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  • 2151.
    Öhberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paul, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The How or the What: The Impact of Narrative Style on Empathy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Narratives in the forms of music or literature have traditionally been highlightedfor their ability to evoke empathy; however, the specific features of the narrativethat serve as the underlying mechanisms responsible for this effect remain unclear.The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a narrative’s style onempathy. An experimental repeated measures research design was used with 41participants (31 female, 10 male; age range 20-63 yrs, M=30.2 yrs) that underwentthree conditions each comprised of a different stimulus (i.e., a song, a piece ofprose and a poem), with the same narrative content but differing in style. The orderof the stimuli was randomized across participants. After each stimulus, empatheticresponses were captured via self reports, measuring valence and arousal of theparticipant, as well as their perceived valence and arousal of the main character ofthe narrative. The song had a strong correlation between participant-rating andcharacter-rating on valence and arousal, thus evoking a stronger (affective)empathetic response than the other two styles of stimuli, having moderatecorrelations. The character-rating barely differed between the style of stimuli, andthe narrative first presented lowered the participants’ valence regardless of style.These findings could possibly be explained by cognitive empathy responding to thenarrative, evoking the same understanding of another person, whereas affectiveempathy seem more prone to respond to stylistic features. Future research andpossible therapeutic implications are discussed.

  • 2152.
    Öhlund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
     Brain Areas Involved in the Retrieval of Updated Memories: The Long-Term Effects2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2153.
    Öhman, Albin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enkvist, Hampus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Riskfaktorer för stabil insomni: Demografi, livsstil, mental ohälsa och funktionella somatiska syndrom2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Risken att drabbas av insomni har visat sig samvariera med flera demografiska och livsstilsrelaterade variabler, diagnostiserade sjukdomar och syndrom samt grad av psykisk ohälsa. Syftet med studien var att klarlägga huruvida detta samband även uppvisas för stabil insomni definierat som insomni vid två mätpunkter med tre års mellanrum. Stickprovet i studien utgjordes av 2336 personer ur normalbefolkningen i åldrarna 18-79 år. Utfallsvariablerna utgjordes av frågor om demografi, livsstil och läkarbaserade diagnoser om psykiatriska tillstånd och funktionella somatiska syndrom, samt totalvärden på validerade enkätinstrument för kvantifiering av grad av stress, utbrändhet, ångest och depression. Resultaten visade att risken för stabil insomni var förhöjd i åldrarna 18-29 år, för kvinnor, vid samtliga diagnostiserade sjukdomar och syndrom samt vid högre grad av psykisk ohälsa. För att tillhandahålla en god vård kan det därför vara nödvändigt att även adressera eventuella sömnproblem hos dessa patientgrupper, särskilt kvinnor och unga.

  • 2154.
    Öhman, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceived chronic stress, health and cognition2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this licentiate thesis was to examine consequences of chronic stress for stressrelated diseases and to investigate the chronic stress – cognition relationship. In the first study data covering ten years was used from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study (Nilsson et al., 1997). Based on the ratings on a stress scale, matched samples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high and low stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumor, and musculoskeletal diseases wasassessed five and ten years after a baseline assessment. The incidence of diseases five years after baseline assessment showed no differences between the groups. After ten years, there was a higher incidence of psychiatric diseases in the high stress group as well as a significant effect for tumors. These results indicated that moderately elevated stress levels may have an impact on psychiatric diseases, especially depression, and possibly also some tumor diseases, but it was concluded that prolonged moderate stress does not appear to be very harmful to health in general. In the second study cognitive performance was studied in chronic stress outpatients and matched controls. A battery of cognitive tests assessing processing speed, attention, episodic-, semantic- and working memory was used. Performance decrements for thechronic stress patients were found in episodic memory, particularly in learning across repeated trials, and in tasks requiring divided attention under either encoding or retrieval of words. Performance differences were also seen in aspects of working memory, mental tempo, semantic access (letter fluency) and prospective memory. It was concluded that executive functioning may be suboptimal in chronic stress patients and that letter fluency and prospective memory tests can be useful as clinical tools when evaluating chronic stressstates. Taken together, the findings indicate that there is no clear association between moderately elevated chronic stress and increased incidence of stress related diseases, whereas certain cognitive functions such as executive functioning appear vulnerable to chronic stress.

  • 2155.
    Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Longitudinal analysis of the relation between moderate long-term stress and health2007In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of the present work was to longitudinally examine consequences of long-term moderately elevated levels of stress for various health outcomes. To address this issue, data covering 10 years was used from the ongoing Swedish population-based prospective Betula Study. Based on the ratings on a validated self-reported stress scale, matched subsamples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high (n = 137) and low (n = 211) stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumour and musculoskeletal diseases was assessed 5 and 10 years after baseline (baseline = 1993–1995) without contaminating effects of past health history. The incidence of diseases 5 years after baseline assessment showed no differences between the groups. After 10 years, there was a significantly higher incidence of psychiatric diseases, mainly depression in the high-stress group as well as a significant effect for tumours, although the number of cases was low. Although moderately elevated stress level may have a possible impact on psychiatric diseases especially depression and some tumours, it seems that prolonged moderate stress does not appear to be harmful to other stress-related diseases.

  • 2156.
    Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Slunga Birgander, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Enviromental Medicine.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive function in outpatients with perceived chronic stress2007In: Scand J Work Environ Health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 223-232Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2157.
    Öhman, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davidsson, Jennie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att träna eller inte träna: En dagboksstudie om sambanden mellan fysisk aktivitet, motivation och atletisk identitet2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet för en ökad fysisk aktivitet hos befolkningen är komplext, då många faktorer påverkar en individs aktivitetsnivå. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka dagliga och generella samband mellan atletisk identitet, motivation och träningsmängd. I studien användes en dagboksdesign och data samlades in med en webbenkät varje dag under sju dagar. Studenter från tre universitet deltog och datamaterialet härrörde från 156 personer och 686 mättillfällen. Data analyserades med flernivåanalys, vilket möjliggjorde separering av effekter på två nivåer; inomindivids- och mellanindividsnivå. På inomindividsnivå predicerade identifierad reglering högre träningsmängd, vilket indikerade att internaliserade värderingar, som kan tänkas påverkas av sociala intryck, är viktiga för individers dagliga träningsmängd. Även amotivation visade ett dagöverskridande samband, och predicerade lägre träningsmängd. På mellanindividsnivå predicerade introjicerad reglering lägre träningsmängd, vilket kan förklaras av externa faktorer som associeras med urvalsgruppen. Resultatet visade en trend mot att individer med starkare atletisk identitet generellt tränade mer, detta i linje med tidigare studier. Starkare atletisk identitet visade även ett samband med mer autonoma typer av motivation, vilket teoretiskt kan förklaras av begreppens liknande processer där externa motiv integreras i individens värderingar och påverkar dennes beteende. Studien belyser värdet av att inom idrottsforskning studera samband på flera nivåer. Fler studier bör undersöka sambanden mellan olika psykologiska faktorer, för att bättre förstå hur de samvarierar och påverkar individers träningsbeteende.

  • 2158.
    Ölund, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att komma hem: Vägen till att återanpassa sig till det civila Sverige för svenska veteraner utforskad genom tolkande fenomenologisk analys2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many obstacles that veterans experience when readjusting, something that this study aim to explore due to lacking research within the area. The main problem the five participating veterans experience is lacking understanding from society, lacking support from their closer friends and relatives, that the swedish armed forces don’t do enough and that civilian health care lack satisfactory competence. The participants also express signs of uncertainty around their self-identity when coming home, not knowing what is expected from them. Through all this the participants show compassion and care for comrades even if they themselves have experienced substance abuse and two suicide attempts. In a nutshell the participants would like to see a more educated society in order to ease the readjustment to society and that the swedish armed forces increase their responsibility for taking care about their veterans.

  • 2159.
    Örmin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stillasittande på arbetsplatsen: Kontorsarbetares inställningar och attityder2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Långvarigt stillasittande innebär hälsorisker och bland kontorsarbetare är stillasittande ett vanligt förekommande beteende. Bristfällig forskning finns om vilka faktorer som påverkar kontorsarbetares stillasittande beteende. Syftet med studien var att undersöka kontorsarbetares inställning och attityder avseende stillasittande på arbetstid med förhoppningen om att skapa förståelse för kontorsarbetares stillasittande beteende. Beteendets ABC, Den ekologiska modellen för stillasittande beteende samt Self Determination Theory användes som teoretiskt ramverk. Undersökningsdeltagarna var 21 kontorsarbetande män och kvinnor i Umeå. Datainsamling utfördes med tre fokusgruppintervjuer och analyserades med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visade på faktorer som hindrar och möjliggör ett minskat stillasittande på individ-, grupp- och organisationsnivå. Faktorerna påverkar det stillasittande beteendet. Studiens slutsats var att ett minskat stillasittande för kontorsarbetare kräver insatser som involverar individen, gruppen och organisationen. 

  • 2160.
    Östberg, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predicting depression and anxiety with a single self-rated health item2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Self-rated health (SRH) consists of a single question wherein individuals are asked to evaluate their general health status on a 5-point scale. This study investigated the relationship between SRH and depression/anxiety, with the purpose of getting a better understanding of how the two disorders are related to perceived general health, and to examine the possibility of using SRH as clinical tool for identifying individuals with increased risk for onset and persistent states of depression and anxiety. The study used cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study, a large questionnaire-based population study in northern Sweden. 2336 individuals participated at baseline (T1) and 3-year follow-up (T2). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure symptoms of depression and anxiety. The results showed that those with poor SRH rated more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety, than those with good SRH. Those with poor SRH at T1 had more than twofold increased risk of falling into the depression and anxiety case groups at T2. Specifically, they more often experienced onset of symptoms at T2 as well as symptoms that persisted across the two occasions. The results corresponds in large with those from previous studies and supports the utility of SRH as a clinical tool, with the reservation that it may not be strong enough predictor on its own.

  • 2161.
    Öster, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Tavelin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Edberg Thyme, Karin
    Magnusson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindh, Jack
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Art therapy during radiotherapy – A five-year follow-up study with women diagnosed with breast cancer2014In: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 36-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Follow-up studies on art therapy are lacking. In a randomised art therapy intervention study from 2001 to 2004 with women with breast cancer, results showed that patients benefitted from participating in art therapy for up to four months after the intervention. The aim of this study was to describe the coping resources and quality of life amongst women treated for breast cancer five to seven years after participating in individual art therapy during radiotherapy as compared to a control group. In 2009, thirty-seven women, 18 from the intervention group and 19 from the control group, answered questionnaires about their coping resources and quality of life. The results showed no significant difference between the groups regarding their coping resources or quality of life, except for an unexpected significantly lower score in the domain 'Social relations' in the study group as compared to baseline, at the time of the follow up. However, our study from 2001 to 2004 supports various positive effects of art therapy within six months of participation as compared to a control group. Consequently, attending art therapy during the treatment period for breast cancer can be of great importance to support health, coping and quality of life in a short-term perspective.

  • 2162.
    Öster, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Tavelin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Egberg Thyme, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Magnusson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindh, Jack
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Art therapy during radiotherapy: a five-year follow-up study with women diagnosed with breast cancer2014In: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 36-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Follow-up studies on art therapy are lacking. In a randomised art therapy intervention study from 2001-2004 with women with breast cancer, results showed that patients benefitted from participating in art therapy for up to at least four months after the intervention. The aim of this study was to describe the coping resources and quality of life amongst women treated for breast cancer five - seven years after participating in individual art therapy during radiotherapy as compared to a control group. In 2009, thirty-seven women, 18 from the intervention group and 19 from the control group, answered questionnaires about their coping resources and quality of life. The results showed no significant difference between the groups regarding their coping resources or quality of life, except for an unexpected significantly lower score in the domain ‘Social relations’ in the study group as compared to baseline, at the time of the follow up. However, our study from 2001–2004 supports various positive effects of art therapy within six months of participation as compared to a control group. Consequently, attending art therapy during the treatment period for breast cancer can be of great importance to support health, coping and quality of life in a short-term perspective.

  • 2163.
    Öster, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindh, Jack
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Magnusson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Women with breast cancer and gendered limits and boundaries: Art therapy as a safe space for enacting alternative subject positions2009In: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes its starting point from certain results from our randomized study on art therapy with women with breast cancer. Previous results from this study showed significant benefits on coping, quality of life, and symptoms for women who participated in an art therapy intervention. Analyses of interviews and diaries showed that especially women from the intervention group had distanced themselves from traditionally gendered understandings about cultural limits and boundaries. The aim of this study was to gain further knowledge about how women with breast cancer who participated in the art therapy intervention gave meaning to the gendered limits and boundaries in their daily lives, and to trace their trajectories, in therapy, towards helpful management of restraining boundaries. When analyzing the women's verbal reflections on the therapy sessions, we discerned five subject positions, defining them as follows: being someone who reacts to violation attempts; actively connecting body and self; actively locating oneself and moving forward; being in a position to see important connections throughout life; and being able to acknowledge and harbour conflicting emotions. The results of the study suggest that art therapy served as a tool that helped the women to get access to subject positions that enabled them to protect and strengthen their boundaries. This involved challenging dominating discourses and reacting against perceived boundary violations. Art therapy offered a personal, physical, and pictorial “safe space” with opportunities to deal with complex existential experiences and issues, and also make important connections throughout life. Looking back and summarizing important experiences acted as a way to prepare oneself for the future and moving forward.

  • 2164.
    Österman, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vi är KRAV-märkta: Äldreomsorgens förutsättningar ger konsekvenser för psykosocial arbetsmiljö och hälsa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1990s, major changes took place in elder care in municipal activities due to changes in the municipal law which led to reorganizations, downsizing and streamlining. This contributed to poor working environment especially in health care and musculoskeletal disorders and stress increased. The purpose of this study was to examine the unit managers’ opportunity to exercise present leadership and how the psychosocial work environment is perceived by unit managers and their employees. Moreover, how leadership is perceived by the employees and how psychosocial working environment and health is investigated. Two nursing homes in Umeå municipality were included in the study. In total, three focus group interviews were conducted, one with managers and two with employees, 12 participants in total. An abductive qualitative content analysis was performed. Seven themes were found in the material. These show that the unit managers perceive that they have no opportunity to be present, and that both managers and employees perceive a high workload, lack of social support for unit managers and between unit manager and employees, and lack of communication, participation and justice. Health was perceived to be better among unit managers than employees. However, job satisfaction was reported to be good in both groups. Present leadership is in the current situation difficult to exercise due to lack of both time and support and there are deficiencies in the psychosocial work environment affecting employee health negatively.

  • 2165.
    Österman, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "Vi är KRAV-märkta": Äldreomsorgens förutsättningar ger konsekvenser för psykosocial arbetsmiljö och hälsa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1990s, major changes took place in elder care in municipal activities due to changes in the municipal law which led to reorganizations, downsizing and streamlining. This contributed to poor working environment especially in health care and musculoskeletal disorders and stress increased. The purpose of this study was to examine the unit managers’ opportunity to exercise present leadership and how the psychosocial work environment is perceived by unit managers and their employees. Moreover, how leadership is perceived by the employees and how psychosocial working environment and health is investigated. Two nursing homes in Umeå municipality were included in the study. In total, three focus group interviews were conducted, one with managers and two with employees, 12 participants in total. An abductive qualitative content analysis was performed. Seven themes were found in the material. These show that the unit managers perceive that they have no opportunity to be present, and that both managers and employees perceive a high workload, lack of social support for unit managers and between unit manager and employees, and lack of communication, participation and justice. Health was perceived to be better among unit managers than employees. However, job satisfaction was reported to be good in both groups. Present leadership is in the current situation difficult to exercise due to lack of both time and support and there are deficiencies in the psychosocial work environment affecting employee health negatively.

  • 2166.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-concept and perception of early mother and father behavior in normal and antisocial adolescents2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 437-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the self-concept and perceptions of early parental behavior in a group of 277 normal adolescents with respect to differences in age (12–18 years) and gender. A group of 30 antisocial adolescents of similar age (13–19 years) were included as a comparison group. The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire study and the Swedish translation of the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) introject and mother/father questionnaires were used as measures of self- and parental concepts. Multivariate analyses of variance show that the normal adolescent self-concept and perception of early parental behavior are positive and that there are no age or gender differences. The early behavior of the mother is perceived more positively than that of the father. A positive self-concept is related to a positive perception of the parent's early behavior. The antisocial group of adolescents shows a more autonomous and negative self-concept and more negative perception of early parental behaviors. This was true especially in the group of antisocial girls. The conclusion from the study is that there is no evidence of a chaotic self-concept or tumultuous changes in the perceptions of early parental behavior during normal adolescence, but that an antisocial way of life might be reflected in a more negative and autonomous self-concept and in more negative perceptions of early parental behavior during adolescence.

  • 2167.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-concept, inner residue of past relationships and current social functioning.: A study of age and gender differences in normal and antisocial adolescents.2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents several studies of normative development in adolescence, focusing specifically on internalized perceptions of parents’ early behavior and how these perceptions affect the self-concept and social functioning during. Questions of possible age and gender differences in relation to perceptions of self-concept and early parental behavior are addressed. The patterns found in a normal adolescent group are compared with those in a group of adolescents with antisocial problems. Two hundred seventy-seven normal adolescents aged 12 to18 and 30 adolescents with antisocial problems aged 13-19 were investigated. The following self-administered instruments were used: self-concept assessments, the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) introject questionnaire, perception of early parental behavior assessment, the SASB mother/father questionnaires, and the EMBU (A Swedish acronym for “own memories of upbringing”). The Youth Self Report checklist (YSR) was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems.

    Studies I and II showed that the normal adolescent self-concept and perception of early parental behavior were positive and that there were no age or gender differences. The antisocial group of adolescents, and particularly the antisocial girls, showed a more autonomous and negative self-concept and more negative perceptions of early parental behaviors.

    Study III showed that a positive self-concept was related to a positive perception of parent’s early behavior.

    Study IV showed that an adolescent’s positive self-concept was influenced by a mix of mother acting positively and father acting with control. Adolescent self-control was indirectly influenced by parental control behavior mediated through self-affiliation.

    Study V showed that a positive self-concept was important for adjustment. A negative self-concept combined with female gender was a risk factor for internalizing problems. Self-control had only a small effect on social adjustment in adolescence. The relationship between a negative self-concept and externalizing problem behavior was stronger for adolescents aged 15 to 16 than for younger or older adolescents. Internalizing problem behavior influenced externalizing problems.

    The results presented in this thesis support a modified “storm-and-stress” view of adolescence and highlight the importance of promoting a positive self-concept in every adolescent in various psychosocial contexts.

  • 2168.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perception of early mother and father behavior in adolescence.: A study of age and gender differences in groups of normal and antisocial adolescents2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined age and gender differences in the perceptions of early mother and father behavior in a group of normal adolescents. Two hundred and seventy-seven boys and girls (aged 12–18 years) completed EMBU (My memories of Upbringing), a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, and questionnaires based on the Structural Analysis of Social behavior (SASB) model. A group of 30antisocial adolescents of similar age was included as a comparison group.The results show that the normal adolescents’ perception of earlyparental behavior is positive with no age or gender differences. The earlybehavior of the mother was perceived more positively than that of thefather. A more negative perception of early parental behaviors was foundin the antisocial adolescent group and especially in the group of antisocial girls. The results of EMBU were consistent with those of SASB with perceptions of more negative parental behavior of rejection and overprotection in the group of antisocial adolescents.

  • 2169.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-concept in adolescence.: A study of age and gender differences in groups of normal and antisocial adolescents2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the self-concept in a group of 277 normaladolescents with respect to differences in age (12-18 years) and genderand the interaction between age and gender. As a comparison, 27antisocial adolescents of similar age participated in the study. Theadolescents completed a questionnaire based on the SASB-model. Theresults showed that the normal adolescent self-concept is positive andthat there are no age or gender differences. A more autonomous andmore negative self-concept is found in the antisocial group ofadolescents. The antisocial girls seem to show more self-hate than allother groups. The conclusion from the study is that there is no evidenceof a chaotic self-concept during normal adolescence, but that anantisocial way of life might be reflected in a more negative and autonomous self-concept during adolescence.

  • 2170.
    Östgård-Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation between self-concept and concepts of early parental behavior for adolescentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2171.
    Östman, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Experters syn på digital teknologi som stöd vid nedsatta exekutiva funktioner och stress – en grundad teori2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines what experts in exhaustive disorder find are important functions and important features in the user interface for anartificially intelligent coach when the users’activity difficulties are caused by stress and if the functions and featuressuggested bythe stress-experts can be generalized and used by persons with neurocognitive disorders with similar activity difficulties. Participants in the study werefour stress-therapists at astress clinic, nine social service workers ata municipaldepartment, one occupational therapist froma health centre.The participants provide support for people diagnosed with among other thingsExhaustive disorder, Attention Deficit Hyper Disorder (ADHD) andAutism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).To answer these questions a qualitative studywas conducted and analysed with theGrounded Theory (GT)method. Data has been collected through focus-group interviews and semi-structured interviews.The gathered material has been constantly compared with each other (Constant Comparative Technique -CCT) and the conclusion is that the experts want a tool thatis adaptable to the individual, facilitatesself-awareness and shouldcomplement the current treatment/support.Acalendar function with certain propertiescould provide agood base for the interfaceand thishas been confirmed inone of the interviews. A natural next step for future research is to evaluate the interface theories with the proposed users.Other interesting research in artificial intelligence (AI) would be to examine the possibilities of creating algorithms that could predict and suggest balanced activity patterns for the user.

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