Change search
Refine search result
4041424344 2101 - 2150 of 2180
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 2101.
    Woodley, Michael A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rindermann, Heiner
    Bell, Edward
    Stratford, James
    Piffer, Davide
    The relationship between microcephalin, ASPM and intelligence: a reconsideration2014In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 44, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that the recently evolved Microcephalin and the related Abnormal Spindle-like Microcaphaly Associated (ASPM) alleles do not appear to be associated with IQ at the individual differences level, the frequencies of Microcephalin have been found to correlate strongly with IQ at the cross-country level. In this study, the association between these two alleles and intelligence is examined using a sample of 59 populations. A bivariate correlation between Microcephalin and population average IQ of r = .790 (p ≤ .01) was found, and a multiple regression analysis in which the Human Development Index, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) lost due to Infectious diseases, DALY Nutritional deficiencies, and Würm glaciation temperature means were included revealed that Microcephalin remained a good predictor of IQ. Path analysis, with both direct and indirect paths from Microcephalin to intelligence, showed good model fit. These multivariate analyses revealed strong and robust associations between DALYs and Microcephalin, indicating that the former partially mediates the association between the latter and IQ. A second smaller correlational analysis involving ten country-level estimates of the frequencies of these two alleles collected from the 1000 genomes database replicated this pattern of results. To account for the findings of this study, we review evidence that these alleles are expressed in the immune system. Microcephalin is strongly associated with DNA repair, which indicates a special role for this allele in the intrinsic anti-viral immune response. Enhanced immune functioning may have advantaged both hunter–gatherer and agrarian societies coping with the heightened disease burden that resulted from population growth and exposure to zoonotic diseases, making it more likely that such growth and concomitant increases in intelligence could occur.

  • 2102.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    te Nijenhuis, Jan
    Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Murphy, Raegan
    School of Applied Psychology, University College Cork, Ireland.
    Were the Victorians cleverer than us?: The decline in general intelligence estimated from a meta-analysis of the slowing of simple reaction time2013In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 41, no 6, Special Issue: SI, p. 843-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Victorian era was marked by an explosion of innovation and genius, per capita rates of which appear to have declined subsequently. The presence of dysgenic fertility for IQ amongst Western nations, starting in the 19th century, suggests that these trends might be related to declining IQ. This is because high-IQ people are more productive and more creative. We tested the hypothesis that the Victorians were cleverer than modern populations, using high-quality instruments, namely measures of simple visual reaction time in a meta-analytic study. Simple reaction time measures correlate substantially with measures of general intelligence (g) and are considered elementary measures of cognition. In this study we used the data on the secular slowing of simple reaction time described in a meta-analysis of 14 age-matched studies from Western countries conducted between 1889 and 2004 to estimate the decline in g that may have resulted from the presence of dysgenic fertility. Using psychometric meta-analysis we computed the true correlation between simple reaction time and g, yielding a decline of -1.16 IQ points per decade or -13.35 IQ points since Victorian times. These findings strongly indicate that with respect to g the Victorians were substantially cleverer than modern Western populations.

  • 2103.
    Woodley, Michael Anthony
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    te Nijenhuis, Jan
    University of Amsterdam, Work and Organizational Psychology, The Netherlands.
    Must, Olev
    University of Tartu, Department of Psychology, Estonia.
    Must, Aasa
    Estonian National Defence College, Estonia.
    Controlling for increased guessing enhances the independence of the Flynn effect from g: the return of the Brand effect2014In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 43, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cause of the Flynn effect is one of the biggest puzzles in intelligence research. In this study we test the hypothesis that the effect may be even more independent from g than previously thought. This is due to the fact that secular gains in IQ result from at least two sources. First, an authentic Flynn effect that results from environmental improvements and should therefore be strongly negatively related to the g loading (and therefore the heritability) of IQ subtests. Second, a “Brand effect”, which results from an increase in the number of correct answers simply via enhanced guessing. As harder items should encourage more guessing, secular gains in IQ stemming from this Brand effect should be positively associated with subtest g loadings. Analysis of Estonian National Intelligence Test data collected between 1933 and 2006, which includes data on guessing, g loadings and secular IQ gains, corroborates this hypothesis. The correlation between gains via the Brand effect and g loadings is .95, as predicted. There is a modest negative association between raw secular gain magnitude and subtest g loadings (− .18) that increases to − .47 when these are controlled for the Brand effect. Applying five psychometric meta-analytic corrections to this estimate raises it to − .82 indicating that the authentic Flynn effect is substantially more independent from g than previously thought.

  • 2104.
    Woodley of Meine, Michael A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany; Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Cabeza De Baca, Tomás
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Heitor B. F., Fernandes
    Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Figueredo, Aurelio-José
    Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
    Aguirre, Mateo Peñaherrera
    Department of Psychology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada.
    Slow and steady wins the race: K positively predicts fertility in the USA and Sweden2017In: Evolutionary Psychological Science, E-ISSN 2198-9885, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nothing is presently known about the relationship between individual differences in fertility and life history (LH) speed, as measured by the K-Factor. To examine this relationship, the correlation between LH speed and the number of children was examined in two, large samples (MIDUS II and the Swedish STAGE dataset). Their association was positive and statistically significant in both cross-national samples. The association was robust with respect to statistically controlling for participant age. Nested model comparison of a Model looking only at linear effects with a second Model incorporating a quadratic term did not improve model fit in any instance, suggesting directional selection for slower LH, The heritability of the indicators comprising the K-Factor positively moderated the strength of selection, while K-Factor loading weakly negatively moderated selection strength, suggesting that K-Factor variance, as a multivariate latent construct, is not the primary target of selection. These results are consistent with fertility intentions data indicating positive correlations between slower LH and desired numbers of children. In modern environments, higher mating effort does not appear to result in more offspring, likely because of strategic interference suppressing the fertility of those with fast LH, stemming from influences that may be either endogenous (i.e., contraceptive usage) or exogenous (i.e., the presence of laws, such as alimony) to the individual.

  • 2105.
    Woodley of Menie, Michael A
    et al.
    Belgium.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The association between g and K in a sample of 4246 Swedish twins: a behavior genetic analysis2015In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 74, p. 270-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas the heritability of general intelligence (g) is very well documented, there are relatively few reports of the heritability of life history speed (K). Moreover, the correlation between g and K is of great theoretical significance. Here, we examine the heritabilities of g and K in a sample of 2123 complete Swedish twin pairs, as well as looking for evidence of common genetic variance between the two. We find a significant albeit very small correlation between relatively strong measures of g (the Wiener Matrizen Test) and K (the Mini-K; r = .03, p < .05). Controlling for attenuation by reliabilities and imperfect validity using validity generalization increased the correlation to rho = .05 (p < .05). There was no significant common additivity between g and K, however path elimination in behavior genetic structural equations modeling suggests that the small common variance is nonetheless likely to stem from shared additive genetic influences rather than from environmental influences. The implications of this are discussed. Our new estimate of the heritability of the life history in the Swedish population is a particularly significant result, as the heritability of life history speed has never before been established in non-US samples.

  • 2106.
    Woodley of Menie, Michael
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Dutton, Edward
    Figueredo, Aurelio-Jose
    University of Arizona.
    Carl, Noah
    Debes, Frodi
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Hertler, Steven
    Irwing, Paul
    Kura, Kenya
    Lynn, Richard
    Ulster Institute.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Meisenberg, Gerhard
    Miller, Edward
    te Nijenhuis, Jan
    University of Amsterdam.
    Nyborg, Helmuth
    Rindermann, Heiner
    Chemnitz University of Technology .
    Communicating intelligence research: media misrepresentation, the Gould Effect and unexpected forces2018In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 70, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2107.
    Woodman, Tim
    et al.
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Development, University of Northumbria, UK.
    Hardy, Lew
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Callow, Nichola
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Glasscock, Ian
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Yuill-Proctor, Jason
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Emotions and sport performance: An exploration of happiness, hope and anger2009In: Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 08952779, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 169-188Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted three experiments to examine the relationships between emotions and subcomponents of performance. Experiment 1 revealed that anger was associated with enhanced gross muscular peak force performance but that happiness did not influence grammatical reasoning performance. Following Lazarus (1991, 2000a), we examined hope rather than happiness in Experiment 2. As hypothesized, hope yielded faster soccer-related reaction times in soccer players. Experiment 3 was an examination of extraversion as a moderator of the anger-performance relationship. When angry, extraverts' peak force increased more than introverts'. Results are discussed and future research directions are offered in relation to Lazarus's framework.

  • 2108.
    Wretman, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ett vaccin mot framtida stresspåverkan?: En långtidsuppföljning av Acceptance and Commitment therapy för läkarstudenter2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2109.
    Wu, Naomi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A LONG-DISTANCE RELATIONSHIP: RECONNECTING HOTELS WITH THEIR GUESTS VIA INTUITIVE DESIGN2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently for travel planning, guests will research via hotel websites while still preferring to book through third-party sites, which leads to a disconnect between hotels and their guests. A chat widget artifact that is added onto the hotel’s website and linked through messaging applications was created by a start-up company, Bookboost, to bridge this gap. The current intuitiveness of the artifact and future improvements that may increase intuitiveness was investigated through a case study of user and expert analysis. 10 participants – 5 hotel staff users and 5 guest users – were sampled at hotel lobbies via systematic sampling and non-random sampling. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 65 years old, with 30% being millennials. Task analysis, an interview, and a questionnaire were used for user analysis. The researcher acted as an evaluator and examined the artifact for flaws and possible improvements using activity theory’s human-artifact model (HAM). Analyses suggest that current intuitiveness is fairly high, but there is room for improvement. There seems to be a difference between millennials and non-millennials, especially regarding the amount of time taken and preference for the artifact (versus more familiar methods for communicating with others). Interest and comfort in technology usage was a factor in intuitiveness. Generally, those more comfortable with technology had higher zone of proximal development (ZPD) scores. Improvements have been suggested that may increase artifact intuitiveness, although this was not tested due to the scope of the study. Future research can continue to examine if the suggested improvements have indeed increased intuitiveness in the artifact for users of all ages.

  • 2110.
    Wu, Naomi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sibling warmth as a correlate of youth self-esteem2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During adolescence, self-systems and individual perceptions of the self are changing and heavily influenced by family relationships, which are generally the first and longest lasting connections individuals experience. Thus, to understand youth development, it is imperative to investigate the family context, wherein parent-youth relationships and sibling relationships impact one another. The current study examines the effect of a close sibling relationship on youth self-esteem above and beyond the effect of the mother-youth relationship. A cross-sectional study was employed on a sample of 434 families in the US, which all consisted of one mother and at least a pair of siblings. All three members of the family participating filled in an online survey. The target youth were between the 5th to 7th grades. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses find sibling warmth as a significant predictor for youth self-perception, but not for youth self-criticism. The present study shows the importance of considering not only the mother-youth relationship when analyzing youth self-system development, but also the sibling relationship.

  • 2111.
    Wänerstam, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Samband mellan transformellt ledarskap, arbetstillfredsställelse och brukarkvalitet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De positiva sambanden mellan transformellt ledarskap, arbetstillfredsställelse för personal och effektivitet i arbetet med att uppnå organisationens genomgående mål, är väl utforskade områden. De tidigare studierna har huvudsakligen gjorts inom vinstdrivande organisationer och i en mindre utsträckning hos de som är icke vinstdrivande. Generaliserbarheten mellan dessa två organisationstyper är liten då de skiljer sig åt i sina genomgående mål; generera maximal vinst mot att bidra maximalt till någon specifik del av allmännyttan. Den här kvantitativa studien undersöker de här sambanden med hjälp av tre olika självskattningsinstrument och personalen från den icke vinstdrivande organisationen hemtjänsten. I studien deltog 244 undersökningsdeltagare men en könsfördelning på 205 kvinnor (84%) och 36 män (16%). Studiens resultat indikerar på positivt signifikanta samband mellan transformellt ledarskap, arbetstillfredsställelse och hemtjänstens genomgående mål, brukarkvalitet. Det antyder att även icke vinstdrivande organisationer kan ha nytta av att tillämpa ett transformellt ledarskap.

  • 2112.
    Wänerstam, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sambanden mellan transformellt ledarskap, arbetstillfredsställelse och brukarkvalitet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2113.
    Wåhlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kihlström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    TIDSPERSPEKTIV I RELATION TILL ÅNGEST, DEPRESSION, ORO, ÄLTANDE OCH INHIBERING2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The way we humans relate to the past, present and future reflect our personality and can be linked with our mental health. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between time perspective, depression, anxiety, worry and rumination. The aim was also to study if a deficient capacity of inhibition could be explained by worry and rumination. The study consisted of 65 participants from a non-clinical sample; 44 women and 21 men in the age of 19 to 40 years. The self report inventories included in the study was Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Response Style Questionnaire and Pennstate Worry Questionnaire, a Colour-Word test measured the Stroop effect. The result indicated that worry but also rumination was the best predictors to a negative future orientation while anxiety and negative future orientation best predicted worry. Rumination was mainly explained by a negative future orientation. The results of the inhibition processes was contradictory. Further research of executive funcions, worry and rumination are needed. The authors are arguing for a stronger relationship between anxiety and depression could be found in a clinical sample. More knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of depression and anxiety is of importance for a more effective clinical treatment.

  • 2114.
    Yacoub, Jocelyne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Odor detection sensitivity and response bias in relation to aspects of health2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance (CI) means that the affected individual experience symptoms from the smell of the weak concentrations of conventional chemicals in the environment that most people are not bothered by. This study aimed to examine whether response bias (beta) and sensitivity index (d´) for odor detection correlate with self-rated health, CI, stress and distress. The questionnaires that were used to answer the question were self-rated health (SRH), CI (assessed with the Chemical Sensitivity Scale), stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and distress (Symptom Check List-90). A group of 23 adult individuals between the ages of 18 to 55 years expected to vary in degree of CI were exposed to various concentration of n-butanol for a signal detection test for about 2 hours. The data processing was done by correlational analyses. The results showed no statistically significant correlations between beta and the variables SRH, CI, stress and distress, but tendencies of significant correlations between d´ and the variables SRH, CI and stress, such that individuals who were high in CI, stress and who generally felt poorly had a lower odor sensitivity (d´). These tendencies encourage continued study of the associations with larger sample size.    

  • 2115. Yang, Junkai
    et al.
    Ouyang, Feiyi
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Huang, Yingyu
    Gan, Lingyu
    Zhou, Liang
    Chao, Huizhen
    Wang, Mengxue
    Zhang, Sheng
    Yang, Bo
    Wu, Xiang
    A mechanism of timing variability underlying the association between the mean and SD of asynchrony2019In: Human Movement Science, ISSN 0167-9457, E-ISSN 1872-7646, Vol. 67, article id 102500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensorimotor timing behaviors typically exhibit an elusive phenomenon known as the negative asynchrony. When synchronizing movements (e.g. finger taps) with an external sequence (e.g. a metronome), people’s taps precede event onsets by a few tens of milliseconds. We recently reported that asynchrony is less negative in participants with lower asynchrony variability. This indicates an association between negative asynchrony and variability of timing. Here, in 24 metronome-synchronization data sets, we modeled asynchrony series using a sensorimotor synchronization model that accounts for serial dependence of asynchronies. The results showed that the modeling well captured the negative correlation between the mean and SD of asynchrony. The finding suggests that serial dependence in asynchronies is an essential mechanism of timing variability underlying the association between the mean and SD of asynchrony.

  • 2116. Yang, Junkai
    et al.
    Ouyang, Feiyi
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Huang, Yingyu
    Gan, Lingyu
    Zhou, Liang
    Chao, Huizhen
    Wang, Mengye
    He, Mengxue
    Zhang, Sheng
    Yang, Bo
    Pan, Junhao
    Wu, Xiang
    Tapping ahead of time: its association with timing variability2018In: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have puzzled over the phenomenon in sensorimotor timing that people tend to tap ahead of time. When synchronizing movements (e.g., finger taps) with an external sequence (e.g., a metronome), humans typically tap tens of milliseconds before event onsets, producing the elusive negative asynchrony. Here, we present 24 metronome-tapping data sets from 8 experiments with different experimental settings, showing that less negative asynchrony is associated with lower tapping variability. Further analyses reveal that this negative mean-SD correlation of asynchrony is likely to be observed for sequence types appropriate for synchronization, as indicated by the statistically negative lag 1 autocorrelation of inter-response intervals. The reported findings indicate an association between negative asynchrony and timing variability.

  • 2117.
    Ybrandt, Helen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Changes in self-image in a psychotherapy supervisor training program2009In: The Clinical Supervisor, ISSN 0732-5223, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 113-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) was  used to assess the self-image of psychotherapists enrolled in a psychotherapy supervisor training program in the initial and final phases of their training, as well as four months after the completion of their training. Their self-image was compared to that of experienced supervisors. The results show that the self-image of the supervisor trainees changed over the course of the training. By the end of the training, their self-image was as autonomous as that of experienced supervisors. Positive self-acceptance also developed. The relation between the outcome of psychotherapy, the style of trainees’ supervisor, and changes in the self-image of the trainees is also discussed.

  • 2118.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A normative study of the Swedish adolescent drug abuse diagnosis (ADAD)2013In: Journal of Substance Use, ISSN 1465-9891, E-ISSN 1475-9942, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to provide a standardization of the use of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) among Swedish adolescents using interview self-reported and interviewer-rated problem severity. Data relating to nine life areas (medical status, school history and status, employment, social activities and peer relations, family background and relationships, psychological status and problems, legal involvement, alcohol use and drug use) were gathered from a randomized population-based sample of 847 adolescents aged 13–18 years. The results show that the effects of age, gender and geographic region were small but significant, with older adolescents, girls and adolescents in cities scoring higher for problem severity. Adolescents’ scorings were in the range “no problems” to “small problems” and the interviewer severity ratings were in the range “no real problems” to “no need for further help”. The conclusion is that individual score variations are much greater than can be attributed to age, gender or residential area. Consequently, the ADAD has the potential to serve as an instrument for assessing individual adolescents’ self-reported problems in Sweden.

  • 2119.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Risky alcohol use, peer and family relationships and legal involvement in adolescents with antisocial problems2010In: Journal of Drug Education, ISSN 0047-2379, E-ISSN 1541-4159, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 243-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD (Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis) interview. A total of 1163 Swedish adolescents (809 boys and 354 girls) between the ages of 12 and 20 years old were interviewed. All had antisocial problems and were detained at special youth homes. It was found that for those aged between 12 and 18 years, the general risk factors for alcohol use were leisure and peer problems, problems associated with family background and relationships, and criminal behavior. These results suggest that drug abuse treatment planning should focus on altering the predisposing factors that exist in these domains. It was also found that the ADAD problem areas seem to be most useful as prognostic indicators of treatment outcome for adolescents with antisocial problems who are under 18 years of age.

  • 2120.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ten-year trends in self-reported family and psychological problems among swedish adolescents2014In: European Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 1788-4934, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 54-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to compare problem severity among Swedish adolescents, using self-reported and interviewer-rated data from 2000 and 2010, gathered with the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) interview. Data relating to family relationships, psychological status and problems were collected in two samples randomly selected from the adolescent population aged 15–17 years (121 adolescents in the year 2000 and 485 adolescents in the year 2010). The results show that the self-rated and interviewer-rated problem severity of adolescents in 2000 and in 2010 seems to be unchanged, with no increased polarisation for sex and socio-economic groups. There was a difference, however, was of girls reporting more severe problems in family relationships compared to boys. In 2010, compared to 2000, adolescents reported on fewer psychological problems (e.g. experiences of serious anxiety and tension, comprehension and concentration disorder, memory loss and, in addition, problems with relationships in and outside the family sphere – e.g. problems with getting along with siblings, and with trusting other people). In order to promote the mental health of adolescents, it is essential, during the next decade to reveal relationship problems, such as problems of insecurity with people outside the family.

  • 2121.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation between self-concept and social functioning in adolescence2008In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A model of the relation between self-concept and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviours in adolescence, with the self-concept influencing problem behaviours (S→IE), was assessed using a sample of 277 Swedish adolescents. The model was tested in a path analysis with data from Youth Self Report (YSR) and Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour (SASB) questionnaires. Consistent with the model, a positive self-concept was found to be the most important factor for adjustment and for protection against common problem behaviour. A negative self-concept combined with female gender were risk factors for internalized problems. Self-control had only a direct effect on externalizing behaviour for boys. Adolescents of 15, 16 years of age had a stronger relationship between a negative self-concept and externalizing problem behaviour than younger and older adolescents. Internalizing problem behaviours such as anxiety and depression predicted aggressive and delinquent behaviour. These findings highlight the importance of promoting of a positive self-concept in every adolescent in various psychosocial contexts.

  • 2122.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolescents' mental health and their images of self and parents2010In: European Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 1788-4934, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between images of self and parents as defined in interpersonal theory and by the Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour (Benjamin), and internalizing and externalizing problems, as defined by the Youth Self-Report (Achenbach) was studied in a sample of 199 nonclinical adolescents (92 boys and 107 girls) aged between 13 and 17 years. Regression analyses showed that the pattern relating images of self and parents to mental health problems was different for boys and girls. Internalizing problems for girls were best predicted from aspects of their self-image while for boys parental behaviour played a larger role. A pattern of self-blame and lower self-affirmation together with parental blame was important for girls’ externalizing problems and a pattern of self-neglect and low self-autonomy and an uncertainty of parental love were important for boys externalizing problems. Results emphasize that boys and girls have different kinds of vulnerabilities as risk factors for mental health problems.

  • 2123.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Peer aggression and mental health problems: self-esteem as a mediator2010In: School Psychology International, ISSN 0143-0343, E-ISSN 1461-7374, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 146-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether self-esteem mediates the association problems in adolescents. A total of 204 Swedish adolescents aged between 12- and 16-years-old completed self-report measures; self-esteem was assessed with ‘I think I am’ (ITIA) and internalizing and externalizing problems with Youth Self-Report (YSR). Our results showed that internalizing problems in peer aggressors could be understood as problems with low self-esteem, while internalizing problems in peer victims could be understood both as problems with low selfesteem and as an effect of being victimized. Externalizing problems in peer aggressors and peer aggressor–victims could be understood as problems with being involved in peer aggression, while the same problems in peer victims could be understood as problems with low self-esteem. This article also discusses the importance of self-esteem in adolescents’ development of their own identities and for peer aggressive- related psychological psychopathology.

  • 2124.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Börjesson, Josefine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Measurments instruments scales tests: The Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis composite scores in Swedish normal and antisocial adolescents2008In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1411-1423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study evaluates the utility and issues around the composite scores in Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD). Participants were Swedish normal adolescents (121) and adolescents manifesting antisocial problems (1,168), ages 10 to 21. The results show that the interviewer severity ratings seem to be the most appropriate outcome when the objective is to differentiate between normal and antisocial adolescents. The composite scores appear to function as an indicator of current problems in all areas except for Medical and Alcohol sections. The critical items within the Medical and Alcohol composite scores are explored and discussed.

  • 2125.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordqvist, Stefan
    SiS-placerade ungdomars problematik i relation till andra ungdomar: en jämförelse med referensdata insamlade med ADAD 20102015Report (Refereed)
  • 2126.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Capone, Georgina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trainee therapists' wievs on the alliance in psychotherapy and supervision: a longitudinal study2016In: British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, ISSN 0306-9885, E-ISSN 1469-3534, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 530-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shape of alliance in psychotherapy and supervision using growth curve modeling was examined for clinically inexperienced trainee therapists, who were engaged in long-term cognitive behavioral - or psychodynamic individual psychotherapy at a Psychology Clinic in Sweden. Trainee therapists rated their view of the alliance with their clients and their supervisors on the Working Alliance Inventory at five time points. The alliance to the client show a consistent, positive development throughout the therapy. The alliance to the supervisors show initially a decrease, followed by an increase, and then again, the rate of increase in the supervisory alliance ratings slowed down indicating a more complex view of the supervisory alliance compared to the view of the alliance in psychotherapy.

  • 2127.
    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat
    et al.
    Universitat de Barcelona.
    Romeo, Marina
    Universitat de Barcelona.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Job crafting, employee well-being, and quality of care2018In: Western Journal of Nursing Research, ISSN 0193-9459, E-ISSN 1552-8456, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 52-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective is to study the effects of job crafting activities of elder care and nursing home employees on their perceived well-being and quality of care in two European countries, Spain and Sweden. The Job Crafting, the General Health, and the Quality of Care questionnaires were administered to 530 employees. Correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results confirm the effects of job crafting on quality of care (r = .291, p < .01; β = .261, p < .01; ΔR2 = .065, p < .01) and employees’ well-being (r = .201, p < .01; β = .171, p < .01; ΔR2 = .028, p < .01). A positive linear relationship was found between job crafting and well-being in Spain and Sweden and with quality of care in Spain. On the contrary, in Sweden, the relationship between job crafting and well-being was not linear. Job crafting contributes significantly to employees’ and residents’ well-being. Management should promote job crafting to co-create meaningful and productive work. Cultural effects are proposed to explain the differences found.

  • 2128.
    Yttergård, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Föräldrars stöd/press och motivationens påverkan på idrottande ungdomars psykiska hälsa2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning har visat att föräldrars stöd/press påverkar idrottares motivation och faktorer som ingår i den psykiska hälsan. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka om föräldrars stöd/press och motivation påverkar den psykiska hälsan. Självskattningsformulär skickades ut till elever, ålder 16‐20 år, vid landets skidgymnasier vid tvåtillfälen. Vid mäning 1 hade 78 män och 67 kvinnor komplett data och vid mätning 2 hade 83 män och 73 kvinnor komplett data. Resultaten visar att föäldrars stöd/press tillsammans med motivation föklarar 31‐50% av variansen gällande den psyksiska hälsan för män och kvinnor, vilket också styrktes med korrelationsanalyser. Mamman var den förälder som hade mest effekt gällande utfallet påden psykiska hälsan. Idrottarnas psykiska hälsa befinner sig inom ramen för normalpopulationens väden. Tränare måste bli bättre på att identifiera de elever som mår dåligt och föäldrar måste utbildas i hur de bäst kan stödja idrottande ungdomar.

  • 2129.
    Yu, Jeong Jin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Longitudinal typologies of perceived parent-child conflict and their correlates in adolescence2019In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 98, p. 132-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was designed to uncover longitudinal trajectory classes of perceived parent-child conflict that followed distinct developmental courses across late childhood and adolescence and their antecedents and outcome of smoking. Data were obtained from a large, nationally representative sample of two age cohorts, who were 2844 fourth graders (first wave, Mage = 9.86, SD = 0.35) and 3449 eighth graders (first wave, Mage = 13.79, SD = 0.42), surveyed at five and six time points, respectively, separated by a one-year interval in South Korea. Although the majority of the youth reported low to moderate levels of parent-child conflict, four and three trajectory groups were identified for the younger and the older cohorts, respectively. The younger cohort with higher levels of aggression, depressed mood, or academic stress in grade four was likely to belong to latent classes characterized by higher levels of perceived parent-child conflict, whereas the older cohort with higher levels of aggression and household income in grade eight was likely to be assigned to a latent subgroup with higher levels of perceived parent-child conflict. Overall, youth in latent classes characterized by lower levels of perceived parent-child conflict over time had a lower likelihood of smoking. These findings highlight the heterogeneous developmental pathways of perceived parent-child conflict throughout childhood and adolescence and suggest that higher conflict in parent-child relationships could result in ramifications for adolescent tobacco use. Thus, family-based programs to prevent smoking initiation in young people may incorporate interventions to address parent-child conflict.

  • 2130.
    Yu, Jeong Jin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trajectories of body dissatisfaction among South Korean youth: Findings from a nationally representative sample2016In: Body image, ISSN 1740-1445, E-ISSN 1873-6807, Vol. 19, p. 186-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to identify qualitatively different classes of growth trajectories of body dissatisfaction and to investigate the antecedents associated with the classes. The survey included a nationally representative sample of 2844 Korean children who started Grade 4 (younger cohort) and 3449 adolescents who began Grade 8 (older cohort) at baseline. Participants completed self-report surveys across five or six measurement periods separated by 1 year each. General growth mixture modeling was used and results revealed several distinct longitudinal patterns. Findings from this study clearly suggest the importance of early intervention efforts. Interventions aimed at boosting autonomy may be valuable in reducing body dissatisfaction among children. The findings also highlight the critical importance of parent-child connectedness and friendship closeness in the success of the intervention.

  • 2131.
    Yu, Jeong Jin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lim, Gum Ok
    Gamble, Wendy C.
    Big five personality traits and physical aggression between siblings in South Korea: an actor-partner interdependence analysis2017In: Journal of family Violence, ISSN 0885-7482, E-ISSN 1573-2851, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 257-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined actor and partner effects of the Big Five personality traits, assessed by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, on physical aggression within sibling dyadic interactions. Data were collected from 86 target adolescents receiving counseling services, their mothers, and closest-age siblings in South Korea. Mothers rated their children's personalities. Target adolescents and siblings reported their own personality, as well as their sibling's and their own perpetration of physical aggression against one another. Substantial self-other (i.e., mother and sibling) agreement was found for personality traits. Both actor and partner effects were found for the negative associations between extraversion, openness to experience, and conscientiousness and physical aggression among siblings. The current findings increase our understanding of personality traits implicated in physical aggression in general, and specifically aggression among siblings.

  • 2132.
    Yu, Jeong Jin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Park, Su Jung
    Predictors and the distal outcome of general Internet use: the identification of children's developmental trajectories2017In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 483-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the predictors and distal outcome in relation to the frequency of online activities and investigated the presence of prototypical trajectories following different patterns of general Internet use over 5years. The data set consisted of a nationally representative sample of 2,840 fourth graders (M-age=9.86years) in South Korea at baseline. Analyses revealed rank-order stability in general Internet use with four latent classes: high stable (5.8%), high quadratic (20.3%), moderate stable (32.7%), and low stable (41.2%). Youth with higher levels of perceived parental monitoring knowledge, friendship closeness, and depressed mood at baseline were more likely to belong to the high stable class, while girls were more likely to be in the high quadratic or moderate stable classes relative to the low stable class. The high stable class had the greatest odds of reporting alcohol use at grade eight, whereas the low stable class had the lowest odds.

  • 2133. Zajenkoswski, M
    et al.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ledzinska, M
    Cognitive processes in Time perspective2015In: Time perspective Theory; Review, Research and Application: Essays in Honor of Philip G. Zimbardo / [ed] Stolarski, Maciej, Fieulaine, Nicolas, van Beek, Wessel, New York: New York: Springer , 2015, p. 243-255Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we explore the role of cognitive processes in time perspective. Extending previous findings, we present how individual differences in time orientation are related to intelligence, goal-directed behaviour, executive control and meta-cognition. First, we show that present fatalistic TP is negatively related to intelligence, and that future-oriented individuals tend to have higher general abilities. Further, we present the data, proving that risk taking is negatively correlated with the future positive scale. Another finding discussed here is that working memory development is a strong predictor of temporal orientation. Children who have efficient working memory updating functions in early school age exhibit higher tendency toward future positive when they are adolescents. Finally, our studies indicate, that time perspectives tend to correlate with meta-cognitive skills, knowledge and experiences, suggesting that the temporal orientation influences meta-cognition.

  • 2134.
    Zambianchi, Manuela
    et al.
    Department of psychology Bologna university.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Positive attitudes towards technologies and facets of well-being in older adults2018In: Journal of Applied Gerontology, ISSN 0733-4648, E-ISSN 1552-4523, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 371-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates the relevance of positive attitudes toward Internet technologies for psychological well-being and social well-being in old age. A sample of 245 elderly people (Mean age = 70; SD =9.1) filled in the Psychological Well-Being Questionnaire, the Social Well-Being Questionnaire, and Attitudes Toward Technologies Questionnaire (ATTQ). Favorable attitudes toward Internet technologies showed positive correlations with overall social well-being and all its components with the exception of social acceptance. Positive correlations with overall psychological well-being and two of its components, namely, personal growth and purpose in life, were also found. Two hierarchical multiple regression models underscored that positive attitudes toward Internet technologies constitute the most important predictor of social well-being, and it appears to be a significant predictor for psychological well-being as well. Results are discussed and integrated into the Positive Technology theoretical framework that sustains the value of technological resources for improving the quality of personal experience and well-being.

  • 2135. Zambianchi, Manuela
    et al.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attitudes Towards and Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) Among Older Adults in Italy and Sweden: The Influence of Cultural Context, Socio-Demographic Factors, and Time Perspective2019In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, ISSN 0169-3816, E-ISSN 1573-0719, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 291-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined determinants of attitudes towards and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in older adults, including variations in cultural context, socio-demographic factors (age, education, and gender) and the individual's time perspective. Towards this end, 638 older adults in Italy (n = 262, M = 71.7 years) and Sweden (n = 376, M = 69.9 years) completed the Swedish Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), the Attitude toward Technologies Questionnaire (ATTQ), and questions regarding use of specific digital technologies (e.g. Internet, Skype, Facebook); data were collected in 2013-2014. The results showed more positive attitudes toward ICTs in Swedish compared with Italian elderly as well as more frequent use of technologies. Regardless of nationality, younger age and higher levels of educational attainment was positively associated with attitudes towards ICTs. Male gender was associated with higher ATTQ scores in the Italian, but not in the Swedish, sample. Time perspective accounted for significant variance beyond the foregoing variables. S-ZTPI Past Negative, Future Negative and Present Fatalistic in particular, were (negatively) related to ATTQ scores, with a similar pattern for ICT use. Future Positive and Present Hedonistic were positively associated with ATTQ scores, across the samples. In conclusion, between-person differences in time perspective organization are an important factor to account for variability in attitudes towards and use of ICTs in old age, and appears to exert an influence over and beyond other significant predictors, such as cultural context, age/cohort membership, and educational level.

  • 2136. Zambianchi, M.G
    et al.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relevance of time perspective for attitudes toward technologies in old age2014In: II International Conference on Time Perspective, Warsaw, Poland, 29 th July,-1th August, Warsawa, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2137.
    Zandler, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Job Crafting, psykisk hälsa och vårdkvalitet: Jämförelse av anställdas formande av sina arbeten i två europeiska länders äldreomsorg2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Job Crafting (JC) är en teori om hur anställda aktivt formar sina jobb. I denna tvärsnittsstudie undersöktes hur 530 anställda och chefer i svensk och spansk äldreomsorg skattade JC. Syftet var att undersöka hur land, position och JC kunde predicera psykisk hälsa och vårdkvalitet. JC mättes med Job Crafting Questionnaire, JCQ. Variablernas relation analyserades med multipel hierarkisk regressionsanalys. Huvudresultaten visade att variabelmodellen i viss mån predicerade psykisk hälsa och vårdkvalitet. Land gav högst grad av utfall. De svenska skattningarna visade lägre psykisk hälsa och vårdkvalitet än de spanska. Fler studier kan ge förståelse skillnaderna mellan länderna som framkom. För kunskap om JC behövs longitudinella studier av både kvalitativ och kvantitativ art. Det kan visa sätt att hantera europeisk äldreomsorgs framtida rekryteringsbehov och arbetsvillkor.

  • 2138.
    Zhang, Anran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How emotional videos influence motor timing and retrospective duration judgments.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An emotionally involved event may subsequently appear shorter than an event of relative indifference for people. How are time-related behaviors influenced while people are emotionally affected? The purpose of this study was to test if ongoing estimates and retrospective reports of duration are similarly affected by emotional states. To test, 30 s emotional video clips were rated for Valence and Arousal by six participants. The videos were then used in a timing experiment where a new set of participants (twenty-five persons) carried out a repetitive motor timing paradigm while watching the videos and subsequently reported the perceived duration of the clip. In each of ten trials, participants first synchronized to a 700 ms isochronous interval with their index finger, and then continued unsupported as five different video clips were played in sequence, with each clip lasting 30s. At the end of each trial, participants reported their retrospective duration judgment of every video clip, and rated every video chip for Valence and Arousal. Emotion ratings suggested that the videos affected the subjects’ emotional states. Repetitive motor timing was not reliably affected by emotional states. Instead, retrospective reports of durations were affected by emotional states such that the durations estimated under high arousal conditions were significantly longer than those under low arousal conditions. The difference in results between repetitive motor timing and retrospective reports may be accounted for by the interval of 700 ms being too short to be cognitive-related.

  • 2139.
    Zona, Carlotta Isabella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Conceptual combination in nominal compounds: The effects of semantic transparency and frequency2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Compounding is a productive type of word-formation, especially in Germanic languages.However, the cognitive strategies involved in conceptual combination of compoundconstituents are still under debate. The linguistic construct of semantic transparency hasoften been regarded as a crucial factor in compound processing, although empiricalevidence has been mixed. The present study aims at investigating the effects of semantictransparency and frequency manipulations on the time signature and outcomes ofconceptual combination of nominal compounds in a Swedish adult sample. The categoricvariables of semantic transparency (transparent vs. opaque) and frequency (lexicalizedvs. novel) were manipulated in a set of 40 nominal compound words, which werepresented along with two depictions. One of the two depictions was “nondestructive”(i.e., compositional), and the other “destructive” (i.e., with a constituent reduced to onemain characteristics). Subjects were to choose the best depiction for each compound.Response times (RTs) and depictions of choice were recorded during each trial. Contraryto previous research, RTs were significantly shorter for opaque than for transparentstimuli, in both lexicalized and novel conditions. However, opaque stimuli were alsosignificantly more likely to yield an incorrect response in lexicalized conditions thanwere their transparent counterparts. In novel conditions, a significant interaction wasfound between semantic transparency and percentage of correct responses, indicating thatsubjects were highly likely to interpret novel compounds nondestructively. In conclusion,the results of the present study provide support for the interplay between parameters fromlinguistics and cognitive science, which might be engaged to different degrees in nominalcompound processing.

  • 2140.
    Zouagui, Amina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svedström, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Genusperspektiv i handledningsrummet: Handledares berättelser om attityder till genus och tillämpning av ett genusperspektiv i handledning av studentterapeuter2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore: a) what attitudes do supervisors have towards gender? b) what attitudes do supervisors have towards an application of a gender perspective in supervision?, and c) how do supervisors describe their practice of gender perspectives in supervision?, with a focus on the students’ professional development. This was explored through semi-structured interviews with six participants, and then analyzed with thematic analysis. The result showed that the respondents have a general attitude that it is important to be conscious about gender questions, that there is some skepticism against application of a gender perspective due to the risk of incorrect usage, and finally that most of the respondents have a passive application of a gender perspective. The result is in line with a notion that consciousness and positive attitudes towards gender equality and gender issues has become a passive part of the national identity of the Swedish people. The result is also in line with earlier studies describing that psychologists seem to have a neutral knowledge ideal leading to a focus on the individual, which makes it harder to implement a gender perspective in supervision since it is anchored in a social constructivist view of the individual, and therefore demands a wider social perspective.

  • 2141.
    Álvarez, Bernardo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relationship of self-reported reading habits and declarative memory2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the possibility that reading books might support declarative memory, and potentially contribute to the cognitive reserve and thereby minimize age-related decline in memory functions. It was a crosssectional study, where data were taken from 566 Betula Study participants, as well as the scores of declarative memory assessment tasks, and book reading reports. The tasks of episodic memory were sentence learning with and without encoding enactment –free and cued recall. The tasks of semantic memory were word fluency, initial letter A, M fivewords, B profession names, and SRB –vocabulary. Three-way analysis of variance was performed for hypothesis testing. The results showed that book reading might support declarative memory. There was a significant relationship between education and book reading. Was not found if book reading might minimize age-related decline. In conclusion, the study showed that book reading and years of education might support declarative memory.

  • 2142.
    Åberg, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ACTUA!: En utvärdering av ett internetbaserat självhjälpsprogram med beteendeaktivering för behandling av depression2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral activation is an effective treatment for depression. There is limited research on internet administered behavioral activation. Hence, this study evaluated treatment effects of two internet administered self-help programs with therapist support. In total, 42 participants with mild to moderate depression were randomized, after assessment, to one of the treatment conditions or a control group. The treatment consisted of eight text modules including exercises. A significant effect of time regarding depression and quality of life was shown for all conditions. A significant interaction effect regarding anxiety was shown between the treatment condition and the control group. No significant interaction effects were found between the two treatment conditions. Moderate to large within groups effect sizes where shown in all groups regarding depression. The reason that no significant interaction effect could be shown between the treatment condition and the control group is probably due to the fact that the control group improved a lot as well. Since depression tends to occur in cycles and be season bound this could have had an impact on the improvement of the control group. The results could be problematized further due to the fact that not all participants completed the treatment and because of small sample sizes. In summary this study indicates that internet administered behavioral activation is an effective treatment for mild to moderate depression and could be a complement or alternative to live therapy.

  • 2143.
    Ådén Wadenholt, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Expected information gain predicts curiosity2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Curiosity has been defined as an intrinsic motivation for performing actions that result in a gain of knowledge (Berlyne, 1966; Loewenstein, 1994). As positive effects of curiosity on memorization of new knowledge were found by Kang et al., 2009, exploring the mechanisms behind curiosity can have great practical applications. Although information theoretic concepts have been linked to curiosity (Berlyne, 1966; Kang et al., 2009; Gottlieb, Oudeyer, Lopes & Baranes, 2013), this has not been tested empirically through an actual information theoretic operationalisation. This study aims to correct this by individually measuring the prior knowledge of participants and computing the expected information gain (IG) of an information rewarding action. To quantify the incentive value of curiosity a time delay was imposed on IG, forcing participants to a trade-off between maximizing information and minimizing time spent on the task. Through linear regression analysis, it is shown that curiosity is proportional to expected IG and that participants were prepared to invest 0.4 seconds per bit.

  • 2144.
    Ådén Wadenholt, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Look, but don't touch: The effect of curiosity on eye and mouse interaction2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tradeoff between satisfying curiosity and maximizing performance was investigated. Subjects were given a two-armed-bandit task, in which they should select squares from two areas with different probabilities to reward points. With each choice, subjects also got to see part of a face. The intention was to spark curiosity about the identity, as faces are known to be of special interest to humans. Also, a method for interaction by eye fixation was conceived, and compared against interaction with a mouse. The study examined if subjects were willing to sacrifice task performance to satisfy their curiosity, and if eye interaction was more susceptible to this distraction. An effect of the face distractors on learning performance was found. Eye and mouse interaction showed different patterns of square selections, but no difference in the overall task performance could be measured. Possible improvements to the paradigm are considered.

  • 2145.
    Åhlén Nyström, Linnéa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    I GRÄNSLANDET: Förmåga att dra gränser mellan arbete och fritid till följd av informations- och kommunikationsteknikens krav2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technology development has contributed work to be performed under more flexible forms.The aim of the study was to investigate if information and communication technologydemands (ICT-demands) affected the ability to create boundaries between work and leisure.The method of collecting data was quantitative and 31 managers for different units in thehealth and care sector had the opportunity to participate by answer an websurvey. 58 %responded and the main result showed significant differences in order to psychologicaldetachment. Those who experienced low ICT-demands estimated higher ability topsychological detachment from work, and those who experienced high ICT-demandsestimated the ability to psychological detachment lower. This means that when demands likeavailability and response expectations increases among the managers, the sense of beingaway from work decreases. Boundary management on the other hand, does not show anysignificant differences in experience. The results are considered with caution as the numberof participants are low. Some general conclusions should not be drawn but the practicalrelevance is of value in the context.

  • 2146. Åkerstedt, T.
    et al.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Westerholm, P.
    Fischer, H.
    Nilsson, L. -G
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fatigue/sleepiness and important aspects of sleep restoration improve across aging2014In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, p. 241-241Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2147.
    Åkerstedt, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A study of risks of threats and violence toward hospital staff in relation to patient access to electronic medical records2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012, the county of Uppland in Sweden launched a service granting patients online access to their electronic medical record (EMR), including the list of staff who have logged into the record (the “log list”). Patients seem predominantly positive to this service whereas many professionals, physicians specifically, have expressed concerns about, for example, increased risks of threats and violence towards healthcare staff. One year after launch the present study was conducted to examine whether staff whose patients had gained access to online EMRs experienced greater risks of threats and violence, and were exposed to more threats and violence, than those whose patients had not yet gained access. The extent to which professional role, gender, work experience and staff attitudes to the service were important factors was also examined. A total of 174 professionals at Uppsala University Hospital responded to a web survey (35% response rate). 83 represented the emergency department, whose patients had online EMR access, and 91 represented the psychiatric department, whose patients had not. 40% of all participating professionals, emergency physicians and psychiatric staff specifically, believed that risks of threats and violence increase after launch. The results did not, however, support a correlation between patient access to online EMRs and more incidents of threats and violence, and only one respondent reported that patient access had played any significant negative role in relation to an incident. These and other results may prove useful as the online EMR service is now being launched in other Swedish counties as well.

  • 2148.
    Åkesson, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Repeated testing with feedback enhances learning of educational material compared to re-study2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2149.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Being in balance or stuck in time: exploring facets of time processing in relation to mental health2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is central in human functioning and crucial for adaptive behavior. The aim of the current thesis was to investigate aspects of people’s subjective experience of time and their relationship with mental health, specifically anxiety and subjective well-being. Two time concepts were of key interest in the thesis: time estimation, which refers to the ability to estimate time durations; and time perspective, which refers to people’s habitual way of relating to the past, the present, and the future.

     The thesis comprehends four studies. In the first three studies, time perspective and time estimation were investigated in persons with varying degrees of anxiety, ranging from mild symptoms to anxiety disorders. The results of these studies showed that in particular negative past time perspective and negative future time perspective were associated with anxiety. These time perspectives were further strongly associated with the tendency to ruminate and worry. Time estimation did not largely deviate between persons with anxiety and healthy controls, although there was some evidence that subcomponents of anxiety might be differentially related to time estimation. More specifically, state anxiety was moderately related to retrospective time estimation, such that higher levels of state anxiety was associated with judging time intervals in retrospect as longer.

     In the final study of the thesis, balanced time perspective (BTP) was examined in relation to subjective well-being and age. BTP can be described as an optimal way of relating to the past, the present and the future and has been suggested to facilitate mental health and well-being. However, there are several ways to measure BTP, and there are also indications that what constitutes a BTP is not completely age-invariant or equally associated with well-being across age. The fourth study of the thesis thus aimed at examining three methods of measuring BTP, and each methods distinct association with subjective well-being and age were examined. The study was conducted in a population-based sample of older adults (age range 60 – 90 years of old). Results of this study indicated subjective well-being is strongly related to BTP, particularly methods of measuring BTP that incorporates negative future time perspective. However, the strong (and inverse) relationship between negative future time perspective and subjective well-being diminished with increasing age. Instead, and among the oldest participants in the sample (80+ years), fatalistic views of the present had more bearing on subjective well-being.

  • 2150.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring multiple concepts of psychological time in relation to anxiety2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 60, p. S11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is a central part of human experience. Different timing functions are vital for adequate behavioral outcomes, and individual differences in time perspective can be associated with both well-being and mental distress.The aim of this study is to discuss several aspects of temporal processing in relation to anxiety. Specifically, our findings suggest that moderate anxiety is associated with systematic biases in Future Negative- and Past Negative time perspectives. Further, in exploring the possible underlying mechanisms that mediate time perspective in anxiety, preliminary data on the relationship between aspects of cognitive control (inhibition), time perspective and anxiety will be presented. The findings will be discussed according to their clinical and theoretical implications.

4041424344 2101 - 2150 of 2180
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf