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  • 251.
    Leduc, S.
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria;b.Division of Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Lundgren, J.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria;b.Division of Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Franklin, O.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Dotzauer, E.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Location of a biomass based methanol production plant: A dynamic problem in northern Sweden2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerning production and use of biofuels, mismatch between the locations of feedstock and the biofuel consumer may lead to high transportation costs and negative environmental impact. In order to minimize these consequences, it is important to locate the production plant at an appropriate location. In this paper, a case study of the county of Norrbotten in northern Sweden is presented with the purpose to illustrate how an optimization model could be used to assess a proper location for a biomass based methanol production plant. The production of lignocellulosic based methanol via gasification has been chosen, as methanol seems to be one promising alternative to replace fossil gasoline as an automotive fuel and Norrbotten has abundant resources of woody biomass. If methanol would be produced in a stand-alone production plant in the county, the cost for transportation of the feedstock as well as the produced methanol would have great impact on the final cost depending on where the methanol plant is located. Three different production plant sizes have been considered in the study, 100, 200 and 400 MW (biomass fuel input), respectively. When assessing a proper location for this kind of plant, it is important to also consider the future motor fuel demand as well as to identify a heat sink for the residual heat. In this study, four different automotive fuel- and district heating demand scenarios have been created until the year 2025. The results show that methanol can be produced at a maximum cost of 0.48 €/l without heat sales. By selling the residual heat as district heating, the methanol production cost per liter fuel may decrease by up to 10% when the plant is located close to an area with high annual heat demand.

  • 252. Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Franklin, O.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Dotzauer, E.
    Mälardalen University.
    Location of a biomass based methanol production plant: a dynamic problem in northern Sweden2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerning production and use of biofuels, mismatch between the locations of feedstock and the biofuel consumer may lead to high transportation costs and negative environmental impact. In order to minimize these consequences, it is important to locate the production plant at an appropriate location. In this paper, a case study of the county of Norrbotten in northern Sweden is presented with the purpose to illustrate how an optimization model could be used to assess a proper location for a biomass based methanol production plant. The production of lignocellulosic based methanol via gasification has been chosen, as methanol seems to be one promising alternative to replace fossil gasoline as an automotive fuel and Norrbotten has abundant resources of woody biomass. If methanol would be produced in a stand-alone production plant in the county, the cost for transportation of the feedstock as well as the produced methanol would have great impact on the final cost depending on where the methanol plant is located. Three different production plant sizes have been considered in the study, 100, 200 and 400 MW (biomass fuel input), respectively. When assessing a proper location for this kind of plant, it is important to also consider the future motor fuel demand as well as to identify a heat sink for the residual heat. In this study, four different automotive fuel- and district heating demand scenarios have been created until the year 2025. The results show that methanol can be produced at a maximum cost of 0.48 €/l without heat sales. By selling the residual heat as district heating, the methanol production cost per liter fuel may decrease by up to 10% when the plant is located close to an area with high annual heat demand.

  • 253.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    a.International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria;b.Division of Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden.
    Natarajan, Karthikeyan
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    McCallum, Ian
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Obersteiner, Michael
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Optimizing biodiesel production in India2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 1, p. S125-S131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    India is expected to at least double its fuel consumption in the transportation sector by 2030. To contributeto the fuel supply, renewable energies such as jatropha appear to be an attractive resource for biodieselproduction in India as it can be grown on waste land and does not need intensive water supply. In orderto produce biodiesel at a competitive cost, the biodiesel supply chain – from biomass harvesting to biodieseldelivery to the consumers – is analyzed. A mixed integer linear programming model is used in order todetermine the optimal number and geographic locations of biodiesel plants. The optimization is based onminimization of the costs of the supply chain with respect to the biomass, production and transportationcosts. Three biodiesel blends are considered, B2, B5 and B10. For each blend, 13 scenarios are consideredwhere yield, biomass cost, cake price, glycerol price, transport cost and investment costs are studied. A sensitivityanalysis is carried out on both those parameters and the resulting locations of the plants. The emissionsof the supply chain are also considered. The results state that the biomass cost has most influence onthe biodiesel cost (an increase of feedstock cost increases the biodiesel cost by about 40%) and to a lowereffect, the investment cost and the glycerol price. Moreover, choosing the right set of production plant locationshighly depends on the scenarios that have the highest probability to occur, for which the productionplant locations still produce a competitive biodiesel cost and emissions from the transportation are minimum.In this study, one set of plant locations happened to meet these two requirements

  • 254.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Natarajan, Karthikeyan
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    McCallum, Ian
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Obersteiner, Michael
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Optimizing biodiesel production in India2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no Suppl. 1, p. S125-S131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    India is expected to at least double its fuel consumption in the transportation sector by 2030. To contribute to the fuel supply, renewable energies such as jatropha appear to be an attractive resource for biodiesel production in India as it can be grown on waste land and does not need intensive water supply. In order to produce biodiesel at a competitive cost, the biodiesel supply chain - from biomass harvesting to biodiesel delivery to the consumers - is analyzed. A mixed integer linear programming model is used in order to determine the optimal number and geographic locations of biodiesel plants. The optimization is based on minimization of the costs of the supply chain with respect to the biomass, production and transportation costs. Three biodiesel blends are considered, B2, B5 and B10. For each blend, 13 scenarios are considered where yield, biomass cost, cake price, glycerol price, transport cost and investment costs are studied. A sensitivity analysis is carried out on both those parameters and the resulting locations of the plants. The emissions of the supply chain are also considered. The results state that the biomass cost has most influence on the biodiesel cost (an increase of feedstock cost increases the biodiesel cost by about 40%) and to a lower effect, the investment cost and the glycerol price. Moreover, choosing the right set of production plant locations highly depends on the scenarios that have the highest probability to occur, for which the production plant locations still produce a competitive biodiesel cost and emissions from the transportation are minimum. In this study, one set of plant locations happened to meet these two requirements.

  • 255.
    Lee, M.
    et al.
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Keller, A. A.
    University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, United States.
    Chiang, P. -C
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Den, W.
    Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Wang, H.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Hou, C. -H
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Wu, J.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Wang, X.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tongji University, Shanghai, China; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Water-energy nexus for urban water systems: A comparative review on energy intensity and environmental impacts in relation to global water risks2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 205, p. 589-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the interdependence between water and energy, also known as the water-energy nexus, is well recognized. The water-energy nexus is typically characterized in resource use efficiency terms such as energy intensity. This study aims to explore the quantitative results of the nexus in terms of energy intensity and environmental impacts (mainly greenhouse gas emissions) on existing water systems within urban water cycles. We also characterized the influence of water risks on the water-energy nexus, including baseline water stress (a water quantity indicator) and return flow ratio (a water quality indicator). For the 20 regions and 4 countries surveyed (including regions with low to extremely high water risks that are geographically located in Africa, Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America), their energy intensities were positively related to the water risks. Regions with higher water risks were observed to have relatively higher energy and GHG intensities associated with their water supply systems. This mainly reflected the major influence of source water accessibility on the nexus, particularly for regions requiring energy-intensive imported or groundwater supplies, or desalination. Regions that use tertiary treatment (for water reclamation or environmental protection) for their wastewater treatment systems also had relatively higher energy and GHG emission intensities, but the intensities seemed to be independent from the water risks. On-site energy recovery (e.g., biogas or waste heat) in the wastewater treatment systems offered a great opportunity for reducing overall energy demand and its associated environmental impacts. Future policy making for the water and energy sectors should carefully consider the water-energy nexus at the regional or local level to achieve maximum environmental and economic benefits. The results from this study can provide a better understanding of the water-energy nexus and informative recommendations for future policy directions for the effective management of water and energy.

  • 256. Lee, Mengshan
    et al.
    Keller, Arturo A.
    Chiang, Pen-Chi
    Den, Walter
    Wang, Hongtao
    Hou, Chia-Hung
    Wu, Jiang
    Wang, Xin
    Yan, Jinyue
    Water-energy nexus for urban water systems: A comparative review on energy intensity and environmental impacts in relation to global water risks2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 205, p. 589-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the interdependence between water and energy, also known as the water-energy nexus, is well recognized. The water-energy nexus is typically characterized in resource use efficiency terms such as energy intensity. This study aims to explore the quantitative results of the nexus in terms of energy intensity and environmental impacts (mainly greenhouse gas emissions) on existing water systems within urban water cycles. We also characterized the influence of water risks on the water-energy nexus, including baseline water stress (a water quantity indicator) and return flow ratio (a water quality indicator). For the 20 regions and 4 countries surveyed (including regions with low to extremely high water risks that are geographically located in Africa, Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America), their energy intensities were positively related to the water risks. Regions with higher water risks were observed to have relatively higher energy and GHG intensities associated with their water supply systems. This mainly reflected the major influence of source water accessibility on the nexus, particularly for regions requiring energy-intensive imported or groundwater supplies, or desalination. Regions that use tertiary treatment (for water reclamation or environmental protection) for their wastewater treatment systems also had relatively higher energy and GHG emission intensities, but the intensities seemed to be independent from the water risks. On-site energy recovery (e.g., biogas or waste heat) in the wastewater treatment systems offered a great opportunity for reducing overall energy demand and its associated environmental impacts. Future policy making for the water and energy sectors should carefully consider the water energy nexus at the regional or local level to achieve maximum environmental and economic benefits. The results from this study can provide a better understanding of the water-energy nexus and informative recommendations for future policy directions for the effective management of water and energy.

  • 257.
    Lei, Zeng
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. CLASP, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Yu
    CLASP, Beijing, China.
    Jiayang, Li
    CLASP, Beijing, China.
    China's Promoting Energy-Efficient Products for the Benefit of the People Program in 2012: Results and analysis of the consumer impact study2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 133, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China launched the largest ($4.26 billion) energy-efficient appliances subsidy program in June 2012. This paper investigates the impact of this program on consumers by surveying 2630 consumers in 10 cities with different socioeconomic statuses. The results showed that the Chinese consumers were very conscious about electricity savings and that they considered energy-saving an important factor when selecting appliances. Only 13% of consumers claimed that the subsidy was the primary reason for them to purchase energy-efficient appliances. The study found that the subsidy program raising a moderate level of awareness, with 62% of interviewed consumers being aware of the program. However, the consumers were found to lack an in-depth understanding of the program. More budget allocation for marketing and outreach could potentially improve the public awareness of energy-efficient appliances and facilitate market transformation in the long run. Compared with conventional appliances, most Chinese consumers were only willing to pay less than 10% more for energy-efficient appliances. The consumers' expectation for the subsidy size varied between cities, but on average, they would become very likely to purchase energy-efficient appliances when the subsidy size was between 20% and 30%. It was suggested that in the future, only Tier 1 appliances (the most efficient) would be subsidized, and the size of the subsidy should be increased so to meet the consumers' expectations. 

  • 258. Leung, Dennis Y. C.
    et al.
    Yang, Hongxing
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Editorial for Special Issue of the First International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE'09, Hong Kong, January 5-7, 2009 at the journal, Applied Energy2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 9, p. 2861-2861Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 259.
    Leung, Dennis Y. C.
    et al.
    Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Hongxing
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Editorial for Special Issue of the First International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE'09, Hong Kong, January 5-7, 2009 at the journal, Applied Energy2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 9, p. 2861-2861Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 260. Li, A.
    et al.
    Song, Ce
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Lin, Z.
    A multiphysics fully coupled modeling tool for the design and operation analysis of planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 190, p. 1234-1244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A planar SOFC stack is an integral but basic power generation unit with physical conditions completely different from that of a laboratory button cell. The ability to reliably predict the operating behaviors of SOFC stacks is crucial for the technology advancement. The existing stack models either rely on simplified geometries, or handle a few selected fields that are relatively easy to couple. This paper reports the first successful development of a high geometry resolution, multiphysics fully coupled numerical model for production scale planar SOFC stacks. The computational model is developed through in-house developed multiphysics modules combined with commercial software FLUENT®. All stack components such as flow channels, manifolds, cathode-electrolyte-anode assemblies, interconnects, seals and frames are resolved in the numerical grids. The mathematical model includes the fully coupled equations of momentum, mass, species, heat and charge transports, electrochemical reaction, and methane steam reforming and shift reactions. An accurate relationship between the O2 transport and electrochemistry within the cathode-rib structure is established and used to enhance the numerical efficiency of the stack model. The stack model is validated with the experimental data. The numerical stability and modeling capability of this multiphysics stack model are illustrated by simulating a 30-cell stack of 27 million grid points. Detailed information about the distributions of flows, temperature, current and chemical species, etc, is revealed. Comparative studies show that the results obtained by simplifications of stack geometries or reductions of multiphysics couplings are unreliable, illustrating the necessity of employing a true multiphysics computational tool.

  • 261.
    Li, C.
    et al.
    Hunan Academy of Forestry, Changsha, China.
    Liu, D.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Ramaswamy, S.
    University of Minnesota, United States.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Biomass energy and products: Advanced technologies and applications2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 157, p. 489-490Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 262. Li, Changzhu
    et al.
    Liu, Dehua
    Ramaswamy,
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Biomass energy and products: Advanced technologies and applications2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 157, p. 489-490Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 263. Li, H.
    et al.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Tan, Yuting
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Yan, Jerry
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Feasibility study about using a stand-alone wind power driven heat pump for space heating2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 1486-1498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing energy consumption and increasing the use of renewable energy in the building sector are crucial to the mitigation of climate change. Wind power driven heat pumps have been considered as a sustainable measure to supply heat to the detached houses, especially those that even do not have access to the electricity grid. This work is to investigate the dynamic performance of a heat pump system driven by wind turbine through dynamic simulations. In order to understand the influence on the thermal comfort, which is the primary purpose of space heating, the variation of indoor temperature has been simulated in details. Results show that the wind turbine is not able to provide the electricity required by the heat pump during the heating season due to the intermittent characteristic of wind power. To improve the system performance, the influences of the capacity of wind turbine, the size of battery and the setpoint of indoor temperature were assessed. It is found that increasing the capacity of wind turbines is not necessary to reduce the loss of load probability; while on the contrary, increasing the size of battery can always reduce the loss of load probability. The setpoint temperature clearly affects the loss of load probability. A higher setpoint temperature results in a higher loss of thermal comfort probability. In addition, it is also found that the time interval used in the dynamic simulation has significant influence on the result. In order to have more accurate results, it is of great importance to choose a high resolution time step to capture the dynamic behaviour of the heat supply and its effect on the indoor temperature. 

  • 264.
    Li, H.
    et al.
    SINTEF Energy.
    Jakobsen, J. P.
    SINTEF Energy.
    Wilhelmsen, Ø.
    SINTEF Energy.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Responses to 'Comments on PVTxy properties of CO 2 mixtures relevant for CO 2 capture, transport and storage: Review of available experimental data and theoretical models'2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 93, p. 753-754Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 265. Li, H.
    et al.
    Wang, W.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Dahlquist, E.
    Economic assessment of the mobilized thermal energy storage (M-TES) system for distributed heat supply2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 104, p. 178-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual system, mobilized thermal energy storage system (M-TES), was proposed for distributed heat supply. The economic evaluation that is essential to identify the key issues and provide guidelines regarding system improvement was conducted in this paper. Results show that the cost using M-TES to supply heat (COH) is primarily determined by the transport distance and the heat demand. The variation of COH is proportional to the transport distance, but inversely proportional to the heat demand. According to the sensitivity study, COH is more sensitive to the price of phase change material (PCM) than other parameters, such as the transport cost. Moreover, it is possible for an M-TES system to compete with other heat supply methods, such as pellet/bio-oil/biogas/oil boiler systems and electrical air-source heat pump. When using M-TES to replace the existing system, the payback time is mainly determined by the transport distance and the heat demand. Water is another potential working fluid for M-TES system. Comparatively, using PCM is more suitable for cases with larger heat demand or longer transport distance.

  • 266.
    Li, H.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Yan, J.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Anheden, M
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB.
    Impurity impacts on the purification process in oxy-fuel combustion based CO2 capture and storage system2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 202-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Basedon the requirements of CO2 transportation and storage, non-condensable gases, such as O2, N2 and Ar should be removed from the CO2-stream captured from an oxy-fuel combustion process. For a purification process, impurities have great impacts on the design, operation and optimization through their impacts on the thermodynamic properties of CO2-streams. Study results show that the increments of impurities will make the energy consumption of purification increase; and make CO2 purity of separation product and CO2 recovery rate decrease. In addition, under the same operating conditions, energy consumptions have different sensitivities to the variation of the impurity mole fraction of feed fluids. The isothermal compression work is more sensitive to the variation of SO2; while the isentropic compression work is more sensitive to the variation of Ar. In the flash system, the energy consumption of condensation in is more sensitive to the variation of Ar; but in the distillation system, the energy consumption of condensation is more sensitive to the variation of SO2, and CO2 purity of separation is more sensitive to the variation of SO2. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 267.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Ningbo RX New Materials Tch. Co. Ltd., Ningbo, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Ningbo RX New Materials Tch. Co. Ltd., Ningbo, China.
    Tan, Y.
    Ningbo RX New Materials Tch. Co. Ltd., Ningbo, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Department of Chemical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Feasibility study about using a stand-alone wind power driven heat pump for space heating2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 1486-1498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing energy consumption and increasing the use of renewable energy in the building sector are crucial to the mitigation of climate change. Wind power driven heat pumps have been considered as a sustainable measure to supply heat to the detached houses, especially those that even do not have access to the electricity grid. This work is to investigate the dynamic performance of a heat pump system driven by wind turbine through dynamic simulations. In order to understand the influence on the thermal comfort, which is the primary purpose of space heating, the variation of indoor temperature has been simulated in details. Results show that the wind turbine is not able to provide the electricity required by the heat pump during the heating season due to the intermittent characteristic of wind power. To improve the system performance, the influences of the capacity of wind turbine, the size of battery and the setpoint of indoor temperature were assessed. It is found that increasing the capacity of wind turbines is not necessary to reduce the loss of load probability; while on the contrary, increasing the size of battery can always reduce the loss of load probability. The setpoint temperature clearly affects the loss of load probability. A higher setpoint temperature results in a higher loss of thermal comfort probability. In addition, it is also found that the time interval used in the dynamic simulation has significant influence on the result. In order to have more accurate results, it is of great importance to choose a high resolution time step to capture the dynamic behaviour of the heat supply and its effect on the indoor temperature.

  • 268.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ditaranto, Mario
    SINTEF Energy Res,Trondheim, Norway.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Carbon capture with low energy penalty: Supplementary fired natural gas combined cycles2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, no SI, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancing CO2 concentration in exhaust gas has been considered as a potentially effective method to reduce the penalty of electrical efficiency caused by CO2 chemical absorption in post-combustion carbon capture systems. Supplementary firing is an option that inherently has an increased CO2 concentration in the exhaust gas, albeit a relatively low electrical efficiency due to its increased mass flow of exhaust gas to treat and large temperature difference in heat recovery steam generator. This paper focuses on the methods that can improve the electrical efficiency of the supplementary fired combined cycles (SFCs) integrated with MEA-based CO2 capture. Three modifications have been evaluated: (I) integration of exhaust gas reheating, (II) integration of exhaust gas recirculation, and (III) integration of supercritical bottoming cycle. It is further showed that combining all three modifications results in a significant increase in electrical efficiency which is raised from 43.3% to 54.1% based on Lower Heating Value (LHV) of natural gas when compared to the original SFC. Compared with a conventional combined cycle with a subcritical bottoming cycle and without CO2 capture (56.7% of LHV), the efficiency penalty caused by CO2 capture is only 2.6% of LHV.

  • 269. Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Ditaranto, Mario
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Carbon capture with low energy penalty: Supplementary fired natural gas combined cycles2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, p. 164-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancing CO2 concentration in exhaust gas has been considered as a potentially effective method to reduce the penalty of electrical efficiency caused by CO2 chemical absorption in post-combustion carbon capture systems. Supplementary firing is an option that inherently has an increased CO2 concentration in the exhaust gas, albeit a relatively low electrical efficiency due to its increased mass flow of exhaust gas to treat and large temperature difference in heat recovery steam generator. This paper focuses on the methods that can improve the electrical efficiency of the supplementary fired combined cycles (SFCs) integrated with MEA-based CO2 capture. Three modifications have been evaluated: (I) integration of exhaust gas reheating, (II) integration of exhaust gas recirculation, and (III) integration of supercritical bottoming cycle. It is further showed that combining all three modifications results in a significant increase in electrical efficiency which is raised from 43.3% to 54.1% based on Lower Heating Value (LHV) of natural gas when compared to the original SFC. Compared with a conventional combined cycle with a subcritical bottoming cycle and without CO2 capture (56.7% of LHV), the efficiency penalty caused by CO2 capture is only 2.6% of LHV.

  • 270.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology of Tianjin, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, 300134, China.
    Dong, B.
    Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology of Tianjin, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, 300134, China.
    Yu, Z.
    Department of Energy and Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, 4036, Norway.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhu, K.
    Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology of Tianjin, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, 300134, China.
    Thermo-physical properties of CO2 mixtures and their impacts on CO2 capture, transport and storage: Progress since 20112019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 255, article id 113789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of accurate thermo-physical properties is crucial for the development and deployment of CO2 capture, transport and storage (CCS). The progress on the experimental data and theoretical models regarding thermo-physical properties of CO2 mixtures as well as the property impact on the design and operation of different CCS processes has been updated. The newly published experimental data since 2011 have been collected and reviewed based on which the new knowledge gaps regarding measurements have been identified. There have also been some advanced models proposed recently, which have shown good performances. The collected model performances don't show there exist a model that is superior to others; but they still provide a good guideline regarding model selection. However, developing more-complex models as the complexity may not necessarily improve the accuracy when empirical parameters were included and well-tuned. By comparing the importance of the properties and the accuracy of existing models, suggestions were given regarding the development of property models that should be prioritized. 

  • 271.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Jakobsen, Jana P.
    Wilhelmsen, Oivind
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    PVTxy properties of CO(2) mixtures relevant for CO(2) capture, transport and storage: Review of available experimental data and theoretical models2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 11, p. 3567-3579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge about pressure-volume-temperature-composition (PVTxy) properties plays an important role in the design and operation of many processes involved in CO(2) capture and storage (CCS) systems. A literature survey was conducted on both the available experimental data and the theoretical models associated with the thermodynamic properties of CO(2) mixtures within the operation window of CCS. Some gaps were identified between available experimental data and requirements of the system design and operation. The major concerns are: for the vapour-liquid equilibrium, there are no data about CO(2)/COS and few data about the CO(2)/N(2)O(4) mixture. For the volume property, there are no published experimental data for CO(2)/O(2), CO(2)/CO, CO(2)/N(2)O(4), CO(2)/COS and CO(2)/NH(3) and the liquid volume of CO(2)/H(2). The experimental data available for multi-component CO(2) mixtures are also scarce. Many equations of state are available for thermodynamic calculations of CO(2) mixtures. The cubic equations of state have the simplest structure and are capable of giving reasonable results for the PVTxy properties. More complex equations of state such as Lee-Kesler, SAFT and GERG typically give better results for the volume property, but not necessarily for the vapour-liquid equilibrium. None of the equations of state evaluated in the literature show any clear advantage in CCS applications for the calculation of all PVTxy properties. A reference equation of state for CCS should, thus, be a future goal.

  • 272.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jakobsen, Jana P
    SINTEF Energy.
    Wilhelmsen, Øivind
    SINTEF Energy.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    PVTxy properties of CO2 mixtures relevant for CO2 capture, transport and storage: Review of available experimental data and theoretical models2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 11, p. 3567-3579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge about pressure–volume–temperature–composition (PVTxy) properties plays an importantrole in the design and operation of many processes involved in CO2 capture and storage (CCS) systems.A literature survey was conducted on both the available experimental data and the theoreticalmodels associated with the thermodynamic properties of CO2 mixtures within the operation windowof CCS. Some gaps were identified between available experimental data and requirements of the systemdesign and operation. The major concerns are: for the vapour–liquid equilibrium, there are no data aboutCO2/COS and few data about the CO2/N2O4 mixture. For the volume property, there are no publishedexperimental data for CO2/O2, CO2/CO, CO2/N2O4, CO2/COS and CO2/NH3 and the liquid volume of CO2/H2. The experimental data available for multi-component CO2 mixtures are also scarce. Many equationsof state are available for thermodynamic calculations of CO2 mixtures. The cubic equations of state havethe simplest structure and are capable of giving reasonable results for the PVTxy properties. More complexequations of state such as Lee–Kesler, SAFT and GERG typically give better results for the volumeproperty, but not necessarily for the vapour–liquid equilibrium. None of the equations of state evaluatedin the literature show any clear advantage in CCS applications for the calculation of all PVTxy properties.A reference equation of state for CCS should, thus, be a future goal.

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  • 273. Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Jakobsen, Jana P.
    Wilhelmsen, Øivind
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Responses to 'Comments on PVTxy properties of CO2 mixtures relevant for CO2 capture, transport and storage: Review of available experimental data and theoretical models'2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 93, p. 753-754Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Evaluating cubic equations of state for calculation of vapor-liquid equilibrium of CO2 and CO2-mixtures for CO2 capture and storage processes2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 6, p. 826-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proper solution of vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE) is essential to the design and operation of CO2 capture and storage system (CCS). According to the requirements of engineering applications, cubic equations of state (EOS) are preferable to predict VLE properties. This paper evaluates the reliabilities of five cubic EOSs, including PR, PT, RK, SRK and 3P1T for predicting VLE Of CO2 and binary CO2-mixtures containing CH4, H2S, SO2, Ar, N-2 or O-2, based on the comparisons with the collected experimental data. Results show that SRK is superior in the calculations about the saturated pressure of pure CO2; while for the VLE properties of binary CO2-mixtures, PR, PIT and SRK are generally superior to RK and 3P1T. The impacts of binary interaction parameter k(ij) were also analyzed. k(ij) has very clear effects on the calculating accuracy of an EOS in the property calculations Of CO2-mixtures. In order to improve the calculation accuracy, the binary interaction parameter was calibrated for all of the studied EOSs regarding every binary CO2-mixture.

  • 275.
    LI, Hailong
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Energiteknik.
    Evaluating cubic equations of state for calculation of vapor-liquid equilibrium of CO(2) and CO(2)-mixtures for CO(2) capture and storage processes2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 6, p. 826-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proper solution of vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE) is essential to the design and operation of CO2 capture and storage system (CCS). According to the requirements of engineering applications, cubic equations of state (EOS) are preferable to predict VLE properties. This paper evaluates the reliabilities of five cubic EOSs, including PR, PT, RK, SRK and 3P1T for predicting VLE of CO2 and binary CO2-mixtures containing CH4, H2S, SO2, Ar, N2 or O2, based on the comparisons with the collected experimental data. Results show that SRK is superior in the calculations about the saturated pressure of pure CO2; while for the VLE properties of binary CO2-mixtures, PR, PT and SRK are generally superior to RK and 3P1T. The impacts of binary interaction parameter kij were also analyzed. kij has very clear effects on the calculating accuracy of an EOS in the property calculations of CO2-mixtures. In order to improve the calculation accuracy, the binary interaction parameter was calibrated for all of the studied EOSs regarding every binary CO2-mixture.

  • 276.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Chemical Engineering and Technology/Energy Processes, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Impacts of equations of state (EOS) and impurities on the volume calculation of CO2 mixtures in the applications of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) processes2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 12, p. 2760-2770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volume property is the necessary thermodynamic property in the design and operation of the CO2 capture and storage system (CCS). Because of their simple structures, cubic equations of state (EOS) are preferable to be applied in predicting volumes for engineering applications. This paper evaluates the reliabilities of seven cubic EOS, including PR, PT, RK, SRK, MPR, MSRK and ISRK for predicting volumes of binary CO2 mixtures containing CH4, H2S, SO2, Ar and N2, based on the comparisons with the collected experimental data. Results show that for calculations on the volume properties of binary CO2 mixtures, PR and PT are generally superior to others for all of the studied mixtures. In addition, it was found that the binary interaction parameter has clear effects on the calculating accuracy of an EOS in the volume calculations of CO2 mixtures. In order to improve the accuracy, kij was calibrated for all of the EOS regarding the gas and liquid phases of all the studied binary CO2 mixtures, respectively

  • 277.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Impacts of equations of state (EOS) and impurities on the volume calculation of CO2 mixtures in the applications of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) processes2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 12, p. 2760-2770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volume property is the necessary thermodynamic property in the design and operation of the CO2 Capture and storage system (CCS). Because of their simple structures, cubic equations of state (EOS) are preferable to be applied in predicting volumes for engineering applications. This paper evaluates the reliabilities of seven cubic EOS, including PR, PT, RK, SRK, MPR, MSRK and ISRK for predicting volumes of binary CO2 mixtures containing CH4, H2S, SO2, At and N-2, based on the comparisons with the collected experimental data. Results show that for calculations on the volume properties of binary CO2 mixtures, PR and PT are generally superior to others for all of the studied mixtures. In addition, it was found that the binary interaction parameter has clear effects on the calculating accuracy of an EOS in the volume calculations Of CO2 mixtures. In order to improve the accuracy, k(ij) was calibrated for all of the EOS regarding the gas and liquid phases of all the studied binary CO2 mixtures, respectively.

  • 278.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Economic assessment of the mobilized thermal energy storage (M-TES) system for distributed heat supply2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 104, p. 178-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual system, mobilized thermal energy storage system (M-TES), was proposed for distributed heat supply. The economic evaluation that is essential to identify the key issues and provide guidelines regarding system improvement was conducted in this paper. Results show that the cost using M-TES to supply heat (COH) is primarily determined by the transport distance and the heat demand. The variation of COH is proportional to the transport distance, but inversely proportional to the heat demand. According to the sensitivity study, COH is more sensitive to the price of phase change material (PCM) than other parameters, such as the transport cost. Moreover, it is possible for an M-TES system to compete with other heat supply methods, such as pellet/bio-oil/biogas/oil boiler systems and electrical air-source heat pump. When using M-TES to replace the existing system, the payback time is mainly determined by the transport distance and the heat demand. Water is another potential working fluid for M-TES system. Comparatively, using PCM is more suitable for cases with larger heat demand or longer transport distance.

  • 279.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, J.
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB.
    Anheden, M.
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB.
    Impurity impacts on the purification process in oxy-fuel combustion based CO2 capture and storage system2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 202-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the requirements of CO2 transportation and storage, non-condensable gases, such as O-2, N-2 and At should be removed from the CO2-stream captured from an oxy-fuel combustion process. For a purification process, impurities have great impacts on the design, operation and optimization through their impacts on the thermodynamic properties of CO2-streams. Study results show that the increments of impurities will make the energy consumption of purification increase: and make CO2 purity of separation product and CO2 recovery rate decrease, In addition, under the same operating conditions, energy consumptions have different sensitivities to the variation of the impurity mole fraction of feed fluids. The isothermal compression work is more sensitive to the variation of SO2: while the isentropic compression work is more sensitive to the variation of Ar. In the flash system, the energy consumption of condensation in is more sensitive to the variation of Ar; but in the distillation system, the energy consumption of condensation is more sensitive to the variation of SO2, and CO2 purity of separation is more sensitive to the variation of SO2.

  • 280.
    Li, Jun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Brzdekiewicz, A.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Co-firing based on biomass torrefaction in a pulverized coal boiler with aim of 100% fuel switching2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 99, p. 344-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Torrefied biomass has several benefits, such as higher energy density, good grindability, higher flowability and uniformity. The process of torrefaction moves the chemical and physical properties of raw biomass close to that of bituminous coal, which allows co-utilization with high substitution ratios of biomass in the existing coal-fired boilers without major modifications. In this study, a torrefaction based co-firing system was proposed and studied. Devolatilization and char oxidize kinetics of the torrefied biomass have been investigated experimentally. CFD modeling of co-firing with varying substitutions of torrefied biomass in a pulverized coal boiler have been carried out. To figure out the boiler performance when co-firing torrefied biomass, five different cases were involved and simulated, coal only, 25% biomass, 50% biomass, 75% biomass, and 100% biomass on thermal basis, respectively. The results showed torrefaction is able to provide a technical option for high substitution ratios of biomass in the co-firing system. The case-study pulverized coal boiler could be fired 100% torrefied biomass without obvious decreasing of the boiler efficiency and fluctuation of boiler load. More positively, the net CO 2 and the NO x emissions significantly reduced with increasing of biomass substitutions in the co-firing system.

  • 281.
    Li, W.
    et al.
    College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.
    Khalid, H.
    College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.
    Zhu, Z.
    College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, R.
    Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, United States.
    Liu, G.
    College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.
    Chen, Chang
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Methane production through anaerobic digestion: Participation and digestion characteristics of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 226, p. 1219-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant natural resource with high biomethane potential. However, complex structure of lignocellulosic biomass has hampered the efficient utilization of this bioresource. Previous studies have investigated the overall anaerobic digestion performance of lignocellulosic biomass, but the individual participation of each lignocellulosic component during anaerobic digestion remained unclear. Thus, this study investigated the methane production characteristics of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and their mixtures along with the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion. The results showed that the biomethane potential of cellulose was higher than that of hemicellulose; however, hemicellulose was hydrolysed more quickly than cellulose, while lignin was very difficult to be digested. The higher concentrations of acetic, n-butyric and n-valeric acids hydrolysed from the hemicellulose resulted in a lower pH and more severe inhibition on methane production than that of cellulose, and the methanogenesis gradually recovered after pH adjustment. The co-digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose increased the methane yield and biodegradability compared to mono-digestions. The addition of lignin to cellulose brought more significant decrease in the methane yield of cellulose than that of hemicellulose. Substrate-related bacteria such as Clostridium sensu stricto, Lutaonella, Cloacibacillus and Christensenella showed higher relative abundance in cellulose digestate, and sugar-fermenting bacteria such as Saccharofermentans, Petrimonas and Levilinea were more rich in the digestate of hemicellulose. Moreover, methanogenic Methanospirillum and Methanothrix likely contributed to the methane production of cellulose, while aciduric methanogens from Methanobrevibacter, Methanomassiliicoccus, Methanobacterium and Methanoculleus contributed to that of hemicellulose. This study provides a deeper understanding of the mechanism in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass during anaerobic digestion.

  • 282.
    Li, Y.
    et al.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Jin, Y.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Borrion, A.
    University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Yu, Z.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Li, J.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Kinetic studies on organic degradation and its impacts on improving methane production during anaerobic digestion of food waste2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 213, p. 136-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organics degradation is vital for food waste anaerobic digestion performance, however, the influence of organics degradation on biomethane production process has not been fully understood. This study aims to thoroughly investigate the organics degradation performance and identify the interaction between the reduction of organic components and methane yield based on the evaluation on 12 types of food waste. Five models (i.e. exponential, Fitzhugh, transference function, Cone and modified Gompertz models) were compared regarding the prediction of organic degradation and the results showed that the exponential model fit the experiments best, whereas kinetic parameters could not be commonly used for all situations. The exponential model was then used to study the impacts of organics reduction on the methane production and results revealed that the cumulative methane production (385–627 mL/g volatile solid) increased exponentially with the removal efficiency of volatile solids, lipids, and proteins for all feedstocks, whereas volatile solid reduction increased exponentially and linearly, respectively, with the removal efficiency of lipids and proteins. Additionally, protein degradation increased exponentially with the reduction efficiency of lipids. The experimental data and model simulation results suggested that higher methane production (530–548 mL/g volatile solid) and removal efficiency of volatile solids (65.0–67.8%), lipids (77.8–78.2%), and proteins (54.7–58.2%) could be achieved in a shorter digestion retention when carbohydrate content was higher than 47.6%, protein content lower than 24.1%, and lipid content lower than 28.3%.

  • 283.
    Li, Y.
    et al.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Jin, Y.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Li, J.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Z.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway .
    Effects of thermal pretreatment on the biomethane yield and hydrolysis rate of kitchen waste2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 172, p. 47-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, batch tests were performed to evaluate the effects of different thermal pretreatment temperatures (55-160 °C) and durations (15-120 min) on the anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste (KW). Two commonly used approaches, namely the modified Gompertz model and the approach developed by Koch and Drewes, were applied to assess the effects of the different pretreatment parameters on the biomethane yield, lag time and hydrolysis rate constant via data fitting. The subsequent anaerobic digestion of KW pretreated at 55-120 °C presented greater efficiency, and longer treatment durations resulted in increased methane production and higher hydrolysis rate constants. These findings were obtained due to the lower nutrient loss observed in KW treated at lower temperature treatments compared with that found with higher temperature treatments. In general, the effects of thermal pretreatment on the lag phase and hydrolysis rate differed depending on the treatment parameters leading to the variations in the KW compositions. The soundness of the two model results was evaluated, and higher statistical indicators (R2) were found with the modified Gompertz model than with the approach developed by Koch and Drewes. 

  • 284.
    Li, Yangyang
    et al.
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Environm, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.;Tsinghua Univ, Minist Educ China, Key Lab Solid Waste Management & Environm Safety, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Jin, Yiying
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Environm, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.;Tsinghua Univ, Minist Educ China, Key Lab Solid Waste Management & Environm Safety, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Borrion, Aiduan
    UCL, Dept Civil Environ & Geomat Eng, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Yu, Zhixin
    Univ Stavanger, Dept Petr Engn, N-4036 Stavanger, Norway..
    Li, Jinhui
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Environm, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.;Tsinghua Univ, Minist Educ China, Key Lab Solid Waste Management & Environm Safety, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Kinetic studies on organic degradation and its impacts on improving methane production during anaerobic digestion of food waste (vol 213, pg 135, 2018)2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 229, p. 1284-1284Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 285.
    Li, Yangyang
    et al.
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Environm, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Yiying
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Environm, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.
    Li, Jinhui
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Environm, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Zhixin
    Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Effects of pungency degree on mesophilic anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 181, p. 171-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the influence of pungency degrees (PDs) on mesophilic anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste (KW). Batch tests were performed to evaluate the methane potential and production rate and the effect of PDs on organics degradation efficiency (in terms of volatile solids, protein and ether extract) at mesophilic temperature. Koch and Drewes model and modified Gompertz model were applied to assess the effects of PDs on the hydrolysis rate constant, biomethane yield rate and lag time. The results revealed that with the increasing contributions of PDs, the methane yield, organics degradation efficiency and hydrolysis rate of KW decreased while the pH values and concentrations of total ammonia nitrogen and free ammonia nitrogen were increased. Additionally, PDs lower than PD3 presented better digestion performance, and according to results of organics degradation and kinetics study, it could be suggested that appropriate range of PD in KW beneficial for AD is PD5-PD4.

  • 286.
    Li, Yangyang
    et al.
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Environm, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Jin, Yiying
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Environm, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Li, Jinhui
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Environm, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Zhixin
    Univ Stavanger, Dept Petr Engn, N-4036 Stavanger, Norway..
    Effects of thermal pretreatment on the biomethane yield and hydrolysis rate of kitchen waste (vol 172, pg 45, 2016)2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 229, p. 1285-1285Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Lidberg, T.
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Technol & Business Studies, SE-79188 Falun, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Myhren, J. A.
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Technol & Business Studies, SE-79188 Falun, Sweden..
    Olofsson, T.
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Technol & Business Studies, SE-79188 Falun, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Dept Appl Phys & Elect, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Odlund, L.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The refurbishment of existing buildings is often considered a way to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions in the building stock. This study analyses the primary energy and CO2 impact of refurbishing a multi-family house with different refurbishment packages, given various district heating systems. Four models of typical district heating systems were defined to represent the Swedish district heating sector. The refurbishment packages were chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency and indoor climate of a multi-family house. The study was made from a system perspective, including the valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in primary energy use for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of district heating system. While the packages with heat pumps had the lowest final energy use per m(2) of floor area, air heat recovery proved to reduce primary energy use and emissions of CO2-equivalents more, independent of the type of district heating system, as it leads to a smaller increase in electricity use.

  • 288.
    Lidberg, T.
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Myhren, J. A.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Olofsson, T.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden; Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The refurbishment of existing buildings is often considered a way to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions in the building stock. This study analyses the primary energy and CO2 impact of refurbishing a multi-family house with different refurbishment packages, given various district heating systems. Four models of typical district heating systems were defined to represent the Swedish district heating sector. The refurbishment packages were chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency and indoor climate of a multi-family house. The study was made from a system perspective, including the valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in primary energy use for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of district heating system. While the packages with heat pumps had the lowest final energy use per m(2) of floor area, air heat recovery proved to reduce primary energy use and emissions of CO2-equivalents more, independent of the type of district heating system, as it leads to a smaller increase in electricity use. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 289.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction. Umeå universitet.
    Ödlund, L
    Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, no SI, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The refurbishment of existing buildings is often considered a way to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions in the building stock. This study analyses the primary energy and CO2 impact of refurbishing a multi-family house with different refurbishment packages, given various district heating systems. Four models of typical district heating systems were defined to represent the Swedish district heating sector. The refurbishment packages were chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency and indoor climate of a multi-family house. The study was made from a system perspective, including the valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in primary energy use for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of district heating system. While the packages with heat pumps had the lowest final energy use per m2 of floor area, air heat recovery proved to reduce primary energy use and emissions of CO2-equivalents more, independent of the type of district heating system, as it leads to a smaller increase in electricity use.

  • 290.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Högskolan Dalarna; KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Högskolan Dalarna; Umeå universitet.
    Ödlund, L.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The refurbishment of existing buildings is often considered a way to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions in the building stock. This study analyses the primary energy and CO2 impact of refurbishing a multi-family house with different refurbishment packages, given various district heating systems. Four models of typical district heating systems were defined to represent the Swedish district heating sector. The refurbishment packages were chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency and indoor climate of a multi-family house. The study was made from a system perspective, including the valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in primary energy use for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of district heating system. While the packages with heat pumps had the lowest final energy use per m2 of floor area, air heat recovery proved to reduce primary energy use and emissions of CO2-equivalents more, independent of the type of district heating system, as it leads to a smaller increase in electricity use.

  • 291. Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Markus
    Myhren, Jon Are
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 292. Lijing, Zhu
    et al.
    Qi, Zhang
    Huihui, Lu
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Li
    Benjamin, McLellan
    Xunzhang, Pan
    Study on crowdfunding’s promoting effect on the expansion of electric vehicle charging piles based on game theory analysis2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 196, p. 238-248Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 293.
    Lin, H.
    et al.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan,China.
    Liu, Y.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan,China.
    Sun, Q.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan,China.
    Xiong, R.
    Department of Vehicle Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wennersten, R.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan,China.
    The impact of electric vehicle penetration and charging patterns on the management of energy hub: A multi-agent system simulation2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 230, p. 189-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a multi-agent system (MAS) was developed to simulate the operation of an energy hub (EH) with different penetration rates (PRs) and various charging patterns of electric vehicle (EV). Three charging patterns, namely uncontrolled charging pattern (UCP), rapid charging pattern (RCP) and smart charging pattern (SCP), together with vehicle to grid (V2G), were simulated in the MAS. The EV penetration rates (EV-PRs), from 10% to 90% with a step of 20%, are considered in this study. Under the UCP, the peak load increases by 3.4–17.1% compared to the case without EVs, which is the reference case in this study. A main part of the increased electricity demand can be supplied by the gas turbine (GT) when the PR is lower, i.e. 71.7% under 10% PR and 37.4% under 50% PR. Under the SCP, the charging load of EVs is shifted to the valley period and thus the energy dispatch of the EH at 07:00–23:00 remain the same as that in the reference case. When V2G is considered, the electricity demand from the grid becomes the largest in all of the cases, e.g. the demand with 50% PR doubles the electricity demand in the reference case. However, the GT output decreases by 2.9–15.7% at 07:00–23:00 due to the effect of V2G. The variations in the EH's operation further raise the changes in energy cost, i.e. the electricity and cooling prices are lowered by 18.3% and 33.8% due to the availability of V2G and the heating and cooling prices increase by 3.5% and 4.3% under the UCP with the PR of 50%. Regarding the V2G capacity, near 39% of the EVs’ battery capacity can be discharged via V2G. In addition, the paper also produced a V2G potential line, which is an effective tool to provide the maximum potential of the EVs for peak shaving at any specific time.

  • 294.
    Lin, Leteng
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Investigation of the intrinsic CO2 gasification kinetics of biomass char at medium to high temperatures2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 109, no SI, p. 220-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In total eight char samples from pelletized wood, miscanthus, and straw were prepared under various pyrolysis conditions. The CO2 gasification kinetics for each sample was established in the temperature range from 800 °C to 1300 °C by the combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a novel aerosol-based method. The aerosol-based method was used for the high temperature range between 1100 °C and 1300 °C, by gasifying suspended char particles (0.5–10 μm) in an oxidizing carrier gas. A tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) was used to measure the change of mass concentrations of particles in the carrier gas, before and after gasification. The results showed that the aerosol-based method could be used to investigate the intrinsic gasification kinetics of biomass char, at least up to 1300 °C. All char samples showed similar reactivity in the low temperature range. However, above 1000 °C there were significant differences in reactivity, and at 1300 °C the conversion of the wood was in the order of 10 times faster than that of straw. The general char reactivity order in this study was wood > miscanthus > straw.

  • 295.
    Lindfeldt, Erik G.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Saxe, Maria
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Magnusson, Mimmi
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Mohseni, Farzad
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Strategies for a road transport system based on renewable resources: The case of an import-independent Sweden in 20252010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 6, p. 1836-1845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When discussing how society can decrease greenhouse gas emissions, the transport sector is often seen as posing one of the most difficult problems. In addition, the transport sector faces problems related to security of supply. The aim of this paper is to present possible strategies for a road transport system based on renewable energy sources and to illustrate how such a system could be designed to avoid dependency on imports, using Sweden as an example. The demand-side strategies considered include measures for decreasing the demand for transport, as well as various technical and non-technical means of improving vehicle fuel economy. On the supply side, biofuels and synthetic fuels produced from renewable electricity are discussed. Calculations are performed to ascertain the possible impact of these measures on the future Swedish road transport sector. The results underline the importance of powerful demand-side measures and show that although biofuels can certainly contribute significantly to an import-independent road transport sector, they are far from enough even in a biomass-rich country like Sweden. Instead, according to this study, fuels based on renewable electricity will have to cover more than half of the road transport sector's energy demand.

  • 296.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wind energy and green economy in Europe: Measuring policy-induced innovation using patent data2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 179, p. 1351-1359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The green economy policy discourse has devoted a lot of attention to the design of public policy addressing low-carbon technologies. In this paper we examine the impacts of public R&D support and feed-in tariff schemes on innovation in the wind energy sector. The analysis is conducted using patent application data for four western European countries over the period 1977–2009. Different model specifications are tested, and the analysis highlights important policy interaction effects. The results indicate that both public R&D support and feed-in tariffs have positively affected patent application counts in the wind power sector. The (marginal) impact on patent applications of increases in feed-tariffs has also become more profound as the wind power technology has matured. There is also some evidence of policy interaction effects in that the impact of public R&D support to wind power is greater at the margin if it is accompanied by the use of feed-in tariff schemes. These results support the notion that technological innovation requires both R&D and learning-by-doing, and for this reason public R&D programs should typically not be designed in isolation from practical applications. The paper ends by outlining some important avenues for future research.

  • 297.
    Lindmark, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Leksell, Niklas
    Växtkraft.
    Schnürer, Anna
    SLU.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Effects of mechanical pre-treatment on the biogas yield from ley crop silage2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, p. 498-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on substrates for biogas production have shown that different types of pre-treatments make the material more accessible for microbial degradation by breaking down the complex structure of the organic material, thereby increasing their potential for gas production. In this paper, two different mechanical pre-treatment apparatus, i.e. a Grubben deflaker (Gd) and a Krima disperser (Kd), were tested in a full scale setup to evaluate their effects on ley crop silage. The treatments were investigated with regard to their effects on particle size, methane potential, capacity and energy balance. The results after 115 days of incubation in a batch assay show that methane production increased by 59% and 43% respectively after grinding with Gd and Kd. In both treatments, 90% of the ley crop was ground to particles of less than 2 mm and more than 50% of the sample was reduced to particles smaller than 0.125 mm. The energy balance was positive for Gd and around the break-even point for Kd. Analysis of the setup showed that Kd had almost twice the capacity of the Gd. If installed in the co-digestion biogas plant Vaxtkraft in Vasteras, Sweden, the Gd and Kd could increase annual biogas yields by 790 MW h and 585 MW h respectively. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 298.
    Lingfors, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bright, Jamie M
    Australian National University.
    Engerer, Nicholas A
    Australian National University.
    Ahlberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Killinger, Sven
    Australian National University.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Comparing the capability of low- and high-resolution LiDAR data with application to solar resource assessment, roof type classification and shading analysis2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 205, p. 1216-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data have recently gained popularity for use in solar resource assessment and solar photovoltaics (PV) suitability studies in the built environment due to robustness at identifying building orientation, roof tilt and shading. There is a disparity in the geographic coverage of low- and high-resolution LiDAR data (LL and LH, respectively) between rural and urban locations, as the cost of the latter is often not justified for rural areas where high PV penetrations often pose the greatest impact on the electricity distribution network. There is a need for a comparison of the different resolutions to assess capability of LL. In this study, we evaluated and improved upon a previously reported methodology that derives roof types from a LiDAR-derived, low-resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM) with a co-classing routine. Key improvements to the methodology include: co-classing routine adapted for raw LiDAR data, applicability to differing building type distribution in study area, building height and symmetry considerations, a vector-based shading analysis of building surfaces and the addition of solar resource assessment capability.

    Based on the performance of different LiDAR resolutions within the developed model, a comparison between LL (0.5-1 pts/m(2)) and LH (6-8 pts/m(2)) LiDAR data was applied; LH can confidently be used to evaluate the applicability of LL, due to its significantly higher point density and therefore accuracy. We find that the co-classing methodology works satisfactory for LL for all types of building distributions. Roof-type identification errors from incorrect co-classing were rare (< 1%) with LL. Co-classing buildings using LL improves accuracy of roof-type identification in areas with homogeneous distribution of buildings, here from 78% to 86% in accuracy. Contrastingly, co-classing accuracy using LH is marginally reduced for all building distributions from 94.8% to 94.4%. We adapt the Hay and Davies solar transposition model to include shading. The shading analysis demonstrates similarity of results between LL and LH. We find that the proposed methodology can confidently be used for solar resource assessments on buildings when only LiDAR data of low-resolution (< 1 pts/m(2)) is available.

  • 299. Link, Siim
    et al.
    Arvelakis, Stelios
    Paist, Aadu
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Atmospheric fluidized bed gasification of untreated and leached olive residue, and co-gasification of olive residue, reed, pine pellets and Douglas fir wood chips2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 94, p. 89-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fluidized bed gasification of untreated and pre-treated olive residue and pre-treated olive residue mixed with reed, pine pellets and Douglas fir wood chips is studied. Leaching is used as a pre-treatment process targeted on the elimination of alkali metals such as K and Na as well as chlorine to reduce/eliminate the ash-related problems during gasification. The leaching pre-treatment process could affect the producer gas composition toward the lower or higher yield of CO and H-2 of the producer gas depending on the moisture content of parent fuels. The lower total tar yield of the producer gas in the case of leached olive residue was observed compared to untreated olive residue. At the same time, there are present wider varieties of different tar components in the producer gas of the leached olive residue compared to the untreated one. The distinctions in tar composition and content between the leached and untreated olive residue are attributed to the alkali and alkali earth metal and chorine chemistry affected by leaching pre-treatment. The addition of woody fuels and reed at elevated proportions resulted in the lower LHV value compared to the leached olive residue. The tar content of the producer gas is seen to increase adding reed and woody fuels to the leached olive residue, i.e. the producer gas contained additional variety of tar components whereas phenol becomes one of the key components determining the total tar content, apart from benzene, toluene and naphthalene. This is seen to be due to the higher cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin as well as higher chlorine content of the reed and woody fuels compared to the leached olive residue. The olive residue is seen to be better fuel for gasification compared with woody fuels and reed. Even more, we believe that the leached olive residue is better compared to all other tested fuel/mixtures in this study. It is seen that the proportions of different fuels in the mixture play role in the composition of the producer gas.

  • 300.
    Liu, J.
    et al.
    South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, China.
    Mao, G.
    South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, China.
    Hoekstra, A.Y.
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Wang, D.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Wang, J.
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China.
    Zheng, C.
    South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, China.
    van Vliet, M.T.H
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Wu, M.
    Argonne National Laboratory, United States.
    Ruddell, B.
    Northern Arizona University, US.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Managing the energy-water-food nexus for sustainable development2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 210, p. 377-381Article in journal (Refereed)
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