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  • 2201.
    Yu, Jeong Jin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lim, Gum Ok
    Gamble, Wendy C.
    Big five personality traits and physical aggression between siblings in South Korea: an actor-partner interdependence analysis2017Inngår i: Journal of family Violence, ISSN 0885-7482, E-ISSN 1573-2851, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 257-267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined actor and partner effects of the Big Five personality traits, assessed by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, on physical aggression within sibling dyadic interactions. Data were collected from 86 target adolescents receiving counseling services, their mothers, and closest-age siblings in South Korea. Mothers rated their children's personalities. Target adolescents and siblings reported their own personality, as well as their sibling's and their own perpetration of physical aggression against one another. Substantial self-other (i.e., mother and sibling) agreement was found for personality traits. Both actor and partner effects were found for the negative associations between extraversion, openness to experience, and conscientiousness and physical aggression among siblings. The current findings increase our understanding of personality traits implicated in physical aggression in general, and specifically aggression among siblings.

  • 2202.
    Yu, Jeong Jin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Park, Su Jung
    Predictors and the distal outcome of general Internet use: the identification of children's developmental trajectories2017Inngår i: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 483-497Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the predictors and distal outcome in relation to the frequency of online activities and investigated the presence of prototypical trajectories following different patterns of general Internet use over 5years. The data set consisted of a nationally representative sample of 2,840 fourth graders (M-age=9.86years) in South Korea at baseline. Analyses revealed rank-order stability in general Internet use with four latent classes: high stable (5.8%), high quadratic (20.3%), moderate stable (32.7%), and low stable (41.2%). Youth with higher levels of perceived parental monitoring knowledge, friendship closeness, and depressed mood at baseline were more likely to belong to the high stable class, while girls were more likely to be in the high quadratic or moderate stable classes relative to the low stable class. The high stable class had the greatest odds of reporting alcohol use at grade eight, whereas the low stable class had the lowest odds.

  • 2203. Zajenkoswski, M
    et al.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ledzinska, M
    Cognitive processes in Time perspective2015Inngår i: Time perspective Theory; Review, Research and Application: Essays in Honor of Philip G. Zimbardo / [ed] Stolarski, Maciej, Fieulaine, Nicolas, van Beek, Wessel, New York: New York: Springer , 2015, s. 243-255Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we explore the role of cognitive processes in time perspective. Extending previous findings, we present how individual differences in time orientation are related to intelligence, goal-directed behaviour, executive control and meta-cognition. First, we show that present fatalistic TP is negatively related to intelligence, and that future-oriented individuals tend to have higher general abilities. Further, we present the data, proving that risk taking is negatively correlated with the future positive scale. Another finding discussed here is that working memory development is a strong predictor of temporal orientation. Children who have efficient working memory updating functions in early school age exhibit higher tendency toward future positive when they are adolescents. Finally, our studies indicate, that time perspectives tend to correlate with meta-cognitive skills, knowledge and experiences, suggesting that the temporal orientation influences meta-cognition.

  • 2204.
    Zambianchi, Manuela
    et al.
    Department of psychology Bologna university.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Positive attitudes towards technologies and facets of well-being in older adults2018Inngår i: Journal of Applied Gerontology, ISSN 0733-4648, E-ISSN 1552-4523, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 371-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates the relevance of positive attitudes toward Internet technologies for psychological well-being and social well-being in old age. A sample of 245 elderly people (Mean age = 70; SD =9.1) filled in the Psychological Well-Being Questionnaire, the Social Well-Being Questionnaire, and Attitudes Toward Technologies Questionnaire (ATTQ). Favorable attitudes toward Internet technologies showed positive correlations with overall social well-being and all its components with the exception of social acceptance. Positive correlations with overall psychological well-being and two of its components, namely, personal growth and purpose in life, were also found. Two hierarchical multiple regression models underscored that positive attitudes toward Internet technologies constitute the most important predictor of social well-being, and it appears to be a significant predictor for psychological well-being as well. Results are discussed and integrated into the Positive Technology theoretical framework that sustains the value of technological resources for improving the quality of personal experience and well-being.

  • 2205. Zambianchi, Manuela
    et al.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Attitudes Towards and Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) Among Older Adults in Italy and Sweden: The Influence of Cultural Context, Socio-Demographic Factors, and Time Perspective2019Inngår i: Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, ISSN 0169-3816, E-ISSN 1573-0719, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 291-306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined determinants of attitudes towards and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in older adults, including variations in cultural context, socio-demographic factors (age, education, and gender) and the individual's time perspective. Towards this end, 638 older adults in Italy (n = 262, M = 71.7 years) and Sweden (n = 376, M = 69.9 years) completed the Swedish Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), the Attitude toward Technologies Questionnaire (ATTQ), and questions regarding use of specific digital technologies (e.g. Internet, Skype, Facebook); data were collected in 2013-2014. The results showed more positive attitudes toward ICTs in Swedish compared with Italian elderly as well as more frequent use of technologies. Regardless of nationality, younger age and higher levels of educational attainment was positively associated with attitudes towards ICTs. Male gender was associated with higher ATTQ scores in the Italian, but not in the Swedish, sample. Time perspective accounted for significant variance beyond the foregoing variables. S-ZTPI Past Negative, Future Negative and Present Fatalistic in particular, were (negatively) related to ATTQ scores, with a similar pattern for ICT use. Future Positive and Present Hedonistic were positively associated with ATTQ scores, across the samples. In conclusion, between-person differences in time perspective organization are an important factor to account for variability in attitudes towards and use of ICTs in old age, and appears to exert an influence over and beyond other significant predictors, such as cultural context, age/cohort membership, and educational level.

  • 2206. Zambianchi, M.G
    et al.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The relevance of time perspective for attitudes toward technologies in old age2014Inngår i: II International Conference on Time Perspective, Warsaw, Poland, 29 th July,-1th August, Warsawa, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2207.
    Zandler, Jonna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Job Crafting, psykisk hälsa och vårdkvalitet: Jämförelse av anställdas formande av sina arbeten i två europeiska länders äldreomsorg2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Job Crafting (JC) är en teori om hur anställda aktivt formar sina jobb. I denna tvärsnittsstudie undersöktes hur 530 anställda och chefer i svensk och spansk äldreomsorg skattade JC. Syftet var att undersöka hur land, position och JC kunde predicera psykisk hälsa och vårdkvalitet. JC mättes med Job Crafting Questionnaire, JCQ. Variablernas relation analyserades med multipel hierarkisk regressionsanalys. Huvudresultaten visade att variabelmodellen i viss mån predicerade psykisk hälsa och vårdkvalitet. Land gav högst grad av utfall. De svenska skattningarna visade lägre psykisk hälsa och vårdkvalitet än de spanska. Fler studier kan ge förståelse skillnaderna mellan länderna som framkom. För kunskap om JC behövs longitudinella studier av både kvalitativ och kvantitativ art. Det kan visa sätt att hantera europeisk äldreomsorgs framtida rekryteringsbehov och arbetsvillkor.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2208.
    Zhang, Anran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    How emotional videos influence motor timing and retrospective duration judgments.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    An emotionally involved event may subsequently appear shorter than an event of relative indifference for people. How are time-related behaviors influenced while people are emotionally affected? The purpose of this study was to test if ongoing estimates and retrospective reports of duration are similarly affected by emotional states. To test, 30 s emotional video clips were rated for Valence and Arousal by six participants. The videos were then used in a timing experiment where a new set of participants (twenty-five persons) carried out a repetitive motor timing paradigm while watching the videos and subsequently reported the perceived duration of the clip. In each of ten trials, participants first synchronized to a 700 ms isochronous interval with their index finger, and then continued unsupported as five different video clips were played in sequence, with each clip lasting 30s. At the end of each trial, participants reported their retrospective duration judgment of every video clip, and rated every video chip for Valence and Arousal. Emotion ratings suggested that the videos affected the subjects’ emotional states. Repetitive motor timing was not reliably affected by emotional states. Instead, retrospective reports of durations were affected by emotional states such that the durations estimated under high arousal conditions were significantly longer than those under low arousal conditions. The difference in results between repetitive motor timing and retrospective reports may be accounted for by the interval of 700 ms being too short to be cognitive-related.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2209.
    Zona, Carlotta Isabella
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Conceptual combination in nominal compounds: The effects of semantic transparency and frequency2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Compounding is a productive type of word-formation, especially in Germanic languages.However, the cognitive strategies involved in conceptual combination of compoundconstituents are still under debate. The linguistic construct of semantic transparency hasoften been regarded as a crucial factor in compound processing, although empiricalevidence has been mixed. The present study aims at investigating the effects of semantictransparency and frequency manipulations on the time signature and outcomes ofconceptual combination of nominal compounds in a Swedish adult sample. The categoricvariables of semantic transparency (transparent vs. opaque) and frequency (lexicalizedvs. novel) were manipulated in a set of 40 nominal compound words, which werepresented along with two depictions. One of the two depictions was “nondestructive”(i.e., compositional), and the other “destructive” (i.e., with a constituent reduced to onemain characteristics). Subjects were to choose the best depiction for each compound.Response times (RTs) and depictions of choice were recorded during each trial. Contraryto previous research, RTs were significantly shorter for opaque than for transparentstimuli, in both lexicalized and novel conditions. However, opaque stimuli were alsosignificantly more likely to yield an incorrect response in lexicalized conditions thanwere their transparent counterparts. In novel conditions, a significant interaction wasfound between semantic transparency and percentage of correct responses, indicating thatsubjects were highly likely to interpret novel compounds nondestructively. In conclusion,the results of the present study provide support for the interplay between parameters fromlinguistics and cognitive science, which might be engaged to different degrees in nominalcompound processing.

  • 2210.
    Zouagui, Amina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Svedström, Amanda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Genusperspektiv i handledningsrummet: Handledares berättelser om attityder till genus och tillämpning av ett genusperspektiv i handledning av studentterapeuter2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka: a) vilka attityder har handledare till genus? b) vilka attityder har handledare till en tillämpning av ett genusperspektiv i handledningen? och c) hur beskriver handledare att de tillämpar ett genusperspektiv i handledningen? med fokus på studentterapeuternas utveckling. Detta undersöktes genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med sex informanter, som analyserades med tematisk analys. Resultatet visade på att informanterna har en generell attityd att det är viktigt att vara genusmedveten, att det finns en skepsis mot en tillämpning av ett genusperspektiv med risk att det används felaktigt, och slutligen att de flesta informanterna har en passiv tillämpning av ett genusperspektiv. Resultatet går i linje med en uppfattning om att jämställdhet och genusmedvetenhet har blivit en passiv del av svenskars nationella identitet. Det går även i linje med tidigare studier som beskriver att psykologer tycks ha ett neutralt kunskapsideal med ett individperspektiv, vilket gör det svårare att praktiskt tillämpa genusperspektiv i handledning då det förankras i en socialkonstruktivistisk syn på individen och kräver ett samhällsperspektiv.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2211.
    Álvarez, Bernardo
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The relationship of self-reported reading habits and declarative memory2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the possibility that reading books might support declarative memory, and potentially contribute to the cognitive reserve and thereby minimize age-related decline in memory functions. It was a crosssectional study, where data were taken from 566 Betula Study participants, as well as the scores of declarative memory assessment tasks, and book reading reports. The tasks of episodic memory were sentence learning with and without encoding enactment –free and cued recall. The tasks of semantic memory were word fluency, initial letter A, M fivewords, B profession names, and SRB –vocabulary. Three-way analysis of variance was performed for hypothesis testing. The results showed that book reading might support declarative memory. There was a significant relationship between education and book reading. Was not found if book reading might minimize age-related decline. In conclusion, the study showed that book reading and years of education might support declarative memory.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2212.
    Åberg, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Johansson, Ida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    ACTUA!: En utvärdering av ett internetbaserat självhjälpsprogram med beteendeaktivering för behandling av depression2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Beteendeaktivering är en effektiv behandling vid depression. Forskningen är mer begränsad gällande effekten av internetadministrerad beteendeaktivering. Denna studie utvärderade således behandlingseffekten av två olika internetadministrerade självhjälpsprogram med terapeutstöd.  Totalt 42 deltagare med mild till måttlig depression randomiserades, efter bedömning, till två olika behandlingsgrupper och en kontrollgrupp. Behandlingen innehöll åtta textmoduler med tillhörande övningar.  En signifikant huvudeffekt av tid påvisades för alla grupper gällande depression och livskvalitet. En signifikant interaktionseffekt påvisades för ångest mellan behandlingsgruppen och kontrollgruppen. Inga signifikanta interaktionseffekter påvisades mellan behandlingsgrupperna. Medelstora till stora inomgruppseffektstorlekar för depression uppmättes i alla grupper. Att någon signifikant skillnad inte kunde påvisas mellan behandlingsgruppen och kontrollgruppen har troligen påverkats av att även kontrollgruppen förbättrats i stor utsträckning, vilket kan bero på depression går i cykler samt årstidsväxlingen från vinter till vår. Resultaten kan problematiseras ytterligare utifrån att inte alla deltagare fullföljde hela behandlingen och att det var få deltagare i varje grupp. Sammanfattningsvis pekar detta på att internetadministrerad beteendeaktivering är effektivt för mild till medelsvår depression och kan vara ett komplement eller alternativ till liveterapi.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Johansson & Åberg Examensuppsats
  • 2213.
    Ådén Wadenholt, Gustaf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Expected information gain predicts curiosity2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Curiosity has been defined as an intrinsic motivation for performing actions that result in a gain of knowledge (Berlyne, 1966; Loewenstein, 1994). As positive effects of curiosity on memorization of new knowledge were found by Kang et al., 2009, exploring the mechanisms behind curiosity can have great practical applications. Although information theoretic concepts have been linked to curiosity (Berlyne, 1966; Kang et al., 2009; Gottlieb, Oudeyer, Lopes & Baranes, 2013), this has not been tested empirically through an actual information theoretic operationalisation. This study aims to correct this by individually measuring the prior knowledge of participants and computing the expected information gain (IG) of an information rewarding action. To quantify the incentive value of curiosity a time delay was imposed on IG, forcing participants to a trade-off between maximizing information and minimizing time spent on the task. Through linear regression analysis, it is shown that curiosity is proportional to expected IG and that participants were prepared to invest 0.4 seconds per bit.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2214.
    Ådén Wadenholt, Gustaf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Look, but don't touch: The effect of curiosity on eye and mouse interaction2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The tradeoff between satisfying curiosity and maximizing performance was investigated. Subjects were given a two-armed-bandit task, in which they should select squares from two areas with different probabilities to reward points. With each choice, subjects also got to see part of a face. The intention was to spark curiosity about the identity, as faces are known to be of special interest to humans. Also, a method for interaction by eye fixation was conceived, and compared against interaction with a mouse. The study examined if subjects were willing to sacrifice task performance to satisfy their curiosity, and if eye interaction was more susceptible to this distraction. An effect of the face distractors on learning performance was found. Eye and mouse interaction showed different patterns of square selections, but no difference in the overall task performance could be measured. Possible improvements to the paradigm are considered.

  • 2215.
    Åhlén Nyström, Linnéa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    I GRÄNSLANDET: Förmåga att dra gränser mellan arbete och fritid till följd av informations- och kommunikationsteknikens krav2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den teknologiska utvecklingen har bidragit till att arbete kan utföras under mer flexiblaformer. Syftet med studien var därför att undersöka om skillnader i upplevelsen avinformations och kommunikationsteknikens krav (IKT-krav) påverkade möjligheterna att dragränser mellan arbete och fritid. Metoden för datainsamling var kvantitativ och 31enhetschefer erbjöds möjlighet att delta i studien genom att besvara en webbenkät.Svarsfrekvensen uppgick till 58 % (N = 18). Studiens huvudresultat visade på signifikantaskillnader i förhållande till mental distansering från arbetet, där de som upplevde låga IKTkravskattade förmågan till mental distansering högre och de som upplevde höga IKT-kravskattade förmågan till mental distansering lägre. Det betyder att när kraven om tillgänglighetoch förväntningar på respons ökar på enhetscheferna, så är upplevelsen att förmågan tillmental distansering minskar. Utövad gränsstrategi visade inte på några signifikantaskillnader. Resultaten betraktas med försiktighet eftersom deltagarantalet är lågt. Någragenerella slutsatser bör inte dras men den praktiska relevansen är av värde i sammanhanget.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2216. Åkerstedt, T.
    et al.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Westerholm, P.
    Fischer, H.
    Nilsson, L. -G
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fatigue/sleepiness and important aspects of sleep restoration improve across aging2014Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, s. 241-241Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2217.
    Åkerstedt, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    A study of risks of threats and violence toward hospital staff in relation to patient access to electronic medical records2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012, the county of Uppland in Sweden launched a service granting patients online access to their electronic medical record (EMR), including the list of staff who have logged into the record (the “log list”). Patients seem predominantly positive to this service whereas many professionals, physicians specifically, have expressed concerns about, for example, increased risks of threats and violence towards healthcare staff. One year after launch the present study was conducted to examine whether staff whose patients had gained access to online EMRs experienced greater risks of threats and violence, and were exposed to more threats and violence, than those whose patients had not yet gained access. The extent to which professional role, gender, work experience and staff attitudes to the service were important factors was also examined. A total of 174 professionals at Uppsala University Hospital responded to a web survey (35% response rate). 83 represented the emergency department, whose patients had online EMR access, and 91 represented the psychiatric department, whose patients had not. 40% of all participating professionals, emergency physicians and psychiatric staff specifically, believed that risks of threats and violence increase after launch. The results did not, however, support a correlation between patient access to online EMRs and more incidents of threats and violence, and only one respondent reported that patient access had played any significant negative role in relation to an incident. These and other results may prove useful as the online EMR service is now being launched in other Swedish counties as well.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2218.
    Åkesson, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Repeated testing with feedback enhances learning of educational material compared to re-study2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Repeated testing
  • 2219.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Being in balance or stuck in time: exploring facets of time processing in relation to mental health2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is central in human functioning and crucial for adaptive behavior. The aim of the current thesis was to investigate aspects of people’s subjective experience of time and their relationship with mental health, specifically anxiety and subjective well-being. Two time concepts were of key interest in the thesis: time estimation, which refers to the ability to estimate time durations; and time perspective, which refers to people’s habitual way of relating to the past, the present, and the future.

     The thesis comprehends four studies. In the first three studies, time perspective and time estimation were investigated in persons with varying degrees of anxiety, ranging from mild symptoms to anxiety disorders. The results of these studies showed that in particular negative past time perspective and negative future time perspective were associated with anxiety. These time perspectives were further strongly associated with the tendency to ruminate and worry. Time estimation did not largely deviate between persons with anxiety and healthy controls, although there was some evidence that subcomponents of anxiety might be differentially related to time estimation. More specifically, state anxiety was moderately related to retrospective time estimation, such that higher levels of state anxiety was associated with judging time intervals in retrospect as longer.

     In the final study of the thesis, balanced time perspective (BTP) was examined in relation to subjective well-being and age. BTP can be described as an optimal way of relating to the past, the present and the future and has been suggested to facilitate mental health and well-being. However, there are several ways to measure BTP, and there are also indications that what constitutes a BTP is not completely age-invariant or equally associated with well-being across age. The fourth study of the thesis thus aimed at examining three methods of measuring BTP, and each methods distinct association with subjective well-being and age were examined. The study was conducted in a population-based sample of older adults (age range 60 – 90 years of old). Results of this study indicated subjective well-being is strongly related to BTP, particularly methods of measuring BTP that incorporates negative future time perspective. However, the strong (and inverse) relationship between negative future time perspective and subjective well-being diminished with increasing age. Instead, and among the oldest participants in the sample (80+ years), fatalistic views of the present had more bearing on subjective well-being.

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  • 2220.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Exploring multiple concepts of psychological time in relation to anxiety2014Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 60, s. S11-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is a central part of human experience. Different timing functions are vital for adequate behavioral outcomes, and individual differences in time perspective can be associated with both well-being and mental distress.The aim of this study is to discuss several aspects of temporal processing in relation to anxiety. Specifically, our findings suggest that moderate anxiety is associated with systematic biases in Future Negative- and Past Negative time perspectives. Further, in exploring the possible underlying mechanisms that mediate time perspective in anxiety, preliminary data on the relationship between aspects of cognitive control (inhibition), time perspective and anxiety will be presented. The findings will be discussed according to their clinical and theoretical implications.

  • 2221.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Exploring the links between time perspective, anxiety, rumination and aspects of cognitive control2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2222.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sircova, A.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Time perspective, time stimation and time reproduction in anxiety2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2223.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Depressive symptoms and time perspective in older adults: associations beyond personality and negative life events2019Inngår i: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 23, nr 12, s. 1674-1683Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the extent to which time perspective, an individual’s habitual way of relating to the past, the present, and the future time frames, accounts for variations in self-reported depressive symptoms among older adults.

    Method: Four hundred two participants (60–90 years) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and the Swedish Zimbardo Time perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI). The influence of personality as reflected by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and self-reported negative life events (NLEs) were controlled for in hierarchic regression analyses.

    Results: The six S-ZTPI dimensions accounted for 24.5% of the variance in CES-D scores beyond age and gender. Half of the variance remained when the TCI factors and NLEs were controlled for. Past Negative, Future Negative, and Past Positive (inverse association) were the significant unique predictors. Significant age interactions were observed for two S-ZTPI dimensions, with a diminished association to depressive symptoms for Future Negative and a magnified association for Present Fatalistic with higher age.

    Conclusions: The results demonstrate a substantial relation between facets of time perspective and depressive symptoms in old age. They also indicate an age-related shift in the relative importance from concerns about of the future (Future Negative) to the present (Present Fatalistic) with increased age. In young old-age, when the future is more ‘open’, future worries (Future Negative) may be a more frequent source of distress. In late senescence, perceived threats to autonomy (e.g. physical health problems and cognitive deficits), as reflected by higher scores on Present Fatalistic, may instead have more bearing on mood state.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2224.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Seif, Ali
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Getting "stuck" in the future or the past: Relationships between dimensions of time perspective, executive functions, and repetitive negative thinking in anxiety2018Inngår i: Psychopathology, ISSN 0254-4962, E-ISSN 1423-033X, Vol. 51, s. 362-370Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aim: Anxiety disorders are associated with impairments in several aspects of cognitive processing. In this study we investigated three such aspects, i.e., time perspective, repetitive negative thinking (worry and rumination),and executive functioning, in persons with anxiety disorders compared to healthy controls and examined the influence of negative past and negative future time perspective and executive functioning on worry and rumination.

    Method: Thirty-six psychiatric outpatients with anxiety disorders (mean age = 30.83, SD = 11.74; 30 females and 6 males) and 44 healthy controls (mean age = 28.89, SD = 9.54; 24 females and 20 males) completed inventories of time perspective and repetitive negative thinking, and tasks measuring executive functioning (shifting and inhibition).

    Results: The groups (patient vs. control) differed significantly on all time perspective dimensions (past, present, and future), with largest effect sizes observed for negative past and negative future. Regression analyses with executive functioning, negative past, and negative future time perspectives as predictors, and worry and rumination as outcomes, showed that negative past time perspective was the best predictor for rumination, whereas negative future time perspective more strongly predicted worry. Executive functioning was not a significant predictor of either worry or rumination.

    Conclusions: Individuals with anxiety disorders demonstrated systematic biases in all time perspective dimensions, particularly negative past and negative future time perspective, which was further related to worry and rumination. Thus, interventions targeting temporal focus may be one way of reducing repetitive negative thinking. A major limitation of this study was the use of a cross-section design. 

  • 2225.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Time estimation in patients with anxiety disorders: Relationships with worry and state anxietyManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2226.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sircova, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Insights into features of anxiety through multiple aspects of psychological time2014Inngår i: Journal of Integrative Psychology and Therapeutics, ISSN 2054-4723, Vol. 2, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is well-recognized that emotions and emotional disorders may alter the experience of time. Yet relatively little is known about different aspects of psychological time in relation to anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to explore several aspects of temporal processing, including time perspective, prospective and retrospective time estimation, in persons with anxiety symptoms.

    Methods: A total of 110 individuals with varying degrees of anxiety participated in two studies. They were assigned to two groups (anxiety–control) based on their scores on anxiety measurements. Participants also completed an inventory of time perspective and several time estimation tasks which were analyzed on a group-level. Depressive symptoms were assessed and used as a covariate in the second study.

    Results: Anxiety was significantly associated with Past Negative and Future Negative time perspectives as measured by the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), even when controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms. No other significant differences were found.

    Conclusion: Exploring time perspective in persons with anxious symptoms may provide important insights into features of anxiety. These findings may offer new ways of conceptualizing anxiety and provide suggestions for treatment strategies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2227.
    Åström, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Adelmann, Siri
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    DAILY THOUGHTS OF LEAVING THE PROFESSION AMONGST NEWLY GRADUATED PSYCHOLOGISTS2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis was to investigate how thoughts of leaving the profession amongst newly graduated psychologists were influenced by different factors, such as Basic psychological needs (BPN), Job satisfaction, and perceived preparation and support in the transitions from 1) studies to supervised practice (from here on referred to as the Swedish term PTP) and 2) from supervised practice to working as licensed psychologist. This was investigated based on a resource and motivation perspective including Job-Demands Resources theory and Self- Determination theory. A questionnaire was distributed to psychologists within three years from date of graduation (n=1077). The present sample included 529 psychologists either licenced or PTP. A binary logistic regression demonstrated that higher perceived levels of support and preparation in the transition from education to PTP (Transition 1), was negatively related to thoughts of leaving the profession. The influence of Transition 1 lost its significance when the dimensions of the BPNs were added for the PTP sample, and when the transition from PTP to licensed (Transition 2) was added as a predictor for the licensed psychologists. Transition 2 for the licensed psychologists was no longer significant when adding the BPNs. Higher levels of Job satisfaction were negatively related to thoughts of leaving the profession only among licensed psychologists. The results indicate that the influence of BPNs should not be underestimated in this kind of study nor during the first years in the profession. 

  • 2228. Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Sundin, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Intervjuer som prognosinstrument för studieframgång2005Inngår i: Nordisk Psykologi: teori, forskning, praksis, ISSN 0029-1463, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 271-287Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different admission procedures (high school grades/scholastic tests and high school grades/scholastic tests/interview) to the five-year Master's Program in Professional Psychology at Stockholm University were examined. The analyses were based on data from students who were admitted on a combination of high school grades/scholastic test and interview, and students who were admitted based only on high school grades/scholastic test. In the final semester of the five-year Psychologist Program, the students and their supervisors rated the student's development of psychotherapeutic knowledge and skills, and their relation to the supervisor and the supervision group. A self rating scale was used. The results showed that students who were admitted upon interview and their supervisors, rated significantly higher on all factors. Moreover, students admitted upon interview rated their development of psychotherapeutic skill significantly higher than students admitted traditionally. The corresponding difference between supervisor ratings was not significant. Both student and supervisor ratings indicated that the students admitted by an interview had a better relation to their supervisor and to their supervision group.

  • 2229. Ögren, ML
    et al.
    Jonsson, CO
    Sundin, EC
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Group supervision in psychotherapy: The relationship between focus, group climate, and perceived attained skill2005Inngår i: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0021-9762, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 373-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2230.
    Öhberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Paul, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The How or the What: The Impact of Narrative Style on Empathy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Narratives in the forms of music or literature have traditionally been highlightedfor their ability to evoke empathy; however, the specific features of the narrativethat serve as the underlying mechanisms responsible for this effect remain unclear.The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a narrative’s style onempathy. An experimental repeated measures research design was used with 41participants (31 female, 10 male; age range 20-63 yrs, M=30.2 yrs) that underwentthree conditions each comprised of a different stimulus (i.e., a song, a piece ofprose and a poem), with the same narrative content but differing in style. The orderof the stimuli was randomized across participants. After each stimulus, empatheticresponses were captured via self reports, measuring valence and arousal of theparticipant, as well as their perceived valence and arousal of the main character ofthe narrative. The song had a strong correlation between participant-rating andcharacter-rating on valence and arousal, thus evoking a stronger (affective)empathetic response than the other two styles of stimuli, having moderatecorrelations. The character-rating barely differed between the style of stimuli, andthe narrative first presented lowered the participants’ valence regardless of style.These findings could possibly be explained by cognitive empathy responding to thenarrative, evoking the same understanding of another person, whereas affectiveempathy seem more prone to respond to stylistic features. Future research andpossible therapeutic implications are discussed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2231.
    Öhlund, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
     Brain Areas Involved in the Retrieval of Updated Memories: The Long-Term Effects2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2232.
    Öhman, Albin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Enkvist, Hampus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Riskfaktorer för stabil insomni: Demografi, livsstil, mental ohälsa och funktionella somatiska syndrom2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Risken att drabbas av insomni har visat sig samvariera med flera demografiska och livsstilsrelaterade variabler, diagnostiserade sjukdomar och syndrom samt grad av psykisk ohälsa. Syftet med studien var att klarlägga huruvida detta samband även uppvisas för stabil insomni definierat som insomni vid två mätpunkter med tre års mellanrum. Stickprovet i studien utgjordes av 2336 personer ur normalbefolkningen i åldrarna 18-79 år. Utfallsvariablerna utgjordes av frågor om demografi, livsstil och läkarbaserade diagnoser om psykiatriska tillstånd och funktionella somatiska syndrom, samt totalvärden på validerade enkätinstrument för kvantifiering av grad av stress, utbrändhet, ångest och depression. Resultaten visade att risken för stabil insomni var förhöjd i åldrarna 18-29 år, för kvinnor, vid samtliga diagnostiserade sjukdomar och syndrom samt vid högre grad av psykisk ohälsa. För att tillhandahålla en god vård kan det därför vara nödvändigt att även adressera eventuella sömnproblem hos dessa patientgrupper, särskilt kvinnor och unga.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Examensarbete_Hampus Enkvist och Albin Öhman_Riskfaktorer för stabil insomni Demografi, livsstil, mental ohälsa och funktionella somatiska syndrom
  • 2233.
    Öhman, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Perceived chronic stress, health and cognition2006Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this licentiate thesis was to examine consequences of chronic stress for stressrelated diseases and to investigate the chronic stress – cognition relationship. In the first study data covering ten years was used from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study (Nilsson et al., 1997). Based on the ratings on a stress scale, matched samples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high and low stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumor, and musculoskeletal diseases wasassessed five and ten years after a baseline assessment. The incidence of diseases five years after baseline assessment showed no differences between the groups. After ten years, there was a higher incidence of psychiatric diseases in the high stress group as well as a significant effect for tumors. These results indicated that moderately elevated stress levels may have an impact on psychiatric diseases, especially depression, and possibly also some tumor diseases, but it was concluded that prolonged moderate stress does not appear to be very harmful to health in general. In the second study cognitive performance was studied in chronic stress outpatients and matched controls. A battery of cognitive tests assessing processing speed, attention, episodic-, semantic- and working memory was used. Performance decrements for thechronic stress patients were found in episodic memory, particularly in learning across repeated trials, and in tasks requiring divided attention under either encoding or retrieval of words. Performance differences were also seen in aspects of working memory, mental tempo, semantic access (letter fluency) and prospective memory. It was concluded that executive functioning may be suboptimal in chronic stress patients and that letter fluency and prospective memory tests can be useful as clinical tools when evaluating chronic stressstates. Taken together, the findings indicate that there is no clear association between moderately elevated chronic stress and increased incidence of stress related diseases, whereas certain cognitive functions such as executive functioning appear vulnerable to chronic stress.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2234.
    Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Longitudinal analysis of the relation between moderate long-term stress and health2007Inngår i: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 131-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of the present work was to longitudinally examine consequences of long-term moderately elevated levels of stress for various health outcomes. To address this issue, data covering 10 years was used from the ongoing Swedish population-based prospective Betula Study. Based on the ratings on a validated self-reported stress scale, matched subsamples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high (n = 137) and low (n = 211) stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumour and musculoskeletal diseases was assessed 5 and 10 years after baseline (baseline = 1993–1995) without contaminating effects of past health history. The incidence of diseases 5 years after baseline assessment showed no differences between the groups. After 10 years, there was a significantly higher incidence of psychiatric diseases, mainly depression in the high-stress group as well as a significant effect for tumours, although the number of cases was low. Although moderately elevated stress level may have a possible impact on psychiatric diseases especially depression and some tumours, it seems that prolonged moderate stress does not appear to be harmful to other stress-related diseases.

  • 2235.
    Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Slunga Birgander, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Cognitive function in outpatients with perceived chronic stress2007Inngår i: Scand J Work Environ Health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 223-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2236.
    Öhman, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Davidsson, Jennie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Att träna eller inte träna: En dagboksstudie om sambanden mellan fysisk aktivitet, motivation och atletisk identitet2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet för en ökad fysisk aktivitet hos befolkningen är komplext, då många faktorer påverkar en individs aktivitetsnivå. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka dagliga och generella samband mellan atletisk identitet, motivation och träningsmängd. I studien användes en dagboksdesign och data samlades in med en webbenkät varje dag under sju dagar. Studenter från tre universitet deltog och datamaterialet härrörde från 156 personer och 686 mättillfällen. Data analyserades med flernivåanalys, vilket möjliggjorde separering av effekter på två nivåer; inomindivids- och mellanindividsnivå. På inomindividsnivå predicerade identifierad reglering högre träningsmängd, vilket indikerade att internaliserade värderingar, som kan tänkas påverkas av sociala intryck, är viktiga för individers dagliga träningsmängd. Även amotivation visade ett dagöverskridande samband, och predicerade lägre träningsmängd. På mellanindividsnivå predicerade introjicerad reglering lägre träningsmängd, vilket kan förklaras av externa faktorer som associeras med urvalsgruppen. Resultatet visade en trend mot att individer med starkare atletisk identitet generellt tränade mer, detta i linje med tidigare studier. Starkare atletisk identitet visade även ett samband med mer autonoma typer av motivation, vilket teoretiskt kan förklaras av begreppens liknande processer där externa motiv integreras i individens värderingar och påverkar dennes beteende. Studien belyser värdet av att inom idrottsforskning studera samband på flera nivåer. Fler studier bör undersöka sambanden mellan olika psykologiska faktorer, för att bättre förstå hur de samvarierar och påverkar individers träningsbeteende.

  • 2237.
    Ölund, Victor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Att komma hem: Vägen till att återanpassa sig till det civila Sverige för svenska veteraner utforskad genom tolkande fenomenologisk analys2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns många hinder som veteraner upplever inför återanpassning, något som denna studie ämnar utforska på anledning av begränsad forskning i området. De främsta problemen de fem deltagande veteranerna upplever är oförstående från samhället, bristande stöd från sina närstående, att försvarsmakten inte gör tillräckligt och vården saknar tillräcklig kompetens. Deltagarna uttrycker också tecken på osäkerhet kring den egna identiteten vid hemkomst, att de inte vet vad som förväntas av dem. Samtidigt visar deltagarna omtanke för kamrater även när de själva lidit av substansmissbruk och utfört två suicidförsök. Kontentan kretsar kring att deltagarna vill se mer allmänbildning hos allmänheten för att underlätta återanpassning samt att försvarsmakten utökar sitt ansvar för omhändertagande av veteraner.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Att komma hem
  • 2238.
    Örmin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nilsson, Emelie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stillasittande på arbetsplatsen: Kontorsarbetares inställningar och attityder2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Långvarigt stillasittande innebär hälsorisker och bland kontorsarbetare är stillasittande ett vanligt förekommande beteende. Bristfällig forskning finns om vilka faktorer som påverkar kontorsarbetares stillasittande beteende. Syftet med studien var att undersöka kontorsarbetares inställning och attityder avseende stillasittande på arbetstid med förhoppningen om att skapa förståelse för kontorsarbetares stillasittande beteende. Beteendets ABC, Den ekologiska modellen för stillasittande beteende samt Self Determination Theory användes som teoretiskt ramverk. Undersökningsdeltagarna var 21 kontorsarbetande män och kvinnor i Umeå. Datainsamling utfördes med tre fokusgruppintervjuer och analyserades med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visade på faktorer som hindrar och möjliggör ett minskat stillasittande på individ-, grupp- och organisationsnivå. Faktorerna påverkar det stillasittande beteendet. Studiens slutsats var att ett minskat stillasittande för kontorsarbetare kräver insatser som involverar individen, gruppen och organisationen. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Stillasittande på arbetsplatsen
  • 2239.
    Östberg, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Predicting depression and anxiety with a single self-rated health item2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Self-rated health (SRH) consists of a single question wherein individuals are asked to evaluate their general health status on a 5-point scale. This study investigated the relationship between SRH and depression/anxiety, with the purpose of getting a better understanding of how the two disorders are related to perceived general health, and to examine the possibility of using SRH as clinical tool for identifying individuals with increased risk for onset and persistent states of depression and anxiety. The study used cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study, a large questionnaire-based population study in northern Sweden. 2336 individuals participated at baseline (T1) and 3-year follow-up (T2). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure symptoms of depression and anxiety. The results showed that those with poor SRH rated more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety, than those with good SRH. Those with poor SRH at T1 had more than twofold increased risk of falling into the depression and anxiety case groups at T2. Specifically, they more often experienced onset of symptoms at T2 as well as symptoms that persisted across the two occasions. The results corresponds in large with those from previous studies and supports the utility of SRH as a clinical tool, with the reservation that it may not be strong enough predictor on its own.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2240.
    Öster, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Tavelin, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Edberg Thyme, Karin
    Magnusson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lindh, Jack
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Art therapy during radiotherapy – A five-year follow-up study with women diagnosed with breast cancer2014Inngår i: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 36-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Follow-up studies on art therapy are lacking. In a randomised art therapy intervention study from 2001 to 2004 with women with breast cancer, results showed that patients benefitted from participating in art therapy for up to four months after the intervention. The aim of this study was to describe the coping resources and quality of life amongst women treated for breast cancer five to seven years after participating in individual art therapy during radiotherapy as compared to a control group. In 2009, thirty-seven women, 18 from the intervention group and 19 from the control group, answered questionnaires about their coping resources and quality of life. The results showed no significant difference between the groups regarding their coping resources or quality of life, except for an unexpected significantly lower score in the domain 'Social relations' in the study group as compared to baseline, at the time of the follow up. However, our study from 2001 to 2004 supports various positive effects of art therapy within six months of participation as compared to a control group. Consequently, attending art therapy during the treatment period for breast cancer can be of great importance to support health, coping and quality of life in a short-term perspective.

  • 2241.
    Öster, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Tavelin, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Egberg Thyme, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Magnusson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lindh, Jack
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Art therapy during radiotherapy: a five-year follow-up study with women diagnosed with breast cancer2014Inngår i: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 36-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Follow-up studies on art therapy are lacking. In a randomised art therapy intervention study from 2001-2004 with women with breast cancer, results showed that patients benefitted from participating in art therapy for up to at least four months after the intervention. The aim of this study was to describe the coping resources and quality of life amongst women treated for breast cancer five - seven years after participating in individual art therapy during radiotherapy as compared to a control group. In 2009, thirty-seven women, 18 from the intervention group and 19 from the control group, answered questionnaires about their coping resources and quality of life. The results showed no significant difference between the groups regarding their coping resources or quality of life, except for an unexpected significantly lower score in the domain ‘Social relations’ in the study group as compared to baseline, at the time of the follow up. However, our study from 2001–2004 supports various positive effects of art therapy within six months of participation as compared to a control group. Consequently, attending art therapy during the treatment period for breast cancer can be of great importance to support health, coping and quality of life in a short-term perspective.

  • 2242.
    Öster, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lindh, Jack
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Magnusson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Women with breast cancer and gendered limits and boundaries: Art therapy as a safe space for enacting alternative subject positions2009Inngår i: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 29-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes its starting point from certain results from our randomized study on art therapy with women with breast cancer. Previous results from this study showed significant benefits on coping, quality of life, and symptoms for women who participated in an art therapy intervention. Analyses of interviews and diaries showed that especially women from the intervention group had distanced themselves from traditionally gendered understandings about cultural limits and boundaries. The aim of this study was to gain further knowledge about how women with breast cancer who participated in the art therapy intervention gave meaning to the gendered limits and boundaries in their daily lives, and to trace their trajectories, in therapy, towards helpful management of restraining boundaries. When analyzing the women's verbal reflections on the therapy sessions, we discerned five subject positions, defining them as follows: being someone who reacts to violation attempts; actively connecting body and self; actively locating oneself and moving forward; being in a position to see important connections throughout life; and being able to acknowledge and harbour conflicting emotions. The results of the study suggest that art therapy served as a tool that helped the women to get access to subject positions that enabled them to protect and strengthen their boundaries. This involved challenging dominating discourses and reacting against perceived boundary violations. Art therapy offered a personal, physical, and pictorial “safe space” with opportunities to deal with complex existential experiences and issues, and also make important connections throughout life. Looking back and summarizing important experiences acted as a way to prepare oneself for the future and moving forward.

  • 2243.
    Österman, Christine
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Vi är KRAV-märkta: Äldreomsorgens förutsättningar ger konsekvenser för psykosocial arbetsmiljö och hälsa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 1990-talet skedde stora förändringar inom vård och omsorg i kommunal verksamhet på grund av kommunallagsändringen vilket innebar omorganiseringar, nedskärningar och effektiviseringar. Detta bidrog till sämre arbetsmiljö särskilt inom vård och omsorg. Belastningsskador och stress ökade. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka enhetschefers möjlighet att utöva närvarande ledarskap samt deras och medarbetares upplevelser av ledarskap och psykosocial arbetsmiljö och hälsa. Två äldreboenden i Umeå kommun ingick i studien i sammanlagt tre fokusgruppsintervjuer, en med enhetschefer och två med medarbetare totalt 12 deltagare. En abduktiv kvalitativ innehållsanalys genomfördes. Resultatet utmynnade i sju teman och visar att enhetscheferna upplevde att de inte har någon möjlighet att vara närvarande, att det är hög arbetsbelastning för både enhetschefer och medarbetare, att det upplevs saknas socialt stöd för enhetschefer och mellan enhetschef och medarbetare, att det brister i kommunikationen, delaktighet och rättvisa. Hälsan påstods vara bättre för enhetschefer än medarbetare men trivseln är bra i båda grupperna. Närvarande ledarskap ansågs i dagsläget svårt att utöva då det saknas både tid och stöd och det finns brister i den psykosociala arbetsmiljön som påverkar medarbetarnas hälsa negativt.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2244.
    Österman, Christine
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    "Vi är KRAV-märkta": Äldreomsorgens förutsättningar ger konsekvenser för psykosocial arbetsmiljö och hälsa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 1990-talet skedde stora förändringar inom vård och omsorg i kommunal verksamhet på grund av kommunallagsändringen vilket innebar omorganiseringar, nedskärningar och effektiviseringar. Detta bidrog till sämre arbetsmiljö särskilt inom vård och omsorg. Belastningsskador och stress ökade. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka enhetschefers möjlighet att utöva närvarande ledarskap samt deras och medarbetares upplevelser av ledarskap och psykosocial arbetsmiljö och hälsa. Två äldreboenden i Umeå kommun ingick i studien i sammanlagt tre fokusgruppsintervjuer, en med enhetschefer och två med medarbetare totalt 12 deltagare. En abduktiv kvalitativ innehållsanalys genomfördes. Resultatet utmynnade i sju teman och visar att enhetscheferna upplevde att de inte har någon möjlighet att vara närvarande, att det är hög arbetsbelastning för både enhetschefer och medarbetare, att det upplevs saknas socialt stöd för enhetschefer och mellan enhetschef och medarbetare, att det brister i kommunikationen, delaktighet och rättvisa. Hälsan påstods vara bättre för enhetschefer än medarbetare men trivseln är bra i båda grupperna. Närvarande ledarskap ansågs i dagsläget svårt att utöva då det saknas både tid och stöd och det finns brister i den psykosociala arbetsmiljön som påverkar medarbetarnas hälsa negativt.

  • 2245.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Self-concept and perception of early mother and father behavior in normal and antisocial adolescents2004Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 45, nr 5, s. 437-447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the self-concept and perceptions of early parental behavior in a group of 277 normal adolescents with respect to differences in age (12–18 years) and gender. A group of 30 antisocial adolescents of similar age (13–19 years) were included as a comparison group. The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire study and the Swedish translation of the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) introject and mother/father questionnaires were used as measures of self- and parental concepts. Multivariate analyses of variance show that the normal adolescent self-concept and perception of early parental behavior are positive and that there are no age or gender differences. The early behavior of the mother is perceived more positively than that of the father. A positive self-concept is related to a positive perception of the parent's early behavior. The antisocial group of adolescents shows a more autonomous and negative self-concept and more negative perception of early parental behaviors. This was true especially in the group of antisocial girls. The conclusion from the study is that there is no evidence of a chaotic self-concept or tumultuous changes in the perceptions of early parental behavior during normal adolescence, but that an antisocial way of life might be reflected in a more negative and autonomous self-concept and in more negative perceptions of early parental behavior during adolescence.

  • 2246.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Self-concept, inner residue of past relationships and current social functioning.: A study of age and gender differences in normal and antisocial adolescents.2004Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents several studies of normative development in adolescence, focusing specifically on internalized perceptions of parents’ early behavior and how these perceptions affect the self-concept and social functioning during. Questions of possible age and gender differences in relation to perceptions of self-concept and early parental behavior are addressed. The patterns found in a normal adolescent group are compared with those in a group of adolescents with antisocial problems. Two hundred seventy-seven normal adolescents aged 12 to18 and 30 adolescents with antisocial problems aged 13-19 were investigated. The following self-administered instruments were used: self-concept assessments, the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) introject questionnaire, perception of early parental behavior assessment, the SASB mother/father questionnaires, and the EMBU (A Swedish acronym for “own memories of upbringing”). The Youth Self Report checklist (YSR) was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems.

    Studies I and II showed that the normal adolescent self-concept and perception of early parental behavior were positive and that there were no age or gender differences. The antisocial group of adolescents, and particularly the antisocial girls, showed a more autonomous and negative self-concept and more negative perceptions of early parental behaviors.

    Study III showed that a positive self-concept was related to a positive perception of parent’s early behavior.

    Study IV showed that an adolescent’s positive self-concept was influenced by a mix of mother acting positively and father acting with control. Adolescent self-control was indirectly influenced by parental control behavior mediated through self-affiliation.

    Study V showed that a positive self-concept was important for adjustment. A negative self-concept combined with female gender was a risk factor for internalizing problems. Self-control had only a small effect on social adjustment in adolescence. The relationship between a negative self-concept and externalizing problem behavior was stronger for adolescents aged 15 to 16 than for younger or older adolescents. Internalizing problem behavior influenced externalizing problems.

    The results presented in this thesis support a modified “storm-and-stress” view of adolescence and highlight the importance of promoting a positive self-concept in every adolescent in various psychosocial contexts.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2247.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Perception of early mother and father behavior in adolescence.: A study of age and gender differences in groups of normal and antisocial adolescents2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined age and gender differences in the perceptions of early mother and father behavior in a group of normal adolescents. Two hundred and seventy-seven boys and girls (aged 12–18 years) completed EMBU (My memories of Upbringing), a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, and questionnaires based on the Structural Analysis of Social behavior (SASB) model. A group of 30antisocial adolescents of similar age was included as a comparison group.The results show that the normal adolescents’ perception of earlyparental behavior is positive with no age or gender differences. The earlybehavior of the mother was perceived more positively than that of thefather. A more negative perception of early parental behaviors was foundin the antisocial adolescent group and especially in the group of antisocial girls. The results of EMBU were consistent with those of SASB with perceptions of more negative parental behavior of rejection and overprotection in the group of antisocial adolescents.

  • 2248.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Self-concept in adolescence.: A study of age and gender differences in groups of normal and antisocial adolescents2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the self-concept in a group of 277 normaladolescents with respect to differences in age (12-18 years) and genderand the interaction between age and gender. As a comparison, 27antisocial adolescents of similar age participated in the study. Theadolescents completed a questionnaire based on the SASB-model. Theresults showed that the normal adolescent self-concept is positive andthat there are no age or gender differences. A more autonomous andmore negative self-concept is found in the antisocial group ofadolescents. The antisocial girls seem to show more self-hate than allother groups. The conclusion from the study is that there is no evidenceof a chaotic self-concept during normal adolescence, but that anantisocial way of life might be reflected in a more negative and autonomous self-concept during adolescence.

  • 2249.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The relation between self-concept and concepts of early parental behavior for adolescentsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2250.
    Östman, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Experters syn på digital teknologi som stöd vid nedsatta exekutiva funktioner och stress – en grundad teori2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie utreder vad experter inom stressrelaterad utbrändhetanserär viktigafunktioner och viktiga egenskaperi användargränssnittet hos en artificiellt intelligent coach,när användarens aktivitetssvårigheter är orsakade av stress. Studien utreder ocksåom de funktioner och egenskaper som framhålls av stressexperterna kan generaliseras och användas av personer med andra kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar som har liknande aktivitetssvårigheter.Deltagare i studien varfyrastressterapeuter påen stressklinik, nioboendehandledare i kommunalverksamhetsamtenarbetsterapeut från en vårdcentral. Deltagarna behandlar och ger stöd till personer diagnostiserade med bland annat utbrändhet, attention deficit hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) och autism spectrum disorder (ASD).För att svara på frågorna gjordes en kvalitativ studiemed analysmetoden grounded theory (GT).Datainsamlingen har skett i fokusgrupps-intervjuerochsemistrukturerad intervju. Det insamlade materialet har under hela arbetets gång jämförts medvarandra (constant comparative technique-CCT). Slutsatsen är att experterna vill ha ett verktyg som är anpassningsbart till individen, medger ökad självkännedom och ska utgöra ett komplement till nuvarande behandlingeller stöd. Att en kalenderfunktion med särskilda egenskaper är en bra bas för gränssnittet har bekräftats vid en av intervjuerna.Ett naturligt steg för framtida forskning är att utvärdera teorierna för gränssnittet tillsammans med de tilltänktaanvändarna. Annan intressant vidare forskninginom artificiell intelligens (AI) är om man kan skapa algoritmer som effektivt kan förutspå och föreslå balanserade aktivitetsscheman för användaren.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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