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  • 251.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sjöfåglars utnyttjande av havsområden runt Gotland och Öland: betydelsen av marint områdesskydd2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Marint områdesskydd, dvs. att införa särskilda bevarandeåtgärder i geografiskt definierade marina områden, är ett av flera verktyg som kan användas för att bevara hotade och sårbara populationer av sjöfåglar och annan marin fauna och flora. Havs- och kustområdena runt Gotland och Öland, inklusive de tre större utsjöbankarna i centrala Östersjön, är viktiga områden där sjöfåglar söker föda i form av bottenfauna, främst musslor, eller fisk. Flera fiskätande och bottenfaunaätande sjöfåglar befinner sig vintertid ofta i det yttre kustbandet eller långt ute till havs. Alkor, lommar och havslevande dykänder är mycket skickliga dykare och fångar föda på stora djup. Alfåglar dyker regelbundet efter musslor på djup ned till 25 meter. Alkor som sillgrissla och tordmule dyker efter fisk i den fria vattenmassan och kan fånga byten på betydligt större djup.

     

    Syftet med denna rapport är att sammanställa och tolka tidigare genomförda inventeringar av sjöfåglar i Östersjön, med särskilt fokus på fåglarnas utbredning och nyttjande av utsjöbankar och havs- och kustområden runt Gotland och Öland. Syftet är också att diskutera om och hur marint områdesskydd, havsplanering och andra generella skyddsåtgärder kan påverka olika arter sjöfåglar och särskilt de arter eller populationer som är hotade eller som Sverige har ett särskilt ansvar för.

     

    I rapporten beskrivs hur sjöfågelinventeringar till havs kan genomföras och hur resultat från inventeringar som använt olika metodik bör tolkas. Därefter följer en generell beskrivning av de bottenfaunaätande och fiskätande sjöfågelarter som regelmässigt utnyttjar havsområden runt Gotland och Öland under en betydande tid av året. I denna del beskrivs även artens status och olika hot. Sjöfågelarter eller andra kustbundna fågelarter som i huvudsak endast utnyttjar de mest strandnära vattenområdena tas inte upp i denna rapport. Efter artbeskrivningarna följer en beskrivning av förekomsten av olika arter sjöfåglar i utvalda fokusområden. Avslutningsvis diskuteras behov och prioriteringar av marint områdesskydd i de olika fokusområdena respektive behov av generella skyddsåtgärder

     

    Rapporten har producerats inom projektet ”Marina skyddsvärden runt Gotland och Öland ” som letts av Länsstyrelsen i Gotlands län. Projektet har till största del finansierats av Havs- och vattenmyndigheten genom anslag 1:11 Åtgärder i havs- och vattenmiljö samt medfinansierats av Länsstyrelsen i Gotlands län, Länsstyrelsen i Kalmar län och Linnéuniversitetet.

  • 252.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    The Baltic Sea is an important wintering area for waterbirds2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, P., Schubert, H. and Radziejewska, T. (Eds.), Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2017, p. 438-439Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 253.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    The common eider, the great cormorant and the white-tailed eagle2017In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea / [ed] Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, P., Schubert, H. and Radziejewska, T., Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2017, p. 164-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 254.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Eriksson, Martin
    Regler, ekonomiska styrmedel och teknik kan minska påverkan på miljön2017In: Åtgärder för att minska sjöfartens påverkan på havsmiljön. Havsmiljöinstitutets rapport 2017:2, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 4-6Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I likhet med de flesta andra transportslag har sjöfart en betydande påverkan på jordens klimat, ekosystem och människors hälsa. För att långsiktigt minska de negativa effekterna på havsmiljön krävs skarpare regelverk, ny teknik och ekonomiska styrmedel, samt en samsyn mellan alla de aktörer som påverkar sjöfartens utveckling.

  • 255.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Stockholm Univ.
    Kilpi, Mikael
    Åbo Akad Univ.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Utklippan Bird Stn.
    Leito, Aivar
    Estonian Univ Life Sci.
    Lyngs, Peter
    Christianso Fieldstn.
    Effects of an extensive Prymnesium polylepis bloom on breeding eiders in the Baltic Sea2014In: Journal of Sea Research, ISSN 1385-1101, E-ISSN 1873-1414, Vol. 88, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of an extensive bloom of the potentially toxic Prymnesium polylepis (Haptophyta) on breeding eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Increasing abundances of the alternate stage P. polylepis was detected by a marine monitoring programme in the autumn 2007. The bloom peaked between March and May 2008 in the southern, central and northwestern Baltic Proper and abundances of up to 5 x 106 cells l- 1 were recorded. At several sites P. polylepis constituted between 30 and 90% of the total phytoplankton biovolume. The flagellate was only recorded in low numbers in the northeastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland. The abundances were low in 2007, 2009 and 2010. In 28 eider colonies situated in the southern and central Baltic Proper, sharp and synchronous declines in the number of nesting eiders were observed from 2007 to 2008. In colonies on Gotland in the central Baltic Proper, a 76% decrease, from 6650 nests to 1620 nests, was followed by increases in 2009 and 2010, although not up to numbers observed in 2007. At Utklippan and Ertholmene in the southern Baltic Proper, the observed decreases of 55%, from 144 to 65 nests, and 36%, from 1660 to 1060 nests, respectively, between 2007 and 2008, were followed by increases in 2009 and 2010 up to the level observed in 2007. By contrast, no general decline of the number of nesting eiders was observed from 2007 to 2008 in 75 colonies in the northeastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Finland. Hence, the spatial distribution of the P. polylepis bloom in 2008 closely matched the observed distribution of extensive non-breeding of female eiders. We suggest that the intensive spring bloom of P. polylepis, either through a toxic or non-toxic pathway, affected the main benthic food of eiders, i.e. blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis), at pre-breeding foraging sites close to the breeding sites, and, subsequently, the body condition of adult female eiders and their breeding propensity.

  • 256.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Även lite olja kan göra stor skada i havsmiljön2014In: Sjöfarten kring Sverige och dess påverkan på havsmiljön, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2014, , p. 2p. 8-9Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Även små oljeutsläpp från fartyg kan få stora negativa effekter på havsmiljön. Hur stora effekterna blir beror på var och när utsläppen sker. Bättre rutiner och skärpt lagstiftning har lett till att mängden utsläppt olja har minskat under de senaste decennierna. Men antalet utsläpp är fortfarande högt och illegala oljeutsläpp sker i stort sett dagligen runt Sveriges kuster.

  • 257.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Karlsson, Pär
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Fartygstrafik i och nära skyddade och känsliga havsområden runt Gotland och Öland2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den internationella fartygstrafiken i Östersjön och inte minst i havsområdet runt Gotland och Öland är mycket intensiv och förväntas öka i omfattning under kommande år. Sjöfarten behöver tillgång till utrymme på havet i form av ändamålsenliga och säkra fartygsrutter. Intensiv fartygstrafik medför dock påverkan på havsmiljön på grund av driftsrelaterade utsläpp till luft och vatten. Intensiv trafik medför även risker för kollisioner, grundstötningar och andra fartygsolyckor som kan ge upphov till mycket stor miljöpåverkan.

     

    Sverige har liksom de flesta av världens länder i enlighet med internationella konventioner ett uppdrag att skydda minst 10 % av havet. Införandet av marina reservat och nationalparker innanför svensk territorialgräns, och av marina Natura 2000-områden innanför territorialgräns och i svensk ekonomisk zon enligt nationell lagstiftning och EU-direktiv, är ett led i uppdraget. Andra internationella konventioner reglerar vilka åtgärder som kan vidtas för att styra fartygstrafik eller för att rekommendera sjöfarten att undvika vissa havsområden.

     

    Havsplanering är ett verktyg för att styra det rumsliga nyttjandet av havet och för att reducera konflikter mellan olika samhällsintressen, t.ex. mellan behovet av sjöfart och behovet av att skydda havsmiljön och marin biologisk mångfald. För att på ett effektivt sätt kunna havsplanera och förbättra och utöka skyddet av värdefulla marina områden krävs kunskap om den påverkan som mänskliga aktiviteter, bland annat sjöfart, har på områdena. Ett första steg är att identifiera de havsområden där fartygstrafiken är mycket intensiv, där fartyg passerar genom eller nära särskilt känsliga områden, där fartyg med särskilt farlig last passerar eller där många fartyg ankrar under längre perioder.

     

    Syftet med rapporten är att sammanställa information om fartygstrafik i och nära skyddade och känsliga havsområden runt Gotland och Öland. I rapporten beskrivs först hur analyser av fartygstrafik kan genomföras med hjälp av lagrade AIS-data. Därefter beskrivs fartygstrafiken i centrala Östersjön och i särskilda fokusområden runt Gotland och Öland. Avslutningsvis diskuteras risker med fartygstrafik i känsliga havsområden och hur konflikter mellan sjöfartens behov och marint områdesskydd kan reduceras. Rapporten har producerats inom projektet ”Marina skyddsvärden runt Gotland och Öland ” som letts av Länsstyrelsen i Gotlands län.

  • 258.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Karlsson, Pär
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Population trends and threats from ship traffic to long-tailed ducks in the Baltic Sea2016In: Progress in Marine Conservation in Europe 2015 / [ed] von Nordheim, H. and Wollny-Goerke, K, Bundesamt für Naturschutz (BfN) , 2016, p. 205-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis is a small sea duck that breeds in Arctic tundra regions and winter in marine and brackish waters. Surveys indicate substantial declines in numbers in recent decades and the species is now classified by IUCN as globally threatened in the category “vulnerable”. The largest of the four recognized long-tailed duck populations is the West Siberian / North European population. Birds belonging to the WS/NE population breed in northern Russia and northern Scandinavia and overwinter mainly in the Baltic Sea. An International Single Species Action Plan for the long-tailed duck has also recently been developed by specialists under the auspices of AEWA (Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds) (HEARN et al. 2015)

    Two Baltic wide surveys have shown that the WS/NE population has decreased very rapidly from approx. 4.3 million birds in 1992-93 to approx. 1.5 million birds in 2007-2009 (DURINCK et al. 1994; SKOV et al. 2011). Although there is some uncertainty regarding the overall level of the population size estimates it is believed that the difference between the estimates accurately reflects the trend between the mid 1990s and late 2000s. A further decline also after 2009 can be assumed as the mean proportion of juveniles in the wintering population has been low since 2009. The recent decline of the WS/NE population can most likely be explained by a combination of factors affecting both the productivity at the Arctic breeding grounds and the adult mortality in the wintering areas in the Baltic Sea.

    Four important anthropogenic threats affecting the wintering birds have been recognised, namely,

    1. operational oil spills from ships at core wintering sites,

    2. by-catches in fishery,

    3. hunting and

    4. disturbance at and exploitation of offshore mussel banks.

    Mortality due to by-catches has decreased but is still high (BELLEBAUM et al. 2013). Hunting mortality is fairly well known and can be regulated if agreements are reached. Displacement of wintering long-tailed ducks from good feeding areas might be more important in future if planned large scale wind farms will be established at core wintering sites, i.e. at offshore banks.

    In this note one of the four recognised anthropogenic threats, i.e. the threat from intensive shipping activities is elucidated. More specifically, an analysis of ship traffic within and close to two marine Natura 2000 sites is presented. The analysed sites, the Hoburgs bank and the Northern Midsjö bank, are two of the most important wintering sites for long-tailed ducks in the Baltic Sea. Several hundred thousand long-tailed ducks, which is a significant part of the global population, have been observed wintering within these areas in recent years (SKOV et al. 2011, NILSSON 2012). Possible methods to reduce the threat from ship traffic are also discussed.

  • 259.
    Larsson, Markus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Persson Waern, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Faktorer som påverkade valet: En studie i blivande sjöingenjörers utbildningsval2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish merchant fleet has in the past years been subject to flagging-out which has forced many mariners to go ashore or look for work under a foreign flag. Despite the problems with flagging-out and a potential reduction in the labour market the marine engineering programme has over the previous years not faced any major problems to fill up their training positions. The future remains uncertain as competition from other shipping nations increases significantly. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying attitudes and expectations that made students in 2013 choose to study the four -year marine engineering programme at the Kalmar Maritime Academy. Furthermore the study investigates the students attitudes towards the shrinking Swedish merchant fleet. To carry out this investigation, a survey was made among the first year students on the marine engineering programme. The results of the survey show that the opportunity to develop the student’s practical skills was of great importance in educational choice. Other factors that were highly valued were an interesting educational content and interesting job tasks after graduation.

  • 260.
    Laub, Gustav
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Matkvalitet ombord svenska fartyg2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 261.
    Leandersson, Sanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Nilsson, Paula
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lämplighetsbedömning inom transportsektorn: En studie av bruket av psykologisk lämplighetsbedömning vid tre yrkesutbildningar i Sverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is no evaluation of the psychological aptitude of applicants during the admission process to the merchant marine officer program at the maritime academies in Sweden. Pilots and train drivers have similar responsibilities, and their applicants are thoroughly tested and evaluated psychologically before admission to their educational programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current use of psychological evaluation in the transport sector and the possible effects following an implementation of psychological evaluations of students at the maritime academies during the admission process. A qualitative comparison of the different laws, rules and procedures for evaluating psychological aptitude in the three transport sectors, railway, aviation and shipping, was made. The strategies used today by different ship owners to determine the psychological aptitude of merchant marine officers during their recruitment processes was also investigated. An implementation of psychological aptitude tests during the admission process would result in an extra expense, but the amount of students who discontinue their education would probably decrease, saving the community unnecessary educational expenses. Most importantly, the number of accidents could be expected to decrease since the human factor is the cause of over one- third of all marine accidents in Swedish territorial waters.

  • 262.
    Leimalm, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Partanen, Kristian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Checklista för start av kall ångturbin via HMI på Örtoftaverket: Doosan Skoda MTD30 & ABB 800xA DCS2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet är utfört på uppdrag av Kraftringen AB för deras nybyggda värmekraftverk i Örtofta med anledning av att den befintliga dokumentationen över de olika systemen saknar en tydlig steg-för-steg process med avseende på drift, start och stopp av anläggningen. Fokuset för denna uppsats är avgränsad till uppstart genom HMI för ångturbin. Genom observationer på plats i värmekraftverket samt tagit del av driftpersonalens egna instruktioner, har en checklista och flödesschema tagits fram av uppsatstagarna. Resultatet har fått en högre tillförlitlighet tack vare att uppsatstagarna även har haft tillgång till dokumentation från leverantörer i form av papper och digitala kopior i Kraftringens interna nätverk. Detta projekt har lett fram till en tydlig och enhetlig steg-för-steg process som kommer att underlätta driftpersonalens arbete på Örtoftaverket och skapa en ytterligare effektivitet vid uppstart av ångturbin.

  • 263.
    Lejdel Henriksson, Alfred
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Adevik, Birger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Vetting år 2023: En kvalitativ studie om framtidens vettinginspektioner2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet avhandlar vettingens framtida utveckling inom den kommande tioårsperioden(2013-2023), baserat på kvalitativa intervjuer med erfarna, väl insatta personer i tankochvettingbranschen. Intervjusvaren analyseras i diskussionsdelen och ger läsaren enbild av hur vettingen kan tänkas se ut om tio år, och hur vettingen kan förändras för atteffektiviseras ytterligare. Vettingen kommer troligtvis öka i omfattning under dennakommande tioårsperiod, med ökat antal arbetstimmar och ökad resursåtgång som följd.Antalet inspektioner kommer troligen att öka, både i antal och även tidsåtgången perinspektion kommer att öka. Ett införande av SIRE-vetting fullt ut är troligtvis inte attvänta, på grund av oljebolagens oförmåga att enas om var fokus skall ligga vid eninspektion. Fokus vid en inspektion kan komma att skiftas, troligtvis från kontroll avteknisk hårdvara och certifikat, till att se till fartyget som helhet, och i störreutsträckning utvärdera besättningen och dess kompetens.

  • 264.
    Leuenberger, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Malmgren, Kristian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Länsvattenmängd2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I botten av ett fartygs maskinrum samlas vatten som är blandat med olja, kemikalier och andra föroreningar. Detta pumpas till länsvattentanken. Det finns två alternativ för vidare hantering av länsvattnet: Antingen avlägsnas oljan i en länsvattenseparator och det renade vattnet pumpas överbord, eller lämnas i en hamn för destruktion. I dagsläget är det okänt hur mycket länsvatten som produceras ombord på fartyg. Den här studien undersöker möjliga samband mellan de fyra fartygsrelevanta variablerna bruttodräktighet, maskinstyrka, ålder och fartygstyp och mängden länsvatten som produceras ombord på fartyg. Undersökningen visade att det finns statistiskt säkerställda samband mellan länsvattenmängd och variablerna maskinstyrka, bruttodräktighet och fartygstyp, men inte fartygets ålder.  

  • 265.
    Lewis Skoglund, Jim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Steinsson, Aron
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Tvåvaktssystem: En kvalitativ undersökning om förutsättningar för sunda vanor i tvåvaktssystem2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Persons that perform shift work are part of a risk group for health related stress as result of difficulties with developing personal routines for eating, sleeping and physical wellness. Sailors that work in ships where a two watch system with 6 hour watches is applied are therefore included in this risk group where work is generally concentrated over an extended period of time. This study presents an investigation on how people with experience in the two watch system with six hour watches, experience the conditions for creating healthy routines for sleep, diet and physical wellness. The result is a story about the perceived opportunities in which the following two interesting conclusions emerged: respondents feel that the off duty period's theoretical timeframe for regeneration doesn't correspond to reality in which the time does not suffice. Hence, sleep and nutrition is prioritized while the need for physical wellness suffers. Personal routines are essential, but prerequisites for developing healthy routines for sleep, diet and wellness are directly related to the possibility of having the off duty period undisturbed from ordered operational tasks.

  • 266.
    Lidebo, Jimmie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Engström, Gustaf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Installation av magnetiseringsutrustning för bränsle på en dieselgenerator: Kan det sänka bränsleförbrukning och emissioner?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study intends to find out if any changed effect can be obtained regarding fuel 

    consumption and emissions as diesel oil flows through a magnetic field before 

    injection in a diesel engine that drives a generator. The equipment that causes the 

    magnetic field is provided by a commercial company. The study consists of two 

    parts, one theoretical part and one practical part. In the theoretical part, previous 

    scientific studies are present together with how the manufacturer says that the 

    technology works. In the practical part tests have been made regarding flue gas 

    emissions and fuel consumption. The result of these tests is present in the study and 

    the flue gas emission tests have been made in accordance with ISO standard 8178 

    with the instrument Testo 340. Tests have been made with and without the 

    equipment installed at different loads. When comparing these tests it has shown that 

    the difference obtained regarding fuel consumption and emissions are within the 

    range of measurement errors. With some care, one can assume on one specific load, 

    that the particle emissions are reduced by the impact of the installed equipment.

  • 267.
    Lindahl, Joar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lejman, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Nordiska färjerederiers lösning på det nya svaveldirektivet2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The new sulphur directive, concerning the quantity of sulphur that vessels in the Baltic Sea and North Sea are allowed to discharge in form of exhaust gases, takes effect in 2015. This has a great impact on the shipping companies traveling the Baltic- and North Sea SECA. Today there are no obvious solutions on how the ferry companies will be able to follow the new sulphur regulations, so how are they supposed to cope? In what way did they discuss matters before deciding upon which technical solution to choose?

    To answer the questions a qualitative method was used. Data, that has been the basis of this paper, has been collected from spokespersons from seven ferry companies in Scandinavia. These spokespersons have been familiar with the machinery on board and have significant knowledge of their vessels. In the conclusion we have summarized the results of different technical solutions that the shipping companies have discussed during the interviews.

    The conclusion of this paper is that most of the ferry companies will use MGO or WRD to cope with the new sulphur regulations until a better alternative is introduced.

    In order to maintain anonymity, the names of participating shipping companies and interviewees have been changed.

  • 268.
    Lindberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Johansson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Joélius, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    LNG - Framtidens fartygsbränsle: Vad är det som hämmar utvecklingen av LNG-drift i Sverige?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Shipping today faces stricter environmental requirements for pollution from vessels. Shipping companies have started to look for alternative fuel to achieve better environmental outcome. The Baltic Sea today is a major trading area for shipping . On 1 of January 2015 a new set of brand new and stricter regulation is getting implemented and these regulations are called SECA. Vessel running on LNG as an alternative fuel is today discussed extensively within the Swedish Maritime forum where emissions of NOx, sulfur and particles are less recipients than in heavy fuel oil (HFO). One of todays problems with a LNG distribution in Sweden are that the infrastructure is incomplete and outdated. This report has been built upon qualitative interviews with important actors within the Swedish maritime forum and also what impedes the development of the LNG’s infrastructure. The outcome of the interviews showed that the development has been slowed down because none within the Swedish martime forum have dared to take the first step. The ports does not want to develop terminals when there is no market demand and the shipping companies does not want to build vessel that runs on LNG when there is no market for distribution. Swedish governments involvement has been very weak, almost non-existing. There are also gaps in the Swedish regulations and restrictions of LNG cargo handling. This is aslo one of the factors that the development of LNG has been impeded. 

  • 269.
    Lindqvist, Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Andersson, Simon
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Grundstötningsolyckor på svenskt farvatten och bland svenskflaggade fartyg2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Even though there are plenty of technological aids onboard modern-day merchant vessels, intended to help the Officer on watch to drive his vessel safely, groundings continue to happen. This literature study summarises and reviews data from several groundings that involved Swedish-registered ships and ships within Swedish territory during the period 2011-2016. This study covers questions about the main factors that have caused the groundings. It covers both internal and external factors. Method of steering, bridge manning and type of chart belong to the internal factors. Factors such as wave height, wind force, type of waters, visibility and light conditons are part of the external factors. This data is then discussed and analysed to give a picture of what may have caused the groundings. The results show that the smaller tonnage passenger and bulk carriers account for the majority of the accidents. Like previous studies the number of accidents due to human factors are high.

  • 270.
    Lingborg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Internetanvändande under bryggvakt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en kvalitativ studie genomförd med intervjuer av fartygsbefäl angående deras internetanvändade under bryggvakt. Med en ständigt ökande tillgång till internet och med fler studier inriktade på riskerna med internet så är detta en studie på hur det påverkar och hanteras av fartygsbefäl. Det visar sig att fartygsbefäl använder sig av internet av privata skäl under bryggvakt och de är till en viss del medvetna om riskerna med det men att riskerna regleras till stor del av befälens egna omdömen.

     

    Nyckelord

    Internet, Cyberloafing, Sömn, Fartygssäkerhet, Härvaro.

  • 271.
    Liwång, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden;Swedish National Defence College, Sweden.
    Sörenson, Karl
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden;Swedish National Defence College, Sweden.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ship security challenges in high-risk areas: manageable or insurmountable?2015In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 201-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Piracy can lead to risks so high that they, according to the InternationalMaritime Organization, are tolerable only if risk reduction is not practicable or isdisproportionate to the benefits achieved. Therefore, there is a need for reducing shipsecurity risks in relation to antagonistic threats such as piracy. The aim of this study isto identify challenges for ship operators when developing their ship security management.Furthermore, this study also investigates two central aspects in the analysis:understanding the threat and understanding how a security threat affects the crew andoperation of the ship. It is clear from the analysis that the importance of subjectiveaspects beyond a ship operators’ direct control is high. This seems to be the fact for allaspects of the risk management process. The situation is also dynamic as the securityrisk, as well as the risk perception, can change dramatically even though there are noactual operational changes. As a result, the ship security management process is highlyiterative and depends on situations on board as well as conditions out of the shipoperator’s control. In order to make ship security manageable, the risk management hasto put particular focus on methodological understanding, relevant system understandingand well-defined risk acceptance criteria as well as on including all levels of theorganization in the risk reduction implementation and on a continuous monitoring.

  • 272.
    Ljungqvist, Helena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lönnqvist, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Avfallsfraktioner i Sveriges hamnar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year the amount of garbage and the use of natural resources increases which makes recycling an important subject for a sustainable society. Yearly more than 6,4 million tons of plastic is dumped into the oceans from ships. From the 1st of January 2013 MARPOL regulation got stricter to decrease the discharge of garbage into the sea. Against this background the purpose of this study has been to examine how the motivation to recycle can be effected of the number of garbage fractions in the ports. A qualitative method has been used and seven interviews were conducted. The result shows that the number of fractions is not the most important factor to increase recycling. The study also shows that there is no standard in the ports. Accessibility, proximity and that it is easy to carry out emerges as the main factors.

  • 273.
    Lundahl, Kevin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Leek, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Rost- och färgborttagning med laser på fartyg2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rost är ett av de största problemen på fartyg idag. För att ta bort rost används rosthammare och bläster. Rostborttagning utgör den största delen av underhållsarbetet ombord på fartyg. Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka om rengöringslaser kan ta bort både rost och färg tillräckligt effektivt för att ersätta traditionella rostbortagningsmetoder. Frågeställningarna tar upp effektivitet, kostnader samt hur lång tid rengöring med hjälp av laser tar jämfört med traditionella metoder. Frågeställningarna besvaras med hjälp av ett experiment, tre intervjuer samt en litteraturstudie I experimentet används en 50 watts rengöringslaser för att ta bort rost och färg från stålytor. Stålet som rengjordes var konstruktionsstål. Innan experimentet utfördes så har vi rengjort liknande ytor med slipmaskin för att kunna jämföra tiden samt hur rena ytorna blir. Två av intervjuerna utfördes via mail och den tredje utfördes ansikte mot ansikte. Intervjupersonerna jobbar för företag som säljer rengöringslasrar. Rengöringslasern som användes i experimentet var ej tillräckligt effektiv för att ersätta traditionella metoder för rostborttagning. Litteraturstudien och intervjuerna visar att en rengöringslaser med högre effekt ska kunna ersätta de traditionella rost- och färgborttagningsmetoderna.

  • 274.
    Lundberg, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Fartygsförlagd utbildning - Arbetsmiljö och Ledarskapsstilar2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to, with systems theory, explore how a mentor’s possible leaderships-style affected the perceived occupational safety and health, and learning experience of sea captain students during their internship. The internship is an obligatory course where the students get the opportunity to practically apply theoretical knowledge.  The only prior reports in this field focused on the perspective of the mentor and not the student. Two types of systems-theoretical leadership-styles are examined through the experience of the students, and which effect those leadership-styles have in a closed system. The methodology in the gathering of data used in this report was led interview with a set form of questions. Ten students from a maritime academy were interviewed, with the subject based in systems theory and workplace environment. The results of the interview were analysed with the help of system theory. The result of the study concluded that one of the leadership styles could partly be connected to a positive experience of their mentor and learning experience, but neither of the leadership styles could be connected to discomfort or insecurity during the time on-board. Also, other factors, such as the mentor’s experience and background, and chemistry between the parties, affected the students experience.

  • 275.
    Lundkvist Barke, Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Käck, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Tufft med luft: Kompressorinstallation i laborationssyfte2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project was commissioned by Tobias Hedin, who is a lecturer at the Kalmar Maritime Academy. The mission was to install a physical compressor facility that would replace an existing graphic simulator. The goal of the assembly was also, to the extent where it was possible, to emulate the compressor plants onboard ships. With the help of literary studies, but also through own experience, the necessary data were developed around compressors and facilities on board. The final choice of compressor was also done with regard to the budget, noise and capacity. Apart from the compressors, the budget also included the purchase of some peripherals that were necessary to adapt the compressor to the task. The Maritime Academy provided drawing program for schedules, and also electrical supplies. The work resulted in a fully functional compressor system with a control cabinet and control system. The client also received documentation of the facility.

  • 276.
    Löfvendahl, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Klemmensen, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Alkohol- och drogtester ombord: En undersökning av svenska sjömäns attityder till slumpmässiga alkohol- och drogtester ombord2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the relationship between the requirements that some employers have involving alcohol and drug testing of employees, and the potential resistance that employees may have to such tests as regards integrity issues. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate Swedish seafarers’ attitudes to undergoing random alcohol and drug testing on board. Through interviews with fourteen both test-experienced and non-test-experienced seafarers a qualitative thematic content analysis of seafarers’ attitudes to the tests was conducted. The results show that contrary to previous research, the seafarers had positive or neutral attitudes to the tests. The seafarers did not experience any feeling of discomfort or of being monitored and the atmosphere of the workplace and trust for the employer remained unchanged. The seafarers cooperated in the tests without protests. The attitudes of the test-experienced and the non-test-experienced seafarers were similar. One difference however was found in that the non-test-experienced seafarers had less knowledge of rules and procedures regarding the tests and believed that the atmosphere of the workplace would be negatively affected if the tests were to be introduced.

  • 277.
    Löwdell, Emil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lorke, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Effektivisering av rökgasrening och utsläpp för en bättre miljö: Mätning, analysering, beräkning samt förbättringsalternativ av reningskomponenter på Landskrona Energi Kraftvärmeverk2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En av de stora utmaningarna hos alla kraftvärmeverk är att ha bra emissioner med så liten påverkan på miljön som möjligt. För att uppnå detta krävs det att det finns en effektiv rökgasrening där många skadliga ämnen, exempelvis SO2, (svaveldioxid), HCl  (väteklorid) och NOx (kväveoxid) tas om hand, för att på så vis minska utsläppen och klara emissionskraven.

    För att uppnå detta löper rökgaserna bland annat genom ett rökgasfilter, en skrubber samt en quench (störtkylare) där de skadliga ämnena bryts ner, minskas eller blandas med andra ämnen som konsumerar dem.

    Olika biokraftvärmeverk förbränner olika sorters biobränslen. Säljaren som levererar biobränslet skall redovisa och försäkra att de levererade materialets kemiska innehåll befinner sig inom de gränsvärden som anges, vilka kemiska ämnen som är befintligt i bränslet och dess storlek. Två av dessa kemiska ämnen, HCl och SO2, skall i detta arbete, via uträkning av bränslets innehåll av dessa två ämnen, jämföras med det utlovade innehållet i bränslet som leverantören hänvisar till.

    Som formulerat tidigare så är det en hel del komponenter som rökgaserna passerar, och det är här problemen uppstår. Komponenter som det blir komplikationer med på grund av igensättning, temperaturvariationer samt andra problem som t.ex. att kalktillförseln för att binda svavlet.

    Intresset inom detta ämne började genom egen arbetserfarenhet och sommarjobb som drifttekniker på ett kraftvärmeverk. Detta fick upp ögonen för hur viktigt det egentligen är att rena rökgaserna och vilken enorm förbättringspotential som finns i rökgasreningsanläggningar.

    I detta arbete utgår man ifrån att det inte är några föroreningar, såsom klor och svavel, som går ut via bottenaskan.

  • 278.
    Magnusson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Kenttä, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Tillförlitlighetssäkring av stofttransportsystemet på Norrenergi AB: Undersökning av ett stofttransportsystem med mål att minska förebyggande underhåll och uppnå en säkrare drift2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been carried out at the request by the energy company Norrenergi AB. It consists of an analysis on how they can reduce the maintenance regarding two dust transporting fans installed in the flue gas cleaning compartment of their thermal power plant. The study also compares what solutions other plants have regarding the dust-transport. The solution installed at Norrenergi AB was found to be rather unusual. Measurements and calculations have been performed to investigate further what have caused the high maintenance on the fans. The study looks into what upgrades are available to the entire dust transporting system. The result of the study turned into different suggestions, which includes a new configuration of the dust transporting system, and installation of new fans and also an upgrade of the existing dust transporting system. Among the suggestions the final recommendation is the alternative of installing new fans.

  • 279.
    Magnusson, Therese
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Himmelstrand, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Särbehandling av studenter till sjöss2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to investigate the possible presence and extent of discrimination / harassment of students on onboard training and had its starting point in the debate about students' vulnerability which in 2014 was written about in the Swedish Shipping Gazette. The study's purpose was to identify patterns, such as what one is exposed to, by whom and underlying causes. For the study a questionnaire survey were selected as method. With personal attendance on site during the collection the aim was to ensure the broadest possible result. The target group consisted of the two graduating classes in the four-year master mariner-programs in Kalmar and Gothenburg. The results showed that 51 % of the surveyed respondents at least some time during their onboard training had experienced themselves victims of discrimination. The study showed that the students most likely to have been exposed to psychological harassment and exclusion from the regular crew.  This may be due to high workload, inherited attitudes and lack of updated skills in areas such as leadership. Even the schools responsibility is highlighted.

  • 280.
    Mansnerus, Anton
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Wernius, Pontus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hur införandet av MLC har påverkat anmärkningar under hamnstatskontroller2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the number of complaints and the types of complaints had changed since the introduction of the MLC. The research material is taken from the Paris MoU annual reports. It was from these that the survey was conducted. The conclusions that we came to was, that since the MLC was introduced, the total number of complaints have decreased during the period 2011-2015. The number of detentions have also declined. Remarks concerning only the work environment has declined since the introduction of the MLC. An increasing number of complaints, which had previously fallen under the ILO, will settle in the MLC.  The most common MLC remarks were "Records of Seafarers'daily hours of work or rest" and "Transport". The most common MLC complaint that resulted in the retention was "Wages". The remarks that were common at the Port State Control regarding the other allegations were "Fire Safety" and "Safety of Navigation".

  • 281.
    Martinsson, Richard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Johansson, Niclas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Utredning av kyleffektfördelning i kylrum: En analys av kyleffektbehov samt förlustfaktorer gällande två kylrum för livsmedel2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is conducted on behalf of DGL AB. The purpose was to investigate why the temperature does not drop to the desired level in two different cooling storages whom are used for cooling and storing of prepackaged groceries. The project was carried out with the help of loss calculations and temperature measurements to identify and estimate size as well as percentage differences in different loss factors. The sites measurements outlined the basis for this project. The cooling effect requirement is calculated based on the company's actual maximum production amount per day.

    The results showed that the effect of the cooling unit is oversized, however the cooling radiators capacity was too low considering the amount of losses. The outcome of the study suggest a decrease in thermal transmission losses through isolation of walls and ceilings in each of the cooling storages as well as isolation of the cooling water tank located in cooling storage 2. Cleaning of the cooling radiators flanges, supplementing or replacing with other cooling radiators that has more power output was additional suggestions to the result.

  • 282.
    Martinsson, Victor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Jonsson, Kristian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Bullermätningar på ropaxfartyg2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will examine how the noise level of two sister ships has changed since the previous measurements were made in 2009. The vessels are of the Ro-Pax ferries type and have operated the Baltic Sea for their entire lifetime. With the aid of a decibel meter, the noise levels have been measured on deck 1 and 2 on board both vessels, on deck 1 and 2 of the vessels there are engine rooms and spaces for provisioning. The measurements were recorded and compiled in an Excel document and could then be compared with previously documented measurements from 2009. With the help of new measurements, a new noise map could be compiled. Comparisons were also made between the sister vessels among themselves. What may have changed in just over 10 years? High noise levels are a work environment problem, for those who work in spaces where high noise levels occur, it is important that the right protective equipment is provided. When measured values ​​were compared between the sister vessels, approximately the same noise values ​​were measured. When comparing the new noise measurements with the old ones from 2009, the measurement result differed very little. Just a single space that had a higher value in 2009 than the new measurements. What can this be due to? In an examination of the maintenance history of each boat's machine equipment that generates noise, the maintenance plan is followed according to the manufacturers' recommendations, when buying spare parts, for example bearings, original parts are always used. Inspection of insulation in the measured spaces has proved to be intact and not removed. When comparing the noise measurements and frequency analyses of the sister ships, equivalent measurement results were obtained, at a look at the running times between the vessels machinery, these are even when the vessels divide their trips evenly during the year, the wear on the ships being equal and equal maintenance routines being followed between the vessels. The frequency analyzes showed no major difference, which should be normal when the vessels have identical machine components installed in the vessels.

  • 283.
    Meitmann, Carl Anton
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Enforcing the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006: A study of the early results of implementation and enforcement of the Maritime Labour Convention, 20062016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of the Maritime Labour Convention 2006 (hereafter: MLC 2006) have long been familiar to many states, but for some it has brought with it increased expectations in improving working conditions for seafarers. This study aims to analyse the early figures provided by Paris Memorandum of Understanding’s (hereafter: Paris MoU) on the number of deficiencies and detentions in before and after the implementation of the MLC 2006, as well as the ILO Committee of Experts 2014 Report, which marks the first full year of MLC 2006 compliance in the first ratifying states. The purpose was to provide an early report on the progress of the MLC 2006 to date as well as how it has adapted to concerns expressed by experts in maritime law prior to its implementation. Even if it has not been long enough since the entry into force to properly identify a trend, it is interesting to see a positive start to the MLC 2006, which has received rapidly increasing attention, and that awareness of labour rights has increased in the maritime industry. Figures also revealed that the early result is at least not a decrease in the number of reported deficiencies. In addition, the fact that a number of detentions have been issued is worthy of note, as they were very rare in the labour context before the MLC 2006.

  • 284.
    Melander, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Thomasson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Olyckor i samband med övning med konventionell livbåt: En analys av olycksutredningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The launching of lifeboats is connected with a high level of risk, whether the launching occurs during drills or real situations. This paper puts forward an analysis of conventional lifeboat launcher (with use of davits). The aim of the paper was to determine if a pattern was apparent in the data. Data involving lifeboat launching accidents was obtained from maritime accident agencies from European member states of IMO during the period 2000-2013. To obtain a full account of each one of the accidents a qualitative content analysis was used. To determine accident patterns the data was organised into the following sectors:

    Human factor, communication/organisations/routine, technical issues, maintenance and unspecified. In 60% of the cases human factor contributed to the main cause for the accident, and it acts as a primary contributor to accidents in other sectors. 

  • 285.
    Mlodianovskij, Ksystof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Svanberg, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sjöfartens framtid i sjöbefälsstudenternas ögon: En ljus framtid?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work is to find out why students apply to marine officer training and to find out their views on the future. To get the answer to that question interviews were done with nautical students at the Kalmar Maritime Academy. In this research it shows that there are various reasons for the choice of maritime education. Some respondents have relatives who have worked or are working at sea and that is a main factor to choose maritime education for these students. Other respondents choose marine officer training because of interest to seafaring and benefits of the relief system at sea. The majority of respondents have a positive view of the future in shipping and that they will get jobs, though many respondents are concerned about a negative development in the Swedish shipping. During interviews respondents felt that they have not received proper information about the labor market situation before seeking education. Great part of the respondents is aware that there is great competition for new graduated officers in order to get employment.

  • 286.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Thern, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Lund University.
    Genrup, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Quasi-steady state simulation of an organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery in a passenger vessel2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 185, no Special Issue Part 2, p. 1324-1335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present the quasi-steady state simulation of a regenerative organic Rankine cycle (ORC)integrated in a passenger vessel, over a standard round trip. The study case is the M/S Birka Stockholmcruise ship, which covers a daily route between Stockholm (Sweden) and Mariehamn (Finland).Experimental data of the exhaust gas temperatures, engine loads, and electricity demand on board werelogged over a period of four weeks. These data where used as inputs for a simulation model of an ORC forwaste heat recovery of the exhaust gases. A quasi-steady state simulation was carried out on an offdesignmodel, based on optimized design conditions, to estimate the average net power production ofthe ship over a round trip. The maximum net power production of the ORC during the round trip wasestimated to supply approximately 22% of the total power demand on board. The results showed apotential for ORC as a solution for the maritime transport sector to accomplish the new and morerestrictive regulations on emissions, and to reduce the total fuel consumption.

  • 287.
    Mondejar, Maria E.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Thern, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Genrup, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Study of the on-route operation of a waste heat recoverysystem in a passenger vessel2015In: Clean, Efficient and Affordable Energy for a Sustainable Future / [ed] Yan, J; Shamim, T; Chou, SK; Li, H, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 75, p. 1646-1653Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste heat recovery systems for power generation are gaining interest among the marine transport sector as asolution to accomplish the upcoming more restrictive regulations on emissions and to reduce the total fuelconsumption. In this paper we evaluate how a waste heat recovery system based on a regenerative organic Rankinecycle (rORC) could improve the performance of a passenger vessel. The case study is based on the M/S BirkaStockholm cruise ship, which covers a daily route between Stockholm (Sweden) and Mariehamn (Finland).Experimental data on exhaust gas temperatures, fuel consumption and electricity demand on board were logged for aperiod of four weeks. Based on the optimal fluid and configuration obtained in a previous work, an off-design modelof a rORC working with benzene was used to estimate the power production at the different load conditions during aport-to-port trip of the vessel. The power generation curve of the rORC over time was compared to that of theelectricity demand of the ship. Results showed that the rORC could provide up to 16% of the total power demand.However, this value should be corrected if the auxiliary engines load is reduced as a consequence of the partialcoverage of the electricity demand by the ORC.

  • 288.
    Månsson, Gustav
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Stale, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Kosten ombord: Hur vill sjömannen att kostregleringen ska se ut?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Diet is mentioned by many seamen as a subject of joy and aims to give nutritional value and sufficient energy to manage a long working day at sea. The purpose with this investigation is to examine if there is a need among seamen to receive more information about diet regulations onboard and if they wish that it was shaped differently to meet their demands. The study is based on a literature part where diet regulations are examined and an interview part with semi structured qualitative interviews with five seamen. The conclusion of the study indicates that seamen have limited knowledge about the enunciation of the regulation, where it is to be found and consider it to be imprecise. Interviews showed that seamen believe that variety is the most important factor in diet intake and it was this expression that they primarily wanted stated in the regulations. There are legitimate reasons to assume that Livsmedelsverket´s (compare NFA) recommendations also are applicable regarding diet at sea. A good diet is not only good for the individual’s health but also gains including safety and quality of work performed.

  • 289.
    Månsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Nordin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Problematik rörande berusade passagerare: En undersökning om lagar och säkerhetsorganisationer för berusade passagerare ombord på svenskflaggade passagerarfartyg2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka de regelverk som berör svenskflaggade passagerarfartyg i internationell trafik gällande berusade passagerare och hur regelverken implementerats i fartygens säkerhetsorganisationer. Syftet har också varit att lyfta fram hur säkerhetsorganisationerna ombord arbetar med att ta hand om berusade passagerare. En kvalitativ ansats har använts för att analysera relevanta regelverk. Den analysen har sedan legat till grund för intervjuer som har genomförts med säkerhetsansvariga på rederier och ombord på fartyg. En person som representerar Polismyndigheten har också intervjuats. Resultatet visar att en del lagstiftningar upplevs som föråldrade. Alkohollagen upplevs ha brister då den inte täcker in svenskflaggade fartyg i internationell trafik. Resultaten visar också att säkerhetsorganisationerna ombord ser olika ut på olika fartyg. Det kan konstateras att säkerheten för berusade passagerare varierar beroende på vilket fartyg de är ombord på.

  • 290.
    Mårelius, Nicklas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    RTK-teknikens användningsområden2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether RTK - technology (Real Time Kinematic) in the future may be used for piloting in Sweden, on board vessels with limited depth of water under the keel. The squat effect cured vessels when they passing over an area of shallow waters in a fairway or a channel. To reduce the squat effect it can be done to increase the speed or change the trim of the vessel. The study has been designed along a qualitative method, which is about one chooses to process and analyze their information by verbal analysis methods. This has been carried out by interviewing a number of selected pilots that are both familiar and less familiar with the technology. In this way, highlighted various aspects of the technology and whether there are other areas that pilots can use this equipment in their daily work. In the implementation of the essay was elected a systematic literature. It was conducted a global search to obtain information about where the accident occurred of the squat effect and which countries that have been tested this technology onboard. The result of the RTK-technology is that pilots and ship's officers have the opportunity to find out how the vessel is moving and when it is exposed of the squat effect. The RTK-technology are able to provide information how the vessel move with an accuracy of 3-4 centimeters at every stage and get a more exact speed even in sideways. It is also possible to obtain a three-dimensional image of the vessel. The results confirm that there is a need and an interest for further testing with the RTK-technology. The results also showed that the technology is useful for the pilots and how it can useful for them in their daily work.

  • 291.
    Möllerström, Nils
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Bolin, Sebastian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Elektronisk skeppsdagbok: En jämförande studie om dagens elekroniska skeppsdagböcker2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 292.
    Neckman, Marcus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Steneros, Adrian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Svenska rederiers syn på krishantering: En kvalitativ undersökning om krishanteringsplaner2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Shipping is often associated with risks which can lead to accidents. There should be a plan for crisis management even before an accident has occurred. Basic prerequisites to deal with the consequences of an accident are regulated in national legislation but how well monitored is the affected sailor’s health by the shipping company as an employer? With that question as a background, the purpose of this thesis is to research how swedish shipping companies use their crisis management plan to support and care for their crew after a crisis. In order to answer the question, qualitative interviews were used as a method for collecting data. The research survey includes a semi-structured interview with seven respondents from six different shipping companies. The research shows that the shipping companies adhere to the requirements and regulations and in order to meet parts of the requirements, they use services of external actors such as occupational health providers and psychologists. The shipping companies explain that it is difficult to create a plan of action for something that has not occurred. To predict a complete scope of crisis scenarios is not deemed as possible, regardless of the amount of drills conducted. The crew is considered the most important element of the business and no restrictions is put on their well being during a time of crisis.

  • 293.
    Nelson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Kristmansson, Elias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Bullerexponering: Bullermätning av Hultsfreds/Virserums reningsverk.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att utreda bullernivå och åtgärder för två olika reningsverk inom ÖSK. I detta arbete har Hultsfred och Virserum undersökts, för att kontrollera om anläggningarna följer arbetsmiljöverkets krav. Detta kommer göras genom mätningar, beräkningar och litteraturstudie. Resultatet av dessa undersökningar blev denna rapport, här kommer man kunna läsa om vilka bullernivåer som uppmättes samt vilka krav dessa anläggningar måste följa. Bilder och grafer kommer att användas för att ge läsaren en uppfattning om vad det är man tittar på och hur bullernivåerna förhåller sig till varandra. Resultatet av detta arbete blev att alla rummen är godkända utifrån frågeställningen men vissa rum kräver åtgärder om man vistats längre stunder i dem.

  • 294.
    Neset, Nick
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lundgren, Patrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Kväveoxidreducering med avgasåterföring eller selektiv katalytisk reduktion: En jämförande fallstudie med fokus på ekonomi och emissioner2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case study examines how two marine systems used for reduction of nitrogen oxides from exhaust gases, EGR and SCR, performs in terms of emissions and economic impact.

    A commonly used two-stroke diesel engine was chosen to be, in theory, equipped with each system. By using a calculation program, CEAS, calculations based on different running conditions were possible and thereby obtain relevant data.

    With the given consumption of chemicals for each system and the consumption of fuel, costs were able to be calculated after price data was retrieved. With IMO’s tier III regulation as the limit, the inhibited amount of released NOX could be calculated. By using data of produced amounts of exhaust gases, with and without the systems, an estimate could be made on how the systems affect the ship emissions. Calculations were based on an approximation of a vessels lifespan, 20 years. Furthermore, the economic cost for each system was added with the purchase price of each system.

    Conclusions that could be drawn from the study were, amongst other things, that SCR was the system with the lowest operational cost. EGR does, besides being able to manage the Tier III-requirement, also manage to reduce some other environmental hazardous substances. The study implies that EGR is the better system when viewed in terms of emissions and SCR is the better system when viewed in terms of economy.

  • 295.
    Nielsen, Axel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Racking, Victor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lotsbåtsolyckor: En studie om olyckor som involverar svenska lotsbåtar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted in order to identify and analyze patterns between accidents involvingSwedish pilot boats. The study was conducted as a quantitative literature review withadditional textual analysis. All reports regarding pilot boat accidents from the last 14 yearswere requested from the Swedish Transport Agency. These were categorized by the mostcommon types of accident and subsequently analyzed. The results showed that most accidentsoccur during transportation from quay to the ship requesting pilotage and vice versa, whilebreak downs and groundings are the most common incidents. Personal injuries occur almostexclusively during boarding but are relatively few in number. It was concluded that "HumanError" is the most common reason given in the accident reports. A proposal for increasedsafety is continued training of "Maritime Resource Management" for a greater awareness ofthe risk of accidents, especially during bad weather. Furthermore, there are technical problemswith cracked fuel lines and hot exhaust pipes, which can possibly be solved with double-walledfuel lines.

  • 296.
    Niemeyer, Tomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Helgeson, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Förskeppets accelerationer i sjögång: Fallstudie med Sture i Kalmarsund2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the shipping industry today, it is of utmost importance to save fuel; both for financial and environmental reasons. Ships moving in a seaway are exposed to different hydrodynamic phenomena generating retarding accelerations. These lead to increased resistance and thus higher fuel consumption. The thesis has used a case study to compare the accelerations in head seas in two different wave lengths at different engine revolutions to attempt to show the similarities and differences. In order to collect comparable data, measurements have been made using an accelerometer placed in the fore body of a smaller displacement hull vessel in Kalmarsund. The data was analysed using Microsoft Excel to produce curves and tables to facilitate the interpretation of the results and the comparison of the different trials. The study has shown that it is possible to decrease the acceleration forces by a small adjustment of the engine revolutions. More research is necessary to confirm this result.

  • 297.
    Niklasson, David
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Karlsson, Nicklas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Eldrift inom skärgårdstrafiken: Ekonomiskt försvarbart eller en ren förlustaffär?2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the advance of technology electric propulsion is becoming a plausible alternative to conventional propulsion with diesel engines. Especially for the ferry traffic within the Swedish archipelago, where the conditions often are more favourable to alternatives like battery powered propulsion.

    One of the most important factors when building a ship or converting an existing one to hybrid propulsion is the cost. This study sheds light on the different challenges a small shipping company could face, when converting a ship. The study primarily focuses on the economic and environmental perspectives.

    A comparison has been made over the expenses for hybrid- and conventional propulsion, with the conversion and operation in mind. Interviews have also been conducted with employees of Koster Marin AB, who has been involved with the conversion of the company’s recently purchased vessel Kosterbris.

    The result shows that a hybrid solution is a better option than battery powered operation for Kosterbris.

  • 298.
    Nilsson, Dan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Magnusson Österberg, Patrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Energioptimering hos Freezing Food AB: Fallstudie i luftväxling och värmeöverföring2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was examining the energy demand due to an industrial gate dividing a freezer warehouse and it’s adjacent loading bay, as well as determining whether the facility’s sub-floor heating could be operated at a lower temperature setting in order to decrease the heat transfer into the freezer, both of which with the purpose to identify energy losses and possibly lower the total energy demand.

    The energy losses due to the gate were identified by measuring airflow and then calculate the loss over a whole year by means of a theoretical model. To examine the operating parameters of the sub-floor heating, a literature study was conducted in order to determine whether it would be feasible to lower its temperature.

    The conclusion was that the opening of the gate during year 2016 resulted in about 145MWh of purely thermal energy loss. The facility’s waterborne sub-floor heating is operated at around 10-12°C, which is according to practice, and a change of temperature cannot be recommended.

  • 299.
    Nilsson, John
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Berg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Nya krav på livbåtskrokar: En studie om hur MSC.320(89) har påverkat säkerheten vid hantering av livbåtar2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There have occured many accidents as a result of the mandatory implementation of on-load release mechanisms on all lifeboats. In order to combat the problem amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea and the International Life-Saving Appliances Code were put forth during the Maritime Safety Committee, 89th session, 2011. The focus of this study lies on a product of this meeting: resolution MSC.320(89). The resolution presents new requirements for the design and function of on-load release systems. The purpose of this study is to understand how MSC.320(89) has influenced safety concerning the handling of lifeboats. A qualitative literature study with a complementary interview was used to conduct this study. By comparing causal factors of accidents involving on-load release systems with the new requirements stated in MSC.320(89) speculations could be made pertaining to improved safety conditions. The implementation process for the new requirements included a design review and performance test of existing and new on-load release and recovery systems. Moreover all systems onboard merchant vessels were either inspected, modified or replaced in order to be made compliant with the amended Life-Saving Appliance code. A decline in the number of accident reports concerning on-load release systems following implementation was observed during the data collection phase of this study. This decline may imply a reduction in the number of accidents caused by on-load release systems however the use of fall-prevention devices may have stopped failing on-load release systems from ending in catastrophe. The overriding conclusion of this study infers that resolution MSC.320(89) has effected safety concerning the handling of lifeboats in a positive manner.

  • 300.
    Nilsson, Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Rantala, Robin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Arbete i slutna utrymmen: Förändringar i svenska hamnars säkerhetsarbete i slutna utrymmen efter olyckan ombord på Saga Spray 20062016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines what kind of measures have been put in place since the accident years of 2006-2007, when a large number of accidents occurred on board vessels in Swedish waters, and how these measures have affected Swedish dock worker’s safety when working in enclosed spaces on board ships. A literary study was conducted to pin point what kind of measures had been put in place since the accident years of 2005-2007. Four qualitative interviews were performed with persons in charge of safety matters in four Swedish ports to get an understanding of how their work has changed since 2006. The results indicate that gas measuring equipment was not used before the accidents, but that a rise in usage of such equipment has made the work safer and that the safety related work has been made less time consuming with more efficient computer based programs when dealing with legislation, work permit and checklists. But the results could not connect these changes to any of the measures that were examined.

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