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  • 2451.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Workplace Violence (WPV)– the Emergence and Juridification of a Social Problem2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since perceptions and definitions of violence are context-dependant; the amount of attention society directs at a given social problem affects both how it is perceived and the extent to which it becomes visible in official statistics. But the way in which a problem is defined is also of significance in relation to the measures that are proposed as a means of coming to terms with it.

    Aims: The objective is to analyse how the development of WPV as a social problem might be understood.

    Methods: On the basis of a contextual constructivist approach, the extent of and trends in complex social problems are viewed as being linked to both actual changes in underlying conditions (the objective explanation) and shifts in perceptions of what the problem consists in and how it should be dealt with (the constructionist explanation). The study of these two explanations requires different types of data. The data employed in this project are drawn from nationally representative victim surveys, articles published in trade journals and occupational injury reports in Sweden.

    Results: Defining violence as a societal problem produces a situation where the problem must be resolved by means of legal strategies, which leads to the concealment of the underlying causes. Knowledge appears to exist at workplaces themselves, but these are not given the resources they need to resolve the problem. What we are failing to address are the underlying factors that serve to structure the framework in which these interactions take place.

    Conclusion: Although more attention is now being focused on WPV, it appears to be a “top-down” perspective that is determining which measures should be introduced. Defining violence as a societal problem produces a situation where the problem must be resolved by means of legal strategies, which leads to the concealment of the underlying causes of the problem.

    Goals: Although the objective of crime prevention today has considerable legitimacy and is furnished with relatively substantial resources, we are at risk of completely failing to prevent violence as a result of having an overly simplistic understanding of the problem. To the extent that we lack both an analysis of the negative effects of social change on the prevalence of WPV and any interest in using measures other than legal strategies focused on individuals, we risk finding ourselves in a situation where measures to combat WPV are restricted to a focus on personal interactions between staff and clients. 

     

  • 2452.
    Wikström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mobilt Testande: -en jämförelse av kognitiva testpoäng från mobil respektive icke-mobil enhet2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökad användning av mobila enheter, samt organisationers önskan att effektivt testa och engagera arbetssökande driver utvecklingen av mobilanpassade test framåt. Forskning kring mobila enheters inverkan på testresultat är tvetydig med positiva och negativa utfall. Mobila enheter verkar ha negativ inverkan på testpoäng från kognitiva test. En effekt som kan bero på de begränsningar (mindre skärm, pekskärm) som mobila enheter har. Mått på kognitiva förmågor används ofta vid urval, om olika enheter ger upphov till differens i testpoäng behöver detta utredas. I en experimentell studie (N=51) undersöktes huruvida mobila enheter har negativ inverkan på resultat från kognitiva test. I upprepade mätningar genomförde deltagarna kognitiva test på mobil och icke-mobil enhet. Studien visar att mobila enheter inte har en negativ påverkan på testresultatet. Diskussionen behandlar möjliga förklaringar till resultat utifrån urval och testdesign, tar upp begränsningar i studien samt siar om MT framtid.

  • 2453.
    Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Birmingham.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    University of Birmingham.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    University of Birmingham.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ramsey, Richard
    Université Catholique de Louvain.
    Hall, Craig
    University of Western Ontario.
    Further Validation and Development of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire2012In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 621-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research validated and extended the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997). Study 1 (N = 400) examined the MIQ-R’s factor structure via multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis. The questionnaire was then modified in Study 2 (N = 370) to separately assess the ease of imaging external visual imagery and internal visual imagery, as well as kinesthetic imagery (termed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3; MIQ-3). Both Studies 1 and 2 found that a correlated-traits correlated-uniqueness model provided the best fit to the data, while displaying gender invariance and no significant differences in latent mean scores across gender. Study 3 ( N = 97) demonstrated the MIQ-3’s predictive validity revealing the relationships between imagery ability and observational learning use. Findings highlight the method effects that occur by assessing each type of imagery ability using the same four movements  and demonstrate that better imagers report greater use of observational learning.

  • 2454. Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    Cumming, Jennifer
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Sport Psychology research group.
    Ramsey, Richard
    Hall, Craig
    Validation of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire – 3.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2455.
    Willstrand, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Selander, Helena
    Mobilitetscenter, Göteborg.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Broberg, Thomas
    Volvo Cars.
    On road driving assessment in Sweden: results from the SafeMove project2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present on-road study is part of a major research project, Safe Mobility for Older Drivers – SAFE MOVE, carried out between Sweden and France in collaboration. 42 participants were recruited to perform an on-road driving. The aim was to identify the cognitive and driving ability of the drivers from the cohort and to match it with their own assessment of ability. The project also aimed to identify difficulties encountered in traffic, both the type of behaviour and in which traffic scenarios they encountered the difficulties. The participants drove for 45 minutes in many different traffic environments. Two more people were present in the vehicle; a driving instructor who was responsible for safety (dual controls) and gave directions to follow throughout the route and an occupational therapist who observed and assessed the driving by means of the B On-road protocol. They also underwent a cognitive screening. Results showed that the behaviour which were found challenging for the drivers were related to speed adaptation, driving too fast for the situation, and lack of visual attention to other road users at intersections. All drivers had a visual acuity level required for holding a driving license in Sweden.

  • 2456.
    Wimmermark, Agneta
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Drivkrafter och en psykoterapeutisk process på vägen att bli psykoterapeut2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: What forces, apparent and hidden drive the future psychotherapist to take the first steps on the path to become a therapist and what forces drive hir to continue?. The aim of the study is to explore these impelling/motivating forces and the relevance of psychological process on that path. 

    Questions: How does the therapist describe these forces on hir way to become a therapist?Do they form a pattern to analyse? What is the relevance of a psychotherapeutic process on that path?

    Method: The study is hermeneutic, phenomenological in a narrative perspective, based on semi structured interviews in depth with open questions. The resulting material was organized in themes.  

    Results: While working with the study an emerging pattern has become clearer: the impelling forces, interlaced with the existential struggle between ratio, rational reasoning and emotional truth can be interpreted as a psychotherapeutic process.  

    Discussion: The impelling forces in the study give together a picture of life’s fundamental struggle between ratio, intellectual reasoning and emotional truth. These forces also give the picture of the therapeutic process as a path and hub in the therapists training and life, an individual, personal labour of integrating theory, experience and method. The use of poetic citations, little arrows in the theoretical, logical texts in the study illustrate the emotional side of the human being interlaced with the logical and rational. This process is a task of mending, reconciliation and healing. It means selfexamination, a personal integration of theory, experience and personality leading to a sense of identity. The psychotherapeutic process with personal therapy and counselling leads on to a further search for the origins of the compelling forces, their foundations and roots. A path with a goal but no end.

  • 2457.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Luleå University of Technology, Sweden .
    An exchange approach on firm cooperative orientation and outcomes of strategic multilateral network participants2008In: Group & Organization Management, ISSN 1059-6011, E-ISSN 1552-3993, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 303-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on exchange theory, this study develops and tests a model that explores the associations among strategic multilateral network participants' cooperative orientations (contributions to and benefits from network partners) and network connectedness, entrepreneurial behavior, and firm performance. Empirical analyses of 54 firms in two strategic multilateral networks show that the two firm orientations of benefiting from and contributing to the network are positively related to each other. Results substantiate the expected association between benefiting orientations and firm performance and confirm the nonsignificant relationship between contributing orientations and firm performance. The indirect performance path, where cooperative orientations were proposed to influence performance via network connectedness and entrepreneurial behavior, was not supported. Implications and suggestions for future research on firm cooperative orientations are presented.

  • 2458.
    Wirén, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ACTUA!: Sudden gains i internetbehandling av depression2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity and behavioral activation has been shown in previous research to be effective in the treatment of depressive disorders. The purpose of ACTUA was to evaluate an Internet-based self-help program with therapist support via e-mail. A total of 71 individuals with major depressive disorder were randomized into four treatment groups, two of which contained physical activity (FA), two others comprised of behavioral activation (BA) and one waiting list. The treatment program consisted of eight modules and they were distributed to participants during a 12 week treatment period. Sudden gains, which is a phenomenon that is generally considered to influence the final outcome of treatment for an individual in a positive way was detected in 47 (66%) participants treatment process. A correlation between the occurrence of sudden gains and overall improvement during treatment could not be demonstrated in this study and there was no association between the occurrence of sudden gains and type of treatment. 

  • 2459.
    Wiss, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decis Res, Honolulu, HI USA; Univ Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 USA.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Res, Honolulu, HI USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The influence of identifiability and singularity in moral decision making2015In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 492-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased willingness to help identified individuals rather than non-identified, and the effect of identifiability is mainly present when a single individual rather than a group is presented. However, identifiability and singularity effects have thus far not been manipulated orthogonally. The present research uses a joint evaluation approach to examine the relative contribution of identifiability and singularity in moral decision-making reflecting conflicting values between deontology and consequentialism. As in trolley dilemmas subjects could either choose to stay with the default option, i.e., giving a potentially life-saving vaccine to a single child, or to actively choose to deny the single child the vaccine in favor of five other children. Identifiability of the single child and the group of children was varied between-subjects in a 2x2 factorial design. In total 1,232 subjects from Sweden and the United States participated in three separate experiments. Across all treatments, in all three experiments, 32.6% of the subjects chose to stay with the deontological default option instead of actively choosing to maximize benefits. Results show that identifiability does not always have a positive effect on decisions in allocation dilemmas. For single targets, identifiability had a negative or no effect in two out of three experiments, while for the group of targets identifiability had a more stable positive effect on subjects’ willingness to allocate vaccines. When the effect of identifiability was negative, process data showed that this effect was mediated by emotional reactance. Hence, the results show that the influence of identifiability is more complex than it has been previously portrayed in the literature on charitable giving. 

  • 2460.
    Wojciechowski, Bartosz Wojciech
    et al.
    Univ Silesia, Inst Psychol, Katowice, Poland.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Lidén, Moa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    A true denial or a false confession?: Assessing veracity of suspects' statements using MASAM and SVA2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 6, article id e0198211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on statement analysis has mainly concerned accounts by witnesses and plaintiffs. In our studies we examined true and false statements as told by offenders. It was hypothesized that SVA and MASAM techniques would enhance the ability to discriminate between true and false offenders' statements. Truthful and deceptive statements (confessions and denials) were collected from Swedish and Polish criminal case files. In Experiment 1, Swedish law students (N = 39) were asked to assess the veracity of statements either after training in and usage of MASAM or without any training and using their own judgements. In Experiment 2, Polish psychology students (N = 34) assessed veracity after training in and usage of either MASAM or SVA or without prior training using their own judgements. The veracity assessments of participants who used MASAM and SVA were significantly more correct than the assessments of participants that used their own judgements. Results show, that trained coders are much better at distinguishing between truths and lies than lay evaluators. There were significant difference between total scores of truthful and false statements for both total SVA and MASAM and it can be concluded that both veracity assessment techniques are useful in assessing veracity. It was also found, that the content criteria most strongly associated with correct assessments were: logical structure, contextual embedding, self depreciation, volume of statement, contextual setting and descriptions of relations. The results are discussed in relation to statement analysis of offenders' accounts.

  • 2461.
    Wu, Yuhao
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    The Relationship between Smartphone Addiction and Interaction Anxiousness among College Students in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of smartphones packed with applications has brought great convenience to, and improved the quality of, people’s daily lives, but it has also changed people’s behavior. People spend more and more time on mobile phones every day, leaving them distracted, affecting their sleep quality, and thereby giving rise to the concept of smartphone addiction. As a major group of smartphone users, college students have also experienced situations in which the use of mobile phones has decreased their learning efficiency as they try to escape from academic pressure.

    This article presents quantitative research on college students in Halmstad and aims to explore the connection between smartphone addiction and interaction anxiousness. Data was collected from a sample of 123 smartphone-using college students using an incidental sampling method; questionnaires provided a scale to rate smartphone addiction and interaction anxiousness. Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) 23 was used to analyse descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, independent-sample t-test, and regression and so on. 

    According to the results, smartphone addiction is not common among college students. The overall status of college students’ interaction anxiousness is close to a moderate level. Levels of interaction anxiousness varied significantly depending upon gender, subject and grade. There is a significant positive correlation between smartphone addiction and interaction anxiousness. Interaction anxiousness has a certain predictive effect on smartphone addiction.

  • 2462.
    Wurm, Matilda
    et al.
    Orebro Univ, CHAMP, Orebro, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Ester Klein
    Orebro Univ, CHAMP, Orebro, Sweden.
    Lorenz, Caroline
    Orebro Univ, CHAMP, Orebro, Sweden.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Orebro Univ, CHAMP, Orebro, Sweden.
    Buhrman, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hollandare, Fredrik
    Orebro Univ, Univ Hlth Care Res Ctr, Fac Med & Hlth, Orebro, Sweden.
    Boersma, Katja
    Orebro Univ, CHAMP, Orebro, Sweden.
    Internet delivered transdiagnostic treatment with telephone support for pain patients with emotional comorbidity: a replicated single case study2017In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 10, p. 54-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In pain patients, comorbid emotional problems have been linked to negative outcomes, including suboptimal treatment gains. Developing parsimonious and accessible treatment options is therefore important. The overarching aim of this study was to test an internet delivered therapist guided transdiagnostic treatment with telephone support. An adapted version of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatments of Emotional Disorders was used as an intervention for pain patients with residual pain problems and comorbid emotional problems after having received a multimodal pain rehabilitation. The study used a replicated AB single case experimental design (N = 5; 3 females). Outcome measures were depressive and general anxiety symptoms, pain intensity, pain coping problems, and diagnostic status. Feasibility measures (completion and compliance) and patient satisfaction were also assessed. Scores on Nonoverlap of All Pairs (NAP) indicate a decrease of anxiety for three participants and a decrease of depression for four participants. Decreases were small and did not always reach statistical significance. Also, Tau-U scores could only confirm a reliable trend for one participant. Two out of four patients who were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders before treatment did no longer fulfill diagnostic criteria posttreatment. No improvements could be seen on pain problems. The treatment was feasible and patient satisfaction was high. Hence, while an internet delivered transdiagnostic treatment with telephone support may be a feasible and accepted secondary intervention for pain patients with comorbid emotional problems, the effects are unclear. The gap between high patient satisfaction and small changes in symptomatology should be explored further.

  • 2463.
    Wylleman, Paul
    et al.
    Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Sport psychology and the Olympic Games: An introduction in the special issue2012In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 658-659Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2464.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Evoking Comprehensive Mental Models of Anonymous Credentials2012In: Proceedings of the 2011 IFIP WG 11.4 international conference on Open Problems in Network Security / [ed] Camenisch J., Kesdogan, D., Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 7039, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anonymous credentials are a fundamental technology for preserving end users' privacy by enforcing data minimization for online applications. However, the design of user-friendly interfaces that convey their privacy benefits to users is still a major challenge. Users are still unfamiliar with the new and rather complex concept of anonymous credentials, since no obvious real-world analogies exists that can help them create the correct mental models. In this paper we explore different ways in which suitable mental models of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials can be evoked on end users. To achieve this, we investigate three different approaches in the context of an e-shopping scenario: a card-based approach, an attribute-based approach and an adapted card-based approach. Results show that the adapted card-based approach is a good approach towards evoking the right mental models for anonymous credential applications. However, better design paradigms are still needed to make users understand that attributes can be used to satisfy conditions without revealing the value of the attributes themselves.

  • 2465.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Insights in consumer behavior: Eye-tracking studies at the Service Research Center2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2466.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Peripheral vision and the consumer choice process2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2467.
    Yacoub, Jocelyne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Odor detection sensitivity and response bias in relation to aspects of health2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance (CI) means that the affected individual experience symptoms from the smell of the weak concentrations of conventional chemicals in the environment that most people are not bothered by. This study aimed to examine whether response bias (beta) and sensitivity index (d´) for odor detection correlate with self-rated health, CI, stress and distress. The questionnaires that were used to answer the question were self-rated health (SRH), CI (assessed with the Chemical Sensitivity Scale), stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and distress (Symptom Check List-90). A group of 23 adult individuals between the ages of 18 to 55 years expected to vary in degree of CI were exposed to various concentration of n-butanol for a signal detection test for about 2 hours. The data processing was done by correlational analyses. The results showed no statistically significant correlations between beta and the variables SRH, CI, stress and distress, but tendencies of significant correlations between d´ and the variables SRH, CI and stress, such that individuals who were high in CI, stress and who generally felt poorly had a lower odor sensitivity (d´). These tendencies encourage continued study of the associations with larger sample size.    

  • 2468.
    Yang, Lei
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    How to make guests behave more environmentally friendly in hotel rooms?: The exploration of motivation factors from guests' perspective 2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hotel industry, as the largest sub-sector of tourism often generates huge negative environmental impacts, including waste of freshwater, consumption of energy and carbon dioxide emissions. It is clear that the guests’ choices and actions in hotel rooms shape the environmental sustainability of the hotel industry. Previous studies offer concrete theoretical foundations for promoting hotel guests’ environmental behavior, either by specifying environmental performances or examining various factors that influence guests’ environmental behaviors. However, the research results have somewhat overlooked the disconnection between guests’ attitudes and behaviors.

    Based on this, this study focuses on exploring guests’ opinions about how different factors can motivate them to behave environmentally friendly in hotel rooms. Aligning with ongoing discussion within Tourism Research and the so called Environmental Responsible Behavior model (ERB) within Environmental Education, the main factors are categorized as internal and external factors. While internal factors include environmental knowledge, environmental attitudes, individual responsibility, external factors consist of governmental regulation, marketing strategies and social norms. Empirical material of the study was collected through ten qualitative structured interviews among hotel guests.

    The analysis of this study show how majority of the interviewees emphasized the importance of internal factors in their own environmentally friendly behaviors in hotel rooms. This indicated that participants considered that their consciousness played a direct and effective role in their environmental behaviors. At the same time, the thesis suggests that different elements act different roles for how factors can effectively motivate guests’ environmental behaviors in hotel rooms, the elements are benchmark (environmental knowledge), psychological distance (environmental attitudes), personal good feeling and moral obligation (individual responsibility), indirect influences and mandatory regulation (governmental regulation), personal interests (marketing strategies), instructional function (social norms).

    The study suggests that the knowledge about guests’ opinions can be further used, for instance, by authorities and the supply side of hotels. Then, refining motivational strategies can contribute to environmental sustainability in hotel rooms. 

  • 2469.
    Yarandpour, Golli
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Unga vuxnas upplevelse av livet med pappa efter militärt utlandsuppdrag2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: An overseas service in the defense forces is no single concern of the defense staff, but affects the entire family. Research shows that when parents leave the children for military service abroad, the child's mood and ability to cope with a period of separation greatly depending on how the child’s life is in general. Based on the understanding and interpretation of previous research, this study will see into how it’s manifested for these children to continue to live a life with their father after military foreign missions. Is it possible for the relationship to repair completely, re-attach and return to the roles that the family system once had, or is there more complications?

    Question: How is life portrayed for young adults to live with their father after his military missions abroad?

    Method used in this research for carrying out semi-structured interviews are qualitative approach, where six respondents, three men two women participated. The collected data were analyzed with thematic analysis with inductive approach. What is described is the phenomenon; respondents' thoughts, experiences and feelings about their own subjective experience and its meaning in their life.

    The results are linked to the three main themes: separation from the parent, the impact of military missions abroad to the system and re-attachment with the father. There are also eight sub-themes that collectively describe the respondents' subjective experience. Respondents perceive a lack of openness in the dialogue and communication between their father and themselves regarding the subject of the father's international assignment as military. The separation has touched the respondents in varied way, but the general opinion is that respondents also believe that the father's decision to go on military assignments abroad affected the entire family system, not least, the role changes and frictions that arise as a consequence. 

    Discussion: The relational problems are consequences of previous attachment failures. Repairing the communication to their father enables re-attachment, which can improve the relational difficulties between the father and the young adult. When communication in adulthood increased the respondents had the opportunity to express the emotions associated with the separation that can act as a healing effect on the relationship and association with their father.

  • 2470.
    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona.
    Romeo, Marina
    Universitat de Barcelona.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Job crafting, employee well-being, and quality of care2018In: Western Journal of Nursing Research, ISSN 0193-9459, E-ISSN 1552-8456, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 52-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective is to study the effects of job crafting activities of elder care and nursing home employees on their perceived well-being and quality of care in two European countries, Spain and Sweden. The Job Crafting, the General Health, and the Quality of Care questionnaires were administered to 530 employees. Correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results confirm the effects of job crafting on quality of care (r = .291, p < .01; β = .261, p < .01; ΔR2 = .065, p < .01) and employees’ well-being (r = .201, p < .01; β = .171, p < .01; ΔR2 = .028, p < .01). A positive linear relationship was found between job crafting and well-being in Spain and Sweden and with quality of care in Spain. On the contrary, in Sweden, the relationship between job crafting and well-being was not linear. Job crafting contributes significantly to employees’ and residents’ well-being. Management should promote job crafting to co-create meaningful and productive work. Cultural effects are proposed to explain the differences found.

  • 2471. Zajenkoswski, M
    et al.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ledzinska, M
    Cognitive processes in Time perspective2015In: Time perspective Theory; Review, Research and Application: Essays in Honor of Philip G. Zimbardo / [ed] Stolarski, Maciej, Fieulaine, Nicolas, van Beek, Wessel, New York: New York: Springer , 2015, p. 243-255Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we explore the role of cognitive processes in time perspective. Extending previous findings, we present how individual differences in time orientation are related to intelligence, goal-directed behaviour, executive control and meta-cognition. First, we show that present fatalistic TP is negatively related to intelligence, and that future-oriented individuals tend to have higher general abilities. Further, we present the data, proving that risk taking is negatively correlated with the future positive scale. Another finding discussed here is that working memory development is a strong predictor of temporal orientation. Children who have efficient working memory updating functions in early school age exhibit higher tendency toward future positive when they are adolescents. Finally, our studies indicate, that time perspectives tend to correlate with meta-cognitive skills, knowledge and experiences, suggesting that the temporal orientation influences meta-cognition.

  • 2472. Zambianchi, M.G
    et al.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relevance of time perspective for attitudes toward technologies in old age2014In: II International Conference on Time Perspective, Warsaw, Poland, 29 th July,-1th August, Warsawa, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2473.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping. RÖ.
    The DSM-5 diagnosis of nonsuicidal self-injury disorder: A review of the empirical literature2015In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 9, no 31, p. 1-13Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the presentation of nonsuicidal self-injury disorder (NSSID) criteria in the fifth version of the Statistical and Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), empirical studies have emerged where the criteria have been operationalized on samples of children, adolescents and young adults. Since NSSID is a condition in need of further study, empirical data are crucial at this stage in order to gather information on the suggested criteria concerning prevalence rates, characteristics, clinical correlates and potential independence of the disorder. A review was conducted based on published peer-reviewed empirical studies of the DSM-5 NSSID criteria up to May 16, 2015. When the DSM-5 criteria were operationalized on both clinical and community samples, a sample of individuals was identified that had more general psychopathology and impairment than clinical controls as well as those with NSSI not meeting criteria for NSSID. Across all studies interpersonal difficulties or negative state preceding NSSI was highly endorsed by participants, while the distress or impairment criterion tended to have a lower endorsement. Results showed preliminary support for a distinct and independent NSSID diagnosis, but additional empirical data are needed with direct and structured assessment of the final DSM-5 criteria in order to reliably assess and validate a potential diagnosis of NSSID.

  • 2474.
    Zhou, Huaguo
    et al.
    Southern Illinois University.
    Wang, Lin
    Southern Illinois University.
    Neath, Andrew A
    Southern Illinois University.
    Fries, Ryan
    Southern Illinois University.
    Contributing factors regarding wrong-way crashes on Illinois freeways2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate contributing factors to wrong-way crashes on freeways based on information available in crash databases and reports, Haddon matrices, statistic tests, and simulation techniques were used to analyze fatal and injury crashes caused by wrong-way driving from 2004-2009 in Illinois. As a first step, a Haddon matrix was developed for each wrong-way crash in which different factors were identified for before, during, and after the crash. These factors include drivers’ age, drivers’ condition, crash causes, vehicle type, vehicle maneuvers, roadway conditions, weather, and wrong-way entry points. Next, ANOVA and Tukey tests were conducted and a ranking and grouping of the factors was obtained. Furthermore, due to a limitation of ANOVA testing caused by data non-normality, a simulation technique called the bootstrapping was employed. A ranking was then made based on the frequency of each factor as well as the chance of a factor being the leading contributing factor. The analysis results indicated that being alcohol impaired, darkness, and driver’s age are the top contributing factors to wrong-way crashes.

  • 2475.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hytter, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Leaders' negative emotions and leadership styles influencing subordinates' well-being2012In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 748-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions are an important aspect of organizational life. However emotional issues, particularly negative emotions, have traditionally been largely neglected in organizational life. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles, and leaders’negative emotions perceived by the subordinates. The aim is also to investigate the influence of leadership styles on the subordinates’ overall psychological health and well-being. The result challenges some of the earlier findings, suggesting that there is a need for a better understanding of how contextual factors might intervene in the relation between leaders’ negative emotions, leadership styles, and subordinates’ well-being.

  • 2476.
    Zitek, Martin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Elevers motivation till idrott och hälsa2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to examine the relationship between students’ motivation for physical education (PE) and:  i) habits regarding physical activity during leisure time; and ii) parents’ commitment towards PE. The study is based on the self-determination theory (SDT).

    Method: High school students (n = 147) answered a self-report questionnaire about physical activity habits and parent’s involvement. Data were analyzed by correlations, multiple regression analysis and MANOVA.

    Results: Subtile interrelations were found between students’ motivation and level of physical activity. Students who were physically active more frequently also tended to be more autonomous motivated for the subject compared with none-physically active. Subtile interrelations were also obtained between type of motivation and parental involvement.

    Conclusions: Autonomous motivation seems beneficial in relation to student’s level of physical activity and in relation to parental involvement. It is proposed that PE should promote psychological needs within SDT, to further autonomous motivation and healthy behaviors.

  • 2477.
    Zlocki, Jakob
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Johansson, Mattias
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Mindfulness och dess effekt på uppmärksamhets- och perceptionsförmåga bland tävlingsinriktade idrottsutövare: En experimentell pilotstudie.: 2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of one 45 minute mindfulness session on: (1) Sustained attention abilities, (2) executive attention abilities, and (3) perceptual abilities. An experimental study was carried out on athletes (n = 48) who all met the specific requirements for being able to participate in this study. The results showed no significant difference in all three variables between the experiment group and the control group. In conclusion, the results and implications are discussed in relation to previous research, supported by theoretical frames of references. 

  • 2478.
    Zwerenz, Rüdiger
    et al.
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Becker, Jan
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Frederick, Ronald J
    Center for Courageous Living, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Beutel, Manfred E
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Transdiagnostic, Psychodynamic Web-Based Self-Help Intervention Following Inpatient Psychotherapy: Results of a Feasibility Study and Randomized Controlled Trial.2017In: JMIR mental health, ISSN 2368-7959, Vol. 4, no 4, article id e41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Mental disorders have become a major health issue, and a substantial number of afflicted individuals do not get appropriate treatment. Web-based interventions are promising supplementary tools for improving health care for patients with mental disorders, as they can be delivered at low costs and used independently of time and location. Although psychodynamic treatments are used frequently in the face-to-face setting, there has been a paucity of studies on psychodynamic Web-based self-help interventions.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a transdiagnostic affect-focused psychodynamic Web-based self-help intervention designed to increase emotional competence of patients with mental disorders.

    METHODS: A total of 82 psychotherapy inpatients with mixed diagnoses were randomized into two groups. Following discharge, the intervention group (IG) got access to a guided version of the intervention for 10 weeks. After a waiting period of 10 weeks, the wait-list control group (WLCG) got access to an unguided version of the intervention. We reported the assessments at the beginning (T0) and at the end of the intervention, resp. the waiting period (T1). The primary outcome was satisfaction with the treatment at T1. Secondary outcome measures included emotional competence, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Statistical analyses were performed with descriptive statistics (primary outcome) and analysis of covariance; a repeated measurement analysis of variance was used for the secondary outcomes. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen d and data were analyzed as per protocol, as well as intention-to-treat (ITT).

    RESULTS: Patients were chronically ill, diagnosed with multiple diagnoses, most frequently with depression (84%, 58/69), anxiety (68%, 47/69), personality disorder (38%, 26/69), and depersonalization-derealization disorder (22%, 15/69). A majority of the patients (86%, 36/42) logged into the program, of which 86% (31/36) completed the first unit. Satisfaction with the units mastered was rated as good (52%, 16/31) and very good (26%, 9/31). However, there was a steady decline of participation over the course of the program; only 36% of the participants (13/36) participated throughout the trial completing at least 50% of the sessions. According to the ITT analysis, participants improved statistically significantly and with moderate effect sizes (Cohen d) compared with the WLCG regarding depression (d=0.60), quality of life (d=0.53), and emotional competence (d=0.49). Effects were considerably stronger for the completers with respect to depression (d=1.33), quality of life (d=0.83), emotional competence (d=0.68), and general anxiety (d=0.62).

    CONCLUSIONS: Although overall program satisfaction and benefit of the program were favorable with respect to the indicators of emotional disorders, the rate of completion was low. Our findings point to the need to target the intervention more specifically to the needs and capabilities of participants and to the context of the intervention.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02671929; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02671929 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ntWg1yWb).

  • 2479.
    Álvarez, Bernardo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relationship of self-reported reading habits and declarative memory2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the possibility that reading books might support declarative memory, and potentially contribute to the cognitive reserve and thereby minimize age-related decline in memory functions. It was a crosssectional study, where data were taken from 566 Betula Study participants, as well as the scores of declarative memory assessment tasks, and book reading reports. The tasks of episodic memory were sentence learning with and without encoding enactment –free and cued recall. The tasks of semantic memory were word fluency, initial letter A, M fivewords, B profession names, and SRB –vocabulary. Three-way analysis of variance was performed for hypothesis testing. The results showed that book reading might support declarative memory. There was a significant relationship between education and book reading. Was not found if book reading might minimize age-related decline. In conclusion, the study showed that book reading and years of education might support declarative memory.

  • 2480.
    Åberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Löfström, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av bildskapandets betydelse i en självhjälpsgrupp med fritt bildskapande och samtal: - En kvalitativ studie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Working with art therapy can be a way to enhance psychic health. However little is written about the experience of using art therapy in self-help groups. The present study intended to explore that. Respondents were five participants and the project leading art therapist with experiences from self-help groups containing free imaging and talk. Interviews were made and analysed through thematic analyses. Three themes emerged (Personal development, Imaging and Context), containing twelve categories (Agency/empowerment, Challenging yourself, Increased quality of life, Desire, Permissiveness/ unpretentiousness, Symbolic value of image, New tooles, Processing/ insights, Flow, Community with others, Culture in care and society and Importance of premises). The result indicates that the participants experienced an increase in health, self-efficacy and fellowship. Additional research is however needed to confirm possible connections between art therapy and increased health.

    Keywords: self-help groups, art therapy

  • 2481. Åhlén, Johan
    et al.
    Edberg, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Di Schiena, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergström, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive behavioural group therapy for emetophobia: an open study in a psychiatric setting2015In: Clinical Psychologist, ISSN 1328-4207, E-ISSN 1742-9552, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 96-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Emetophobia is a neglected area within clinical research. Only case studies have been performed examining treatment effectiveness. The present study aimed to examine the preliminary acceptability and effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group therapy developed specifically for the treatment of emetophobia.

    Method: The present study design was a one-group pretest, post-test, follow-up design with a double pretest. Twenty-three patients, in three treatment groups, participated in the study. Four assessment time points were conducted (1) five weeks prior to treatment, (2) before the first treatment session, (3) after the final session and (4) 3 months after the final session. Participants completed the emetophobia questionnaire, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Montgomery-angstrom sberg Depression Rating Scaleself assessment at all assessments.

    Results: After treatment, patients showed a significantly lower degree of emetophobic symptoms. About half of the patients were clinically significantly improved or recovered after treatment, and two thirds were improved or recovered at follow-up. Participation at sessions was high, and patients were satisfied with treatment.

    Conclusions: The results from this study, the largest trial yet for emetophobia, indicate that cognitive behavioural therapy may be an efficacious treatment for emetophobia. The study design involves several limitations, and further studies should include independent control groups, randomisation, and longer follow-up assessments.

  • 2482.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sandberg, David
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    What comes before terminating a night drive because of dangerous sleepiness: a study of real motorway driving at high levels of sleepiness2012In: SLEEP, 2012, Vol. 35, p. A110-A110Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2483.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    D'onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Effects of late-night short-sleep on in-home polysomnography: relation to adult age and sex2018In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 27, no 4, article id e12626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bedtime is frequently delayed by many factors in life, and a homeostatic response to the delay may compensate partly for increased time awake and shortened sleep. Because sleep becomes shorter with age and women complain of disturbed sleep more often than men, age and sex differences in the homeostatic response to a delayed bedtime may modify the homeostatic response. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of late-night short-sleep (3 h with awakening at about 07:00 hours) on in-home recorded sleep in men and women in two age groups (20-30 and 65-75 years). Results (N = 59) showed that late-night short-sleep was associated with an increase in percentage of N3 sleep and a decrease in percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, as well as decreases in several measures of sleep discontinuity and rapid eye movement density. Men showed a smaller decrease in percentage of rapid eye movement sleep than women in response to late-night short-sleep, as did older individuals of both sexes compared with younger. Older men showed a weaker percentage of N3 sleep in response to late-night short-sleep than younger men. In general, men showed a greater percentage of rapid eye movement sleep and a lower percentage of N3 sleep than women, and older individuals showed a lower percentage of N3 sleep than younger. In particular, older men showed very low levels of percentage of N3 sleep. We conclude that older males show less of a homeostatic response to late-night short-sleep. This may be an indication of impaired capacity for recovery in older men. Future studies should investigate if this pattern can be linked to gender-associated differences in morbidity and mortality.

  • 2484.
    Åstrand, Katarina
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Egenterapins påverkan på lärande och utveckling av psykoterapeutisk kompetens2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate psychodynamic psychotherapists' experiences of the influence of personal therapy on professional development during training with a focus on acquisition of knowledge and development of psychotherapeutic skills. Semi structured interviews were conducted with eight former students at two training institutes for psychodynamic psychotherapy. Thematic analysis was conducted on the material. Personal therapy was found to have a positive effect on learning and professional development by promoting the emergence of a theory and knowledge based professional subjectivity, a personally founded, professional attitude. Important elements of this development were shared experience, personal influence and knowledge integration. The emergence of professional subjectivity proved to be a vital factor in terms of professional advancement for future psychotherapists. Finding and relating to their own subjectivity was crucial in the process of developing a personally founded, professional attitude in clinical work. 

  • 2485.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring multiple concepts of psychological time in relation to anxiety2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 60, p. S11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is a central part of human experience. Different timing functions are vital for adequate behavioral outcomes, and individual differences in time perspective can be associated with both well-being and mental distress.The aim of this study is to discuss several aspects of temporal processing in relation to anxiety. Specifically, our findings suggest that moderate anxiety is associated with systematic biases in Future Negative- and Past Negative time perspectives. Further, in exploring the possible underlying mechanisms that mediate time perspective in anxiety, preliminary data on the relationship between aspects of cognitive control (inhibition), time perspective and anxiety will be presented. The findings will be discussed according to their clinical and theoretical implications.

  • 2486.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring the links between time perspective, anxiety, rumination and aspects of cognitive control2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2487.
    Åström, Lena
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Verksamma faktorer i psykodynamisk psykoterapi vid behandling av patienter med anorexia nervosa2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anorexia nervosa är en allvarlig psykologisk sjukdom med hög dödlighet. Studien vill belysa den psykodynamiska terapin som behandlingsmetod vid anorexia nervosa. Frågeställning: Vilka är de verksamma faktorerna i psykodynamisk psykoterapi vid behandling av anorexia nervosa? Semistrukturerade kvalitativa forskningsintervjuer har genomförts med fem kvinnliga psykodynamiskt inriktade psykoterapeuter. Intervjumaterialet har bearbetats och analyserats utifrån tematisk analys (TA). Resultatet visade att det mest verksamma vid behandlingen av anorexia nervosa var att lyckas bryta igenom patientens avvisande förhållningssätt, motstå attacker samt att nå en stark allians. Resultatet visade också att psykoterapeutens syn på patientens symtom och självbild ofta yttrade sig i motöverföringsreaktioner såsom ilska, frustration och känsla av maktlöshet. Tid och kontinuitet uppfattades som viktiga faktorer för det kliniska behandlingsarbetet, liksom att kunna erbjuda psykoterapi efter det att patienten nått viktmål enligt DSM-IV. Undersökningen visade att den psykoterapeutiska relationen i sig anses vara den mest verksamma faktorn vid behandling av anorexia nervosa. Den visade att interaktionen mellan patient och terapeut, den terapeutiska alliansen, uppfattades som den faktor som mest gynnar tillfrisknande för patienter med anorexia nervosa, en sjukdom med ett ofta långdraget förlopp.

  • 2488.
    Åström, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adelmann, Siri
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    DAILY THOUGHTS OF LEAVING THE PROFESSION AMONGST NEWLY GRADUATED PSYCHOLOGISTS2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis was to investigate how thoughts of leaving the profession amongst newly graduated psychologists were influenced by different factors, such as Basic psychological needs (BPN), Job satisfaction, and perceived preparation and support in the transitions from 1) studies to supervised practice (from here on referred to as the Swedish term PTP) and 2) from supervised practice to working as licensed psychologist. This was investigated based on a resource and motivation perspective including Job-Demands Resources theory and Self- Determination theory. A questionnaire was distributed to psychologists within three years from date of graduation (n=1077). The present sample included 529 psychologists either licenced or PTP. A binary logistic regression demonstrated that higher perceived levels of support and preparation in the transition from education to PTP (Transition 1), was negatively related to thoughts of leaving the profession. The influence of Transition 1 lost its significance when the dimensions of the BPNs were added for the PTP sample, and when the transition from PTP to licensed (Transition 2) was added as a predictor for the licensed psychologists. Transition 2 for the licensed psychologists was no longer significant when adding the BPNs. Higher levels of Job satisfaction were negatively related to thoughts of leaving the profession only among licensed psychologists. The results indicate that the influence of BPNs should not be underestimated in this kind of study nor during the first years in the profession. 

  • 2489.
    Çöltekin, Arzu
    et al.
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich.
    Francelet, Rebecca
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich.
    Richter, Kai-Florian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Thoresen, John
    Laboratory of Behavioural Genetics, Brain Mind Institute, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL).
    Fabrikant, Sara Irina
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich.
    The effects of visual realism, spatial abilities, and competition on performance in map-based route learning in men2018In: Cartography and Geographic Information Science, ISSN 1523-0406, E-ISSN 1545-0465, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 339-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on how visual realism might influence map-based route learning performance in a controlled laboratory experiment with 104 male participants in a competitive context. Using animations of a dot moving through routes of interest, we find that participants recall the routes more accurately with abstract road maps than with more realistic satellite maps. We also find that, irrespective of visual realism, participants with higher spatial abilities (high-spatial participants) are more accurate in memorizing map-based routes than participants with lower spatial abilities (low-spatial participants). On the other hand, added visual realism limits high-spatial participants in their route recall speed, while it seems not to influence the recall speed of low-spatial participants. Competition affects participants’ overall confidence positively, but does not affect their route recall performance neither in terms of accuracy nor speed. With this study, we provide further empirical evidence demonstrating that it is important to choose the appropriate map type considering task characteristics and spatial abilities. While satellite maps might be perceived as more fun to use, or visually more attractive than road maps, they also require more cognitive resources for many map-based tasks, which is true even for high-spatial users.

  • 2490.
    Öberg, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Arnåsen, Mattias
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    LEDARSKAP OCH PERSONLIGHET INOM IDROTTEN: Prefererat ledarskap i relation tillpersonlighet hos lagidrottare på elitjuniornivå2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between elite junior athlete’s   leadership preferences and their personality. Study participants consisted of 167 elite juniors, aged 16-20 years (M = 17,29). Subjects were both male (116) and female (51), and active in interactive sports. Participants were asked to answer three questionnaires (1) Demographic facts (2) Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS) (3) NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Subsequent correlation analyses showed significant associations between Extraversion, Democratic behavior and Positive Feedback, and between Neuroticism and social supportive behavior. The results also showed a significant correlation between the personality trait Agreeableness and Autocratic and Social support behavior. One conclusion from the results is that preferred leadership is a function of the athlete’s personality traits. This suggests that leadership in sports should be characterized by flexibility and adaptation to athlete’s individual differences to a greater extend. Examples of practical implications and future research are presented.

  • 2491.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boethius, Siv
    Department of Education.
    Sundin, Eva
    Grupphandledning i psykoterapi inom ramen för utbildningar.2005In: Matrix, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 389-403Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport, som har fokus på grupphandledning i psykoterapiutbildning, ger en sammanfattande bild av resultat som erhållits genom ett samarbetsprojekt mellan ett flertal svenska universitet och universitetsrelaterade utbildningsenheter. Projektet bygger på studier av grupphandledning på tre olika utbildningsnivåer; grundläggande psykoterapiutbildning, psykoterapeutbildning och handledarutbildning. Olika teoretiska inriktningar är representerade. Grupperna har omfattat tre eller fyra handledda och en handledare. Kvantitativa och kvalitativa data har samlats in i början, mitten och slutet av respektive utbildning. De studier som presenteras här undersöker och belyser olika aspekter av grupphandledning som upplevelsen av handledning på olika utbildningsnivåer, skillnader och likheter mellan olika psykoterapeutiska inriktningar utifrån att handledningen sker i form av grupphandledning samt upplevelser av gruppklimat och betydelsen av handledarens förhållningssätt. Ett viktigt fynd är att både handledare och handledda betonar behovet av att grupprocesser och fenomen som har sina rötter i såväl samspelet gruppdeltagarna emellan som handledarens förhållningssätt och utbildningens ramar uppmärksammas mer i grupphandledning i psykoterapi.

  • 2492.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Siv, Boalt Boëthius
    Department of Education.
    Grupphandledning inom psykoterapiutbildningar.2008In: Mellanrummet, ISSN 1404-5559, Vol. 19, p. 61-75Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna bli en bra terapeut behövs något mer än teoretiska kunskaper. En yrkesskicklighet behöver växa fram genom att teori integreras med tillämpning. Handledning på psykoterapeutisk behandling har en lång tradition som en av tre hörnpelare (teori, egenpsykoterapi och kliniskt arbete under handledning) inom psykoterapiutbildningar på olika nivåer. Tillgång till kontinuerlig handledning har dessutom visat sig fylla en viktig funktion för vidare utveckling och fördjupning för psykoterapeuter för att motverka stagnation och utbrändhet i yrkesrollen.

  • 2493.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Klinisk psykologi.
    Siv, Boalt Boëthius
    Department of Education.
    Olsson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Organizational structure and framework.: A case study of Swedish training programs in psychotherapy.2008In: Organizational and Social Dynamics: An international Journal for the Integration of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives, ISSN 1474 2780, Vol. 8, no 22, p. 256-278Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to highlight the design and functioning of the organizational framework supporting psychotherapy supervision at psychotherapy training institutions at postgraduate level in Sweden. The study was based on data from course coordinators and supervisors, who are the two main categories of employees involved in these programs. Two questionnaires were constructed (Course Coordinator Questionnaire and Supervisor Questionnaire).

    Our results indicated that the organizational framework for different training institutions were fairly similar with regard to the perceived primary task, i.e. supervision goals and its overall framework. However, according to the course coordinators, there were certain differences with regard to the management of role distribution, group composition, information, routines, regularity and accessibility. Also, economic and geographical conditions had a substantial influence on the design and functioning of the framework. The supervisors stressed the importance of explicit organizational frames, clear information and routines for, e.g. evaluation, how to deal with conflicts and failing, and above all the need for a competent and flexible course coordinator. The collected information might be used for further discussion of a functional framework supporting psychotherapy supervision in a training context.

  • 2494.
    Öhlin, Leif
    et al.
    St Lars Hospital, Lund.
    Hesse, Morten
    University of Aarhus.
    Fridell, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science. Lunds universitet.
    Tätting, Per
    St Lars Hospital, Lund.
    Poly-substance use and antisocial personality traits at admission predict cumulative retention in a buprenorphine programme with mandatory work and high compliance profile2011In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 11, p. Article ID: 81-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Continuous abstinence and retention in treatment for alcohol and drug use disorders are central challenges for the treatment providers. The literature has failed to show consistent, strong predictors of retention. Predictors and treatment structure may differ across treatment modalities. In this study the structure was reinforced by the addition of supervised urine samples three times a week and mandatory daily work/structured education activities as a prerequisite of inclusion in the program.

    Methods

    Of 128 patients consecutively admitted to buprenorphine maintenance treatment five patients dropped out within the first week. Of the remaining 123 demographic data and psychiatric assessment were used to predict involuntary discharge from treatment and corresponding cumulative abstinence probability. All subjects were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR, and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) and the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), all self-report measures. Some measures were repeated every third month in addition to interviews.

    Results

    Of 123 patients admitted, 86 (70%) remained in treatment after six months and 61 (50%) remained in treatment after 12 months. Of those discharged involuntarily, 34/62 individuals were readmitted after a suspension period of three months. Younger age at intake, poly-substance abuse at intake (number of drugs in urine), and number of conduct disorder criteria on the SCID Screen were independently associated with an increased risk of involuntary discharge. There were no significant differences between dropouts and completers on SCL-90, SSP, SOC or AUDIT.

    Conclusion

    Of the patients admitted to the programme 50% stayed for the first 12 months with continuous abstinence and daily work. Poly-substance use before intake into treatment, high levels of conduct disorder on SCID screen and younger age at intake had a negative impact on retention and abstinence.

  • 2495.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    One-Session Treatment: Principles and Procedures with Adults2012In: Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias / [ed] Thompson E. Davis III, Thomas H. Ollendick, & L.-G. Öst, Springer , 2012, 1, p. 59-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When I started research and clinical work with specific phobics in the mid 1970s, very little differentiation was made in the research literature between agoraphobia, social phobia, and specific phobia regarding the number of therapy sessions. Thus, I used eight 1-hour sessions in my early studies on specific phobias. After having worked with that format for about 5 years I started getting bored seeing the same patients week after week. I also began to question why behavior therapists should follow the same format as devised by psychodynamic short-term therapy (i.e. one session per week for 12–20 weeks).

  • 2496.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Klinisk psykologi.
    The Claustrophobia Scale: A psychometric evaluation2007In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1053-1064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a psychometric evaluation of the Claustrophobia Scale (CS), consisting of one subscale for measuring anxiety (20 items, 0-4) and one for avoidance (18 items, 0-2). Participants were 87 claustrophobic patients and 200 normal controls randomly selected from the community. The results show that CS has excellent internal consistency, high test--retest reliability, concurrent and discriminant validity. The patients and controls differ significantly on the total scores of anxiety and avoidance, as well as on each individual item scores. The CS was also found to be sensitive to change after cognitive behavioral treatment. Preliminary factor analyses yielded two factors for each subscale; "Being in small enclosed spaces" and "Other people present", accounting for large proportions of the variance. The CS is useful both as a state, and as an outcome self-report measure of claustrophobia.

  • 2497.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Training Therapists in One-Session Treatment and Assessing Their Competence2012In: Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias / [ed] Thompson E. Davis III, Thomas H. Ollendick, & L.-G. Öst, Springer , 2012, 1, p. 161-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no formalized training for therapists to do one-session treatment (OST), at least not any which has been empirically evaluated. However, a description follows of the way the training for people aspiring to become a protocol therapist in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), or just wanting to work clinically with OST, has been arranged. The major part of this chapter consists of a detailed description of the different items included in the competence rating scale, and explanations of why the respective competencies are important for carrying out OST successfully. This means that the training should focus on providing therapists with adequate skills in the areas covered by the rating scale.

  • 2498.
    Österberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Försvarshögskolan.
    Rydstedt, L W
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Department of Social Sciences, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Kleiven, J
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Department of Social Sciences, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Fors Brandebo, M
    Swedish Defence University (SEDU), Karlstad, Sweden.
    The Path to Job Satisfaction: Applying the Theory of Purposeful Behavior to Military Conditions2017In: Journal of Defense Resources Management, ISSN 2068-9403, E-ISSN 2247-6466, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 27-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between, on one hand,personality and performance orientation and, on the other, job satisfaction andturnover intentions, using Barrick’s et al. theory of purposeful behavior. Using aquestionnaire, data about job satisfaction, performance orientation and turnover intentions were collected from 300 newly recruited Swedish soldiers. A path analysis gave partial, but not full support to the assumptions behind the theory of purposeful behavior model. No relationships were found between the personality traits of emotional stability and conscientiousness, nor to either performance orientation or directly to job satisfaction. On the other hand, performance orientation showed a consistent relationship to perceived levels of the job characteristics, which mediated the path between the person-related variables and the outcome variables.Performance orientation also showed a strong direct relationship to general job satisfaction, which, in turn, was strongly related to turnover intentions.

  • 2499.
    Österberg, Jonas
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Idrotts-självförtroende och motivation: Hos kvinnliga och manliga elit- respektive amatörspelare i bandy2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to exam the possible differences in the experienced self-confidence and motivation among the elite players in bandy and amateur players in bandy. In addition, any differences between boys and girls within the same area to be studied. A total of 112 athletes participated of whom 52 of them classified as elite players and 60 amateur players, with 62 boys and 50 girls. The athletes filled at one point in the questionnaires The Sport Motivation Scale, Harter’s (1980) “competence scale” and The Sport Confidence Inventory. The results demonstrated differences between elite players and amateur players in the variables perceived motivation and perceived self-confidence. The results showed that the amateur players had a higher perceived amotivation than elite players experienced in this study. Furthermore, results showed that elite players feel they have a higher sport-confidence than amateur players had. Furthermore, it shows also the result of a significant difference between boys and girls perceived motivation and sport-confidence in this study. The boys show a higher result in motivation and sport-confidence.

  • 2500.
    Österlind, Marie-Louise
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Head teachers: street level bureaucrats or pedagogues?2003In: Psychological constructivism and the social world / [ed] Chiari, Gabriele & Nuzzo Maria Laura, EPCA Publications , 2003, p. 213-219Chapter in book (Other academic)
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