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  • 251.
    Davis, Kim
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Shen, Changkun
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Maratea, Aymeric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Contributing to a Transition towards a Sustainable Society: Education Matters2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to shed insights and produce supportive tools to help stimulate the design of education programs. First a characterization of opportunities and challenges for education programs is given from a global sustainability standpoint. Second a characterization of what education programs may contain and take into account from a full sustainability standpoint, as an outline of education programs in a desired future at a principle level, is provided to help inspire purpose-led education services organizations. Third an outline of possible tools and strategies to help strategically close the gap between the current unsustainable state and the desired sustainable future is provided. A special focus is put on the Template for Sustainable Product Development (TSPD) process tool, originally used to help industries in their production chain, but here adapted as the “Sustainability Potential” Express Strategic Assessment for Education Programs to benefit education programs stakeholders. The authors also propose a set of three abilities acting in synergy: Creativity, “Knowledge Making” & “Open Values” (CKMOV) that are at the heart of Strategic Sustainable Development and thus may help form three equally vital pillars, which education programs may strategically take support from while helping society transition to a sustainable equilibrium.

  • 252.
    Deku, Anthony
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Kompella, Subramanya
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Cavitation in Engine Cooling Fluid due to Piston-Cylinder Assembly Forces2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of possible pitting and cavitation in internal combustion engines is receiving considerable attention. Both theoretical and simulation simulation studies are carried out in order to understand the noise and vibration sources, using a force equation. For this work, the main aim is to actually study these vibrations and try to model it. A foundation is also laid to study cavitation and find possible ways of increasing the life of the engine components. A model to calculate pressure variation in the system is carried out using Modeling software, with the help of Finite Element Analysis and Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis. Some important results have been shown with negative pressures leading to the fact that the developed models predict the presence of cavitation in the cylinder liner surface, stressing the importance of improving the piston and cylinder liner design.

  • 253.
    Dewangga, Anastasia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Goldsmith, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Pegram, Neil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Social Responsibility Guidelines & Sustainable Development: Integrating a Common Goal of a Sustainable Society2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Given the global sustainability challenge; effective organizational Social Responsibility (SR) guidelines must set best-practices that acknowledge environmental constraints and strive for a sustainable society. SR has historically underrepresented environmental issues and needs to shift from a reactive focus on societal stakeholder demands, to a proactive whole-systems planning framework. There is a risk that unless SR guidelines consider both social and environmental issues together, they may generate negative outcomes to organizational viability. This research finds key Sustainable Development concepts that should be integrated within SR guidelines and uncovers an overall goal of SR as assisting organizations in moving towards a sustainable society. A Sustainable Society is defined in the research according to a set of scientific principles, based on environmental constraints and fundamental social needs. This clear goal enables the organization to ‘backcast’ from this success point in order to take effective strategic steps. The authors recommend the incorporation of critical concepts from Strategic Sustainable Development, a proven organizational sustainability planning framework, into SR guidelines to increase their effectiveness in strategic SR decision-making. The ISO 26000 SR Guideline is used as a case study.

  • 254.
    Dey, Ajoy Kumar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Saha, Susmita
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Acoustic Beamforming: Design and Development of Steered Response Power With Phase Transformation (SRP-PHAT).2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Acoustic Sound Source localization using signal processing is required in order to estimate the direction from where a particular acoustic source signal is coming and it is also important in order to find a soluation for hands free communication. Video conferencing, hand free communications are different applications requiring acoustic sound source localization. This applications need a robust algorithm which can reliably localize and position the acoustic sound sources. The Steered Response Power Phase Transform (SRP-PHAT) is an important and roubst algorithm to localilze acoustic sound sources. However, the algorithm has a high computational complexity thus making the algorithm unsuitable for real time applications. This thesis focuses on describe the implementation of the SRP-PHAT algorithm as a function of source type, reverberation levels and ambient noise. The main objective of this thesis is to present different approaches of the SRP-PHAT to verify the algorithm in terms of acoustic enviroment, microphone array configuration, acoustic source position and levels of reverberation and noise.

  • 255.
    Dhakal, Rajendra
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Mahat, Sagar Raj
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Performance Analysis of DF Relay Systems with Keyhole and Correlation Effects2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the innovation of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) has completely changed the face of wireless communication system. Especially, the concept of MIMO is evolved to fulfill the demand of multimedia services. However, challenges have risen to the system provider for maintaining the quality of service (QoS) and reliability of MIMO system. Additionally, very recently, cooperative communication has been proposed in order to face and deal with the shortcomings of MIMO system. In cooperative communication, the addition of relay between source and destination enhances the QoS and reliability of wireless system. The main purpose of this paper is to derive the closed form analytical expressions of symbol error rate (SER) of M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) for MIMO decode-and forward (DF) relay system. Besides, SER derivation is based on moment generating function (MGF) of the overall system. In our case, we only deal with a downlink MIMO DF relay system. Here, we consider an $n_t$-antenna at the source $S$, an $n_r$-antenna at the relay $R$ and an $n_d$-antenna at the destination $D$, where the propagated signal from the source passes through keyhole and correlated channel. Further, the same orthogonal space time block codes (OSTBC) is applied to source-destination, source-relay and relay-destination link to exploit the maximal diversity gain. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of MPSK modulation on MIMO DF system under different values of correlation coefficient by combining the different antenna pairs at different nodes. Beside this, we compare keyhole and no keyhole MIMO relay systems with fix value of correlation coefficient and antenna pairs. With the use of cooperative scheme, effects of keyhole on MIMO DF architecture can be minimized to certain level. Eventually, our simulation analysis excellently matches with analytical results, which is sufficient to validate our work.

  • 256.
    Dimkovski, Zlate
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Characterization of a Cylinder Liner Surface by Roughness Parameters Analysis2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cylinder liner surface topology greatly affects oil consumption and wear of engines. Surface optimization would be greatly facilitated by automatic quality control. Surface roughness definitions, parameters, and measurement techniques were reviewed and samples of different Volvo truck engine cylinder liner types were measured. Routines for extracting and computing groove parameters, useful in the automation of quality control in production, were developed, implemented in MATLAB and applied on the samples. The principles of the last two steps procedures needed to fully automate the surface grading by roughness parameters analysis were described.

  • 257.
    Dinakaran, Manoj
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Prasad., Rotu Ramakrishna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    SINGLE CHANNEL SPEECH DEREVERBERATION FOR ACOUSTIC SIGNALS2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reverberation in speech is one of the primary factors caused by delayed image of speech signal plus the intended speech signals. Reverberation degrades the quality of the speech signal when recorded by a distant microphone and in the hands free telephonic scenarios. This causes a big problem for carrying out communication between people or in automatic voice recognition applications in which the voice is not properly recognized by the voice recognition applications. Here dereverberation is performed considering two mostly used real time scenarios. They are Non blind dereverberation and Blind dereverberation. Dereverberation in a hands free scenario using various adaptive algorithms has been a research topic for several years. This scenario is considered as a Non blind situation. For this non blind situation, here two types of recently proposed adaptive algorithms are used. They are Non Parametric Variable Step Size Normalized Least Mean Square (NP VSS NLMS) and Variable Step Size Normalized Least Mean Square (VSS NLMS) adaptive filters. The scenario in which the knowledge of clear speech signal is unknown is considered to be the blind situation. Here we introduce the Non parametric Variable Step Size NLMS (NP VSS NLMS) based step size adaptive filter in Maximum kurtosis linear prediction (LP) residual of speech to remove the reverberations from the reverberated speech signal. The performances of both blind dereverberation and non blind dereverberation are analyzed using Spectrogram plot, Reverberation Index (RI) and Speech Distortion (SD) parameters.

  • 258. Dinesh, V Sai Krishna
    et al.
    Vishal, K
    Online assessment of practical knowledge in electronics laboratory2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing globalization and opportunities for engineers around the world to work or study anywhere mean challenges for universities wanting the best students as well as for the companies wanting for the most skilled staff. The social and economic conditions of the country where the student has studied have an impact on his level of knowledge though the attained degree is similar in all countries. It is not enough to use scores as a base for decisions. Some tests for software courses, English language etc. exists. Now the challenge is to design and implement a common test to analyze the knowledge of the student/ test taker and certify him in performing laboratory work and operating electronic instruments. A solution to overcome the problem of recruiting companies in this global market as well as the universities to select the meritorious from worldwide would be by implementing a Common Electronics Lab Operation Test. A test with the operation of the equipment in electronics laboratory has importance as test takers are tested in their knowledge with practical equipment using simulated and remote labs which are identical to the operation of real. The testing system is proposed to be developed using latest remotely operated real labs

  • 259.
    Ding, Yuan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Wu, YiBing
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    TDD Linear Precoding Methods for Next Generation Mobile Communication Systems2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The mobile communication has stepped into the era of the third generation (3G) worldwide, and plenty of new products and services for mobile communications are emerging every day, for giving people better audio and video experience. Recently, the fourth generation (4G) is starting to be deployed in some countries. However, people cannot help to wonder what will the next generation mobile communication system look like? In this thesis, we give our prediction about the next mobile communication system, which extends the capacity in spatial domain by using a large number of antennas and still keeps the compatibility with the former generation mobile communication systems. However, for the incompatible part—precoding—in such new system, we present two TDD linear precoding methods in this thesis. Through simulations, we can see that these two precoding methods are feasible for the new system and help to increase its throughput performance.

  • 260. Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Trygg, Louise
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system: an opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 64, p. 552-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, cooperation between Stockholm's transport and district heating sectors is analysed. The cooperation concerns the integration of biofuel polygeneration production. A MODEST optimisation model framework is used, assuming various energy market and transport sector scenarios for the year 2030. The scenarios with biofuel production and increased biofuel use in the region are compared with reference scenarios where all new plants introduced into the district heating sector are combined heat and power plants, and the share of biofuel used in the transport sector is the same as today. The results show that the cooperation implies an opportunity to reduce fossil fuel consumption in the sectors by between 20% and 65%, depending on energy market conditions and assumed transport sector scenarios. If we consider biomass an unlimited resource, the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is significant. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating system may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. The potential for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is thus highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass. If this alternative is used for co-firing in coal condensing power plants, biomass use in combined heat and power plants would be more desirable than biofuel production through polygeneration. On the other hand, if this alternative is used for traditional biofuel production (without co-production of heat and electricity), the benefits of biofuel production through polygeneration from a greenhouse gas emissions perspective is superior. However, if carbon capture and storage technology is applied on the biofuel polygeneration plants, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system would result in a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions independent of the assumed alternative use of biomass.

  • 261.
    , D.M.BAPPY
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    RAHMAN, MD HAMIDUR
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    A Study in 3D Structure Detection Implementing Forward Camera Motion2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we have studied detection of 3D structures having a forward camera movement which has strong influence of translation along the optical axis of the camera. During the forward movement the camera might undergoes rotation and translation .We have used “Plane plus Parallax” algorithm to cancel out this unwanted rotation. The input to the algorithm is a sequence of frames aligned with respect to a certain planar surface. The algorithm gives three types of outputs. (i) Dense correspondence across all frames. (ii) Dense 3D structure relative to the planar surface. (ii) Focus of Expansion (FOE) in all frames with respect to reference frame. Camera calibration is not needed for this algorithm. We have applied this algorithm to real world images and synthetic images. In both cases the 3D structure information could be obtained clearly even for objects far from the reference plane. Our result shows the potential of the method in 3D reconstruction implementing ego-motion of a single camera.

  • 262.
    Dorairaj, Prabhu
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Ramamoorthy, Saranya
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Ramalingam, Ashok Kumar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Emergency based remote collateral tracking system using google's android mobile platform2012In: Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing, New Delhi, 2012, Vol. 167, no 2, p. 391-403Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction of Smart phones redefined the usage of mobile phones in the communication world. Smart phones are equipped with various sophisticated features such as Wi-Fi, GPS navigation, high resolution camera, touch screen with broadband access which helps the mobile phone users to keep in touch with the modern world. Many of these features are primarily integrated with the mobile operating system which is out of reach to public, by which the users can't manipulate those features. Google came up with an innovative operation system termed as ANDROID, which is open system architecture with customizable third party development and debugging environment which helps the user's to manipulate the features and to create their own customizable applications. In this paper, 'Emergency Based Remote Collateral Tracking System' application using Google's Android Mobile Platform is addressed. Emergency is divided into three categories: heart beat based emergency, security threats like personal safety and road accidents. This application is targeted to a person who is driving a vehicle. Heart rate monitoring device is integrated with our application to sense the heart beat of a person driving the vehicle and if there is any abnormalities in the heart beat, then our application performs a dual role. One in which, application uses a GPS to track the location information of the user and send those location information as a message via SMS, email and post it on Facebook wall Simultaneously, an emergency signal is sent to Arduino Microcontroller. Road accidents are quite common, this application is also designed to detect the accident using the sensors in the Android Mobile. Security threat can occur anywhere, our application also answers for personal safety, when the user interacts with the application by pressing the button, then automatically the application generates the geographical information and sends that location information via SMS and email to a pre-stored emergency contact and the same information will be posted on user's Facebook wall. This application is written in JAVA programming language which runs on Eclipse Integrated Development Kit.

  • 263.
    DORNADULA, UDAY CHAITANYA
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    DEVUNURI, PRIYANKA
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Implementation of No-Reference Image Quality Assessment in Contourlet Domain2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In image processing, efficiency term refers to the ability in capturing significant information that is sensitive to human visual system with small description. Natural images or scenes that contain intrinsic geometrical structures (contours) are key features of visual information. The existing transform methods like Fourier transformation, wavelets, curvelets, ridgelets etc., have limitations in capturing directional information in an image and their compatibility with compression methods. Hence, to capture the directional information or natural scene statistics of an image and to handle the compatibility over distortion methods, Contourlet Transform (CT) can be a promising approach. The goal of no-reference image quality assessment using contourlet transform (NR IQACT) is to establish a rational computational model to predict the visual quality of an image. In this thesis we implemented an improved Natural Scene Statistics (NSS) model that blindly measures image quality using the concept of Contourlet Transform (CT). In fact, natural scenes contain nonlinear dependencies that can be disturbed by a compression process. This disturbance can be quantified and related to human perception of quality.

  • 264. Dorodnitsyn, Vladimir
    et al.
    Ibragimov, Nail
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    An extension of the Noether theorem: Accompanying equations possessing conservation laws2014In: Communications in nonlinear science & numerical simulation, ISSN 1007-5704, E-ISSN 1878-7274, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 328-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown that the Noether theorem can be extended for some equations associated (accompanying) with Euler-Lagrange equation. Each symmetry of Lagrangian yields a class of accompanying equations possessing conservation law (first integral). The generalization is done for canonical Hamiltonian equations as well.

  • 265.
    Doyle, Molly
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Hikisch, Dermot
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Westcott, Shawn
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Organizational Networks as Catalysts for Strategic Sustainable Development2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In an increasingly connected and interdependent world, the global sustainability challenge needs to be addressed by organizational networks from a whole-systems perspective. This study explores organizations through the lens of network theory and the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, with a special focus on networks already considering sustainability issues. The purpose of the research was to identify key factors critical to the success of an organizational network in the sustainability field, as well as define specific barriers to success for these networks. These specific factors and barriers to success are identified and explored across: Academic, Business, and Non-Profit sectors, with the ultimate objective of increasing the performance of Emerging Sustainability Networks (ESNs), removing barriers in the field, and planning strategically to achieve success in the sustainability movement.

  • 266.
    Driffort, Thibaut
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Ogenblad, Oscar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Lara, Luís Sousa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Move! Bringing Urban Public Transportation towards Sustainability2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s societal development is not sustainable. The transportation sector has the potential role to be a tremendous lever for sustainability due to its central position in the societal structure as well as for the current unsustainable trends that occur in this system. Recommendations to public transportation providers were made by highlighting the main existing gaps between the current transportation system and an envisioned future transportation system that could exist in a sustainable society. To highlight these gaps, multiple perspectives were considered. These perspectives were enabled by e.g. User Journey Maps at the individual level and a holistic perspective over the broader urban transport system. The premise is that in order to increase use rates of public transportation, there is a need to better assess and address urban travellers' needs when commuting. For providers to have a strategic, stepwise approach and to be able to bring the public transportation system towards sustainability, the authors recommended that public transportation providers prioritize and implement future actions aligned with the three prioritization questions presented at the strategic level of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development and by defining a criterion that would emphasize that the users’ needs of importance highlighted in the study are fulfilled.

  • 267.
    Du, Jiaying
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Utveckling och undersökning av algoritmer för MEMS-gyron2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet har genomförts med utveckling och undersökning av signalbehandlingsalgoritmer för MEMS-gyron. Idag används många MEMS-gyron i olika elektronikprodukter. Företaget Motion Control utvecklar elektronik och inbyggd programvara och de har bland annat tagit fram MultiPos, som är en huvudmus för rörelsehindrade. MultiPos är en MEMS-gyro-baserad datormus. MEMS-gyron används för att känna av huvudrörelser som användaren gör, men det är önskvärt med en bättre signalbehandling, d.v.s. kunna reducera brus, offset och drift. Olika gyron har olika egenskaper och algoritmen måste kunna fungera för ett valfritt MEMS-gyro. Åtta olika algoritmer har undersökts, simulerats med hjälp av MATLAB och implementerats i en dsPIC med hjälp av MPLAB. De algoritmer som testats är högpassfilter, lågpassfilter, LMS, Wavelet, Kalman, WFLC, tröskelvärdesmetod och fördröjningsmetod. Efter jämförelse, sammanställningar och systemtest kan de olika filterfunktionerna användas enskilt eller i kombination med varandra för att förbättra mätsignalen i enlighet med filtrenas olika karaktärer.

  • 268.
    Duan, Rui
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Yang, Jingrui
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Modelling and Simulation of a bridge interacting with a moving vehicle system2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The problem about the vibration of vehicles and bridge is mainly the problem of coupling vibration between the vehicles dynamic system and bridge dynamic system. The vehicles running on the bridge at some speed can make the bridge vibrate, at the same time the vibration of the bridge will also affect the vibration of the vehicles. This problem with interaction and mutual effects is the problem of coupling vibration between vehicles and bridge. Because its close relation to practical application it is paid extensive attention by more and more people. In this thesis we construct the kinetic model of the bridge subsystem and the vehicle subsystem separately. Then according to the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory, mode superposition method and D’Alambert principle we get the functions of the two models. In addition we refer to the relationship of the geometric on the contact point and the static equilibrium conditions to construct the relation between the equation of the vehicle vibration and the equation of bridge vibration. Finally we use MATLAB to write the code according to the Newmark-beta method to handle the coupled equation.

  • 269. Duong, Quang Trung
    On Cooperative Communications and Its Application to Mobile Multimedia2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid growth of multimedia services, future generations of wireless communications require higher data rates and a more reliable transmission link while keeping satisfactory quality of service. In this respect, multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems have been considered as an efficient approach to address these demands by offering significant multiplexing and diversity gains over single-antenna systems without increasing requirements on radio resources such as bandwidth and power. Although MIMO systems can unfold their huge benefit in cellular base stations, they may face limitations when it comes to their deployment in mobile handsets. In particular, the typically small-size of mobile handsets makes it impractical to deploy multiple antennas. To overcome this drawback, the concept of cooperative communications has recently been proposed and gained large interest in the research community. The key idea is to form a virtual MIMO antenna array by utilizing a third terminal, a so-called relay node, which assists the direct communication. After receiving the source’s message, the relay processes and forwards it to the destination. With this approach, the benefits of MIMO systems can be attained in a distributed fashion. Furthermore, cooperative communications can efficiently combat the severity of fading and shadowing effects through the assistance of relay terminals. It has been shown that using the relay can extend the coverage of wireless networks. In this thesis, we focus on the performance evaluation of such cooperative communication systems and their application to mobile multimedia. The thesis is divided into five parts. In particular, the first part proposes a hybrid decode-amplify-forward (HDAF) relaying protocol which can significantly improve the performance of cooperative communication systems compared to the two conventional schemes of decode-and-forward (DF) and amplify-and-forward (AF). It is interesting to see that the performance gain of HDAF over DF and AF strictly depends on the relative value of channel conditions between the two hops. The second part extends HDAF to the case of multiple relays. It is important to note that the gains are saturated as the number of relays tends to be a large value. This observation motivates us to use a small number of relays to reduce network overhead as well as system complexity while the obtained gains are still as much as in the large-number case. In the third part, we analyze the performance of DF relaying networks with best relay selection over Nakagami-m fading channels. Besides the diversity gain, we show that the spatial multiplexing gain can be achieved by cooperative communications. We analyze the performance of cooperative multiplexing systems in terms of symbol error rate and ergodic capacity over composite fading channels. Finally, in the fifth part, we exploit the benefit of both diversity and multiplexing gain by proposing an unequal error transmission scheme for mobile multimedia services using cooperative communications.

  • 270. Duong, Quang Trung
    et al.
    Alay, Ozgu
    Erkip, Elza
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    End-to-End Performance of Randomized Distributed Space-Time Codes2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exact closed-form expressions for symbol error probability and outage probability of randomized distributed space-time codes (RDSTC) under Rayleigh fading are derived. The diversity gain derived in the literature uses the Chernoff bound which may not be achievable in general. Utilizing the exact expression, the achievable diversity gain of RDSTCs is validated. The closed-form expressions are verified by Monte-Carlo simulations.

  • 271. Duong, Quang Trung
    et al.
    Alexandropoulos, George C.
    Tsiftsis, Theodoros A.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Outage probability of MIMO AF relay networks over Nakagami-m fading channels2010In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 46, no 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The outage probability (OP) of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) amplify-and-forward (AF) relay networks using orthogonal space-time block code is investigated. In particular, a closed-form tight lower bound expression for the OP over independently but not necessarily identically distributed Nakagami-m fading channels is derived. Moreover, an asymptotic approximation for OP which reveals the coding and diversity gains is presented. The analytical expressions are validated by Monte-Carlo simulations.

  • 272. Duong, Quang Trung
    et al.
    Alexandropoulos, George C.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Tsiftsis, Theodoros A.
    Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes with CSI-Assisted Amplify-and-Forward Relaying in Correlated Nakagami-m Fading Channels2011In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 882-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relay systems using orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBCs) over arbitrarily correlated Nakagami-m fading channels is analyzed. In particular, closed-form expressions for the end-to-end outage probability (OP) and the symbol error probability (SEP) with arbitrary number of transceiver antennas and general correlation matrices are derived. Their mathematically tractable forms readily enable us to evaluate the performance of MIMO AF relay systems that utilize OSTBCs. For sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratios, asymptotically tight approximations for the OP and SEP are also attained which reveal insights into the effects of fading parameters and antenna correlation on the system’s performance. Furthermore, we prove that the correlation has no impact on the achievable diversity gain which is equal to the minimum of the sum of fading parameters between the two hops. Selected numerically evaluated results are presented showing an excellent agreement between the proposed analysis and equivalent Monte-Carlo simulations.

  • 273. Duong, Quang Trung
    et al.
    Engelke, Ulrich
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Cooperative Wireless Communications with Unequal Error Protection and Fixed Decode-And-Forward Relays2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine an unequal error protection (UEP) scheme for wireless imaging that is based on utilizing the distributed diversity offered by decode-and-forward (DF) networks. Specifically, the data stream after source encoding is divided into high and low priority sub-streams depending on their importance for image reconstruction. A relay-selection combining (R-SC) scheme is exploited for high priority image data to achieve high reliability while cooperative spatial multiplexing is employed to low priority image data to support high spectral efficiency. In this work, we specifically take into account the setting that relays may forward erroneously detected signals to the destination when cooperating with fixed DF. In this context, the analytical and numerical results validate that R-SC outperforms other relaying protocols in terms of average symbol error probability while the considered UEP approach offers the highest spectral efficiency among the examined relaying schemes.

  • 274. Duong, Quang Trung
    et al.
    Hoang, Le-Nam
    Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc
    On the Performance of Two-Way Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks2009In: IEICE transactions on communications, ISSN 0916-8516, E-ISSN 1745-1345, Vol. E92-B, no 12, p. 3957-3959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of two-way amplify-and-forward (AF) relay networks is presented. In particular, we derive exact closed-form expressions for symbol error rate (SER), average sum-rate, and outage probability of two-way AF relay systems in independent but not identically distributed (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. Our analysis is validated by a comparison against the results of Monte-Carlo simulations.

  • 275. Duong, Quang Trung
    et al.
    Le, Thanh-Tan
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Performance of Cognitive Radio Networks with Maximal Ratio Combining over Correlated Rayleigh Fading2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we apply the maximal ratio combining (MRC) technique to achieve higher detection probability in cognitive radio networks over correlated Rayleigh fading channels. We present a simple approach to derive the probability of detection in closed-form expression. The numerical results reveal that the detection performance is a monotonically increasing function with respect to the number of antennas. Moreover, we provide sets of complementary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to illustrate the effect of antenna correlation on the sensing performance of cognitive radio networks employing MRC schemes in some respective scenarios.

  • 276. Duong, Quang Trung
    et al.
    Yuen, Chau
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Lei, Xianfu
    Average Sum-Rate of Distributed Alamouti Space--Time Scheme in Two-Way Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a distributed Alamouti space-time code (DASTC) for two-way relay networks employing a single amplify-and-forward (AF) relay. We first derive closed-form expressions for the approximated average sum-rate of the proposed DASTC scheme. Our analysis is validated by a comparison against the results of Monte-Carlo simulations. Numerical results verify the effectiveness of our proposed scheme over the conventional DASTC with one-way communication.

  • 277. Duong, Quang Trung
    et al.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Cross-Layer Design for MRT Systems with Channel Estimation Error and Feedback Delay2011In: Wireless personal communications, ISSN 0929-6212, E-ISSN 1572-834X, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 681-694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the effect of channel estimation error and delayed feedback on the performance of a cross-layer scheme combining adaptive modulation for maximum ratio transmission (MRT) at the physical layer and truncated automatic repeat request (T-ARQ) at the link layer. The cross-layer attempts to maximize the spectral efficiency under predetermined quality of service requirements, namely, delay and packet-loss constraints. In particular, we derive closed-form expressions for the average packet error rate, average achievable spectral efficiency, and the outage probability, hence, enabling to evaluate the performance of the cross-layer scheme in the presence of imperfect channel estimation at the receiver and delayed feedback path between the receiver and transmitter. The final expressions are given in terms of the minimum and maximum number of transceiver antennas as well as the channel estimation error and feedback delay parameters. We further show that with a small amount of channel estimation error and/or feedback delay the system performance is severely degraded. Specifically, numerical results demonstrate that with channel estimation error and feedback delay the performance of the cross-layer scheme is even worse than that of T-ARQ only. We also observe an irreducible outage probability floor appearing in the high signal-to-noise regime.

  • 278. Duong, Quang Trung
    et al.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Performance Analysis of Cooperative Spatial Multiplexing with Amplify-and-Forward Relays2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative spatial multiplexing (CSM) systems can achieve high spatial multiplexing gain in wireless relay networks since each single-antenna relay forwards simultaneously a different subset of source messages to the destination. In this paper, the performance of CSM with amplify-and-forward (AF) relays are presented. Specifically, we derive exact closed-form expressions for symbol error probability (SEP) and achievable spectral efficiency of CSM with linear receiver in dissimilar Rayleigh fading channels. Assessing the SEP performance in the high signal-to-noise regime, we further show that CSM with AF relays obtains the first order of diversity gain. Furthermore, it has been observed that CSM outperforms two well-known cooperative diversity systems, e.g., selection combining and maximal ratio combining, in term of spectral efficiency. We also perform Monte-Carlo simulations to validate our analysis.

  • 279. Duong, Quang Trung
    et al.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Fiedler, Markus
    Cross-Layer Design for Integrated Mobile Multimedia Network with Strict Priority Traffic2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In mobile multimedia networks, different traffic classes require various levels of quality of service (QoS). In this paper, we propose a cross-layer design to provide diverse QoS provisions for integrated realtime/non-realtime traffic by jointly taking into account the physical layer, data link layer, and application layer. Specifically, at the physical layer, adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) is employed to cope with the time-varying nature of fading channels whereas impairments due to queuing effects are considered at the data link layer. At the application layer, realtime and non-realtime traffic are classified into high and low priority classes, respectively, with strict priority levels. The cross-layer scheme is characterized as a discrete Markov modulated Poisson process. Solving the steady state probability of this Markov model readily enables us to investigate several important performance metrics such as packet drop rate due to buffer overflow and packet error rate due to transmission errors and network impairments. Our proposed cross-layer design is verified by comparing the analytical results with Monte-Carlo simulations. Furthermore, it has been shown that the proposed cross-layer design can flexibly guarantee QoS requirements for each traffic class.

  • 280. Duong, Quang Trung
    et al.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Tsiftsis, Theodoros A.
    Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc
    Performance Analysis of Amplify-and-Forward MIMO Relay Networks with Transmit Antenna Selection over Nakagami-m Channels2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the performance of amplify-and-forward (AF) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) cooperative networks over independent but not identically distributed Nakagami-$m$ fading channels. Specifically, we consider an AF MIMO relay network where the source deploys the transmit antenna selection scheme to communicate with the destination through the help of a relay. We derive closed-form approximations for outage probability (OP) and symbol error probability (SEP). Moreover, asymptotically tight approximations for OP and SEP have been obtained to facilitate insights on how fading parameters affect the performance. Our analytical results are verified by Monte-Carlo simulations for respective scenarios.

  • 281.
    Durgin, Ron
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Grierson, Scott
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Touchpoint: A Foundation for Sustainable Product Development2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been written on the subject of sustainable development and the urgent need for society to understand and address human impacts on socio-ecological systems. Emerging from this broad context, the concept of sustainable product development (SPD) represents an important strategy to steer human society towards sustainability. This thesis investigates strategies for integrating sustainability concepts, through organisational learning and stakeholder management, into a new product development tool entitled ‘Touchpoint’. Built on prior research, specifically Methods for Sustainable Product Development(MSPD) and Templates for Sustainable Product Development (TSPD), this could help to eliminate product development approaches that lead to reductionism and ensure that SPD is adopted rapidly and widely.

  • 282. Dvoesherstov, M.Yu.
    et al.
    Cherednik, V.I.
    Bosov, S.I.
    Orlov, I.Ya.
    Rudenko, Oleg
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Numerical and experimental analysis of the parameters of an electroacoustic thin-film microwave resonator2013In: Acoustical Physics, ISSN 1063-7710, E-ISSN 1562-6865, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 513-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of numerical and experimental analysis of the parameters of a singlefrequency micro wave thinfilm electroacoustic resonator based on an (0001)AlN piezofilm with an acoustic reflector operat ing at a frequency of 10 GHz are presented. The effect of the reflector design on the resonator characteristics is considered. Using the modified Butterworth–Van Dyke model, it was shown that the ohmic resistance of electrodes and entrance paths substantially decreases the Qfactor at the resonance frequency of series and the acoustic losses in the resonator deteriorate the Qfactor at the parallel resonance frequency

  • 283.
    Dyer, Georges
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    McKay, Michelle
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Mira, Mauricio
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    From Clean Development to Strategic Sustainable Development: Strategic planning for the Clean Development Mechanism2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Under the Kyoto Protocol, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has the dual objectives of facilitating a cost-effective way of meeting greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and contributing to global sustainable development. Due in part to a lack of consensus on definitions of sustainability and sustainable development and a lack of capacity to address these concepts, there is a risk that CDM projects may fail to move the host country towards sustainability. We suggest the use of a scientific, principle-based definition of sustainability to guide project participants in their decision-making process. We propose a user-friendly project planning tool – CDM Select – that can build capacity for project developers to employ a strategic, whole-system approach to sustainable development and increase the likelihood that CDM projects move society towards sustainability. Early review of CDM Select by experts and practitioners in the CDM arena indicate that it has strong potential to assist in these efforts.

  • 284. Dziak, D. M.
    et al.
    Jachimczyk, B. S.
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    An Analysis of Uncertainty and Robustness of Waterjet Machine Positioning Vision System2013In: Elektronika Ir elektrotechnika, ISSN 1392-1215, Vol. 19, no 9, p. 89-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a new Automatic Waterjet Positioning Vision System (AWPVS) and investigates components of workpiece positioning accuracy. The main purpose of AWPVS is to precisely identify the position and rotation of a workpiece placed on a waterjet machine table. Two webcams form a basis for the system, and constitute its characteristics. The proposed algorithm comprises various image processing techniques to assure a required identification precision. To validate the PVS identification quality, synthetic images were applied under various conditions. The analysis ascertains dependence of an object detection rate and accuracy on a size of cropping frame. Experimental results of the proposed PVS prototype prove that a combination of the vision algorithm and webcams is an alternative to dedicated expensive industrial vision systems. The two main components of AWPVS uncertainty, a machine component and PSV component are discerned and estimated.

  • 285.
    Dziak, Damian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Jachimczyk, Bartosz
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Jagusiak, Tomasz
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Automatic Waterjet Positioning Vision System2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goals of this work are a design and implementation of a new vision system, integrated with the waterjet machine. This system combines two commercial webcams applied on an industrial dedicated platform. A main purpose of the vision system is to detect the position and rotation of a workpiece placed on the machine table. The used object recognition algorithm consists of edge detection, standard math processing functions and noise filters. The Hough transform technique is used to extract lines and their intersections of a workpiece. Metric rectification method is used, in order to obtain a top view of the workspace and to adjust an image coordinate system, accordingly to the waterjet machine coordinates. In situ calibration procedures of the booth webcams are developed and implemented. Experimental results of the proposed new vision system prototype confirm required performance and precision of the element detection.

  • 286.
    Ebeneku-Anim, Frederick
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Jacobson, Ingrid
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    McRoberts, Margaret
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Munyura, Pierre
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Building Sustainable Urban Communities: Can a common participatory space offer a solution?2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and rapid urbanization in the developing world have been contributing greatly to a current unsustainable reality. In order to move towards a sustainable society, the strength of people working collectively as a community must be recognized and harnessed to begin making changes from the bottom up. This thesis will examine how a common participatory space has the potential to become a community hub, and to foster participatory dialogue, negotiation and decision-making within urban communities of poverty. After examining the current reality, including present development practices, this research strives to find universal elements for a common participatory space where vision building and strategic community action can flourish. This study also examines the processes needed to engage community members in the cultivation, creation and maintenance of a common participatory space.

  • 287.
    Ede, James
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Graine, Sophia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Rhodes, Chris
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Moving Towards Sustainable Food Consumption: Identifying Barriers to Sustainable Student Diets2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adopting more sustainable consumption habits has been identified as a necessary step in the progression towards a sustainable society. In the area of sustainable consumption, personal food behaviour represents a strong leverage point. University students have been identified as a strategic audience; habits established during this transformative period can track forward into later life. This study seeks to identify the barriers inhibiting students from eating more sustainably. Perceived benefits of eating more sustainably, student food preferences, and student definitions of sustainable food are also identified. Focus groups, surveys, and interviews were carried out at universities in Europe, North America and Australia. Results show that perceived cost of sustainable food and a lack of knowledge, time and availability were ubiquitous barriers preventing students from adopting more sustainable eating habits. In addition to gathering the perceptions of others, the authors’ understanding of the challenges and benefits of eating more sustainably was augmented by a month-long self-study. Results from the self-study show that it is feasible to eat more sustainably without incurring additional costs. Recommendations informed by the focus groups, surveys, interviews and self-study are made to help students overcome the barriers to eating more sustainably.

  • 288.
    Efremovska, Irena
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Geurts, Sijme
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Perret, Scott
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Leverage Points for Broader Diffusion of the FSSD2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The intrinsic characteristics of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) make it useful in moving society towards sustainability. However, most of the change agents who work with the FSSD report that it is not diffused widely enough to have a systemic impact on society. The purpose of the study is to enable those who wish to foster such diffusion to be more effective in their efforts by giving them information they need to strategically plan those efforts. An ‘important factors for diffusion’ lens is constructed from Diffusion of Innovations theory and social marketing concepts, and verified with case studies of the diffusion of Biomimicry 3.8, GRI and Cradle to Cradle. 152 current barriers and enablers to broader diffusion of the FSSD are identified from interviews with 27 practitioners and a survey of 58 additional practitioners. These are scored against the lens to determine the current diffusibility of the FSSD, then distilled and influence flows between them mapped, to identify seven leverage points for broader diffusion. Interrelations between these leverage points, as well as other emergent themes, are discussed, conclusions are drawn, and further research suggested.

  • 289.
    EGEREGOR, DAFE
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP IN PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS USING FLUENT AS CFD TOOL2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corrugated walls are commonly used as passive devices for heat and mass transfer enhancement, being most effective in applications operated at transitional and turbulent Reynolds numbers. The plate heat exchanger (PHE) is an example of this application. In this thesis work, numerical simulation is used to investigate the heat transfer and pressure drop in plate heat exchangers, with the intention of determining the effect of channel geometry and flow conditions on the heat transfer of the exchangers. In this work two PHEs, one with a wave geometry, and one with a ‘chevron’ design was studied using Fluent as the CFD tool and Gambit as the preprocessor. In both cases, the temperature of the wall was kept constant, water was used as the working fluid, and the mass flow rate varied to study the effect of Reynolds number. The Reynolds number range simulated is 100-25,600.

  • 290.
    Eivazzadeh, Shahryar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Information and Intelligence Design Patterns for Resilience and Sustainability in Product-Service Systems2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis discusses a set of information/intelligence patterns that impact the resilience and sustainability of systems. These patterns are organized into the form of design patterns for later reuse during design processes. The information dynamics of some typical examples of product- service systems are modeled. This model provides a context for further discussions on the application of those information design patterns. The combination of the information dynamics model, together with the set of the behavioral and structural information design patterns, are intended to provide a playground for innovation in designing resilient and sustainable systems. Better knowledge capture and communication, uniformity in the approach to both products and services, and modular extensibility are also considered to be amongst the benefits of such an approach. The discussions and ontological models of those patterns and their impact on resiliency of systems are based on the elements of information theory from Shannon and Kolmogorov and the resilience theory from Holling. Sustainability is considered as the holistic extent of resiliency, especially in the course of product-service systems design. The discussion has been supported by some simple mathematical models, and in one case by the simulation of an agent-based model. Examples have been drawn from different disciplines to provide additional clarity and to demonstrate the versatility and generality of those design patterns.

  • 291. Ekelin, Annelie
    “What’s Up Over There?” Reflections of development of e-government in the States of California and Washington2005Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some highlights in this report could be summarized as follows: there are several examples of extensive investment of human and economical resources into security improvement and security related planning currently going on in the United States, coupled with a strong focus on implementing best practice frameworks and advanced interoperability. Other important aspects are the ongoing re-engineering of both governmental leadership structures as well as organisational work practice, where technological systems are to be seen both as something that cause issues, but also as an important part when solving those problems in the future. In the US, and particularly in the Seattle area, mobile government is developing fast. The state portal has also got a very prominent “sister portal”, called the Democracy portal with its own local TV-channel, Seattle Channel working actively on promotion of state actions. www.seattlechannel.org/videos/browseVideos.asp?topic=community This initiative is not new, but is nevertheless interesting since it has been developing more and more towards greater interactivity. It is in some sense an extension of the state portal, but also, according to Laurie Kraft, functions well as a ”window to government”, where the public is offered possibilities of interaction and participation in processes of general local decision-making. A working group recently worked out new guidelines on how to expand the interactive web format. New sections such as ”Tell me more” gives the public possibilities to learn more about for example the preparation of the budget estimates or having the opportunity to deepen their argumentation about local issues such as the debate about the local monorail expansion. In another section they are offered suggestions on how to proceed if they want to get involved in different matters, or find an answer to the question: How do I engage? Further developmental work is going to concentrate on how to tackle the occurrence of new digital divides, considering additional opportunities to reach those who rarely participates such as youths, non-native English speakers, and others who feel disenfranchised from the democratic process and the society. A well-thought strategy on ho to stimulate people to broaden their knowledge and take the opportunity to learn more about local decision-making. California is the fifth largest economic engine in the world with a fast expanding economy after a recession. In the annual survey of Digital Counties (2005), conducted by the Centre for Digital Government, a national research and advisory institute on Information technology policies and best practices in state and local government, several Californian counties appear on the list. In the survey, which focuses on how the county governments are deploying information technology to advance their services to citizens, San Diego County occupies the second place in the category of counties with a population of more than 500 000. In the smaller categories, covering less populated counties, California appears as number 10, and in the category of the counties with a population less than 150.000, Nevada County, Napa County and Sutter County cluster themselves in second, third and fourth place.

  • 292.
    Eklund, Marcus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Lokal desinfektering med hjälp av ånga i diskmaskin2013Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ånga används i en rad olika produkter och oftast används det för rengöring. I detta projekt kommer det att testas hur ånga kan användas för att öka renlighetsgraden på disken i en traditionell diskmaskin. Projektet innefattar en mängd olika tester på hur värmen sprider sig när ångan förs in i diskmaskinen. Det kommer även testas hur stor volym ånggeneratorn klarar av att värma upp och hur lång tid det tar. Arbetet kommer att avslutas med att tillverka en prototyp som kommer att testas hur den fungerar vid användning med olika diskobjekt.

  • 293. Ekström, Magnus
    et al.
    Jogreus, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Ström, Kerstin
    Comorbidity and Sex-Related Differences in Mortality in Oxygen-Dependent Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is not known why survival differs between men and women in oxygen-dependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study evaluates differences in comorbidity between men and women, and tests the hypothesis that comorbidity contributes to sex-related differences in mortality in oxygen-dependent COPD. Methods: National prospective study of patients aged 50 years or older, starting long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) for COPD in Sweden between 1992 and 2008. Comorbidities were obtained from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. Sex-related differences in comorbidity were estimated using logistic regression, adjusting for age, smoking status and year of inclusion. The effect of comorbidity on overall mortality and the interaction between comorbidity and sex were evaluated using Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, Pa-O2 breathing air, FEV1, smoking history and year of inclusion. Results: In total, 8,712 patients (55% women) were included and 6,729 patients died during the study period. No patient was lost to follow-up. Compared with women, men had significantly more arrhythmia, cancer, ischemic heart disease and renal failure, and less hypertension, mental disorders, osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis (P<0.05 for all odds ratios). Comorbidity was an independent predictor of mortality, and the effect was similar for the sexes. Women had lower mortality, which remained unchanged even after adjusting for comorbidity; hazard ratio 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.77; P<0.001). Conclusions: Comorbidity is different in men and women, but does not explain the sex-related difference in mortality in oxygen-dependent COPD.

  • 294.
    Elangovan, Prabaharan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Fluttering Analysis in Wind Turbine Blade2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The wind turbine blades often subjected by a phenomenon fluttering which leads to a structural damage. Therefore, it is necessary for design engineers to predict the fluttering behavior while designing the blades. The main scope of the thesis is to analyze and study the fluttering behavior by conducting structural analysis, modal analysis, Aeroelastic stability analysis and FSI of standard wind turbine blade. The analysis is carried out in ANSYS work bench and the preliminary results shows that blade structure shows some variation which has to prone to flutter.

  • 295.
    Eleburuike, Ismail
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Soetan, Simeon Adekunle
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    An Energy Efficient Protocol Based on Hierarchical Routing Technique for WSN2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The area of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is one of the emerging and fast growing fields in the scientific world. This has brought about developing low cost, low-power and multi-function sensor nodes. However, the major fact that sensor nodes run out of energy quickly has been an issue and many energy efficient routing protocols have been proposed to solve this problem and preserve the longetivity of the network. This is the reason why routing techniques in wireless sensor network focus mainly on the accomplishment of power conservation. Most of the recent publications have shown so many protocols mainly designed to minimize energy consumption in sensor networks. This thesis work proposes a hierarchical routing technique which shows energy efficiency. Our technique selects cluster head with highest residual energy in each communication round of transmission and also takes into account, the shortest distance to the base station from the cluster heads. Simulation results show that hierarchical routing technique with different level of hierarchy prolongs the lifetime of the network compared to other clustering scheme and the energy residual mean value after some communication rounds of simulation increases significantly.

  • 296.
    Elfadul, Asif Ali & Muhammad Yousif
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Fuzzy Decision Making in Business Intelligence2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and implement fuzzy decision algorithms based on unequal objectives and minimization of regret to retrieve an optimal decision in business intelligence. Another aim was to compare these two models; those have been applied in business intelligence area. The use of unequal objectives and minimization of regret methods based on the essential concept of the fuzzy decision were applied on the business intelligence model. The first method uses Saaty’s approach of comparison objectives to determine the weight of the objectives, while the second method uses the regression of objectives which acts as a filter for high values by divesting them of their decisive power. In a complex business problem, we have used knowledge of experts in verbal expressions, converted these verbal expressions into linguistic variables and then used fuzzy decision making models to retrieve best decision. The implementation’s results of the two methods were the same regarding to the final decision set. The first model results indicated the effect of the influential factors on the products, while the second model results showed the payoff for the influential factors and its effectives on the products.

  • 297.
    Elhag, Omer
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Fast Back Projection Algorithm for Bi-Static SAR Using Polar Coordinates2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) plays a significant role in geophysical studies and remote sensing applications. SAR inherits the benefits of imaging RADAR over the other optical sensors such as working in all weather conditions and working independently of sunlight. In addition to these benefits SAR generates a finer resolution 2-D image compared to conventional (real) aperture radar. Due to the sole merits of Ultrawideband-Ultrawidebeam (UWB) Bistatic SAR, this thesis introduces and analyzes a fast time domain algorithm for its image formation. This algorithm inherits the advantages of time-domain algorithms over frequency domain ones. It divides the full synthetic aperture into subapertures. Each subaperture generates a polar grid image. The key point is that the subaperture polar images have very low resolution in cross range (the angular direction); this means that they can be calculated on a pixel grid that is coarse in the angular direction. The final image is obtained by combining all subaperture polar images after converting them to the final high-resolution Cartesian image, in this conversion interpolation is used. Since the subaperture images contain far fewer pixels in cross range than the final image, far fewer operations are required to be executed as compared to Global Backprojection GBP. Due to using the polar grid, the proposed algorithm is named Bistatic Polar-FBP (Bi-PFBP). It is found that although for N×N scene image with N aperture positions the Bi-PFBP computational load is less by approximately a factor of √N as compared to GBP, the image quality generated by each one of them is almost the same.

  • 298. Elovaara, Pirjo
    et al.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Design of Digital Democracies – Staging and Performing Citizenship, Gender and Information Technology2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project is to explore how the ideas of democracy, citizenship, agency and gender can be connected to the notion of design of information technology. One of the reasons to focus on democracy and citizenship is to be found in the growing interest in e-government that is currently launched, politically and technologically, not only in Europe, but world wide. IT policies on a national as well as EU level express wishes to create an information society for all. How are then relations between democracy/citizenship and IT articulated in different practices? How are relations performed by the citizens as users and how is the staging of democracy/citizenship being inscribed in the design by systems designers? The intention of firs empirical part of the study is to investigate a number of spaces/places and practices for (re)negotiating democracy, citizenship, gender and IT. By spaces/places and practices we mean heterogeneous sociomaterial relations between human and non-human actors. Neither citizenship, gender and IT thus understood as fixed or closed categories, but are constantly reinforced, reshaped and (re)produced. Our initial research questions are: - How are dreams and visions of the good democratic lives articulated in a variety of spaces/places and practices by heterogeneous actors? Meanings connected to democracy, citizenship, gender and IT – how are they performed - What are the tensions and contradictions to be founded? - What are the dominating discourses and what are the concurring ones? The second part of the study focuses on the issue of design. Possible research questions to be addressed are: Are the multiple voices kept alive in the design process? How could they be kept alive in the whole design process from an idea to a product - artefact or running the IT-system? Do some methodologies and methods support heterogeneity better than others? Why and how do some perspectives win over others in design processes? How do asymmetrical power relations (gender, ethnicity, age, sexuality etc) intervene in designers definitions of actors involved in systems design? How do designers inscribe their visions of the worlds in the artefacts and systems? We are interested to see if the study can find methodological inspiration and support from a combination of various systems design approaches (participatory design, experimental design), feminist technoscience and Actor-Network-Theory.

  • 299.
    Elrayah, Ahmedelrayah
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Osman, Hazzaa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Fadaee, Mohammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Modelling the Bouancy and Motion of a Submerged Body2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling the dynamic of a submerged body has received a wide attention in the recent years. The trend is toward modeling the buoyancy and motion of the sub- merged body considering di®erent variables affects on it. The scope of this thesis is modeling the dynamic of a submerged body by estimating its natural characteristic, m,c and k since it is necessary to design offshore structures and highly important in the ocean wave arena. An experimental study is carried out to model the dynamic of a submerged body in its heave mode. Since extracting all parameters from this experimental is not an easy task when measuring low frequencies, a numerical model is developed. The resonance frequency, added mass and the stiffness of buoy is successfully estimated. The nonlinearity of the system is detected here by comparing the estimated dynamic characteristic parameters of a different amplitudes.

  • 300. Enflo, Bengt
    et al.
    Hedberg, Claes
    A Standing Acoustic Wave with Shocks in a Cubically Nonlinear Medium2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that transversal elastic waves in homogeneous solids satisfy a wave equation with a cubic nonlinearity. This equation with resonator boundary conditions can be transformed into a functional equation, which can be reduced to a second order partial differential equation with a cubic nonlinearity. From this equation, by specializing to steady state and integrating one step, we obtain a first order ordinary differential equation with three terms in addition to the derivative: a cubic and a linear term in the dependent variable and a known term (sinus). The coefficient of the derivative is proportional to the dissipation and assumed to be small. Among several cases the most complicated case, the coefficient of the linear term lying between zero and (0.5)(2/3)=0.63, is treated in this paper. In each period the solution has two shocks. At one side of each shock it is necessary to introduce an intermediate boundary layer between the outer region and the inner region next to the shock. The intermediate solution is matched both outwards and inwards. The actual first order ordinary differential equation is also solved numerically both in the outer region and in the neighborhood of the shocks. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.

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