tre olika verksamheter. Varav en verksamhet har tagit sig an BYOD och de andra två planerar inför tillåtandet av BYOD. Det har även genomförts intervjuer på både unga studenter, unga i arbetslivet samt en jurist för att få en tydligare bild av företeelsen. Resultatet visar att fördelar med BYOD är kostnadsbesparingar, flexibilitet och nöjda anställda. Däremot finns det vissa säkerhetsrelaterade problem samt juridiska problem med BYOD. Sådana problem kan handla om äganderätt, osäkra nätverk, obehörig åtkomst och frågor kring abonnemang. Många av dessa problem kan däremot förhindras genom att verksamheter skriver en policy som är speciellt framtagen för BYOD.

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    Bring your own device
  • 287.
    Bohné, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Emotions at play: gaining emotional knowledge using a video game2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of video games for teaching children different subjects is commonly believed to be a good  approach. In  general  has  learning  theme  for  these  games  focused  on  traditionally subject, such as math or biology. Important as they can be for education, other softer aspects can also be considered important for the children and education. One such aspect is emotions and the role it has on a social level. However, it is not much research showing how to use emotions  in  a  learning  game. In  this  thesis, I  examine  how  children  perceive  and  use emotions as they play a game specially designed for teaching emotions. The game utilises emotions  in  a  new  design  that  let  the  player  interact  with  cartoon  animals  in  different scenarios. I report findings based on a sample of thirty-three (33) preschool children, and six (6) parents who took part in the study. Data was collected using a qualitative method in a two step procedure with observation of play and follow up interviews in the first step, followed by video recordings of play and demonstrations using cuddly pets in the second step. Using an ecological framework for analysis and theory from the field of emotional intelligence, I show that children playing this game can perceive emotions expressed in the game. I also show that it is possible to play this particular game without the need to involve emotions. Children do not learn emotions from playing the game. These results carries important implication for the design of learning games as it illuminates that learning can come from possible sources other than the gameplay.

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  • 288.
    Bokstad, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Russian and Eurasian Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Equality, friendship and mutual respect: Exploring Russian state public diplomacy in Sub-Saharan Africa2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Russia has energetically expanded its involvement in Sub-Saharan Africa in the last decade. Through a qualitative thematic analysis on a dataset of 191 English language posts from the websites of the Kremlin and the Russian MFA published between 2001 and 2023, this project seeks to describe how Russian state public diplomacy presents Russia’s relations with Sub-Saharan African nations and Africa as a whole. A typology by Bobba and Hubé (2021) was adapted, which focuses on how issues are problematised and politicised in political communication, and revolves around the categories of naming, blaming and claiming. The findings reveal that while anti-colonial and anti-Western rhetoric is prevalent in Russian state public diplomacy, themes emphasising cooperation, shared values, identity, and positive representations are even more widespread, a departure from previous research. This justified the creation of a fourth category in the typology: invoking. Combative portrayals of the West, and naming of colonialism as a problem, entered the dataset starting around 2018 for MFA posts and 2022 for Kremlin posts. From 2022, some posts also portrayed Russia as a country and Russians as a people as fellow victims of colonialism together with Africa, which was not mentioned in prior research. Further studies could apply the typology used in this thesis to include statements by Sub-Saharan African state officials, or study Russian state portrayals of relations with Russia’s Near Abroad.

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  • 289.
    Bolander, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Medialisering i det politiska systemet: en kvalitativ studie om en politiskt styrd organisations medialiseringsprocess2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to examine to which extant the politically governed organization, Swedish association of local authorities and local regions (SALAR), has been mediatized. Furthermore the purpose was to examine how SALAR being a Meta-organization affected the mediatization process. To accomplish this the thesis studied how SALAR organized themselves internally in order to form opinion through the media in one of their prioritized issues. A further purpose was to equalize SALAR’s mediatization process with the mediatization process for the whole political system. 

    Method: This is a qualitative study which the gathered material has been collected through two types of methods, semi structured interviews and field observations.

    Material: A total of eight interviews were made distributed over three departments inside SALAR. Furthermore four observations were made to supplement the interviews.

    Findings: The general findings of this study shows that SALAR has been mediatized through organizing in way which signals adaptation to media logic. However, contrary too much of what the literature tells about political mediatization, SALAR adapts to media logic to be able to use the media as an arena for the messages and stories they want to tell. Which means that the adaption isn’t only forced but they are able to make the most of that adaption. SALAR from a Meta organizational perspective shows that it does not affect the actual mediatization process, only that using members as examples enforces the content, which later forms opinion. Concluding, no evidence can be found the supports the notion that SALAR’s mediatization process can be equalled to the meditization process for the whole political system.

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  • 290.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Appel, Hugo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Krishantering av personliga varumärken2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis attempts to sketch what happens in the intersection between crisismanagement, personal brands and self-presentation. Self-branding and the marketisation ofthe individual, is an increasingly common phenomena and the purpose of this thesis is to casta light on the complexity that arises when a personal brand is subjected to a reputationalcrisis.

    The questions asked by this study has been: What communicative strategies are beingused to control the self-presentation through crisis management of personal brands onYouTube? Are these strategies comparable to established theories of crisis managementwithin companies and organisations? 

    The thesis uses van Dijk and Goffman to create a table for analysis of both linguisticand extralinguistic features of the crisis communication of two personal brands on YouTube. The material that is analysed consists of six videos, three from each personal brand, and twoblog posts from one of the personal brands. These are all the instances where the twopersonal brands are addressing the crisis. The linguistic and extralinguistic communicativefeatures are identified and analysed using semiotic analysis. The results are then summarisedand compared with Coombs theory of crisis management postures.

    In conclusion, our result is a list of 14 communicative strategies being used to controlthe self-presentation of the personal brand. Furthermore, our conclusion is that four of themare comparable to Coombs strategies, five are somewhat comparable and five deviate fromCoombs strategies. This lead us to conclude that the crisis management of personal brands issomewhat comparable to established theories of crisis management within companies andorganisations.

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    Krishantering av personliga varumärken
  • 291.
    Bornegrim, Lucas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Holmquist, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Robotic process automation - An evaluative model for comparing RPA-tools2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research studies the three market-leading RPA-tools, Automation Anywhere, Blue Prism and UiPath, in order to fill the lack of literature regarding methods for evaluating and comparing RPA-tools. Design science research was performed by designing and creating artefacts in the form of process implementations and an evaluative model. A typical process representing a common area of use was implemented using each of the three RPA-tools, in order to create an evaluative model. Official documentation, along with the three implementations, were studied. Evaluative questions specific to RPA-tool evaluation were created based on a quality model for product quality found in the ISO/IEC 25010 standard. Characteristics dependant on organisational context were not included in the evaluation, in order to create an evaluative model which is not dependant on any specific business environment. The results of the research provide knowledge of (1) how RPA-tools can be implemented and (2) the differences that exist between the three market-leading RPA tools. The research also contributes in the form of a method for investigating and evaluating the RPA-tools. When creating the evaluative model, some of the criteria found in the ISO/IEC 25010 quality model were concluded to be of low relevance and, therefore, not included in the model. By analysing and evaluating the created evaluative model, using a theoretical concept of digital resources and their evaluation, the validity of the evaluative model was reinforced. From an evaluative perspective, this research emphasises the need to appropriate and change existing evaluative methods in order to successfully evaluate the most relevant characteristics of RPA-tools.

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  • 292.
    Boronin, Mikhail
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Information Systems.
    Hybrid Cloud Migration Challenges. A case study at King2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Migration to the cloud has been a popular topic in industry and academia in recent years. Despite many benefits that the cloud presents, such as high availability and scalability, most of the on-premise application architectures are not ready to fully exploit the benefits of this environment, and adapting them to this environment is a non-trivial task.Therefore, many organizations consider a gradual process of moving to the cloud with Hybrid Cloud architecture. In this paper, the author is making an effort of analyzing particular enterprise case in cloud migration topics like cloud deployment, cloud architecture and cloud management.This paper aims to identify, classify, and compare existing challenges in cloud migration, illustrate approaches to resolve these challenges and discover the best practices in cloud adoption and process of conversion teams to the cloud.

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  • 293.
    Boshuijzen-van Burken, Christine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden; Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Haftor, Darek
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media. Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    An Assessment of the Uber App’s Normative Practice2017In: Philosophia Reformata, ISSN 0031-8035, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 192-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes a complex case in society, namely, how to distinguish ride-sharing applications, such as Uber, from ordinary taxi enterprises. We conduct a structural analysis of normative practices with distinctions at the following levels: (1) aspects; (2) radical types, genotypes, and phenotypes; (3) part-whole, enkaptic relationships, and interlinkages; and (4) the distinction between qualifying and foundational functions as it is captured in the theory of normative practices. We conclude that the genotype of taxi matchmaking enterprises, of which Uber is an example, represents a novel normativity that could positively serve society and also produce normative challenges, depending on its governance. Therefore, regulators should not dismiss the entire  genotype of taxi matchmaking enterprises, but should address the phenotypes that are illegal or that cannot thrive without the illegal behaviors of its users. This conclusion is clear from the structural and directional sides of the practice.

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  • 294. Boshuijzen-van Burken, Christine
    et al.
    Haftor, DarekUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Reason, Faith and Practice in Our Common Home: Festschrift for Dr. Sytse Strijbos2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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  • 295.
    Boson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Jakten på talang: En studie i hur employer branding kommuniceras effektivt till studenter2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose/Aim: To identify which channels of communication are most effective in conveying consumer brands to students. The main areas of research are social media, brochures , employees, and face-to-face interaction as with job fairs, study visits and lectures.

    Material/Method: Group interviews, literature, electronic sources, Internet sources.

    Main results: The results of the study show that employees are seen as the most trustworthy source since they are thought of as the most honest. Social media are seen as the communication channel with the broadest range of information but with the possibility of appearing unproffesional. Brochures were considered to be the least effective communication channel as these are rarely read and when they are, often seem contrived and give an overly rigid impression of the company. Face-to-face communication was considered to be the most effective way to gain a professional connection but was as viewed upon with certain skepsis due to the companies tendencies to at times present a false projection of themselves at events such as job fairs. The desire to aquire trustworthy and authentic information was constant throughout the results, something which the different channels of communication could offer to varying extents

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  • 296.
    Boström, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Risén, Felix
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Agentbaserad Simulering som Kontinuerlig Testning av API:er: Utveckling av Simulationsbaserad Testning på uppdrag av Coredination AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett simulationsbaserat testningssystem tas fram i samarbete med molntjänsten Coredination för att testa deras API (Application Programing Interface) och tjänst. Design och utveckling skedde iterativt med en loggbok för informationsinsamling. Arbetet baserade sig i riktlinjer för agentbaserad simulering framtagna av Macal & North (2010). Simulationstestningen bestod av ett antal agenter som med hjälp utav beteendeträd fattade beslut som liknar de beslut en användare av systemet skulle göra. Från detta togs ett antal lärdomar samt en systemarkitektursmodell fram för att underlätta utveckling av simulationsbaserad testning i andra sammanhang. Dessa lärdomar innefattar att göra en tydlig förstudie, arbeta iterativt med projektet, utveckla för modularitet och initialt för kommunikation mellan agenterna, bygg på nodernas funktionalitet i efterhand, avsätt gott om tid för design av beteendeträd, utveckla endast det absolut enklaste fallet först samt var inte rädd att ändra systemarkitekturen utefter agenternas planerade beteenden.

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  • 297.
    Boström, Ludvig
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Andersson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Det flerdimensionella biobesöket: En gamification-studie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gamification has been increasingly integrated into our lives every year within different areas such as shopping, sports and education. It focuses by definition on increasing the motivation in users by introducing gaming elements into a non-gaming context. This paper aims to investigate how well current design principles and design guidelines, that have been shaped from the so-called MDA-framework (a framework within gamification), can be used for designing a gamification application within the context of a cinematic experience or if modification is required. It also investigates whether this sort of application would be able to increase the general interest of becoming a member at a cinema enterprise such as Filmstaden, Sweden. First of all, an interview was constructed as part of the pre-study to check the general attitude and interest toward an application like this. An existing framework for gamification called the MDA-framework was then used to create a Lo-Fi prototype that practices the principles and guidelines of MDA for an optimal design. This prototype was then tested by observing a total of 10 users who got to interact freely with the different functions. This observation was followed by an interview with the same users where they got to express their feelings toward the application and the potential issues that were presented with it. This result was then compared to the principles and guidelines used during the design to see whether any of the guidelines could be seen as faulty or if any potential guidelines were missing. The analysis of the research showed that most principles and guidelines were very helpful and brought the quality of the prototype to a satisfactory level on most accounts. The attitude towards some of the guidelines was proven to have changed since their emergence though. Finally, the paper also discovered, based on the applicant’s answers, that an application like this could increase the motivation of becoming a member in the “Cinema Club”.

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    Det flerdimensionella biobesöket
  • 298.
    Botini, Evgenia Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Navigating the Evolving World of Fashion In-Game Advertising2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study addresses gaming as an interactive digital advertising tool, aiming to explore its effectiveness in digital marketing overall and to examine its impact on digital marketing for the fashion industry in particular.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to present an analytical framework for explaining the appeal of games for fashion brand advertising. More precisely, this paper aims on investigating in detail how, if and what factors make games an appealing medium for fashion brand advertising, through a uses and gratifications perspective.

    Design/methodology/approach

    In the zeitgeist of infoxication and information anxiety, in which modern consumers must form their consumption identity habits, advertisement experts and academics are called to revise traditional advertising channels, exposed to the urgent need of finding new mass-mediated mediums to successfully reach their goal-market. While the advertising industry is striving to “consume” every freshly designed communicational platform and utilize it for marketing purposes, the uses and gratifications theory (UGT), will guide the researcher to uncover why and if audiences are choosing to perceive games as an advertising channel.

    Originality/value

    The present study contributes to the existing literature by investigating the uses and gratifications (U&Gs) that motivate gamers to adopt a positive attitude towards fashion ingame advertising (IGA) and brand recognition, and therefore influence their purchase intentions. Additionally, the study will contribute to confining the research gap between what fashion brands think they will achieve with IGA and what they are actually achieving. The study hopes to pose significant theoretical and practical implications for both researchers and practitioners who are eager in the metaverse economy, IGA advertisement and virtual world marketing communication.

    Findings

    Whilst fashion advertising in games poses a new challenge for both advertisement and mass communication practitioners, the present study concluded that games – as a mass-mediated environment – equip advertisement with the benefit of engaging audiences in interactive and immersive experiences. This unique IGA advantage allows for the creation of more personalized and targeted marketing campaigns, tapping into the specific gratifications sought by players, such as social interaction, self-expression, and achievement. By leveraging these insights, fashion brands can effectively connect with their target audience, and cultivate brand loyalty, brand recognition and brand engagement. 

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  • 299.
    Boyko, Kateryna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Russian and Eurasian Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Valkyries and Madonnas: Constructing Femininity During the Russo-Ukrainian War2023In: Post-Soviet Women: New Challenges and Ways to Empowerment / [ed] Ann-Mari Sätre; Yulia Gradskova; Vladislava Vladimirova, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2023, p. 203-224Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘We are the Kyiv Valkyries and we will send you all to hell’. This is how armed young women in camouflage from a female territorial defence unit video-addressed the Russian military in late February 2022. The rapid intensification of the Russo-Ukrainian War, ongoing since 2014, to a full-scale invasion, not only posed multiple new challenges for Ukrainian women but also became a moment of crisis that has led to rearticulating of the current femininity models.

    The chapter focuses on the visual representation of women’s war experience in Ukraine and the implications it had for Ukrainian women’s identity. In particular, it discusses how femininity is constructed through images disseminated via social media during the wartime and what cultural references have been applied, contested and rearticulated there.

    Semiotic analysis of the visuals shows that Ukrainian women are usually portrayed as a triad—three characters with different functions. First of all, the aggressive, militarist and simultaneously eroticised Valkyrie; then Madonna—a protective figure; third is the Witch—a chthonic entity with supernatural powers able to rule the fate. All the three roles merge in metaphoric visual depictions of Ukraine itself making women a symbol of Ukrainian resistance. The images tend to redefine traditional female roles and emphasise women’s agency and empowerment in the times of crisis. 

  • 300.
    Boyko, Kateryna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Russian and Eurasian Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Horbyk, Roman
    Postdoctoral Fellow, Södertörn University.
    A Medium Is Born: Participatory Media and the Rise of Clubhouse in Russia and Ukraine During the Covid-19 Pandemic2022In: Baltic Screen Media Review, E-ISSN 2346-5522, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 8-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clubhouse is a social network allowing only real-time oralcommunication. While its 2020 worldwide launch wentlargely unnoticed in Eastern Europe, it took countriessuch as Ukraine and Russia by storm in February 2021.Users were enticed by the platform’s exclusivity (invita-tion only and limited to IOS users), unusual format, andcompatibility with post-covid social life. For some time,Clubhouse was the dominant theme of discussions on othersocial media, mainstream news media organizations startedlaunching daily talk shows in the app, and early adoptersengaged in a plethora of participatory activities rangingfrom propagandist broadcasts to 24/7 rooms where botswould recite Russian classical poetry, from fervently seek-ing ways to monetise their participation to creating thesomewhat unexpected genre of audial fakes.In this article we intend to analyse the turbulent arrivalof the new app in Russia and Ukraine from the perspec-tives of media ecology and media archaeology. Focusingon the app’s mediality and remediation, the social mediadiscourse about it and particular content in some of thenotable rooms, we highlight the conjunction of social envi-ronment, the already existing and novel technologicalaffordances, as well as users’ perceptions and expectationsin the emergence of a new niche in the ecology of participa-tory media. Based on this, we will also try to outline somepossible scenarios for the new platform in Eastern Europe’sdense mediascapes. We argue that the prompt rise of Club-house’s popularity was not thanks to its special authenticity,as some suggest, but rather because of the normalization ofgroup long-distance conversations (e.g., via Zoom), coupledwith the intentional monomedia poverty of affordances andclearly delimited boundary between the roles of broadcast-ers and listeners, which was perceived as liberating in aprodusage-saturated environment. This actually limits theparticipatory media potential of content creators and influ-encers, increasing their power and reviving monologicalmodels of communication that suggest a passive audience.

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