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  • 251.
    Cleenewerck, Adélie
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Natural disasters: What are the economic consequences of natural disasters for households?2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is an important subject nowadays and climate change leads to more natural disasters. This essay is a large literature study on Asian, American, European, Oceanian and African countries about the economic consequences for households as a result of natural disasters and the coping mechanisms used by households, as well as governments and institutions. It also provides information about natural disasters, such as natural disasters that have the worst consequences, people that are highly affected by disasters and places in the world where disasters happen the most. The aim of this study is to learn more about environmental disasters and prepare better for future disasters. The results show consequences on welfare (income, assets, poverty), the labour market, migration and inequality. And the coping strategies found are post-disaster sources (help from family and relatives, public and private transfers, borrowing, credits, savings, insurance), decrease in expenditures, changes in consumption, selling assets, changes in the labour market, help from communities and other ways to cope. Governments and institutions also help households in the aftermath of natural disasters. Overall, we conclude that natural disasters lead to important economic impacts for people, and households react by using different coping mechanisms to recover.

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  • 252.
    collet, CLAIRE
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Duquennoy, Kimberlay
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Did the pattern of poverty in West Germany change because of the reunification?: A cross-sectional study of poverty in West Germany2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The reunification of West Germany and East Germany occurred in 1990 and had a great impact on the country. This essay investigates the impact that reunification had on the poverty structure of West Germany on the long-run. The results indicate that reunification had a negative impact on poverty since it increased the poverty rate by 4.88 percentage point in 2000 and by 6.16 percentage point in 2005. The structure of the poor population slightly changed the year following the reunification. Five years later, the structure of the poor population was similar to what it was before the reunification. However, during this period, the income transfer became more efficient since it decreased poverty by 6 percentage point to 16 percentage point more after reunification than it used to do before.

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  • 253.
    Dahl, Gordon B.
    et al.
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Does integration change gender attitudes?: the effect of randomly assigning women to traditionally male teams2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether exposure of men to women in a traditionally male-dominated environment can change attitudes about mixed-gender productivity, gender roles and gender identity. Our context is the military in Norway, where we randomly assigned female recruits to some squads but not others during boot camp. We find that living and working with women for 8 weeks causes men to adopt more egalitarian attitudes. There is a 14 percentage point increase in the fraction of men who think mixed-gender teams perform as well or better than same-gender teams, an 8 percentage point increase in men who think household work should be shared equally and a 14 percentage point increase in men who do not completely disavow feminine traits. Contrary to the predictions of many policymakers, we find no evidence that integrating women into squads hurt male recruits’ satisfaction with boot camp or their plans to continue in the military. These findings provide evidence that even in a highly gender-skewed environment, gender stereotypes are malleable and can be altered by integrating members of the opposite sex.

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  • 254.
    Dahl, Gordon B.
    et al.
    Univ Calif San Diego, USA;Norwegian Sch Econ, Norway;NBER, USA;CESifo, Germany;CEPR, USA;IZA, Germany.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). IZA, Germany;Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    High School Majors and Future Earnings2023In: American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, ISSN 1945-7782, E-ISSN 1945-7790, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 351-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how high school majors affect adult earnings using a regression discontinuity design. In Sweden students are admitted to majors in tenth grade based on their preference rankings and ninth grade GPA. We find engineering, natural science, and business majors yield higher earnings than social science and humanities, with major-specific returns also varying based on next-best alter-natives. There is either a zero or a negative return to completing an academic program for students with a second-best nonacademic major. Most of the differences in adult earnings can be attributed to differences in occupation, and to a lesser extent, college major. I21, I26, J24,

  • 255.
    Dahlberg, Karuna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Erik
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Liang, Yuli
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Sweden.
    Jaensson, Maria
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    The General Self-Efficacy Scale in a population planned for bariatric surgery in Sweden: a psychometric evaluation study2022In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 12, no 11, article id e061509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This study psychometrically evaluated GeneralSelf-Efficacy (GSE) Scale in patients planned for bariatricsurgery in Sweden.Design A cross-sectional psychometric study. Thepsychometric evaluation was guided by the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health statusMeasurement Instruments checklist for health-relatedreported-patient outcomes.Setting Three bariatric centres in Sweden.Participants Adult patients≥18 years old scheduled forprimary bariatric surgery (with sleeve gastrectomy orRoux-en-Y gastric bypass).Primary and secondary measures Psychometricproperties of the GSE.Results In total, 704 patients were included in theanalysis. Mean values for GSE items were 2.9–3.4 and themean GSE sum score was 31.4 (SD 4.7). There were nofloor or ceiling effects. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.89. Menreported a higher mean GSE than did women, that is, 31.2(SD 4.8) for women versus 32.1 (SD 4.3) for men, p=0.03.Correlation coefficients were weak or negligible: GSE andmental component summary score of 36-Item Short FormHealth Survey (SF-36)/RAND 36, r=0.18 (p<0.00); GSEand physical component summary score of SF-36/RAND36, r=0.07 (p=0.138); GSE and obesity- related problemscale r=−0.15 (p=0.001) and GSE and level of education,r=0.04 (p=0.35). Confirmatory factor analysis indicateda one-factor construct with a satisfactory goodness of fit,that is, Comparative Fit Index=0.927, root mean squareerror of approximation=0.092 and standardised root meansquare residual=0.045. The factor GSE explained almosthalf or over half of the variance of each item (0.45–0.75,p-values<0.001).Conclusions The GSE scale is a valid and reliable scalethat can be used to assess general self-efficacy in patientsundergoing bariatric surgery.

  • 256.
    Dahlqvist, Cornelia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Chamoun, Elin
    Risktagandet mellan män och kvinnor: Påverkar könet risktagandet i finansiella investeringar såväl som vardagsrisker?2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Master Thesis in Business Administration

    Title: Risk-taking between men and women

    Background: The difference in risk-taking between men and women is a previously well researched subject however, there has been no resent studies on the Swedish market. This study examines the differences in risk-taking between men and women, both in the financial field and everyday life in Sweden.

    Purpose: The study explains gender differences in financial risk-taking and the differences in everyday life events.

    Method: The study is based on a quantitative method with a deductive approach to research the purpose of this study. The hypotheses are developed based on behavioral economics theory, behavioral finance theory, risk aversion and other demograpfic factors. A survey was conducted to gather information for the population.

    Conclusion: The study proves that there is a difference between men and women in their risk-taking and their approach to risk. The study also shows that there is a correlation between financial risk taking and everyday risk.

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  • 257.
    Dai, Deliang
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Estimating the Mahalanobis distance in high-dimensional data2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mahalanobis distance is a fundamental statistic in many fields such as Outlier detection, Normality testing and Cluster analysis. However, the standard estimator developed by Mahalanobis (1936) and Wilks (1963) is not well behaved in cases when the dimension (p) of the parent variable increases proportional to the sample size (n). This case is frequently referred to as Increasing Dimension Asymptotics (IDA). Specifically, the sample covariance matrix on which the Mahalanobis distance depends becomes degenerate under IDA settings, which in turn produce stochastically unstable Mahalanobis distances. This research project consists of several parts. It (a) shows that a previously suggested family of “improved” shrinkage estimators of the covariance matrix produce inoperable Mahalanobis distances, both under classical and increasing dimension asymptotics. It (b) develops a risk function specifically designed to assess the Mahalanobis distance and identifies good estimators thereof and (c) develops a family of resolvent-type estimators of the Mahalanobis distance. This family of estimators is shown to remain well behaved even under IDA settings. Suicient conditions for the proposed estimator to outperform the traditional estimator are also supplied. The proposed estimator is argued to be a useful tool for descriptive statistics, such as Assessment of influential values or Cluster analysis, in cases when the dimension of data is proportional to the sample size.

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  • 258.
    Dai, Deliang
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mahalanobis distances of factor structured data2015In: Festschrift in honor of Professor Ghazi Shukur on the occasion of his 60th birthday / [ed] Thomas Holgersson, Linnaeus University Press, 2015, 1, p. 126-142Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we implement the factor model for deriving the covariance matrix that is used for a Mahalanobis distance. The distributional properties of the new Mahalanobis distances are derived. A general case on contamination effects ofoutliers on Mahalanobis distances from separate parts of the factor model are also investigated. An empirical example indicates the difference between the new proposed separated Mahalanobis distances and the original Mahalanobis distance.

  • 259.
    Dai, Deliang
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mahalanobis distances on factor model based estimation2020In: Econometrics, E-ISSN 2225-1146, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-11, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A factor model based covariance matrix is used to build a new form of Mahalanobis distance. The distribution and relative properties of the new Mahalanobis distances are derived. A new type of Mahalanobis distance based on the separated part of the factor model is defined. Contamination effects of outliers detected by the new defined Mahalanobis distances are also investigated. An empirical example indicates that the new proposed separated type of Mahalanobis distances predominate the original sample Mahalanobis distance.

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  • 260.
    Dai, Deliang
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Moments, factor scores and limiting distributions of individual Mahalanobis distances2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
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  • 261.
    Dai, Deliang
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Hao, Chengcheng
    Shanghai University of International Business and Economics, China.
    Jin, Shaobo
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Liang, Yuli
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Regularized estimation of Kronecker structured covariance matrix using modified Cholesky decomposition2023In: Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, ISSN 0094-9655, E-ISSN 1563-5163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study a Kronecker structured model for covariance matrices when data are matrix-valued. Using the modified Cholesky decomposition for Kronecker structured covariance matrix, we propose a regularized covariance estimator by imposing shrinkage and smoothing penalties on the Cholesky factors. A regularized flip-flop (RFF) algorithm is developed to produce a statistically efficient estimator for a large covariance matrix of matrix-valued data. Asymptotic properties are investigated and the performance of the estimator is evaluated by simulations. The results presented are applied to real data example.

  • 262.
    Dai, Deliang
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    High-Dimensional CLTs for Individual Mahalanobis Distances2018In: Trends and perspectives in linear statistical inference: proceedings of the LINSTAT2016 meeting held 22-25 August 2016 in Istanbul, Turkey / [ed] Müjgan Tez & Dietrich von Rosen, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, p. 57-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Statistical analysis frequently involves methods for reducing high-dimensional data to new variates of lower dimension for the purpose of assessing distributional properties, identification of hidden patterns, for discriminant analysis, etc. In classical multivariate analysis such matters are usually analysed by either using principal components (PC) or the Mahalanobis distance (MD). While the distributional properties of PC’s are fairly well established in high-dimensional cases, no explicit results appear to be available for the MD under such cases. The purpose of this chapter is to bridge that gap by deriving weak limits for the MD in cases where the dimension of the random vector of interest is proportional to the sample size (np-asymptotics). The limiting distributions allow for normality-based inference in cases when the traditional low-dimensional approximations do not apply.

  • 263.
    Dai, Deliang
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Holgersson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Peter S.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Expected and unexpected values of Individual Mahalanobis Distances2017In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 46, no 18, p. 8999-9006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper derives first-order sampling moments of individual Mahalanobis distances (MD) in cases when the dimension p of the variable is proportional to the sample size n. Asymptotic expected values when n, p → ∞ are derived under the assumption p/n → c, 0 ⩽ c < 1. It is shown that some types of standard estimators remain unbiased in this case, while others are asymptotically biased, a property that appears to be unnoticed in the literature. Second order moments are also supplied to give some additional insight to the matter.

  • 264.
    Dai, Deliang
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Liang, Yuli
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    High-Dimensional Mahalanobis Distances of Complex Random Vectors2021In: Mathematics, E-ISSN 2227-7390, Vol. 9, no 16, article id 1877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the asymptotic distributions of two types of Mahalanobis distance (MD): leave-one-out MD and classical MD with both Gaussian- and non-Gaussian-distributed complex random vectors, when the sample size n and the dimension of variables p increase under a fixed ratio c=p/n→∞. We investigate the distributional properties of complex MD when the random samples are independent, but not necessarily identically distributed. Some results regarding the F-matrix F=S−12S1—the product of a sample covariance matrix S1 (from the independent variable array (be(Zi)1×n) with the inverse of another covariance matrix S2 (from the independent variable array (Zj≠i)p×n)—are used to develop the asymptotic distributions of MDs. We generalize the F-matrix results so that the independence between the two components S1 and S2 of the F-matrix is not required.

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  • 265.
    Dai, Deliang
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Pan, Jianxin
    Beijing Normal University at Zhuhai, China;United International College (BNU-HKBU), China.
    Liang, Yuli
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Regularized estimation of the Mahalanobis distance based on modified Cholesky decomposition2022In: Communications in Statistics: Case Studies, Data Analysis and Applications, ISSN 2373-7484, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 559-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating inverse covariance matrix is an essential part of many statistical methods. This paper proposes a regularized estimator for the inverse covariance matrix. Modified Cholesky decomposition (MCD) is utilized to construct positive definite estimators. Instead of directly regularizing the inverse covariance matrix itself, we impose regularization on the Cholesky factor. The estimated inverse covariance matrix is used to build Mahalanobis distance (MD). The proposed method is evaluated by detecting outliers through simulations and empirical studies.

  • 266.
    Damian, Grimshaw
    et al.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Marino, Stefania
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Gautié, Jérôme
    University Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, France.
    Neumann, Lázló
    Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary.
    Weinkopf, Caudia
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
    Negotiating better conditions for workers during austerity in Europe: unions' local strategies towards low pay and outsourcing in local government2018In: Reconstructing solidarity: labour unions, precarious work, and the politics of institutional change in Europe / [ed] Virginia Doellgast, Nathan Lillie & Valeria Pulignano, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, 1, p. 42-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 267.
    Daniel, Waldenström
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden;Paris School of Economics, France.
    Bastani, Spencer
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hansson, Åsa
    Lund University, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Kapitalbeskattningens förutsättningar i Sverige2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 6-15Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Årets SNS Konjunkturrådsrapport diskuterar och analyserar förutsättningarna för kapitalbeskattning i Sverige. Mycket har hänt sedan århundradets skattereform. Det gäller hur kapital beskattas, storleken och fördelningen av kapital och inte minst kunskapen om hur kapitalskatter bör utformas. Utifrån detta, och de brister vi finner i dagens kapitalbeskattning, diskuterar vi hur kapitalbeskattningen kan förbättras utifrån både ett effektivitets- och fördelningsperspektiv. Vi förespråkar bl a en mer likformig kapitalbeskattning och en skatteväxling från arbetsinkomstbeskattning till kapitalinkomstbeskattning.

  • 268.
    Delaunay, Romane
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Long, Alida
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Determinants of Outmigration: The Swedish Case2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the composition of outmigration flows regarding migrants’ characteristics such as family situation, educational attainment and labour market situation. To expand our research, out-migrants are separated into return and onward migrants. Results indicate that the labour market situation of immigrants (unemployment and uptake of social benefits) in the destination country is an important determinant in the decision to out-migrate. However, the effect varies among countries due to the political situation in the source country, the migration costs and the extensive welfare benefits in Sweden. Labour immigrants are more likely to return to their country of origin whereas refugee immigrants are more likely to move to another country. Other findings demonstrate that emigrants are negatively selected regarding educational attainment. High-educated individuals have a higher probability of returning home than moving to a third country. The likelihood of emigration also depends on other characteristics such as the family situation of immigrants and the duration of residence in the destination country. All in all, labour market outcomes are the most important factors in the decision of out-migration.

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  • 269.
    Deliang, Dai
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    On high-dimensional Mahalanobis distances2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of three empirical essays on the topics of self-employment, happiness and international trade.

    Essay 1 studies how immigrant self-employment entry is affected by the local business cycle in Sweden. Using the unemployment rate at the local labour market level as a proxy for the local business cycle, our study shows that the self-employment entry behaviour for native men and immigrant men is negatively affected by the unemployment rate, except for immigrants from Middle East. However, such a negative effect is quantitatively weaker among the non-European immigrants. Further, the result shows that immigrants from the Middle East are positively affected by the unemployment rate, meaning they are more likely to be pushed into self-employment in recessions. For women, we also find the unemployment rate has a negative impact on the self-employment decision of native women and immigrant women, except for the Middle East group. However, compared with men, the quantitative size of the unemployment rate effect on self-employment is smaller among women, implying the less important role of business cycle in determining females’ entry into self-employment.

    Essay 2 investigates the non-pecuniary return of self-employment in China. The results show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men; the life satisfaction of self-employed women is not statistically significant different from that of wage-employed women. Moreover, we show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men in the informal sector is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. The life satisfaction of wage-employed men in the informal sector is not significantly different from that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. For women, we find that there is no significant life satisfaction disparity between workers in the formal and informal sector. Finally, our job satisfaction data also concludes that self-employment in China is not inferior to wage employment.

    Essay 3 evaluates how Swedish manufacturing employment is affected by the increasing import competition from China. The results show that the growth of manufacturing employment is not statistically significant affected by the increasing import competition from China. Moreover, in general, the increasing import exposure from China does not significantly affect the employment growth of non-manufacturing sector either. Regarding the earnings, the analysis shows that the low wage earners in the manufacturing sector is not significantly affected by the increasing import penetration from China while median and high wage earners are positively affected.

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  • 270.
    Demetry, Marcos
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Hjertstrand, Per
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Consistent subsets: Computing the Houtman-Maks index in Stata2023In: The Stata Journal, ISSN 1536-867X, E-ISSN 1536-8734, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 578-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Houtman-Maks index is a measure of the size of a violation of utility-maximizing (that is, rational) behavior. In this article, we introduce the command hmindex, which calculates the Houtman-Maks index for a dataset of prices and observed choices of a consumer. The command is illustrated with an empirical application.

  • 271.
    Demetry, Marcos
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hjertstrand, Per
    Res Inst Ind Econ, Sweden.
    Polisson, Matthew
    Univ Bristol, UK.
    Testing axioms of revealed preference in Stata2022In: The Stata Journal, ISSN 1536-867X, E-ISSN 1536-8734, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 319-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The revealed preference approach in economics is central to the empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In this article, we introduce the commands checkax, aei, and powerps as a bundle within the package rpaxioms. The first command allows a user to test whether consumer expenditure data satisfy several revealed preference axioms; the second command calculates measures of goodness of fit when the data violate these axioms; and the third command calculates power against uniformly random behavior as well as predictive success for each axiom. We illustrate the commands using individual-level experimental data and household-level aggregate consumption data.

  • 272.
    Dolk, Ted
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Fundamentals of property pricing: The macroeconomic relationship with the Swedish housing market2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay studies the relationship between macroeconomic fundamentals and the price level within the Swedish housing market. Previous empirical research has heavily debated whether there is a long run or short run relationship. The aim of this essay was therefore to analyse the nature of the relationship following the post-crisis period of the 1990’s. This was done in order to determine whether the price level reverts to a long run equilibrium with economic fundamentals or if the market inflates once again following imbalances between supply and demand alongside decreased risk aversion from the credit institutes. The results showed that there were no cointegrative relationship in the longer run. Furthermore, to show that there is not a complete seperative relationship between fundamental factors and the housing market, a short run model was established. The short run model showed significant results for user cost determinants. Concluding from this essay is that supply restrictive factors, such as the unavailability of land, have caused the supply to not match the appropriate rate of growth with demand. Alongside the growth of disposable income, generous tax deductions on interest payments and the decreased risk aversion this has led to the exorbitant price increase during the past two decades.

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  • 273.
    Drin, Svitlana
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden;National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine.
    Mazur, Stepan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Örebro University, Sweden.
    Muhinyuza, Stanislas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    A test on the location of tangency portfolio for small sample size and singular covariance matrixManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose the test for the location of the tangency portfolio onthe set of feasible portfolios when both the population and the sample covariancematrices of asset returns are singular. We derive the exact distribution of the teststatistic under both the null and alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, we establishthe high-dimensional asymptotic distribution of that test statistic when both theportfolio dimension and the sample size increase to infinity. We complement ourtheoretical findings by comparing the high-dimensional asymptotic test with anexact finite sample test in the numerical study. A good performance of the obtainedresults is documented. 

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  • 274.
    Eefting, Sander
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The relationship of earning differences and attitudes towards ethnic minority groups in Sweden: a study describing the effect of negative attitudes towards ethnic minority groups on the earning differences in Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the potential effects of negative attitudes towards minority groups on the earnings gap between natives and ethnic minorities on the Swedish labour market. Previous studies have shown signs of earning differences between the two groups on the Swedish labour market and authors use several arguments to explain this. Some authors state that firms use statistical discrimination and taste discrimination to set wages and thus affecting the difference in earnings for natives and immigrants. Other authors use lack of social networks or human capital as explanations for the existing wage gap.

    The results of this study show that there are indeed earning differences between between natives and immigrants and that discrimination is possibly an explanation factor. This study also shows that there is a higher negative attitude towards minorities than there is for positive attitudes. We find however no direct connection between the earning gap and negative attitudes since the variable is insignificant. The reason for this is most lkely due to the earning gap being a very broad concept and thus affected by many different factors. This suggestion follows the outcome of previously written studies.

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  • 275.
    Eefting, Sander
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    To Work or not to Work: An empirical study that focuses on the effects of the largest employment programme of local unemployed workers in Växjö, Sweden.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Employment programmes, or on-the-job training programmes, are designed to increase the likelihood of unemployed workers receiving work opportunities by providing actual work experience. Whether the unemployed workers lack human resources, obtained a degree in a foreign country or simply need a boost towards obtaining a new job, these programmes give workers the opportunity to execute tasks at organised firms and therefore strengthen their connection to the labour market.  The focus of this paper is towards a unique programme, called Arbetspraktik. This specific programme is designed with the intention to increase the labour market outcomes of unemployed workers. Geographically, Växjö has been selected as the main priority. The local focus is due to two reasons; firstly, the internship at the Swedish Employment Service in Växjö provided local support, insight and experience and therefore estimating local effects matched the purpose of the internship. The result of this thesis may also be used as informative research for the Swedish Employment Service where I performed my internship. Secondly, according to previous work, specific regions within a country are not looked at on a high frequency in Sweden and therefore focusing on regional effects could be beneficial to already existing studies. Previous research shows that the evaluation of these programmes has been done in many countries. Data for this study is obtained through the Swedish Employment Service. With the use of Matching and Propensity Scores, the findings claim that participants in Arbetspraktik have a 28.3% higher probability of receiving better outcomes than the controlled counterpart in Växjö. The interviews, despite having low observations, indicate that positive outcomes for trainees are a possibility and may be connected to the outcomes of the model. For example, trainees are shown to become more independent and productivity across trainees increases over time. Lastly, the interviews claim that trainees perform the same tasks as full-time workers, which is discussed to be a positive thing. Self-critique and tips for future research are presented at the end.

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  • 276.
    Ek, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Enkla jobb och kunskaper i svenska - nycklar till integration?2020Book (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Ek, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    "Inte enkelt att få enkla jobb för flyktinginvandrare"2020In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2020-10-03Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tre forskare: Det som behövs är flexiblare löner för enkla jobb, generösa utbildningsmöjligheter och bättre kvalitet i sfi-utbildningen.

    I en ny SNS-rapport föreslår vi en flexibel lönebildning som tillåter lägre löner för enkla jobb, generösa möjligheter till utbildning för att undvika att flyktingar fastnar i lågkvalificerade jobb samt höjd kvalitet på sfi så att arbetsgivare kan lita på att utbildningen ger tillräckliga kunskaper.

  • 278.
    Ek, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    "Jobbskapande i offentlig sektor fungerar sämst"2020In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2020-10-09Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    SLUTREPLIK 4/10.

    Tre forskare: Forskningen visar att jobbskapande åtgärder i offentlig sektor tillhör de arbetsmarknadspolitiska åtgärder som fungerat sämst.

  • 279.
    Ek, Simon
    et al.
    Swedish Public Employment Service, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Low skilled jobs, language proficiency and job opportunities for refugees: An experimental study2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 126, no 2, p. 355-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a field experiment, we study the causal effects of previous experience and language skills when newly arrived Syrian refugees in Sweden apply for low-skilled jobs. We find no evidence of sizeable effects from previous experience or completed language classes on the probability of receiving callback from employers. However, female applicants were more likely than males to receive a positive response. As a complement to the experiment, we interview a select number of employers, which provides additional insights into how they judge candidates for low-skilled jobs.

  • 280.
    Ek, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Wage policies and the integration of immigrants2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most Nordic countries struggle with the integration of low-skilled immigrants. Relying on research from primarily the Nordics, we discuss to what extent minimum wage reductions can improve labour market prospects for immigrants, whether unskilled and low-pay jobs serve as stepping stones to more qualified and higher-paid jobs and how wages of incumbent workers would be affected by lower minimum wages. We argue that targeted minimum wage reductions aimed at new, previously non-existing jobs and increased differentiation of minimum wages according to experience provide an appropriate balance between the conflicting goals of high employment and low wage inequality.

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  • 281.
    Ek, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Wage policies and the integration of immigrants2019In: Integrating immigrants into the Nordic labour markets / [ed] Lars Calmfors & Nora Sanchez-Gassen, Copenhagen: Nordisk ministerråd, 2019, p. 187-209Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most Nordic countries struggle with the integration of low-skilled immigrants. Relying on research from primarily the Nordics, we discuss to what extent minimum wage reductions can improve labour market prospects for immigrants, whether unskilled and low-pay jobs serve as stepping stones to more qualified and higher-paid jobs and how wages of incumbent workers would be affected by lower minimum wages. We argue that targeted minimum wage reductions aimed at new, previously non-existing jobs and increased differentiation of minimum wages according to experience provide an appropriate balance between the conflicting goals of high employment and low wage inequality.

  • 282.
    Ekberg, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Lindh, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Immigrants in the Old-Age Pension System: The Case of Sweden2016In: International migration (Geneva. Print), ISSN 0020-7985, E-ISSN 1468-2435, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 5-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article investigates incomes and especially state pensions 2008 among elderly immigrants who arrived in Sweden before 1970. At age 70 and above, the level of state old-age pension for immigrant men was nearly the same and for immigrant women somewhat higher than for natives with similar characteristics. At age 65-66 the state pension was lower for immigrants than for their native counterparts. The differences in pensions for immigrants of different ages are probably due to changed rules in the Swedish state old-age pension system from 2003. The new rules have hit different age groups in different ways. The gaps are partially levelled out when other incomes are included. The extent to which levelling occurs varies greatly between different immigrant groups. For immigrants who have arrived during the last decades, the future state old-age pension outcomes are expected to be worse.

  • 283.
    Elander, Jacob
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Does Boardroom Gender Diversity Affect Firm Financial Performance?: A quantitative study surveying 32 Swedish companies over the years 2011-20142018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The board of directors holds a key position in corporate governance. The board is responsible for the strategy and development of the firm. The gender composition of the board can affect the quality of this operating procedure by changing the dynamic of the group. This paper aims to investigate if there is any relationship between board gender diversity and the firm’s financial performance, as measured by Tobin’s Q. While most of the previous studies in this field has been conducted on US data, this study adds to a growing number of articles outside of the US by using Swedish data. The study uses panel data over the years 2011-2014 and finds no statistically significant link between gender diversity and a firm’s financial performance. This study adds to the minority of articles that argue that gender diversity does not affect performance. Limitations regarding the methodology is presented and strategies for future research is discussed.

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  • 284.
    Elliot, Viktor
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Ted
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Willesson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The impact of recent regulatory reforms on cross-border banking: a study of the Nordic markets2019In: Frontier topics in banking: investing new trends and recent developments in the financial industry / [ed] Elisabetta Gualandri, Valeria Venturelli & Alex Sclip, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 293-319Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 285.
    Elliot, Viktor
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Willesson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Does bank regulation spill over to firm financing?: SME financing, bank monitoring, and the efficiency of the bank lending channel2018In: Contemporary issues in banking: regulation, governance and performance / [ed] Myriam García-Olalla & Judith Clifton, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 279-302Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses spill over between banks and firms when required bank capital is regulated. We contribute to the existing literature by addressing different regulatory responses with an impact on the supply and demand of bank lending. The chapter contributes to the growing literature addressing the unintended consequences of regulatory policy development. The study empirically compares the regulatory responses of Swedish banks and how these responses affect lending to Swedish SMEs. The theoretical framework and methodology employed in this chapter make it possible to study theories related to bank monitoring, regulatory arbitrage opportunities, and the risk-return trade off. The main results indicate that banks’ regulatory responses are associated with increasing lending margins, either by (1) increasing the margin on the loan portfolios, spilling over the regulatory costs through higher prices, (2) lower acceptance of lower return customers, or (3) regulatory arbitrage through balance sheet adjustments.

  • 286.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Droga do zatrudnienia osób ubiegających się o azyl na przykładzie Regionu Kronoberg w Szwecji: The path to the employment for asylum seekers on the example of Kronoberg County in Sweden2017In: Research papers of Wrocław University of Economics, ISSN 1899-3192, no 489, p. 90-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The employment integration of asylum seekers in Swedish society has been faced in the last two decades. The paper is focused on the integration of asylum seekers into the Swedish society and Swedish labor market using data from Kronoberg County, where ratio between foreign born and Swedes has been double within the last fifteen years (from nine per cent to above eighteen per cent). The paper lists the rights of those who come to Sweden as asylum seekers based on Swedish and European Union’s acts, directives and ordinances concerning asylum seekers and new arrivals. In the end there is an attempt to advocate the expense of Swedish asylum policy and the challenges faced by migration policy by the creation of the best possibilities for asylum seekers to become active labor market’s participants.

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  • 287.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Historical view of the Swedish international migration policy in the case of refugees2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 288.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Historical view of the Swedish migration policy: the case of refugees2018In: Presented at the Refugee, Borders and Membership Conference, Malmö, Sweden, October 24-26, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 289.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Historical view of the Swedish migrations policy in the case of refugees2018In: Presented at Migrating World: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Migration and Integration, London, UK, February 10, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 290.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Integration and labour market access of asylum seekers in Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 291.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Integration and labour market access of asylum seekers in Sweden2017In: Regionalizacja - polityka - etyka T. 2, Fundacja Promocji Rozwoju Podlasia , 2017, p. 221-235Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 292.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Labour market integration of asylum seekers and refugees in Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 293.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Social integration and labour market access for asylum seekers in Kronoberg County in Sweden2018In: Folia Pomeranae Universitatis Technologiae Stetinensis Oeconomica, ISSN 2081-0644, Vol. 346(92), no 3, p. 17-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper investigates the reception of asylum seekers and their social and labour market’s integration in Kronoberg County. The paper begins with a presentation of Kronoberg County as a part of Sweden, then refer to a short history of immigration to Sweden followed by an overview of the Swedish Migration Agency (Migrationsverket) and the receptions of asylum seekers as well as the access to the labour market. The paper lists the rights of those who come to Sweden as asylum seekers based on Swedish and European Union's acts, directives and regulations concerning asylum seekers and new arrivals. In the end there is an attempt to advocate the expense of asylum policy and its impacts on Swedish economic development.

  • 294.
    Elmkvist, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Formy wsparcia zatrudnienia jako determinanta rozwoju regionalnego na przykładzie regionu Kronoberg w Szwecji2016In: Podlasie - wizje przemian i rozwoju / [ed] Andrzej F. Bocian, Dorota Perło & Paweł Piątkowski, Białystok: Fundacja Promocji Rozwoju Podlasia , 2016, p. 262-276Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [pl]

    Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie podejścia do problemu bezrobocia i migracji z jakim obecnie boryka się Szwecja oraz próba oceny programów przeciwdziałania bezrobociu powołanych przez szwedzki ALMP. Szwecja jest krajem Unii Europejskiej charakteryzującym się rozbudowanym systemem pomocy społecznej, starzejącym się społeczeństwem oraz otwartą polityką migracyjną. Napływ imigrantów, poza wzrostem liczby ludności w wieku produkcyjnym, to także duże wyzwanie dla rynku pracy, zarówno na poziomie krajowym jak i regionalnym. Problematyka zagadnienia będzie omówiona na przykładzie regionu Kronoberg, który to w ostatnim czasie przyjął największy odsetek imigrantów.

    W niniejszej pracy rozpatrywane będą formy wspracia zatrudnienia finansowane z budżetu państwa bez udziału środków unijnych. Wszelkie subwencje oraz wsparcia finansowe będą analizowane z punktu widzenia pracodawcy. Nazewnictwo programów i form kompensacji pozostaje w języku szwedzkim z racji braku polskich odpowiedników.

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    Formy wsparcia zatrudnienia jako determinanta rozwoju regionalnego na przykładzie regionu Kronoberg w Szwecji
  • 295.
    Enlund, Jakob
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Andersson, David
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Individual Carbon Footprint Reduction: Evidence from Pro-environmental Users of a Carbon Calculator2023In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 86, p. 433-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide the first estimates of how pro-environmental consumers reduce their total carbon footprint using a carbon calculator that covers all financial transactions. We use data from Swedish users of a carbon calculator that includes weekly estimates of users' consumption-based carbon-equivalent emissions based on detailed financial statements, official registers, and self-reported lifestyle factors. The calculator is designed to induce behavioral change and gives users detailed information about their footprint. By using a robust difference-in-differences analysis with staggered adoption of the calculator, we estimate that users decrease their carbon footprint by around 10% in the first few weeks, but over the next few weeks, the reduction fades. Further analysis suggests that the carbon footprint reduction is driven by a combination of a shift from high- to low-emitting consumption categories and a temporary decrease in overall spending, and not by changes in any specific consumption category.

  • 296. Enmark, Linnea
    et al.
    Persson, Tova
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "I heard it through the grapevine": En studie om varför kinesiska studenter väljer att studera på universitetsnivå i Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose and research question: The aim of the thesis is to examine why Chinese students choose Sweden as a destination for studies abroad.

    With the above stated purpose in mind, the research questions are as follow:

    1. What factors influence Chinese students’ decision- making of studying abroad?
    2. What factors influence Chinese students comparison between different study destinations?
    3. How do these factors affect the decision to study in Sweden?

    Method: The study is based in a qualitative research method. The empirical data is collected through a pilot study with three semi-structured interviews with staff from Linnaeus University and a study with eight semi- structured interviews with Chinese students that currently are studying in Sweden or have studied in Sweden.

    Conclusion: Chinese students are highly affected by recommendations from alumni with experience from studying in Sweden. The result of the study indicate the importance of advice and recommendations from social links with similar experiences in the decision making when buying a high-involvement service in a culuture with a high degree of Hofstedeés cultural dimensions: collectivism and uncertainty avoidance.

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  • 297.
    Erenel, Asuman
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Essays on Parental Leave: The Influence of Social Gender Norms, Gender-Role Stereotypes, and Parental Child Gender Bias2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three essays on parental leave uptake and other parental behaviors, investigating the effects of social gender norms, gender-role stereotypes, and parental child gender bias.

    Essay 1 (co-authored with Jens Agerström and Magnus Carlsson): We investigate how social gender norms influence parental leave uptake intentions by conducting two separate survey experiments on prospective fathers (N = 877) and mothers (N = 882) in the UK. In a between-subjects design, we manipulate social gender norms by varying information on the average number of days that other fathers and mothers stay at home to take care of a child during the first year after childbirth. We find that when prospective parents (both genders) are exposed to the low staying-home-with-children norm, they plan less parental leave uptake compared to the control (no norm) group. When exposed to the high staying-home-with-children norm, men (but not women) plan more parental leave uptake compared to the control group. We discuss policy implications and suggest directions for future studies.

    Essay 2: In many countries, the majority of parental leave (PL) is disproportionately taken by mothers, leading to gender inequalities in the labor market and effects on children's outcomes. Thus, it is important to understand the underlying factors behind this disparity. This paper aims to investigate the role of gender-role stereotypes in the uptake of PL by fathers and mothers. A sample of 1021 Swedish parents (521 fathers and 500 mothers) was surveyed to assess and measure both implicit and explicit stereotypes to explore the relationship between gender-role stereotypes and reported PL uptake. For mothers, the results clearly show that higher levels of gender-role stereotypes (both implicit and explicit) are associated with a greater share of PL uptake. For fathers, the results indicate weak evidence that higher levels of implicit gender-role stereotypes are associated with lower PL uptake, while no association is found with explicit stereotypes.  The implications for policy and directions for future research are discussed.

    Essay 3: This paper investigates parental child gender bias in Sweden by studying the impact of having a male (vs. female) firstborn child on various parental behavioral outcomes using Swedish microdata covering a 26-year period. The findings show no or small effects of the sex of the child on parental outcomes. Thus, the behavior of Swedish parents is by and large unaffected by the sex of their firstborn child. Results suggest that, in Sweden, factors other than parental child gender bias are likely more important to focus on in promoting gender equality in society.

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  • 298.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Do Employers Use Unemployment as a Sorting Criterion When Hiring?: Evidence from a Field Experiment2014In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 104, no 3, p. 1014-1039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stigma associated with long-term unemployment spells could create large inefficiencies in labor markets. While the existing literature points toward large stigma effects, it has proven difficult to estimate causal relationships. Using data from a field experiment, we find that long-term unemployment spells in the past do not matter for employers' hiring decisions, suggesting that subsequent work experience eliminates this negative signal. Nor do employers treat contemporary short-term unemployment spells differently, suggesting that they understand that worker/firm matching takes time. However, employers attach a negative value to contemporary unemployment spells lasting at least nine months, providing evidence of stigma effects.

  • 299.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Do employers use unemployment as a sorting criterion when hiring?: Evidence from a field experiment2013Report (Other academic)
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  • 300.
    Ezzulddin, Omar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. 1992.
    Haydari, Farid
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Skillnaden i sannolikhet att vara arbetslös mellan inrikes- och utrikes födda2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on European Social Survey, the main objective of this essay is to analyse the difference in the probability of being unemployed between natives and foreign born in Sweden. Using traditional statistical methods such as Linear Probability Model (LPM) and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and controlling for standard socio-economic variables we found that immigrants born in Europe have 5.3 percentage point higher likelihood of being unemployed compared to their Swedish counterpart. Regarding non-European we found that they have 5.2 percentage points higher probability of being unemployed compared to Swedish counterpart. An extension of BlinderOaxaca decomposition suggests that 4.9 percentage points of this gap is due to differences in endowment characteristics between immigrants born in Europe and Swedish counterpart. The difference in the characteristics between nonEuropean and natives amounts to 5.3 percentage points. On the other hand, approximately 1.5 and 10.3 percentage points of the differences in the unemployment probability between immigrants born in Europe and countries outside Europe and Swedish counterpart can be ascribe to different returns to those observable and/or unobservable characteristics that are not captured in the models.  

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