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  • 2151. Wik, O
    et al.
    Lindeberg, J
    Nilsson-Påledal, S
    Arm, M
    Lind, B
    Inventering av restprodukter som kan utgöra ersättningsmaterial för naturgrus och bergkross i anläggningsbyggande2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    (1) Begrepp och definitioner; (2) Informationskällor för restprodukter; (3) Inventeringsmetod och avgränsningar för industriella restprodukter; (4) Metod för datalagring; (5) Sammanställning av inventeringsresultat; (6) Branschvis redovisning av restprodukter; (7) Möjligheter för framtida datainsamling och uppdatering av producerade mängder restprodukter (8) Förslag till fortsatt arbete; Appendix: (1) SNI-koder som identifierats som intressanta projekt; (2) Följebrev som använts vid utskick av enkäter; (3) Utformning av de enkäter som använts för inventeringen av restprodukter; (4) Exempel på kartpresentation för branschen förbränning från den skapade databasen

  • 2152.
    Wikberg, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
    Palmgren, Petter
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
    Hallberg, Nils
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
    Mårtensson, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordlund, Daniel
    New Republic Communication Consultants.
    Changes in Attitudes To Risk and Knowledge About Avalanches Among Swedish Skiers After The Introduction of a National Avalanche Safety Program2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013, a web survey was conducted together with Freeride.se, aimed towards Swedish off-piste skiers in order to identify the target group's knowledge, experience and attitudes towards off-piste skiing and avalanches. 1047 skiers participated. The results of the survey gave new important knowledge about different target groups prior to the start of the Swedish avalanche forecast program and also more knowledge regarding the level of avalanche awareness among skiers in general. In 2016 Sweden launched the first national avalanche forecasting program and the same year, a revised avalanche education program was developed and presented. Both constitute important tools for prevention of future avalanche accidents among Swedish skiers. In April 2017, a repetition of the first survey was initiated, with nearly the same questionnaire, to see if there had been any change in behavior, attitudes to risk and knowledge about avalanche awareness among Swedish skiers since 2013. With 1028 participants, the results of the new survey showed some interesting changes that probably could be seen as early effects of the introduction of a new public avalanche forecasting service together with the revised avalanche education program.

  • 2153. Wiklund, J.
    et al.
    Rahman, Mashuqur
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Håkansson, U.
    In-line rheometry of micro cement based grouts - a promising new industrial application of the ultrasound based uvp plus pd method2012Ingår i: Applied Rheology, ISSN 1430-6395, E-ISSN 1617-8106, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 42783-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of the viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids and suspensions having a solid volume fraction of about 30% or more is of major interest from an industrial point of view. Cement paste and cement grouts for injection grouting applications, with water to cement ratios typically in the range of 0.4 and 0.6 - 0.8 by weight, are two examples of industrial fluid systems. Few in-line techniques are available on the market that can be used for these fluid systems and under realistic field conditions. The so-called UVP+PD in-line rheometry method combining the Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) technique with Pressure Difference (PD) measurements is a promising new tool for industrial applications. This paper presents an initial pre-study that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the UVP+PD method using cement grouts for process monitoring and control of grouting applications under realistic field conditions. The UVP+PD method was tested and found successful for continuous inline measurements of concentrated micro cement-based grouts with water/cement ratios of 0.6 and 0.8. The test set-up consisted of a combination of an experimental " flow loop" and a conventional field grouting rig - UNIGROUT, from Atlas Copco. The rheological properties were determined, directly in-line and the parameters obtained were subsequently compared with off-line measurements using a conventional rotational rheometer.

  • 2154. Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Rahman, Mashuqur
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Håkansson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    In-line rheometry of dense cement suspensions using an Ultrasonic Velocity Profiling with combined Pressure Difference Method (UVP-PD)2011Ingår i: Applied Rheology, ISSN 1430-6395, E-ISSN 1617-8106Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2155.
    Wiklund, Viktor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Fines Content and Density Effects on Tailings Behaviour: A Laboratory Study on Geotechnical Properties2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Anrikningssand (eng. tailings) är en restprodukt från utvinningen av metaller och mineraler. Alla gruvföretag producerar varje år stora volymer anrikningssand som måste förvaras på något sätt. Detta görs ofta genom att anrikningssanden deponeras som en slurry med processvatten på magasin. Anrikningssanden hålls sedan på plats av dammar och ibland i kombination med naturlig topografi. Deponeringen sker ofta från utsläppspunkter längs dammen, vilket resulterar i en sortering av kornstorlekar i magasinet som i sin tur skapar olika finjordshalter (procent av partiklar mindre än 0,063mm) på olika avstånd från utsläppspunkten. Deponeringen skapar också olika lager, som också får olika densiteter. Eftersom en del typer av gruvdammar byggs inåt och grundläggs på tidigare deponerad anrikningssand, samt eftersom anrikningssand ibland används som byggmaterial vid höjningar, är finjordshalten och densitetens effekt på materialbeteendet intressant ur stabilitetssynpunkt för dammarna.

    I det här arbetet har anrikningssand med olika finjordshalter och densiteter undersökts i laboratorieförsök för att bestämma hållfasthets-, kompressions- och permeabilitetsegenskaper. Först gjordes en case study, med provtagning och klassificering av anrikningssand från en specifik anläggning. Därefter bestämdes att tre stycken material med finjordshalter på 10, 50 och 90 % skulle undersökas.

    Hållfasthetsegenskaper har undersökts i både triaxial och direkta skjuvförsök. Endast dränerad hållfasthet har studerats för tre stycken konsolideringsspänningar för varje material i både triaxial och direkta skjuvförsök. Resultaten från både triaxialförsök och direkta skjuvförsök visar att hållfastheten ökar med minskad finjordshalt och därför ökar även värdet på utvärderade friktionsvinklar med minskad finjordshalt. Utvärderade friktionsvinklar från direkta skjuvförsök är dock betydligt lägre än friktionsvinklar från triaxialförsök. Friktionsvinklarna från triaxialförsöken är mer trovärdiga eftersom man under hela testet har koll på huvudspänningsriktningarna. Skillnaden i resultatet mellan direkta skjuvförsök och triaxialförsök är inte en ny upptäckt, utan har hittats av andra tidigare. Från resultatet av triaxialförsöken i det här arbetet kan man antyda att det finns ett ”transitional fines content” (TFC) mellan 10 och 50 %, där materialet övergår från sand dominerat beteende till silt dominerat beteende under skjuvning.

    Ödometerförsök utfördes för att studera kompressionen hos de tre materialen. Resultaten visar att kompressibiliteten ökar med ökad finjordshalt och med lägre densitet. Utvärderade ödometer moduler från normalkonsolideringskurvorna visar att styvheten ökar med ökad densitet, samt en aning till tendens mellan ökad styvhet och minskad finjordshalt.

    Permeabilitetsegenskaper har studerats genom utvärdering av hydraulisk konduktivitet från constant head test. Det observerades att den hydrauliska konduktiviteten ökar med minskad finjordshalt. Gällande densitetens effekt visar resultaten att med ökad densitet så minskar den hydrauliska konduktiviteten.

    Både resultat i kompressionsegenskaper och hydraulisk konduktivitet är förstås väntade. Att utveckla sambanden kring kompressions- och permeabilitetsegenskaper anses svårt, eftersom det är beroende av både finjordshalt och densitet. Resultaten indikerar att det med olika kombinationer av finjordshalt och densitet går att uppnå liknande beteende för olika material i både kompression och permeabilitet. 

  • 2156. Wilde, Marie Westberg
    et al.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    System Reliability of Concrete Dams with Respect to Foundation Stability: Application to a Spillway2013Ingår i: Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ISSN 1090-0241, E-ISSN 1943-5606, Vol. 139, nr 2, s. 308-319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural reliability analysis is not widely used for the design and assessment of concrete dams. In this paper, the system reliability of a spillway structure consisting of two monoliths is calculated. Limit state functions are defined from the failure modes sliding in the concrete rock contact, sliding in the rock mass, and adjusted overturning. Random variables in the limit state functions are defined by stochastic distributions. These are defined based on site investigations and laboratory tests from samples taken at the dam. Simulations and information from the literature are used for the remaining variables. The safety index is calculated by the first-order reliability method for each failure mode and monolith, and the system reliability is approximated by direct integration of the bivariate normal distribution. The output is the safety index including associated sensitivity values at the single failure mode, monolith, and system levels. The results show that the system safety is governed by a persistent rock joint beneath one monolith. A system reliability analysis is found to be a useful tool in the dam risk management process as it can be used to calculate the probability of failure and to identify important failure modes and variables.

  • 2157.
    With, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Byggvetenskap. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Bahrekazemi, Mehdi
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Byggvetenskap. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Bodare, Anders
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Byggvetenskap. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Mätningar av tåginducerade markvibrationer i Kåhög före och efter motåtgärd2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2158.
    With, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Bahrekazemi, Mehdi
    Golder Associates AB, S-10460 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Bodare, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Wave barrier of lime-cement columns against train-induced ground-borne vibrations2009Ingår i: Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, ISSN 0267-7261, E-ISSN 1879-341X, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 1027-1033Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparison between measured train-induced ground vibrations in the free-field before and after countermeasures had been taken at Kahog near Gothenburg in Sweden. A wave barrier of lime-cement columns was constructed parallel to the railway in order to reduce the ground-borne vibrations inside nearby buildings. On top of the barrier an embankment was built to reduce air-borne vibrations. Due to the wave barrier design, part of the energy content of the waves was expected to be reflected by the screen and transmitted energy was expected to be partly scattered. Contribution from the noise-embankment was not thought likely but could not be ruled out due to its fairly large mass and its close proximity to the railway. The effect of the mitigating measures resulted in a 67% reduction of the maximum particle velocity at 30 m and 41% at 60 m from the railway. A simple two-dimensional finite element model has been used to Study the relative importance of the wave barrier and the noise-embankment as contributors to the mitigation recorded of the ground vibrations in the field. It is concluded with respect to ground vibrations that both the barrier and the embankment had a mitigating effect but that the contribution from the barrier dominated. Furthermore, it is seen from the field results as well as the Simulation that the effect of the mitigating action is reduced with increasing distance from the railway.

  • 2159.
    With, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Bodare, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Lime-cement columns as wave barrier against train-induced vibrations2007Ingår i: Geotechnical Engineering in Urban Environments: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Soil Mechanicsand Geotechnical Engineering / [ed] V. Cuéllar, E. Dapena, E. Alonso, J.M. Echave, A. Gens, J.L. de Justo, C. Oteo, J.M. Rodríguez-Ortiz, C. Sagaseta, P. Sola, A. Soriano, 2007, s. 1397-1401Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2160. Wolski, W
    et al.
    Szymanski, A
    Lechowicz, Z
    Larsson, R
    Hartlén, J
    Bergdahl, U
    Full-scale failure test on stage-constructed test fill on organic soil1989Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2161. Wolski, W
    et al.
    Szymanski, A
    Mirecki, J
    Lechowicz, Z
    Larsson, R
    Hartlén, J
    Garbulewski, K
    Bergdahl, U
    Two stage-constructed embankments on organic soils. Field and laboratory investigations - Instrumentation - Prediction and observation of behaviour1988Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2162.
    Xintao, Liu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Bin, Jiang
    Geomatics, University of Gävle.
    Defining and generating axial lines from street center lines for better understanding of urban morphologies2012Ingår i: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, Vol. 26, nr 8, s. 1521-1532Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Axial lines are defined as the longest visibility lines for representing individual linear spaces in urban environments. The least number of axial lines that cover the free space of an urban environment or the space between buildings constitute what is often called an axial map. This is a fundamental tool in space syntax, a theory developed by Bill Hillier and his colleagues for characterizing the underlying urban morphologies. For a long time, generating axial lines with help of some graphic software has been a tedious manual process that is criticized for being time consuming, subjective, or even arbitrary. In this paper, we redefine axial lines as the least number of individual straight line segments mutually intersected along natural streets that are generated from street center lines using the Gestalt principle of good continuity. Based on this new definition, we develop an automatic solution to generating the newly defined axial lines from street center lines. We apply this solution to six typical street networks (three from North America and three from Europe), and generate a new set of axial lines for analyzing the urban morphologies. Through a comparison study between the new axial lines and the conventional or old axial lines, and between the new axial lines and natural streets, we demonstrate with empirical evidence that the newly defined axial lines are a better alternative in capturing the underlying urban structure.

  • 2163.
    Yaghoobi Rafi, Jalaleddin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Design approaches for grouting of rock fractures; Theory and practice2013Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, cement base grout is used widely for sealing of the rock fractures in order to decrease the permeability of rock mass. Grouting procedure is one of the main tasks in cycle of rock excavation. In addition, huge amount of grout should be used during dam construction in order to seal the bedding and embankment walls. Therefore, considering the effect of grouting in duration and cost of the project, improving the design methods seems essential.

    In successful grouting the goal is to achieve the required sealing of fractures while avoiding ground movement due to applied pressure. Empirical methods have been developed to decide the pumping pressure, grout mix properties and stop criteria in order to fulfill requirements of successful grouting but there are ambiguities in using them and performance of them have been questioned. In these methods, assumptions and criteria are based on rules of thumbs and experiences from previous projects. The main uncertainties connected to these methods are identifying amount of grout spread and state of the fracture.

    Theoretical approach is an analytical solution which provides the chance for estimation of penetration length of the grout in real time. Furthermore, void filling fracture aperture and trend of the grout flow are estimated. As the development of this theory, elastic and ultimate jacking limits have been established based on the estimated penetration length. Therefore, it is possible to identify jacking of the fracture and estimate the state of the fracture in real time. 

    In this research work, performance of this theoretical approach which is called “Real Time Grouting Control Method” has been validated through case studies. Properties of the used material, data for pressure and flow in addition to geological characteristics have been gathered from projects in sedimentary rock (Gotvand Dam in Iran and THX Dam in Laos) and hard rock (City Line Project in Sweden). This theory made it possible to observe overflow of grout and jacking of the fractures in sedimentary rock. In place of hard rock with mostly vertical fractures, this theoretical approach confirms usage of higher pressure which will shorten the grouting time.

    In this research work, variation in properties of the grout mix during grouting has been neglected. moreover, orientation of the fracture and its deformation due to injection pressure are not considered. Despite these assumptions, the results were promising and performance this approach in estimation of grout spread and identifying jacking of the fracture has been verified.

  • 2164.
    Yaghoobi Rafi, Jalaleddin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Study of Pumping Pressure and Stop Criteria in Grouting of Rock Fractures2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today practice of grouting is based on empirical approaches in that, pumping pressure and stop criteria are determined by benchmarking similar projects. Considering a maximum limit for grouting pressure would allow applying a relatively high pressure that may lead to jacking of the fracture or even uplift of the rock mass. On the other hand, keeping the pressure lower than the overburden, in order to avoid any deformation, will prolong grouting process. Determination of pumping pressure is more complicated considering the induced energy to the rock fracture due to combination of the injected volume and pumping pressure. In other word, pressurizing large volume of the injected grout with a low pumping pressure establish the same force inside the fracture as the high applied grouting pressure on small injected volume do. Therefore, an stop criterion to limit grouting volume along with grouting pressure, which is a hyperbola trimming maximum pressure-maximum volume limits and  named as grout intensity number (GIN), has been defined. However, in using this stop criterion and at completion point, the state of the fracture and the distance that grout spread inside the fracture are unknown. As a theoretical approach, examining the flow of the Bingham fluid in network of fractures led to development of a numerical model and later an analytical solution, which enabled estimation of distance that grout spread in the fractures in real time. Finally, theoretical curves to limit elastic and ultimate jacking were established to limit grout pressure in correlation with depth of grout penetration by considering the state of the fracture.  

    Despite empirical and theoretical developments, determination of optimum grouting pressure is still challenging. In this study, In addition to examining performance of the analytical solution in estimation of grout spread and distinguishing onset of fracture jacking, the goal is coming up with recommendations for selection of optimum grouting pressure, by examining mechanism of elastic jacking. For this purpose, negative aspects of fracture deformation, which are increase of grouting time and remaining transmissivity, were quantified and discussed against its positive effect on increase of penetrability. By that, application of a relatively high pressure was recommended in order to opening of the fracture to a permitted level, with purpose of increasing penetrability while considering negative effects of elastic jacking. The stop criterion is defined as the grouting time of achieving the required distance of grout spread at the highest applicable grouting pressure.

    In examining empirical methods, in grouting of fractures in deep levels, pressure-depth graph suggests usage of higher pressure in compare with the estimated pressure by theory while GIN method is conservative. In further studies GIN was estimated analytically and applying a relatively high grouting pressure in order to opening the fracture, up to attaining the hyperbola, and continuation of grouting with decreasing trend, in order to bringing the fracture back to its initial size at refusal, were proposed. Complexity of using this methodology in compare with theoretical approach was discussed.

    As the future work, there is a need to verify the results in the field, and to confirm well performance of this analytical solution in different geologies. Examining variation of grout mixture properties during grouting program as well as significance of simplification of geological pattern to a single horizontal fracture, in that grout flow radially, are among other future studies that can develop this theoretical application further.  

  • 2165.
    Yaghoobi Rafi, Jalaleddin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Fereidouni, Hamidreza
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Stille, Håkan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Robustness of Theories and Newly Developed Methods for Cement Base Grouting Works2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2166.
    Yaghoobi Rafi, Jalaleddin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Stille, Håkan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Applicability of using GIN method, by considering theoretical approach of grouting design2015Ingår i: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 1431-1448Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the practice of grouting of fractured rock, currently, empirical methods are used. Amongst them, the GIN method is popular mostly in Europe and has been tried in many projects. The concept of this method is to limit the combination of pressure and injected volume to a specific grout intensity number in order to control the energy induced in the rock fractures and to avoid uplift. However, difficulties in employing this method have been reported, which are mainly due to uncertainties in recognizing the distance of grout penetration and the state of the fractures during grouting and at the completion grouting. In this paper, the purpose has been examining the applicability of the GIN method by defining the characteristic curve of the P·V diagram (referred to here as the hyperbola) and suggesting appropriate completion criteria based on the radius of grout spread around the borehole. This will provide the chance to assign a permitted level of fracture deformation (or jacking) to the GIN by considering the formulation of fracture deformation based on grout propagation in a previously developed theoretical approach by Stille et al. (Geotech Geol Eng 30:603–624, 2012) as a part of the Real Time Grouting Control Method. Thus, in attaining the hyperbola, the identified radius of grout spread is achieved and the resulting fracture deformation at this completion point can be beneficial in improving penetrability. However, if the full extent of this deformation extends beyond the grouted zone, part of the fracture may remain un-grouted, and this will affect the sealing efficiency of the grouting program. This may be continued by selecting a smaller GIN and reducing the grouting pressure as the real time pressure–volume plot moves along the hyperbola, which will bring the fracture back to its initial state as grouting approaches the completion point, i.e. when the grout has spread to the desired distance. This hypothesis has been examined against the grouting works performed in three different real projects, for which the grouting parameters can be determined from the available grouting records. It is concluded that the GIN used in practice was much higher than the theoretically estimated values obtained through the proposed analytical solution. Furthermore, in the grouting of fractures close to the surface, the radius of grout spread impacts the GIN significantly, and only a limited grouting pressure is applicable, thus in using split spacing technique in such circumstances, different GINs should be selected for different sets of boreholes to obtain enough propagation at the maximum applicable pressure. The introduced analytical solution introduced in this paper can be a useful procedure for designing the GIN based on the grout spread. Nevertheless, it becomes complicated in dealing with fracture deformation. In a difficult grouting case where the demand for sealing is high, the recommendation is to use the proposed theoretical approach, which provides detailed information during the actual grouting procedure, by estimation of the radius of grout spread and the state of the fracture in real time

  • 2167.
    Yaghoobi Rafi, Jalaleddin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Stille, Håkan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Control of rock jacking considering spread of grout and grouting pressure2014Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 40, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a theoretical approach for monitoring fracture dilatancy (or “jacking”) during grouting. From this, a methodology to optimize the grout pumping pressure has been developed, based on the required penetration length (i.e. the distance that the grout spreads from the grout hole into the network of fractures within the rock mass). Empirical rules are put forward to prevent the damage that may result from uncontrolled deformation (Jacking) of the fractures, by limiting either pumping pressure or the injected grout volume, or by a combination of both. The state of the fractures and the spread of the grout when these limits are reached are discussed. The theoretical approach, which is referred to here as the Real Time Grouting Control Method, enables the estimation of grout penetration length or “spread” in real time. This gives an opportunity to monitor fracture dilation as it happens and, for the purpose of this paper, the allowable limits of elastic deformation and jacking have been estimated based on the grout spread. Two case histories are analyzed, for which the physical reaction of the fracture deformation with time and grout spread are determined from the recorded pressure and flow. By comparing the observed physical reaction with the theories for jacking presented here, the Real Time Grouting Control Method has been validated, and it is shown that this theoretical approach is superior to commonly used empirical methods, in that it allows the optimization of the pumping pressure to achieve a given penetration length in the shortest time and with an acceptable fracture dilatancy. This approach is a major step forward in customizing grouting works.

  • 2168.
    Yaghoobi Rafi, Jalaleddin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Stille, Håkan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Bagheri, Mehdi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Applying Real Time Grouting Control Method in Sedimentary Rock2012Ingår i: Grouting and deep mixing: proceedings of the fourth International Conference on Grouting and Deep Mixing, February 15-18, 2012, New Orleans, Louisiana, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2012, s. 1450-1459Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on preliminary studies of low (14 at.%) and high (53at.%) concentration Mn doped MgO films deposited by co-sputtering from metallic Mn and Mg targets. The structural, surface morphologies and magnetic properties of the films of different thickness were studied. All the as grown films are found to be amorphous and film surfaces are found to be flawless and homogeneous. We observe at room temperature robust ferromagnetic loops with a saturation magnetization value that is a function of film thickness reaching a maximum of ≃38.5 emu/cm3 in the Mn0.53Mg0.47O film at a thickness of ≃92 nm. In thicker films room-temperature ferromagnetic ordering is suppressed and eventually at a thickness around 120nm the expected diamagnetism of the bulk appears. The origin of ferromagnetism may be attributed to cation defects at the Mg-site.

  • 2169.
    Yaghoobi Rafi, Jalaleddin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Tsuji, Masakuni
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Stille, Håkan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Theoretical approaches in grouting design: estimation of penetration length and fracture deformation in real time2013Ingår i: Bergmekanikdagen, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2170.
    Yaghoobi Rafi, Jalaleddin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Tsuji, Masakuni
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Stille, Håkan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Theoretical Approaches in Grouting Fractures of the Rock Mass: Theories and Applications2013Ingår i: 47th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium, American Rock Mechanics Association (ARMA), 2013, s. 1731-1737Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a great deal of specific attention on improving the grouting methods since optimizing the grouting process will have significant impact on performance and economy of projects as well as safeguarding the purity of nature. The main problem with existing grouting method is lack of knowledge about the spread of grout, i.e. there is no clue if the grout has been penetrated enough or if it has been over spread. Also the state of fractures during grouting is unknown. In the last decade, theoretical approach has been developed which enables estimation of the grout spread in real time. Furthermore, by replacing the estimated penetration length with injected volume, dilation of the rock fractures is monitored in real time. In this paper, this analytical solution has been examined and competency of its application has been discussed. Implementing this theory with data from City Line project confirms the usage of high applied pressure in this project which will lead to shortening of the grouting time.

  • 2171.
    Yang, R.
    et al.
    Discipline of Civil, Surveying & Environmental Engineering, Priority Research Centre for Geotechnical Science & Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.
    Huang, Jinsong
    Discipline of Civil, Surveying & Environmental Engineering, Priority Research Centre for Geotechnical Science & Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.
    Griffiths, D.V.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA.
    Meng, Jingjing
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Fenton, Gordon A.
    Department of Engineering Mathematics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.
    Optimal geotechnical site investigations for slope design2019Ingår i: Computers and geotechnics, ISSN 0266-352X, E-ISSN 1873-7633, Vol. 114, artikel-id 103111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Site investigation in combination with field and laboratory testing, plays a vital role in characterizing the soil profile for geotechnical design in order to reduce uncertainty. In spite of this, site investigations are often limited in scope due to high costs. In this paper, conditional random fields are used to examine the influence of soil strength mean, standard deviation and spatial correlation length on the risk of slope design failure for different levels of site investigation scope. An undrained slope example is used to illustrate how the proposed approach can be used to assess the risk reduction that can be obtained as the scope of a site investigation is increased. By combining the cost of site investigation with the cost of slope failure, the results indicate that there exists an optimal site investigation scope, beyond which the cost of additional boreholes does not justify the cost savings due to reduced slope failure risk.

  • 2172.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Borehole sealing with expandable buffer clays in HLW disposal: Lab-scale performance2015Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Two basically different multibarrier concepts for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) are the often cited KBS-3 V/H concepts, for isolating nuclear waste at 400-600 m depth and Very Deep Boreholes concepts (VDH) for placement at 2000-4000 m depth. Both make use of expandable clay as isolating medium of canisters with HLW and as backfill material in shafts and tunnels in repositories for safe disposal of such waste. This licentiate thesis is based on three papers related to the properties of clays for use as engineered barriers, and to their performance at geological disposal. The first paper deals with the buffer criteria for the two disposal concepts. In this paper the possibilities and limitations of using clays of montmorillonite-, saponite- and mixed layer clay type are considered. The second paper discusses the swelling property and permeability of Na-montmorillonite clays (MX-80, GMZ) and illite-smectite mixed layer clay (Holmehus) saturated and percolated by distilled water and a salt solution. The third paper describes a lab-scale performance of VDH holes sealing using Holmehus clay. In this paper, methods for solving the problem of too quick hydration of the dense clay are investigated and evaluated.

  • 2173.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Maturation of Clay Seals in Deep Bore Holes for Disposal of Radioactive waste: Theory and Experiments2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    KBS-3 and very deep borehole (VDH) concepts are two major types of long-term geologicaldisposal methods for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) isolating from the biosphere. TheKBS-3V concept for isolating the HLW at the depth of 400-500 m, is the officially proposedoption in Sweden and has been the subject of considerable research in the past few decades,while the VDH concept was considered as an option in the 1950s but later became discouragedbecause of insufficient experience in drilling technology. The greatest merit of the VDHconcept is that the almost stagnant groundwater in the deep boreholes prevents the transport ofthe possible release of radionuclides into the rock or up to the ground level. Since variousdisadvantages of the KBS-3V concept were found in previous research, the superiority of VDHconcept attracted the researchers to continue studying it into the late 1980s.The geological repositories of both of KBS-3V and VDH types primarily consist of a naturalbarrier (host rock) and of an engineering barrier (also known as a buffer/backfill barrier).According to the principle of IAEA and national relative research organizations, thebuffer/backfill material should have low permeability and good expandability, as well assuitable physical and sealing properties.The thesis concerns the VDH concept and is focused on the construction and performance ofthose parts of the sealed repository that are not affected by high temperature or gamma radiation.In the lower part of a VDH repository, the clay packages containing HLW will be exposed tohigh temperature (100-150 􀄇 ) in the borehole and to highly saline groundwater. In theinstallation phase of HLW, the groundwater will be pumped out and replaced by medium-softsmectite clay mud in which the HLW packages are installed vertically. During the hydrationand maturation of the clay components, the microstructural reorganization, water transport,migration of clay particles and redistribution of the density of the components take place. Thematuration determines the transient evolution of the clay seals and influences the rheologicaland soil mechanical behavior in the installation phase. The maturation of clay system alsodetermines their ultimate sealing potential of VDH repositories.This study presents the work carried out for investigating the maturation of the buffer-backfillclay in the HLW deep borehole. Initially in the study three types of clays, the Namontmorillonite,magnesium-rich and illite-smectite mixed layer clays, were examined for estimating their performance as the barrier candidate material. This is mainly presented in theliterature review. The experimental study was conducted on montmorillonite GMZ clays andI/S mixed-layer Holmehus clay. The expandability and permeability tests were carried out forinterpretation of the recorded swelling development and assessment of the effect of the salineconditions, with the goal of deriving a relationship between swelling pressure and hydraulicconductivity for different dry densities. The maturation tests of initially fully-saturatedHolmehus clay and partly saturated GMZ clay were performed. During the tests, the shearstrength mobilised by the relative movement of densified mud and migrated dense clay -contained in a perforated central tube - were determined. According to the results of shearstrength tests, the maximum operation time or the number of clay packages to be placed in asingle operation was evaluated, whilst the suitable saturation degree of the dense clay wasdiscussed as well.A model of the maturation of initially water-saturated clay seals based on Darcy’s law wasworked out and the evolution of the clay components in a lab-scale borehole using Holmehusclay were performed and compared with the experimental recordings. Good agreementsbetween the physical behaviors of the theoretical simulations and the measurements wasachieved by which the validity of the model was verified. Using the results, the hydration andsoil migration in the entire maturation process were presented in diagram. The model was alsoused for preliminary evaluation of the maturation products in real boreholes by assuming thesame Holmehus clay as used in the tests. Two constellation of borehole and dense clay withdifferent diameters, 80 cm borehole /60 cm clay and 80cm/50cm, were assumed. The resultsrespecting dry density and hydraulic conductivity of the ultimate maturation products, and thedegree of homogeneous of the buffer and backfill clay system in the assumed boreholes, arepresented and discussed. The options of different mineral types and initial physical propertiesof the candidate buffer clays provide a reference for engineering barrier design of HLW disposalin VDH.

  • 2174.
    Yang, Ting
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Xiaodong, Liu
    East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, Jiangxi.
    Swelling properties and permeability of expandable clays of potential use for nuclear waste disposal2016Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 49-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bentonite clay has attracted considerable attention as isolating material for safe disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste (HLW) on account of its low hydraulic conductivity and high swelling capacity. In the presently described study, three candidate smectitic clay materials were investigated and compared with respect to hydraulic conductivity and expandability. The clay samples were prepared from desiccated and crushed raw material placed and compacted in oedometer cells for saturation with distilled water and 3.5% CaCl2 solution in separate test series to a density at fluid saturation of 1200 ~ 1900 kg/m3. The samples were tested with respect to the hydraulic conductivity and swelling capacity. The MX-80 and Homehus clays matured as expected giving a successively monotonous increase in swelling pressure during the wetting process while GMZ clay showed two pressure peaks. The pressure development was different for low and high densities and can be explained by crystal expansion via interlamellar wetting, followed by osmotic swelling including establishment of electrical double-layers. The phenomena can alternatively be explained by the microstructural changes when clay minerals absorb solutions in the hydration phase. Differences in granule size distributions and mineral composition can explain different swelling abilities and permeabilities.

  • 2175.
    Yang, Ting
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Liu, Xiaodong
    East China University of Technology.
    Assessment of clay buffers for isolating HLW2014Ingår i: Waste Management and The Environment VII / [ed] C.A. Brebbia; G. Passerini; H. Itoh, Southampton: WIT Press, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Great effort is put on finding optimal buffer clays for isolating highly radioactive waste (HLW) in countries utilizing nuclear energy. Different materials are required to provide a hydrologically and mechanically suitable surrounding of canisters with highly radioactive waste in repositories in crystalline rock. For shallow disposal the high hydraulic conductivity of the rock makes very dense smectite-rich clays necessary while for disposal in very deep holes the primary desire is to use smectitic clays with a potential to resist high temperatures. In both cases montmorillonite, with Al being a dominant lattice ion in the octahedral layer, is suitable, but saponite with Mg as dominant octahedral constituent can be preferable for deep disposal. For both concepts use of smectitic mud is an option for supplying the buffer with water from start and for controlling the hydration rate.

  • 2176.
    Yang, Ting
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Liu, Xiaodong
    East China University of Technology.
    Lab testing of method for clay isolation of spent reactor fuel in very deep boreholes2015Ingår i: Vol. 15, s. 152-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden and Finland and some other countries, two basically different multibarrier concepts for disposal of spent reactor fuel (HLW) are the often cited KBS-3 methods and Very Deep Boreholes methods (VDH), on which the paper focuses. These concepts have engineered barriers in the form of clay-embedded canisters with spent reactor fuel.. The clay, placed around the canisters and between them, provides ductility and tightness for minimizing the risk of canister breakage, and for tightness. The large-diameter VDH holes have dense clay seals of smectite-rich material in combination with clay mud for stabilization of the rock. In this paper, clay mud of smectite-rich Danish Holmehus clay was investigated for evaluating the physical interaction with the dense clay blocks. The possibility of solving the problem of too quick hydration of the blocks, which can make the resistance to insertion of the units of dense clay and canisters (“supercontainers”) in the mud difficult, was investigated by using prewetted dense clay blocks prepared by a new method (“DW” technique). The laboratory experiments, which were made to simulate the installation of supercontainers in clay mud using model versions of them, have given promising results.

  • 2177.
    Yang, Ting
    et al.
    Dept. of Civil and Architectural Engineering, East China University of Technology, China.
    Weston, Richard
    Dept. of Production and Materials Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Time-Dependent Physical Interaction of Clay and Rock in HLW Repositories2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 273-293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Disposal of canisters with Highly Radioactive Waste (HLW) in boreholes in crystalline rock can be made by use of “supercontainers” with waste and clay seals, moved down in clay mud which undergoes consolidation under the swelling pressure exerted by the dense clay seals. The concept can be used for disposal in mined repositories at a few hundred meters depth and in very deep boreholes (VDH) with saline, stagnant formational waters that are unlikely to rise to contaminate shallow groundwater. For disposal in mined repositories the supercontainers are suitably placed in 8-10m long inclined boreholes with 1,900mm diameter. The concept for disposal of HLW in the lower halves of 4 km deep holes relies primarily on the sealing capacity of engineered barriers, clay and concrete, in the upper halves of the holes. The parts of a VDH that are located in fracture-poor rock are sealed with dense, expandable clay, and by concrete cast where pre-grouted fracture zones are intersected. The deep holes will undergo convergence and eventually expose the clay, concrete and waste packages to radial compression. Using the Kelvin rheological model for predicting the radial convergence of the holes these components will be subject to a small pressure increase in the first 10,000 years. In a longer time perspective, they will be compressed by the slowly increasing confining pressure causing improved sealing ability of the clay.

  • 2178.
    Yao, Yu
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    A laboratory study of mechanical characteristics of a marine soil1987Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2179.
    Yao, Yu
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Offshore geotechnical investigations in South China sea1987Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2180.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
    Ebtehaj, Isa
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Iran.
    Kim, Sungwon
    Department of Railroad Construction and Safety Engineering, Dongyang University, Korea.
    Sanikhani, Hadi
    Water Engineering Department, Agriculture Faculty, University of Kurdistan, Iran.
    Asadi, H.
    Water Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran.
    Ghareb, Mazen Ismaeel
    Department of Computer Science, College of Science and Technology, University of Human Development, Iraq.
    Bonakdari, Hossein
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Iran.
    Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini Wan
    Sustainable and Smart Township Research Centre (SUTRA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
    Novel Hybrid Data-Intelligence Model for Forecasting Monthly Rainfall with Uncertainty Analysis2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikel-id 502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, three different evolutionary algorithms (EAs), namely, particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA) and differential evolution (DE), are integrated with the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model. The developed hybrid models are proposed to forecast rainfall time series. The capability of the proposed evolutionary hybrid ANFIS was compared with the conventional ANFIS in forecasting monthly rainfall for the Pahang watershed, Malaysia. To select the optimal model, sixteen different combinations of six different lag attributes taking into account the effect of monthly, seasonal, and annual history were considered. The performances of the forecasting models were assessed using various forecasting skill indicators. Moreover, an uncertainty analysis of the developed forecasting models was performed to evaluate the ability of the hybrid ANFIS models. The bound width of 95% confidence interval (d-factor) and the percentage of observed samples which was enveloped by 95% forecasted uncertainties (95PPU) were used for this purpose. The results indicated that all the hybrid ANFIS models performed better than the conventional ANFIS and for all input combinations. The obtained results showed that the models with best input combinations had the (95PPU and d-factor) values of (91.67 and 1.41), (91.03 and 1.41), (89.74 and 1.42), and (88.46 and 1.43) for ANFIS-PSO, ANFIS-GA, ANFIS-DE, and the conventional ANFIS, respectively. Based on the 95PPU and d-factor, it is concluded that all hybrid ANFIS models have an acceptable degree of uncertainty in forecasting monthly rainfall. The results of this study proved that the hybrid ANFIS with an evolutionary algorithm is a reliable modeling technique for forecasting monthly rainfall.

  • 2181.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    et al.
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Ehteram, Mohammad
    Department of Water Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University.
    Sharafati, Ahmad
    Civil Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM).
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    El-Shafie, Ahmed
    Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    The Integration of Nature-Inspired Algorithms with Least Square Support Vector Regression Models: Application to Modeling River Dissolved Oxygen Concentration2018Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikel-id 1124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates an improved version of Least Square Support Vector

    Machines integrated with a Bat Algorithm (LSSVM-BA) for modeling the dissolved oxygen (DO)concentration in rivers. The LSSVM-BA model results are compared with those obtained using M5Tree and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) models to show the efficacy of this novelintegrated model. The river water quality data at three monitoring stations located in the USA areconsidered for the simulation of DO concentration. Eight input combinations of four water quality parameters, namely, water temperature, discharge, pH, and specific conductance, are used to simulate the DO concentration. The results revealed the superiority of the LSSVM-BA model over the M5 Tree and MARS models in the prediction of river DO. The accuracy of the LSSVM-BA model compared with those of the M5 Tree and MARS models is found to increase by 20% and 42%, respectively, in terms of the root-mean-square error. All the predictive models are found to perform best when all the four water quality variables are used as input, which indicates that it is possible to supply more information to the predictive model by way of incorporation of all the water quality variables.

  • 2182.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini Wan
    Sustainable and Smart Township Research Centre (SUTRA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Ameen, Ameen Mohammed Salih
    Department of Water Resources, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Ebtehaj, Isa
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Razali, Siti Fatin Mohd
    Sustainable and Smart Township Research Centre (SUTRA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Bonakdari, Hossein
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Implementation of Univariate Paradigm for Streamflow Simulation Using Hybrid Data-Driven Model: Case Study in Tropical Region2019Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, s. 74471-74481Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of the bio-inspired adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models are proposed for forecasting highly non-linear streamflow of Pahang River, located in a tropical climatic region of Peninsular Malaysia. Three different bio-inspired optimization algorithms namely particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and differential evolution (DE) were individually used to tune the membership function of ANFIS model in order to improve the capability of streamflow forecasting. Different combination of antecedent streamflow was used to develop the forecasting models. The performance of the models was evaluated using a number of metrics including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), coefficient of determination ( R2 ), and Willmott’s Index (WI) statistics. The results revealed that increasing number of inputs has a positive impact on the forecasting ability of both ANFIS and hybrid ANFIS models. The comparison of the performance of three optimization methods indicated PSO improved the capability of ANFIS model (RMSE = 7.96; MAE = 2.34; R2=0.998 and WI = 0.994) more compared to GA and DE in forecasting streamflow. The uncertainty band of ANFIS-PSO forecast was also found the lowest (±0.217), which indicates that ANFIS-PSO model can be used for reliable forecasting of highly stochastic river flow in tropical environment.

  • 2183.
    Yassin, Ali
    et al.
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Alabidi, Abdulkadhim
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Hussain, Mohammed
    Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Copper Ores in Mawat Ophiolite Complex(Part of ZSZ) NE Iraq2015Ingår i: Natural Resources, ISSN 2158-706X, E-ISSN 2158-7086, Vol. 6, nr 10, s. 514-526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ore microscopy study for some samples from Mawat complex NE Iraq (part of Zagros Suture Zone) showed the presence of copper ore minerals was irregularly distributed, mainly throughout the basic rocks of Mawat Ophiolite Complex. The main sulfides minerals identified were: chalcopyrite, pyrite, bornite, chalcocite and covellite. Iron hydroxides/oxides including goethite and magnetite were also observed associated with sulfide ore. Chalcopyrite and pyrite were the main primary minerals from which other ores were formed. They were originated at the orthomagmatic stage, and also deposited from aqueous solution of final stage in the consolidation of a magma forming vein textures which was observed in many samples. Two types of pyrite generations were recognized. They were pre-tectonic pyrite and post-tectonic pyrite. The secondary recognized ore textures were rim, pseudo morph, zoning, relicts, atoll and vein replacement textures. Secondary textures resulting from exsolution were also presented. Three stages of mineralization could be concluded: orthomagmatic stage (Earliest), the hydrothermal activations stage (Hypogene) and the weathering stage (Supergene). Paragenaticaly, the primary copper sulfides including chalcopyrite and bornite were responsible for other copper ores formation. These minerals were observed disseminated throughout the host mafic rocks which were considered as endogenic deposits (magmatic and hypogene origin) and they were modified as small patches of chalcocite and covellite.

  • 2184.
    Yederulh, Hulumtaye Kefyalew
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Settlement calculation for lime/cement column improved clay: Analytical and numerical analyses related to a case study2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jordförstärkning med kalkcementpelare är en vanlig metod för förstärkning av lösa jordar genom ökning av den blandade jordens hållfasthet samt minskning av konsolideringstiden. Metoden är en mekanisk process som ökar jordens styvhet och är främst tillämpbar i lös leror men även organiska jordar.

     

    Detta examensarbete har syftat till att jämföra sättningsberäkningar i lera som är förstärk med KC-pelare. De teoretiska beräkningarna har utförts genom två analytiska modeller samt numerisk modellering. En fallstudie har utförts på del av Förbifart Stockholm där jordförstärkning av lös lera med KC-pelare har använts inför grundläggning av ett betongtråg. Resultat från fältmätningar av installerade markpeglar har jämförts med resultat från de teoretiska sättningsberäkningarna.

     

    Den första beräkningsmetoden utfördes i enlighet med rekommendationer från TK Geo 13 (2013) och den andra metoden är baserad på principer för kompositjordar. Den numeriska beräkningen har utgjorts av FEM-modellering i 2D i programmet Plaxis. För att anpassa en plan-töjningsmodell till en axialsymmetrisk modell har inverkan av geometrin samt kombinerad anpassning av modell studerats. Hänsyn har tagits till KC-pelarnas styvhet genom att använda två olika värden (30 resp. 33 MPa) för KC-pelarnas övre respektive undre del. En överlast om 58 kPa applicerades på KC-pelarförstärkt området för att påskynda den tidsberoende konsolideringssättningarnas förlopp som orsakas av överlastens tillskottspänningar.

     

    Baserat på resultat från uppmätta sättningar jämfört med beräkningar, har följande slutsatser dragits. Jämförelser mellan resultaten har visat på en rimlig överrensstämmelse mellan de två analytiska metoderna och utförda fältmätningar avseende långtids konsolideringssättningar. Den numeriska beräkningen har visat en god överensstämmelse med fältmätningar med hänsyn till både konsolideringssättningar och konsolideringsgraden. Den geometriskt anpassade modellen visade ett rimligare resultat i förhållande till den kombinerade anpassade modellen. Sammanfattningsvis bedöms det att den numeriska modelleringen stämmer bättre överens med resultaten från uppmätta sättningar i förhållande till analytiska beräkningar.

  • 2185.
    Yi, Changping
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nyberg, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Numerical modelling on short delay blast-induced fragmentation and vibration2018Ingår i: Blasting and Fragmentation, ISSN 1937-6359, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 105-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Blasting operations can fragment rock mass into smaller pieces and meanwhile induce vibration anddamage in remaining rock mass. A series of small-scale laboratory tests were carried out to investigatethe effects of short delay times on fragmentation. These tests were modeled using a coupledFEM-BPM-PBM model in the LS-DYNA code. In the model, the remaining rock is representedby a finite element model (FEM) and the rock to be blasted is represented by a bonded particlemodel (BPM). The detonation of explosives is described with a particle blast method (PBM). Thefragment size distribution was obtained with a code developed in Perl programming language. Theblast-induced vibration and damage in the remaining rock mass were evaluated. The results showthat the coupled FEM-BPM-PBM model can be employed to evaluate both fragmentation in theblasted domain and the blast-induced damage and vibration in the remaining rock mass.

  • 2186.
    Yi, Changping
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering - Swedish Blasting Research Centre.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering - Swedish Blasting Research Centre.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Åhlin, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Numerical study of the impact of joints on rock fragmentation by blasting2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2187.
    Yi, Changping
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sjöberg, Jonny
    Itasca Consultants AB.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Petropoulos, Nikolaos
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A numerical study of the impact of short delays on rock fragmentation2017Ingår i: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 100, s. 250-254Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 2188. Young, Raymond N.
    et al.
    Nakano, Masashi
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Environmental soil properties and behaviour2012Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Examining the many changes in soil properties and behavior as a result of stresses from both anthropogenic and environmental forces, this critical work details the requirements of soils to maintain their design engineering properties (rheological, transmission, buffering, and ion-accumulation) over their projected life-spans. It discusses the use of soils as engineered materials in the construction of structures on and in the ground, including foundations, bridges, nuclear waste repositories, tunnels, and other civil infrastructures. The book presents numerous laboratory tests, procedures, techniques, data gathering, data reduction models, and analyses of soil structure.

  • 2189.
    Yousif, Ali A.
    et al.
    Water Resources Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq.
    Sulaiman, Sadeq Oleiwi
    Dams and Water Resources Department, College of Engineering, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Diop, Lamine
    UFR S2ATA, Sciences Agronomiques, de l’Aquaculture et des Technologies Alimentaires, Université Gaston Berger (UGB), Saint Louis, Sénégal.
    Etheram, Mohammad
    Department of Water Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    ustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Open Channel Sluice Gate Scouring Parameters Prediction: Different Scenarios of Dimensional and Non-Dimensional Input Parameters2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikel-id 353Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination of scour characteristics in the downstream of sluice gate is highly importantfor designing and protection of hydraulic structure.  The applicability of modern data-intelligence technique known as extreme learning machine (ELM) to simulate scour characteristics has been examined in this study.  Three major characteristics of scour hole in the downstream of a sluice gate, namely the length of scour hole (Ls), the maximum scour depth (Ds), and the position of maximum scour depth (Lsm), are modeled using different properties of the flow and bed material. The obtained results using ELM were compared with multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS). The dimensional analysis technique was used to reduce the number of input variable to a smaller number of dimensionless groups and both the dimensional and non-dimensional variables were used to model the scour characteristics. The prediction performances of the developed models were examined using several statistical metrics. The results revealed that ELM can predict scour properties with much higher accuracy compared to MARS. The errors in prediction can be reduced in the range of 79%–81% using ELM models compared to MARS models. Better performance of the models was observed when dimensional variables were used as input. The result indicates that the use of ELM with non-dimensional data can provide high accuracy in modeling complex hydrological problems.

  • 2190.
    Yu, Y.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Axelsson, Kennet
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Li, Z. Q.
    Interaction between soil and bored pile based on field tests1991Ingår i: Field measurements in geomechanics: proceedings of the 3rd international sysmposium Oslo / [ed] Geraldine Sorum, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1991, s. 799-808Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three long instrumented bored piles have been tested in the ground of a multilayer soil of clay and sand. The shaft load transfer mechanism was investigated with regard to the soil type, pile geometry and test procedures. Additional pile tests of large displacement penetration have also been carried out to study the performance of tip resistance. Special attention is given to the installation procedure of piles, which may play a significant role in the performance of the bored piles.

  • 2191.
    Yu, Yan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Silty landslides in the river valleys of northern Sweden1994Ingår i: Proceedings: Seventh International Congress, International Association of Engineering Geology, 5-9 September 1994, Lisboa Portugal / [ed] R. Oliveira, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1994, s. 1731-1740Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2192.
    Yu, Yao
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Constitutive relations for soils and their verifications: a report on the level of development of geomaterial modelling : a state-of-the-art report1988Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2193.
    Yu, Yao
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stability of embankments on sulphide-rich soils1994Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2194.
    Yu, Yao
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Testing and modelling of silty and sulphide-rich soils1993Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Silt and sulphide soil are two types of soil which are dominating in northern Sweden, especially in the coast area of the Baltic sea. The stress-strain and strength characteristics of these two soils have so far not been as much explored as those for e.g. Scandinavian clays. With increasing use of numerical methods in geotechnical engineering, better knowledge of the constitutive behaviour of soils is needed as well as more accurate models. The work reported in this thesis is an attempt to achieve such a knowledge for silt and sulphide soil. The drained and undrained stress-strain characteristics of silt have been investigated by means of triaxial compression and extension tests. The compressibility, the dual characteristic of contractancy and dilatancy during shearing, the effect of the clay content and the dependence of the failure surface on the Lode angle have been specially discussed. The drained and undrained stress-strain characteristics of sulphide soil were investigated by means of triaxial and CRS oedometer tests. The compressibility, the effect of the excess pore pressure and the anisotropy have been specially discussed. A plasticity model was proposed for modelling the constitutive behaviour of silt. Among others, the model takes into account the dual characteristic and the dependence of the yield criterion on the Lode angle. An analytical solution was carried out for the undrained triaxial state which links the dilatancy parameter to other parameters. Conditions of material stability were also derived for the triaxial stress state. A plasticity model was proposed for modelling the constitutive behaviour of sulphide soil. Among others, the model takes into account the cohesion and the initial and stress-induced anisotropy. An explicit relation was derived to relate failure or critical state parameters in the isotropic case to those in the anisotropic (K0) case. A calibration method based on optimization was designed to improve the overall quality of model parameters. By using this method, the two proposed models were then calibrated to experimental data from several sets of tests on silt and sulphide soil. Two boundary-value problems, with available data from field tests, were analyzed using a finite element code with the proposed models implemented to demonstrate the capability of the proposed models and of the numerical method.

  • 2195.
    Yu, Yao
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Three-dimensional finite element analyses of pile group foundations1993Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2196.
    Yu, Yao
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Axelsson, Kennet
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    A plasticity model for silt1992Ingår i: Numerical models in geomechanics: of the fourth International Symposium on Numerical Models in Geomechanics, NUMOG IV, Swansea, U.K., 24-27 August 1992 / [ed] G.N. Pande; S. Pietruszczak, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1992, Vol. 4, s. 37-45Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2197.
    Yu, Yao
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Axelsson, Kennet
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Constitutive driver for response behaviour of soils1992Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2198.
    Yu, Yao
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Jacobsson, A.
    Geological and geotechnical characteristics of tills for road construction1994Ingår i: Proceedings: Seventh International Congress, International Association of Engineering Geology, 5-9 September 1994, Lisboa Portugal / [ed] R. Oliveira, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1994, s. 3235-3243Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2199.
    Zainy, Maher
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Bauer, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ask, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The Tectonic and Structural Classifications of the Western Part of the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt, North Iraq, Review and Discussion2017Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 71-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Zagros fold and thrust belt represents a tectonically significant area, and one

    of the richest areas in oil and gas reservoirs in the world. The Zagros fold and

    thrust belt is the deformational product of the Cretaceous-present day convergence

    of the Arabian and Iranian (Eurasian) plates (subduction and collision). The belt

    extends more than 2000 km from southern Turkey through the north and

    northeastern Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in southwestern Iran. The Zagros fold

    and thrust belt is divided into two parts which are; Western part within Iraqi

    region and Eastern part within Iranian region. The western part of the Zagros fold

    and thrust belt has been traditionally subdivided into several structural zones that

    are generally striking parallel to the plate boundary. This is characterized by

    exposure of Late Ordovician to Pliocene - Pliestocene formations with different

    types of Quaternary Sediments. This research will concentrate on Western part of

    Zagros fold and thrust belt and the styles of structural classifications, which will

    aid to clarify and better understand the tectonic and structural history and

    evolution of the region. We have considered the last version of structural

    classification as the most relevant one to the reality, especially within outer

    platform (Unstable shelf). Where it divides the region into four structural zones,

    which are: Low Folded zone, High Folded Zone, Imbricate Zone, and Zagros

    Suture Zone and these zones were further divided to several subzones. This

    classification is based on the structural style and intensity of deformation,

    stratigraphy, mechanicalstratigraphy and tectono-stratigraphy of the deformed

    sequences, Age of deformation, surface physiography and morphology. The data

    used in the classification is more reliable, up to date and relevant.

  • 2200.
    Zainy, Maher T.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Bauer, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ask, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The Tectonic and Structural Classifications of the Western Part of the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt, North Iraq, Review and Discussion2017Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 71-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Zagros fold and thrust belt represents a tectonically significant area, and one of the richest areas in oil and gas reservoirs in the world. The Zagros fold and thrust belt is the deformational product of the Cretaceous-present day convergence of the Arabian and Iranian (Eurasian) plates (subduction and collision). The belt extends more than 2000 km from southern Turkey through the north and northeastern Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in southwestern Iran. The Zagros fold and thrust belt is divided into two parts which are; Western part within Iraqi region and Eastern part within Iranian region. The western part of the Zagros fold and thrust belt has been traditionally subdivided into several structural zones that are generally striking parallel to the plate boundary. This is characterized by exposure of Late Ordovician to Pliocene - Pliestocene formations with different types of Quaternary Sediments. This research will concentrate on Western part of Zagros fold and thrust belt and the styles of structural classifications, which will aid to clarify and better understand the tectonic and structural history and evolution of the region. We have considered the last version of structural classification as the most relevant one to the reality, especially within outer platform (Unstable shelf). Where it divides the region into four structural zones, which are: Low Folded zone, High Folded Zone, Imbricate Zone, and Zagros Suture Zone and these zones were further divided to several subzones. This classification is based on the structural style and intensity of deformation, stratigraphy, mechanicalstratigraphy and tectono-stratigraphy of the deformed sequences, Age of deformation, surface physiography and morphology. The data used in the classification is more reliable, up to date and relevant.

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