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  • 2451. Abada, A.
    et al.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zurita, J.
    HE-LHC: The High-Energy Large Hadron Collider Future Circular Collider Conceptual Design Report Volume 42019In: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 228, no 5, p. 1109-1382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics (EPPSU), the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study was launched as a world-wide international collaboration hosted by CERN. The FCC study covered an energy-frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh), a highest-luminosity high-energy lepton collider (FCC-ee), the corresponding 100 km tunnel infrastructure, as well as the physics opportunities of these two colliders, and a high-energy LHC, based on FCC-hh technology. This document constitutes the third volume of the FCC Conceptual Design Report, devoted to the hadron collider FCC-hh. It summarizes the FCC-hh physics discovery opportunities, presents the FCC-hh accelerator design, performance reach, and staged operation plan, discusses the underlying technologies, the civil engineering and technical infrastructure, and also sketches a possible implementation. Combining ingredients from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high-luminosity LHC upgrade and adding novel technologies and approaches, the FCC-hh design aims at significantly extending the energy frontier to 100 TeV. Its unprecedented centre-of-mass collision energy will make the FCC-hh a unique instrument to explore physics beyond the Standard Model, offering great direct sensitivity to new physics and discoveries.

  • 2452.
    Abada, Mariam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Vilka problem finns det med förfalskade läkemedel?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Världsmarknaden för läkemedlen beräknades år 2011 till 900 miljarder US$ enligt IMS-health. Marknaden för illegala läkemedel uppskattas vara värd mellan 75-200 miljarder dollar. I Sverige uppskattas den illegala läkemedelsmarknaden till motsvarande ≤0,5 %. Straffet för insmuggling av läkemedel till Sverige är böter eller max 2 års fängelse. Tullverket räknar med att man endast hittar 10 % av det som smugglas in. I andra länder kan straffet variera mellan böter (ekonomisk brottslighet i Afrika) till dödsstraff i Kina.

    I Utvecklingsländerna uppskattas 10-30 % av alla läkemedel som säljs vara förfalskade, jmf 1 % I-länderna. l. Förekomsten av förfalskade läkemedel har många allvarliga konsekvenser på människor som exempelvis, utebliven effekt, toxiska reaktioner, förgiftningar, som kan i värsta fall leda till döden. Ett annat alvarligt problem är resistensutveckling, ökad spridning av smittsamammasjukdomar som exempel, tuberkulos och/ eller HIV/AIDS.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att besvara frågan: Vilka problem ger den ökande förekomsten av förfalskade läkemedel i samhället. Undersökningen fokuserar på livstidsläkemedel, dvs ett läkemedel en person måste ta resten av sitt liv för behandling av sin kroniska sjukdom.

    För att komma till rätta med de problem, som förfalskade läkemedel, skapar krävs ett mer utvecklat samarbete mellan olika läkemedelsmyndigheter, läkemedelsföretag, internationella polisorganisationer, tull m.fl. Arbetet med att utveckla förpackningar som är svåra att förfalska bör intensifieras. Straffsatser bör kanske ses över. Det är viktigt att öka medvetandet bland allmänheten om risker med att köpa läkemedel utanför apotek (t ex via nätet).

  • 2453.
    Abadal Mahmood Abadi, Mahboobeh
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Nasseri, Mehran
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Shirmohammadian, Davood
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Business Informatics.
    Efficient Business Intelligence systems utilization: Deliberation of information quality significance on decision-making2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Business Intelligence (BI) system facilitates informed and timely decision making incompetitive business environment. However, decision making can turn out to be highlychallenging if information delivered by BI system does not meet certain level of quality.Organization can benefit from provided information if they are correct, comprehensive,current, and accessible. The organizational members who use BI application to make decisionare best informants to verify the quality of delivered information. Additionally,the implementers of BI system are the one who must be aware of delivering high qualityof information and can explain the reason of failures if any. It is critical to inquire bothimplementers and users. Therefore, the factors that can affect the quality of informationwere studied through comprehensive literature review. Low quality of information maymake customers/ suppliers’ relationship worse, shrink the efficiency of the business performance,decrease the level of trust on BI, and eventually cause to lose the competitivenessin market place. This thesis is intended at investigating fundamental dimensionsthat hinder effective utilization of information in BI system and realizing how these dimensionscan affect the quality and outcome of decisions. Study with an exploratorypurpose was designed and conducted at a chain retail stores in Iran to gather empiricaldata from both group of BI users and implementers through focus group interview. Theresult of investigation shows the main BI system utilized to facilitate customer/ supplierrelationship management and store operation management. Business areas and activitiesinfluenced by the quality of information include, inventory management, customer loyalty,competitiveness, and supplier management. The information quality issues are encounteredmainly due to technical failures, lack of competent system developers, changesin business environment, inappropriate documentation during the system developmentlifecycle, and logical error in programming and designing algorithms. The time, effort,and resources spent on exploring and resolving problems regarding to the quality of informationhad a great influence on efficiency and effectiveness. Documentation duringsystem development life cycle is emphasized as a crucial factor that necessitates furtherstudy in documentation subject. The preliminary findings signify the importance of study to consider information quality in BI practice.

  • 2454. Abadal, Sergi
    et al.
    Alarcon, Eduard
    Cabellos-Aparicio, Albert
    Lemme, Max C.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Nemirovsky, Mario
    Graphene-Enabled Wireless Communication for Massive Multicore Architectures2013In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trends in microprocessor architecture design are leading towards a dramatic increase of core-level parallelization, wherein a given number of independent processors or cores are interconnected. Since the main bottleneck is foreseen to migrate from computation to communication, efficient and scalable means of inter-core communication are crucial for guaranteeing steady performance improvements in many-core processors. As the number of cores grows, it remains unclear whether initial proposals, such as the Network-on-Chip (NoC) paradigm, will meet the stringent requirements of this scenario. This position paper presents a new research area where massive multicore architectures have wireless communication capabilities at the core level. This goal is feasible by using graphene-based planar antennas, which can radiate signals at the Terahertz band while utilizing lower chip area than its metallic counterparts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that discusses the utilization of graphene-enabled wireless communication for massive multicore processors. Such wireless systems enable broadcasting, multicasting, all-to-all communication, as well as significantly reduce many of the issues present in massively multicore environments, such as data coherency, consistency, synchronization and communication problems. Several open research challenges are pointed out related to implementation, communications and multicore architectures, which pave the way for future research in this multidisciplinary area.

  • 2455. Abadei, S.
    et al.
    Gevorgian, S.
    Cho, C. R.
    Grishin, Alexander M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Low-frequency and microwave performances of laser-ablated epitaxial Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films on high-resistivity SiO2/Si substrates2002In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 2267-2276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dielectric properties of laser-ablated 0.5-mum-thick c-axis epitaxial Na0.5K0.5NbO3 (NKN) films on high-resistivity (>7.7 kOmega cm) silicon SiO2/Si substrates are studied experimentally in the temperature interval of 30-320 K and at frequencies of 1.0 MHz-40 GHz. The films are grown by laser ablation from a stoichiometric target. For the measurements, planar 0.5-mum-thick gold electrodes (interdigital and straight slot) are photolithography defined on the top surface of NKN films. The slot width between the electrodes is 2.0 or 4.0 mum. At low frequencies (f<1.0 GHz), the structure performance is that of a typical metal-dielectric-semiconductor type, where two of this type of capacitor are connected back to back. At these frequencies, the large change in the capacitance (more than 10 times at 1.0 MHz), due to the applied dc field, is mainly due to the changes in depletion layer thickness at the surface of silicon. The associated losses are also large, tan delta>1. At microwave frequencies (f>10 GHz), the voltage dependence of the capacitance is given by the NKN film. More than a 13% capacitance change at 40 V dc bias and a Q factor of more than 15 are observed at 40 GHz, which make the structure useful for applications in electrically tunable millimeter-wave devices.

  • 2456. Abadei, S.
    et al.
    Gevorgian, S.
    Cho, C. R.
    Grishin, Alexander M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Andreasson, J.
    Lindback, T.
    DC field dependent properties of Na0.5K0.5NbO3/SiO2/Si structures at millimeter-wave frequencies2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 78, no 13, p. 1900-1902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dielectric properties of laser-ablated 0.5-mum-thick c-axis epitaxial Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films on high-resistivity (7.7 Omega cm) silicon SiO2/Si substrate are studied experimentally at frequencies up to 40 GHz. For measurements, planar 0.5-mum-thick gold electrodes (interdigital and straight slot) are photolithography defined on the top surface of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films. The slot width between the electrodes is 2 or 4 mum. 13% capacitance change at 40 V dc bias and Q factor more than 15 are observed at 40 GHz, which makes the structure useful for applications in electrically tunable millimeter-wave devices.

  • 2457.
    Abadei, S
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gevorgian, S
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Cho, C.-R
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Grishin, A.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Andreasson, Johanna
    Lindbäck, Ture
    DC field dependent properties of Na0.5K0.5NbO₃/SiO₂/Si structures at millimeter-wave frequencies2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 78, no 13, p. 1900-1902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dielectric properties of laser-ablated 0.5-μm-thick c-axis epitaxial Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films on high-resistivity (7.7 Ω cm) silicon SiO2/Si substrate are studied experimentally at frequencies up to 40 GHz. For measurements, planar 0.5-μm-thick gold electrodes (interdigital and straight slot) are photolithography defined on the top surface of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films. The slot width between the electrodes is 2 or 4 μm. 13% capacitance change at 40 V dc bias and Q factor more than 15 are observed at 40 GHz, which makes the structure useful for applications in electrically tunable millimeter-wave devices

  • 2458.
    Abadei, S.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Microelectronics.
    Gevorgian, S.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Microelectronics.
    Kugler, V.
    Department of Physics, Linköping University.
    Helmersson, U.
    Department of Physics, Linköping University.
    Andreasson, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Microwave properties of tunable capacitors basee on magnetron sputtered ferroelectric Na0.5K0.5NbO3 film on low and high resistivity silicon substrates2001In: Integrated Ferroelectrics, ISSN 1058-4587, E-ISSN 1607-8489, Vol. 39, no 1-4, p. 359-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, small signal DC voltage dependent dielectric permittivity, loss tangent, and tuneability of magnetron sputtered epitaxial Na0.5K0.5NO3 films are studied experimentally. (100)-oriented Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films are deposited onto SiO2-buffered CMOS grade low resistivity (p = 10-20 cm) and high resistivity (p = 15-45 kcm) silicon substrates. Planar capacitors with 2 or 4 m gaps between electrodes have been fabricated on top of ferroelectric films. These devices have been characterized in the frequency range 1.0 MHz to 50 GHz at temperatures 30 - 300K. Na0.5K0.5NbO3/SiO2/Si structures on high resistivity silicon substrate exhibit C-V performances typical for Metal-Insulator- Semiconductor (MIS) capacitors. At low frequencies, f 1.0 GHz, the large tuneability and large losses are associated with the MIS structure, while at higher microwave frequencies the tuneability is mainly associated with the ferroelectric, film. At 1.0 MHz and room temperature, the tuneability of Na0.5K0.5NbO3/SiO2/Si structures more than 90%, reducing to 10-15 % at 50 GHz. The losses decrease with increasing the DC bias and frequency. A Q-factor more than 15 at 50 GHz is observed. The dielectric permittivity of the Na0.5K0.5NbO3 film is in the range 50-150 at frequencies 0.045-50 GHz. On low resistivity substrate the performance of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films is completely screened by the high losses in silicon, and the tuneability is negligible

  • 2459.
    Abadei, S.
    et al.
    Department of Microelectronics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gevorgian, S.
    Department of Microelectronics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden, Core Unit Research Center, Ericsson Microwave Systems, SE-431 84, Mölnda, Sweden.
    Kugler, Veronika Mozhdeh
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Andreasson, J.
    Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87, Luleå, Sweden.
    Microwave properties of tunable capacitors basee on magnetron sputtered ferroelectric Na0.5K0.5NbO3 film on low and high resistivity silicon substrates2001In: Integrated Ferroelectrics, ISSN 1058-4587, E-ISSN 1607-8489, Vol. 39, no 1-4, p. 359-366Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, small signal DC voltage dependent dielectric permittivity, loss tangent, and tuneability of magnetron sputtered epitaxial Na0.5K0.5NO3 films are studied experimentally. (100)-oriented Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films are deposited onto SiO2-buffered CMOS grade low resistivity (p = 10-20 cm) and high resistivity (p = 15-45 kcm) silicon substrates. Planar capacitors with 2 or 4 m gaps between electrodes have been fabricated on top of ferroelectric films. These devices have been characterized in the frequency range 1.0 MHz to 50 GHz at temperatures 30 - 300K. Na0.5K0.5NbO3/SiO2/Si structures on high resistivity silicon substrate exhibit C-V performances typical for Metal-Insulator- Semiconductor (MIS) capacitors. At low frequencies, f 1.0 GHz, the large tuneability and large losses are associated with the MIS structure, while at higher microwave frequencies the tuneability is mainly associated with the ferroelectric, film. At 1.0 MHz and room temperature, the tuneability of Na0.5K0.5NbO3/SiO2/Si structures more than 90%, reducing to 10-15 % at 50 GHz. The losses decrease with increasing the DC bias and frequency. A Q-factor more than 15 at 50 GHz is observed. The dielectric permittivity of the Na0.5K0.5NbO3 film is in the range 50-150 at frequencies 0.045-50 GHz. On low resistivity substrate the performance of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films is completely screened by the high losses in silicon, and the tuneability is negligible. © 2001 Taylor and Francis.

  • 2460.
    Abad-Gurumeta, A.
    et al.
    Dept Anaesthesia, Hosp Univ la Paz, Madrid, Spain.
    Ripolles-Melchor, J.
    Dept Anaesthesia, Hosp Univ Infanta Leonor, Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Casans-Frances, R.
    Dept Anaesthesia, Hosp Clin Univ Lozano Blesa, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Espinosa, A.
    Dept Anaesthesia, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Martinez-Hurtado, E.
    Dept Anaesthesia, Hosp Univ Infanta Leonor, Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Fernandez-Perez, C.
    Dept Consultant Prevent Med & Publ Hlth, Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Ramirez, J. M.
    Dept Colorectal Surg, Univ Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Lopez-Timoneda, F.
    Hosp Clin San Carlos, Dept Anaesthesia, Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Calvo-Vecino, J. M.
    Hosp Univ Infanta Leonor, Dept Anaesthesia, Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    A systematic review of sugammadex vs neostigmine for reversal of neuromuscular blockade2015In: Anaesthesia, ISSN 0003-2409, E-ISSN 1365-2044, Vol. 70, no 12, p. 1441-1452Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We reviewed systematically sugammadex vs neostigmine for reversing neuromuscular blockade. We included 17 randomised controlled trials with 1553 participants. Sugammadex reduced all signs of residual postoperative paralysis, relative risk (95% CI) 0.46 (0.29-0.71), p=0.0004 and minor respiratory events, relative risk (95% CI) 0.51 (0.32-0.80), p=0.0034. There was no difference in critical respiratory events, relative risk (95% CI) 0.13 (0.02-1.06), p=0.06. Sugammadex reduced drug-related side-effects, relative risk (95% CI) 0.72 (0.54-0.95), p=0.02. There was no difference in the rate of postoperative nausea or the rate of postoperative vomiting, relative risk (95% CI) 0.94 (0.79-1.13), p=0.53, and 0.87 (0.65-1.17), p=0.36 respectively.

  • 2461.
    Abadi, Farah
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and communication science.
    Jacobs, Viktor
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and communication science.
    Det optimala intranätet: Fallstudie i hur intranätet för ett utbildningsföretag bör utvecklas utifrån ett medarbetarperspektiv2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a society like ours we are in need for effective internal communication. Distance will no longer be a problem in order to inform and communicate with all employees within a company. The daily communication previously been eye to eye is now replaced by an equivalent virtual communication.

    This study aims to investigate the ideal image of an intranet based on the needs of employees in the John Bauer Organization. What features are requested by the employees and should all of the information and communication take place via an intranet? What other channels in addition to intranet should there be according to the employees?

    Focus groups have been chosen as the interview method with employees from John Bauer Organization. A content analysis has been done to obtain trends and opinions among the employees.

    Findings of the survey show that there should be an integrated system which only requires one login to access all programs. Empowerment over their own intranet page is also requested, in which employees want to be able to choose the information they want to read. In addition to an intranet, employees also felt that there should be continuous newsletters from leadership and management. In addition, employees expressed the view that there should also be a staff magazine for increasing the "we-feeling" in John Bauer Organization. All the employees interviewed felt that the physical meeting was an important element for the exchange of ideas and understanding among the staff.

  • 2462.
    Abadias, Gregory
    et al.
    University of Poitiers, France.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fenker, Martin
    FEM, Germany.
    Kassavetis, Spiros
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Editorial Material: Preface in SURFACE and COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, vol 255, issue , pp2014In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 255Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 2463.
    Abadiga, Gidi A
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies.
    Neibig, Marcel
    Södertörn University, School of Business Studies.
    Value vs Growth Stocks: Do Value Stocks Outperform Growth Stocks? Stockholm Stock Markets, 1995-20092012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study tries to examine if investment in value stocks (poor performing stocks) can generate superior returns over investment in growth stocks.

    Historical stock data for stocks traded in Stockholmstock markets are collected from various sources such as Börsguide and Reuters Thomson Ecowin Pro database. Using these and other relevant secondary historical data, stocks were grouped into value and growth portfolios depending on their P/E-multiples for five buy and hold periods which range from twelve months up to sixty months between investment periods 1996 and 2009.

    In each portfolio holding period, different numbers of value and growth stocks, ranging from, for example eleven stocks in period one, to twenty stocks in period five are purchased and held for an initial investment of 20000 SEK at the beginning of each portfolio holding period for the purpose of the study.

    The returns to these investments are computed for three different average return measurements. These are annual Mean Price Returns, Holding Period Returns and Risk-Adjusted Returns for each of the portfolio holding year, for the entire holding periods as well as for the entire portfolio holding periods combined together. Using the spread between these measures, the performances of both value and growth stocks are analyzed.

    When all the five portfolios are combined together and the mean annual rate of returns are computed, value stocks outperform growth stocks by an average of 15.1 % mean annual Risk -Adjusted Return Rate. The result for Holding Period Return is an average of 5.6 % higher than the growth stocks.

    These results indicate that investment made in value stocks identified using historical fundamental data can generate superior returns than growth stocks. Consequently, it can cautiously be argued thatStockholmstock markets appear to exhibit the characteristics of the semi-strong form of the Efficient Market Hypothesis.

  • 2464.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Ecodriving på SJ: förarperspektiv på tekniska hjälpmedel för beslutsfattande och utbildning i Ecodriving2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though all trips with SJ trains in Sweden are labeled “Bra Miljöval” (Good environmental choice), the requirements for reduced emissions and energy usage are constantly increased. Thus, SJ has to constantly develop their environmental profile. To investigate potential energy savings, SJ developed an education program in energy efficient driving (Eco-driving) and also let some of their train drivers use a technical tool supporting eco-driving. This report includes two studies. A critical review of the experimental study conducted by SJ and a complementary study based on observations of the education in energy efficient driving, along with interviews with the train drivers that participated in SJs experimental study. The experimental study provided valuable results, suggesting that energy savings through driver training and support are feasible. At the same time, there are contingencies in the collected energy data, making it difficult to draw any definite conclusions. The results of the interviews with the drivers show that there are ambiguities about what risks and consequences a future introduction of the technical tool for eco-driving could imply. Altogether, there are reasons to conduct further studies on how to best introduce energy-efficient driving in railway traffic as a whole.

  • 2465.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lärarperspektiv på riskutbildningen för motorcyklister2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade it has become increasingly popular to ride a motorcycle in Sweden. A mandatory risk education for competence A and A1 was introduced from the 1st of November 2009. Since the education is new, few evaluations have been conducted so far.

    This study evaluates the risk education for motorcyclists based on the perspective of driving instructors. The goal was to compile the instructors' comments and experiences with respect to the new risk training. An additional objective was to examine the driving instructors' perceived effects of the education on their students' driving behavior. Six semi-structured interviews with driving instructors and an observational study of the education at various driving schools were conducted. In addition, a participant observation study was performed during a further education of 15 driving instructors. The results show that the instructors experience a great need for the new risk training and that the implementation of the training itself has been good. Students have been referring to the risk training, which according to the instructors indicate that the students have embraced the essence of the training. As a result, the students drive more carefully now and think twice in certain situations according to the instructors. This was considered a desirable result.

  • 2466.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lärarperspektiv på riskutbildningen för motorcyklister2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under det senaste decenniet har det i Sverige blivit allt populärare att åka motorcykel. Enobligatorisk riskutbildning för behörighet A och A1 infördes från och med den 1 november2009. Då riskutbildningen är ny har få utvärderingar gjorts.Denna studie utvärderar riskutbildningen för motorcyklister utifrån trafikskolläraresperspektiv. Målet har varit att sammanställa synpunkter och erfarenheter från lärarna påutbildningen. Ett ytterligare mål har varit att undersöka trafikskollärarnas upplevda effekter avutbildningen på elevers trafikbeteende. Sex semistrukturerade intervjuer med trafikskolläraresamt en observationsstudie på olika trafikskolor genomfördes. Utöver detta genomfördesdeltagande observation av en fortbildning där 15 trafikskollärare deltog. Resultatet frånstudien visar att lärarna anser att behovet av riskutbildningen är stort och attimplementationen av den nya riskutbildningen gått bra. Förutom att elever efter utbildningenrefererar till den, vilket enligt lärarna indikerar att de tagit till sig vad som sagts, märks det nui större utsträckning än tidigare att elever kör lugnare och tänker sig mer för i vissasituationer. Detta påtalades vara ett klart önskvärt resultat.

  • 2467.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mindre energi och rätt tid: Utvärdering av utbildning och träning för lokförare i energieffektiv körning – en simulatorstudie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the 80’s, the first train simulator was introduced in Swedish train driver education and is still the only full scale simulator being used to educate train drivers in Sweden. The reason for this seems to be a lack of educational and economic motives for an expanded usage of simulators within education and training. Energy savings within the railway domain, i.e. energy-efficient driving, is currently a topic for all train operators in Sweden. Some operators already educate their drivers in energy efficient driving and tests of energy efficiency in real traffic has shown a potential energy saving of 16 %, after drivers have completed a theoretical education in energy-efficient driving. Because there were some uncertainties in the data from the tests carried out in real traffic, where conditions and experimental procedures varied between the drivers and it also turned out that education and access to a support system while driving resulted in a small saving in energy (13 %) there was a need to examine the potential savings under controlled conditions. Therefore, a study was conducted using a train simulator. In the simulator, the researcher has full control over the data and conditions are the same for all drivers. The simulator used in the study was developed by VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute) and modeled after an X50 Regina. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the same theoretical education in energy-efficient driving, in combination with simulator training under ideal conditions, could contribute to the same, or better energy saving compared to the results of the tests from real traffic. Furthermore, the effect of feedback during training with regard to energy savings was also investigated. 24 train driver students were divided into three groups with 8 students in each. Two of these groups completed two sessions (reference and test session) with theoretical education and simulator training between the sessions. The last group (control group) completed two sessions (reference and test session) without education and training between the sessions. The two groups that were given theoretical education conducted their simulator training under two different conditions, where one group trained with feedback (energy consumption and rail gradient) and the other group trained without feedback. It turns out that a theoretical education in energy efficient driving, combined with 30 minutes of simulator training, resulted in a total saving of about 24 % energy for both groups. Also, considering that the control group improved their energy consumption by simply driving the simulator two times (8 % total energy saving), the energy saving was almost equal to the result of the tests in real traffic. Since the results were equal even though the conditions differed, there is reason to investigate how different driving conditions affect the outcome. There is also a need to better understand why education in combination with a support system resulted in a lower energy saving than for those who were only given education during the tests in real traffic, and also why feedback during training in the simulator did not give a detectable effect. Basically, there are many reasons to further investigate how to design simulator training and support systems for train drivers. In addition to the energy savings, the results showed that drivers improved their arrival times i.e. arrive more accurate in relation to the time table. The results suggest that there is great potential for train simulators in the Swedish train driver education, both for training and for evaluating the effects of the training.

  • 2468.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Simulatorbaserad utbildning i ERTMS: utvärdering av utbildning och träning för lokförare i VTI:s tågsimulator2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the VTI train simulator with regard to simulator-based training and education in the ERTMS (European Rail Traffic Management System) system for train drivers, compared to the ERSA simulator. The purpose was also to study two different ways of combining theoretical education with practical training in a simulator. In the future, the major railway routes in Sweden will be equipped with ERTMS. This will require considerable training for Sweden’s approximately 3,500 train drivers in future need of ERTMS education. It is unrealistic to think that these should be trained on real tracks. Therefore, there is a need for a more realistic ERTMS simulator compared to the European Rail Software Applications (ERSA) simulator that Trafikverket provides. The study was conducted as a between group design with two measurements. Three different groups were compared under different conditions. Theoretical education in ERTMS combined with training in the ERSA simulator (group 0), theoretical education in ERTMS ending with training in the VTI-simulator (group 1) and theoretical education in ERTMS partly alternated with training in the VTI-simulator (group 2).

  • 2469.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lokförarutbildning i Sverige: simulatoranvändning och ERTMS2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report, which provides an overview of the compulsory basic training for train drivers in Sweden, highlights the occurrence of simulator-based training in education, along with the training efforts being made with regards to the future introduction of ERTMS/ETCS. The report also shows the possibilities and limitations of increased use of simulators in driver training and describes the most important governing documents for train drivers and train driver training. Furthermore, the Swedish Transport Agency curriculum for train driver licenses is presented along with the institutions engaged in basic education, training and examination of train driver’s. Also, the Swedish Transport Administration’s E-learning tool for ERTMS, the ERSA-simulator and company specific ERTMS education at SJ and Green Cargo are described. Moreover, Swedish train companies’ and educators’ current use and future needs of simulators for train driver training were examined. Examples from other domains where simulators are used in a training context are also presented.

  • 2470.
    Abadir, Karim and Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. STATISTICS.
    The joint moment generating function of quadratic forms in multivariate autoregressive series- The case with deterministic components2001In: Econometric theory, Vol. 17, p. 222-246Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2471.
    Abadir, Karim M.
    et al.
    Imperial College, London.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Biases of correlograms and of AR representations of stationary series2012In: Journal of Time Series Econometrics, ISSN 1941-1928, E-ISSN 1941-1928, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We derive the relation between the biases of correlograms and of estimates of auto-regressive AR(k) representations of stationary series, and we illustrate it with a simple AR example. The new relation allows for k to vary with the sample size, which is a representation that can be used for most stationary processes. As a result, the biases of the estimators of such processes can now be quantified explicitly and in a unified way.

  • 2472.
    Abadpour, Shadab
    et al.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Sect Transplant Surg, Oslo, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Inst Surg Res, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Göpel, Sven O.
    AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Dept CVMD Biosci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Schive, Simen W.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Sect Transplant Surg, Oslo, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Inst Surg Res, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Foss, Aksel
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Sect Transplant Surg, Oslo, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Inst Surg Res, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Scholz, Hanne
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Sect Transplant Surg, Oslo, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Inst Surg Res, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor protects human islets from nutrient deprivation and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced apoptosis2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 1575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key limitations to successful human islet transplantation is loss of islets due to stress responses pre- and post-transplantation. Nutrient deprivation and ER stress have been identified as important mechanisms leading to apoptosis. Glial Cell-line Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) has recently been found to promote islet survival after isolation. However, whether GDNF could rescue human islets from nutrient deprivation and ER stress-mediated apoptosis is unknown. Herein, by mimicking those conditions in vitro, we have shown that GDNF significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion, reduced apoptosis and proinsulin: insulin ratio in nutrient deprived human islets. Furthermore, GDNF alleviated thapsigargin-induced ER stress evidenced by reduced expressions of IRE1 alpha and BiP and consequently apoptosis. Importantly, this was associated with an increase in phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and GSK3B signaling pathway. Transplantation of ER stressed human islets pre- treated with GDNF under kidney capsule of diabetic mice resulted in reduced expressions of IRE1 alpha and BiP in human islet grafts with improved grafts function shown by higher levels of human C-peptide post-transplantation. We suggest that GDNF has protective and anti-apoptotic effects on nutrient deprived and ER stress activated human islets and could play a significant role in rescuing human islets from stress responses.

  • 2473.
    Abadpour, Shadab
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Halvorsen, Bente
    Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Sahraoui, Afaf
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Aukrust, Pål
    Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Scholz, Hanne
    Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Interleukin-22 reverses human islet dysfunction and apoptosis triggered by hyperglycemia and LIGHT2018In: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, ISSN 0952-5041, E-ISSN 1479-6813, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 171-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interleukin (IL)-22 has recently been suggested as an anti-inflammatory cytokine that could protect the islet cells from inflammation- and glucose-induced toxicity. We have previously shown that the tumor necrosis factor family member, LIGHT can impair human islet function at least partly via pro-apoptotic effects. Herein, we aimed to investigate the protective role of IL-22 on human islets exposed to the combination of hyperglycemia and LIGHT. First, we found up-regulation of LIGHT receptors (LTβR and HVEM) in engrafted human islets exposed to hyperglycemia (>11 mM) for 17 days post transplantation by using a double islet transplantation mouse model as well as in human islets cultured with high glucose (HG) (20mM glucose) + LIGHT in vitro and this latter effect was attenuated by IL-22. The effect of HG + LIGHT impairing glucose stimulated insulin secretion was reversed by IL-22. The harmful effect of HG + LIGHT on human islet function seemed to involve enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress evidenced by up-regulation of p-IRE1α and BiP, elevated secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IP-10 and MCP-1) and the pro-coagulant mediator tissue factor (TF) release and apoptosis in human islets, whereas all these effects were at least partly reversed by IL-22. Our findings suggest that IL-22 could counteract the harmful effects of LIGHT/hyperglycemia on human islet cells and potentially support the strong protective effect of IL-22 on impaired islet function and survival.

  • 2474. Abafe, Ovokeroye A.
    et al.
    Späth, Jana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Buckley, Chris
    Stark, Annegret
    Pietruschka, Bjoern
    Martincigh, Bice S.
    LC-MS/MS determination of antiretroviral drugs in influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 200, p. 660-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The method was validated and the detection limits fell within the range of 2–20 ng L−1. The analytical recoveries for the ARVDs were mainly greater than 50% with acceptable relative standard deviations. The concentration values ranged from <LOD – 53000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 34000 ng L−1 (effluent) in a decentralized wastewater treatment facility (DEWATS); <LOD – 24000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 33000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Northern WWTP and 61–34000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 20000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Phoenix WWTP. Whilst abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine were almost completely removed from the effluents, atazanavir, efavirenz, lopinavir and nevirapine persisted in the effluents from all three WWTPs. To estimate the ecotoxicological risks associated with the discharge of ARVDs, a countrywide survey focussing on the occurrence of ARVDs in WWTPs, surface and fresh water bodies, and aquatic organisms, is necessary.

  • 2475. Abaglo, A. J.
    et al.
    Bonalda, C.
    Pertusa, Emeline
    KTH.
    Environmental Digital Model: Integration of BIM into environmental building simulations2017In: CISBAT 2017 International ConferenceFuture Buildings & Districts – Energy Efficiency from Nano to Urban Scale, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 122, p. 1063-1068Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The digital model and the BIM are creating a revolution with a transition from 2D to 3D models. However, environmental professions carry out building simulations with a wide range of software with little or no communication between them. This often leads to the realization of several 3D models and therefore a significant loss of time, as well as possible inconsistencies of geometrical information. Our research aims to use the interoperability potential offered by BIM-friendly software to develop gateways to optimize the modeling phase and improve the restitution of the studies through visual integration in a digital mockup.

  • 2476. Abahazi, Emese
    et al.
    Satorhelyi, Peter
    Erdelyi, Balazs
    Vertessy, Beata G.
    Land, Henrik
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Paizs, Csaba
    Berglund, Per
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Poppe, Laszlo
    Covalently immobilized Trp60Cys mutant of omega‰-transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum for kinetic resolution of racemic amines in batch and continuous-flow modes2018In: Biochemical engineering journal, ISSN 1369-703X, E-ISSN 1873-295X, Vol. 132, p. 270-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Covalent immobilization of an engineered omega-transaminase mutant Trp60Cys from Chromobacterium violaceum (CvTAW60C) was performed on bisepoxide-activated aminoalkyl resins. Activity of the various CvTAW60C preparations was evaluated in kinetic resolution of four racemic amines (rac-1a–d). The most active EA-G-CvTAW60C preparation (CvTAW60C attached to polymeric resin with ethylamine function activated with glycerol diglycidyl ether—EA-G) could perform the kinetic resolution of racemic 4-phenylbutan-2-amine (rac-1a) over 49% conversion up to 19 consecutive reaction cycles or in media containing up to 50% v/v DMSO as cosolvent in batch mode reactions. The immobilization process of CvTAW60C onto the EA-G resin filled in stainless steel bioreactors was also tested in flow-through mode. Kinetic resolution of three racemic amines containing aromatic moieties (rac-1a-c) was performed in continuous-flow mode resulting in easy-to-separate mixture of the corresponding ketone (2a–c) and the non-converted (R)-amine in high enantiopurity (ee(R)-1a-c ≥ 96%).

  • 2477.
    Abaid, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Evaluation of Jatropha Curcas as future en-ergy crop in some African countries.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels now days consider as one of the successful alternative to meet the challenges associated with climate change and peak oil, as well as a way for poorer countries to develop an industry in order to enhance social and economic development. In many developing countries and particularly in Africa, this has led to large-scale investments in lands by foreign companies, and as a consequence there has been a debate on whether these actions are environmentally sustainable and whether this kind of activity actually brings economic development. The investments of biofuels in Africa, espe-cially the Jatropha plantations are debatable. Several arguments have been concentrat-ed on development goals, economic issues and environmental concerns. This report evaluates the status of some Jatropha projects in Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanza-nia, the outcomes of the report show that biofuels from Jatropha lead to a significant socio -economic benefits by creating many jobs opportunities and improve the stand-ard of living in Africa. However, inadequate funding’s, high investment costs, no clear policies for biodiesel are the most challenging for Jatropha in Africa which need fur-ther mechanisms and ideology by African scientists, leaders, NGOs, farmers and deci-sion makers. In the studied countries, it was reported that the Jatropha produce low yields of oil seeds especially in the marginal lands with no enough water supplies. In Kenya the productivity of Jatropha is very low for large scale- project. Moreover some social and environmental impacts are also seen for Jatropha cultivations in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. Some Jatropha projects have impacted the food security nega-tively; nevertheless some biofuels experts believe that Jatropha has no any adverse im-pacts on food security since it is inedible and grown on marginal lands. In Ethiopia, the main environmental impacts of Jatropha are related to biodiversity, water quality and quantity. In Kenya, the environmental impacts are related to biodiversity, carbon emissions, water withdrawal, pollution of agro- chemicals usage, deforestation and soil erosion, whereas in Tanzania, the main environmental issues are connected to the change of land use system, impacts on biodiversity and impacts on water resources.

  • 2478.
    Abakarova, Elmira
    et al.
    Gubkin University, Moscow.
    Blomgren, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Business Development and Entrepreneurship.
    Will the future European energy market be a German battle with Russian and Swedish actors in the centre of it?: Analyzing major players with the pattern shown by mergers and acquisitions2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2479. Abakoumova, Natalia
    Modification of Silicalite-1 Membranes2005Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work Silicalite-1 films were prepared on porous ?-alumina micro filtration filters acting as a support using the ”seed film method”. The films were modified using an aqueous solution of Ca(NO3)2 in order to obtain a carbon dioxide (CO2) selective membrane. Two different modification procedures were developed in the present work. The procedures are denoted “evacuation” and “spinning technique”. Single gas permeation and n-hexane porosimetry were used for the characterisation of the membranes. CO2, nitrogen (N2), helium (He) and hydrogen (H2) were used as probe molecules in single gas permeation experiments. n-Hexane porosimetry was used to determine the amount of defects in the membranes. Both modified and unmodified samples were characterized using these techniques. It was found that a high concentration of Ca(NO3)2 deteriorated the membrane quality according to porosimetry data. The CO2/(H2, N2 or He) permeance ratios became slightly higher after modification of samples modified with a lower salt concentration. However, no significant difference between the two modified methods could be observed with respect to CO2 selectivity. It may be thus concluded that CaO was not optimally deposited in the silicalite-1 film. EDS and SEM analysis showed the concentration of Ca varied on the surface but was distributed without aggregates.

  • 2480.
    Abakumova, Olga
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    The use of the prepositions to and with after the verb to talk in British and American English: A corpus-based study2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a study of the use of the prepositions to/with after the verb to talk in British and American English. The research is based on the material from the COBUILDDirect corpus, Longman American Spoken Corpus and New York Times CD-ROM. The common and different features of the use of talk to/with in different genres of American and British English as well as in written and spoken English were studied; special attention was paid to the factors which influence the choice of the prepositions. The research has shown that generally talk with is used much less than talk to and probably is undergoing the process of narrowing of meaning. With after talk seems to be used most often to refer to two-way communication while talk to is used to refer to both one- and two-way communication and is, therefore, more universal than talk with.

  • 2481. Abalaka, J. L.
    et al.
    Ottosson, Ulf
    Tende, Talatu
    Larson, Keith W.
    Rock Firefinch Lagonosticta sanguinodorsalis in the Mandara Mountains, north-east Nigeria: a new subspecies?2010In: African Bird Club Bulletin, ISSN 1352-481X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 210-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    L’Amarante des rochers Lagonosticta sanguinodorsalis dans les Monts Mandara, Nigeria du sud-est: une nouvelle sous-espèce ? Nous fournissons une description d’un mâle et d’une femelle, ainsi que desphotos d’un mâle, d’un amarante capturé dans les Monts Mandara, au nord-est du Nigeria. Le plumage et le cri de cet amarante sont identiques à ceux de l’Amarante des rochers Lagonosticta sanguinodorsalis, une espèce précédemment rapportée de la zone, excepté que le mâle n’a pas la couronne grise typique de l’espèce. Des travaux supplémentaires sur le terrain sont nécessaires pour déterminer s’il agit d’un individu aberrant ou d’une population de l’Amarante des rochers morphologiquement distincte.

  • 2482.
    Abalo Caldera, Ernesto
    et al.
    Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap, Växjö universitet, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Martin
    Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap, Växjö universitet, Sweden.
    Om aktiva herrar för aktiva herrar: Mediesporten och dess publik2006In: Idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652-7224, p. 12 s.-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2483.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Class as deviance: Constructing the support for and opposition against Hugo Chávez2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By applying the methods of Critical Discourse Analysis this paper aims to explore how ideology works within the discursive construction of class, in the representation of the supporters and opponents of the government of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela. News items from New York Times (US), El País (Uruguay) and Dagens Nyheter (Sweden) constitute the analyzed material. The paper argues that class-markers are important in the representation of government supporters, whom many times are constructed as belonging to the poorer sectors of society. Class is however less explicit in the representation of Chávez-opposition, which in fact is lead by elite groups. It is therefore argued that class in this context becomes a marker of deviance, which in turn works ideologically in legitimizing oppositional groups and disqualifying the support for Chávez’ government.

  • 2484.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Class as deviance: constructing the support for and opposition against Hugo Chávez2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By applying the methods of Critical Discourse Analysis this paper aims to explore how ideology works within the discursive construction of class, in the representation of the supporters and opponents of the government of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela. News items from New York Times (US), El País (Uruguay) and Dagens Nyheter (Sweden) constitute the analyzed material. The paper argues that class-markers are important in the representation of government supporters, whom many times are constructed as belonging to the poorer sectors of society. Class is however less explicit in the representation of Chávez-opposition, which in fact is lead by elite groups. It is therefore argued that class in this context becomes a marker of deviance, which in turn works ideologically in legitimizing oppositional groups and disqualifying the support for Chávez’ government.

  • 2485.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Constructing democratic (de)legitimacy: Venezuela in foreign news discourse2013In: NordMedia Conference, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2486.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Constructing democratic (de)legitimacy: Venezuela in foreign news discourse2013In: NordMedia Conference, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2487.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Constructing (Il)Legitimate Democracy: Populism and Power Concentration in Newspaper Discourse on Venezuela2014In: tripleC (cognition, communication, co-operation): Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society / Unified Theory of Information Research Group, ISSN 1726-670X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 802-821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite scholarly consensus about the importance of the media for democracy, scant attention has been paid to what democracy means to journalistic discourse and how discourses on democracy are interrelated with legitimacy. The aim of this paper is to explore how (il)legitimate democracy is constructed in newspaper discourse. By using critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper examines foreign news items about Venezuela, a country that under the presidency of Hugo Chávez has challenged the dominant global political and economic orders. The analysis section focuses on two discourses about the Venezuelan government: the constructions of populism  and power concentration, which serve to mark deviance from what is perceived as a legitimate democracy. This paper argues that a liberal perception of democracy constitutes a central framework for the construction of (il)legitimate democracy, which is revealed not least by news discourse’s focus on what is morally unacceptable political conduct according to liberal democratic norms. In this respect, the media discourse serves to denounce potential abuses of governmental power but fail to recognize democracy in the context of a social struggle against the effects of neoliberalism and capitalism. In this case, the news media is hegemonic in the Gramscian sense, because it provides a framework of democracy that remains within the dominant economic and political structures.

  • 2488.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Constructing (Il)Legitimate Democracy: Populism and Power Concentration in Newspaper Discourse on Venezuela2014In: tripleC (cognition, communication, co-operation): Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society / Unified Theory of Information Research Group, ISSN 1726-670X, E-ISSN 1726-670X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 802-821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite scholarly consensus about the importance of the media for democracy, scant attention has been paid to what democracy means to journalistic discourse and how discourses on democracy are interrelated with legitimacy. The aim of this paper is to explore how (il)legitimate democracy is constructed in newspaper discourse. By using critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper examines foreign news items about Venezuela, a country that under the presidency of Hugo Chávez has challenged the dominant global political and economic orders. The analysis section focuses on two discourses about the Venezuelan government: the constructions of populism  and power concentration, which serve to mark deviance from what is perceived as a legitimate democracy. This paper argues that a liberal perception of democracy constitutes a central framework for the construction of (il)legitimate democracy, which is revealed not least by news discourse’s focus on what is morally unacceptable political conduct according to liberal democratic norms. In this respect, the media discourse serves to denounce potential abuses of governmental power but fail to recognize democracy in the context of a social struggle against the effects of neoliberalism and capitalism. In this case, the news media is hegemonic in the Gramscian sense, because it provides a framework of democracy that remains within the dominant economic and political structures.

  • 2489.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    First hegemony, then democracy: On ideology and the media discourse on the coup against Hugo Chávez2012In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 105-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the media discourse on the 2002 coup d’état against the government of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela, with the aim of exploring how ideology in media discourse helps construct democracy in a Latin American political context. Critical discourse analysis is used to examine written pieces from Dagens Nyheter (Sweden), El País (Uruguay), and the New York Times (US). The study finds that the discourse on the overthrow and the events preceding it constructs the coup as a potential victory for democracy and as the definitive end of Chávez. However, after the failure of the coup and the reinstallation of Chávez one can perceive discursive renegotiations, such as the publishing of non-fundamental criticism of the overthrow. The study argues that the media discourse on the coup displays a highly relativistic attitude towards democracy, which serves the interests of the elite classes in Venezuela and of US hegemony in global politics. The article also argues that the flexibility of the discourse at hand shows the need for a detailed analysis of how ideology is (re)formed in media discourse.

  • 2490.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    First hegemony, then democracy: on ideology and the media discourse on the coup against Hugo Chávez2012In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 105-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the media discourse on the 2002 coup d’état against the government of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela, with the aim of exploring how ideology in media discourse helps construct democracy in a Latin American political context. Critical discourse analysis is used to examine written pieces from Dagens Nyheter (Sweden), El País (Uruguay), and the New York Times (US). The study finds that the discourse on the overthrow and the events preceding it constructs the coup as a potential victory for democracy and as the definitive end of Chávez. However, after the failure of the coup and the reinstallation of Chávez one can perceive discursive renegotiations, such as the publishing of non-fundamental criticism of the overthrow. The study argues that the media discourse on the coup displays a highly relativistic attitude towards democracy, which serves the interests of the elite classes in Venezuela and of US hegemony in global politics. The article also argues that the flexibility of the discourse at hand shows the need for a detailed analysis of how ideology is (re)formed in media discourse.

  • 2491.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Konstgräs som miljöfråga i svenska nyhetsmedier: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to examine the framing of artificial turf as an environmental question in Swedish news media. This is done with the twofold purpose to (a) expand the knowledge of how the media covers environmental questions tied to microplastics – something that hitherto is unexplored – and (b) contribute with knowledge about how the media portrays the environmental gains with artificial turf (recycling and circular economical practices) vis-à-vis the environmental risks with the materials (the spread of plastics). 15 Swedish news media and a census of 250 articles published between 2014 and 2018 have been analyzed using content analysis. The results show that artificial turf as an environmental question is reported sparingly, although the coverage has increased from 2016 compared to the previous years. From that year, artificial turf is more clearly connected to the spread of plastics and rubber, which also is the most common environmental problem that artificial turf is associated with in the materials. Viewed against the backdrop of the traditional media logic’s tendencies of favoring problems and risks, the linking of artificial turf with the spread of plastics can explain the increased media interest for the topic. Environmental gains with artificial turf are not normally present in the coverage, which means that this aspect is overshadowed by the environmental risks and problems associated with artificial turf. However, about every third article whose main topic centers on artificial turf and the environment does express uncertainty about the environmental impacts of artificial turf. The framing of artificial turf as an environmental question is to some degree shaped by the public debate about plastics, which gives the media frames of interpretation, as well as makes the topic itself newsworthy.

  • 2492.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    News for global sustainability?: Reifying and othering social inequality in news2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses news journalism about inequality from a critical point of view, with the aim of contributing to the critical theorization of the relationship between journalism and sustainability. Sustainability and journalism on social inequality are perceived as intersecting in at least two ways. On one level, journalism can serve sustainable development by providing high-quality content that can help citizens to better understand the causes behind social inequality and how it can be overcome. On another level, journalism would itself gain much from sustainable development on a global level, since that would provide a good ground for a high-quality journalism characterized by its professional and democratic ethics rather than one that is strained by market-logics. The paper focuses on reification and problematizes the ways in which social inequality is reified in news journalism. Basing the argumentation on examples from international journalism, it is argued that although the existence of social inequality in a specific country can be acknowledged in the reporting – for example by the reference to rich and poor people and rich and poor geographic spaces – the social, political and historical causes of this inequality remain abstracted. In this sense, reification provides a rather objectivist account on inequality, which in turn limits the critique of the mechanisms that lie behind it. On the long run such constructions serve the legitimation of social inequality, which indeed ought to be seen as a sustainability problem. The paper also argues that for a more sustainable journalism to take place, a shift in the attitude towards social inequality and sustainable development must take place in the broader sociocultural context that surrounds journalism.

  • 2493.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    News Journalism for Global Sustainablility?: On the Problems with Reification and Othering when Reporting on Social Inequality2017In: What is Sustainable Journalism?: Integrating the Environmental, Social, and Economic Challenges of Journalism / [ed] Peter Berglez, Ulrika Olausson & Mart Ots, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 135-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2494.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Rifts in the hegemony: Swedish news journalism on cannabis legalization2019In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 1617-1634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the journalistic construction of the ongoing international renegotiation of cannabis, with the aim of contributing to the theorization of how journalism mediates between hegemonic and counter-hegemonic positions at times of crisis of hegemonic values. The study perceives the many ongoing attempts of legalizing and decriminalizing cannabis for recreational use as providing a disequilibrium to the hegemonic view of the substance as a dangerous narcotic that is rightly banned, and as intensifying a hegemonic struggle over the meaning of cannabis. Swedish print news journalism about cannabis legalization in different countries and contexts is studied, using critical discourse analysis. The analysis shows that journalism allows for debate between positive and skeptic discourses about the effects of recreational cannabis consumption and its medical benefits, and that voices that argue for cannabis legalization to combat organized crime are given important framing power. This means that a measure of legitimacy is given to discourses that counter the prohibitionist hegemony in Sweden, which means that mainstream journalism in this specific case serves as an arena for challenging hegemonic values that are in crisis.

  • 2495.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    Struck by the Potentials of Cannabusiness: Exploring the Relationship Between Neoliberal Ideology and Journalism in the Reporting on Legal Cannabis2019In: tripleC (cognition, communication, co-operation): Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society / Unified Theory of Information Research Group, ISSN 1726-670X, E-ISSN 1726-670X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 86-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the reporting on legal cannabis in order to explore the operation of neoliberal ideology in journalistic discourse. Cannabis legalisation is here understood as a way for capitalism to create new market opportunities, besides being a turn away from the so-called ‘war on drugs’. The study understands neoliberalism as operating via market-based logics that are interrelated with other social logics, such as those pertaining to journalism (Phelan 2014). Critical discourse analysis is used for studying Swedish newspaper reporting on legal cannabis between 2013 and 2018. The study shows that a struggle between market-based logics and journalistic practices is visible, where journalism has difficulties in challenging core tenets of neoliberal ideology. The article concludes with a discussion of how the current conditions of journalism limit its ability to challenge neoliberal perspectives.

  • 2496.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    The construction of a ‘democratic transition’: The coup against Chávez in Swedish media2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2497.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The construction of a ‘democratic transition’: the coup against Chávez in Swedish media2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2498.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The slum-dwellers and the Latin American normal: The construction of chavistas and the Venezuelan opposition in foreign news discourse2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2499.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    The slum-dwellers and the Latin American normal: the construction of chavistas and the Venezuelan opposition in foreign news discourse2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2500.
    Abalo, Ernesto
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Through a Eurocentric lens: Difference and (de)legitimacy in foreign news discourse on Venezuela2013In: Ida Blom Conference, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
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