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  • 201.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Hushållsarbetets tid och fördelning2014Ingår i: Lönsamt arbete -  familjeansvarets fördelning och konsekvenser / [ed] Boye, K. och Nermo, M, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2014, s. 95-129Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 202.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Mer vab, lägre lön? Uttag av tillfällig föräldrapenning för vård av barn och lön bland svenska föräldrar2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett flertal studier som visar att kvinnors och mäns löner hänger samman med föräldraskap i allmänhet och föräldraledighet i synnerhet. Lönen är lägre ju längre en förälder varit föräldraledig, vilket kan bero på att frånvaron påverkar individens humankapital eller att arbetsgivare tolkar frånvaron som ett tecken på bristande engagemang i arbetet. Vi vet dock väldigt lite om löneeffekter av tillfällig föräldrapenning för vård av barn, så kallad vab. Å ena sidan är det möjligt att vab påverkar humankapital och faktisk eller förväntad arbetskapacitet på samma sätt som föräldraledighet tycks göra. Å andra sidan finns det viktiga skillnader mellan vab och föräldraledighet när det gäller hur länge och ofta ledigheten tas ut och hur långt i förväg arbetsgivaren får reda på att en förälder ska vara frånvarande. I den här studien används svenska registerdata för att analysera sambandet mellan vab och lön bland mödrar och fäder som fick sitt första barn 1994. Dessa föräldrar följs fram till och med 2007. Resultaten visar att det finns ett samband mellan ett större uttag av vab-dagar och lägre lön, speciellt bland män, upp till 13 år efter första barnets födelse. En förklaring till könsskillnaden i sambandet mellan vab och lön kan vara att arbetsgivare i högre grad tolkar mäns vab-frånvaro än kvinnors vab som ett tecken på lågt engagemang i arbetet.

  • 203.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Mot ett nytt föräldraskap2014Ingår i: Glimtar av jämställdhet / [ed] Anne Grönlund, Umeå: Boréa bokförlag , 2014Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 204.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Relatively Different? How do Gender Differences in Well-Being Depend on Paid and Unpaid Work in Europe?2009Ingår i: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 93, nr 3, s. 509-525Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 205.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Time spent working: Paid work, housework and the gender difference in psychological distress2010Ingår i: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 419-442Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the connection between the time that women and men spend on paid work and housework and psychological distress, and addresses the question whether gender differences in time spent on these activities account for the gender difference in psychological distress. A group (n =1,277) of employed and cohabiting women and men from the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey 2000 (LNU 2000) are analysed using OLS regression. Results show that time spent on housework explains part of the gender difference in psychological distress. Among women, paid working time and possibly time spent on housework are associated with low psychological distress. However, spending too much time on one role decreases the possible beneficial effect of the other, and this is mainly caused by the resulting increase in total role time. Men's level of psychological distress is not associated with hours of paid work or housework. The study also shows that the division of housework between women and men is unusually uneven in households where women have a long total role time. Thus, an increase in men's participation in housework could decrease the gender difference in psychological distress as well as the number of women experiencing a high workload.

  • 206.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Work and well-being in a comparative perspective - the role of family policy2011Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 16-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates whether associations between well-being and paid work and housework, respectively, differ between European family policy models, and whether any such differences can be attributed to differences in the experience of work–family conflict. Analysing data on mothers and fathers in 18 European countries, the study finds that the traditional family policy model shows the most positive association between women’s well-being and paid working hours, although this association is concealed by work–family conflict. Possibly, the selection into long paid working hours of women with rewarding jobs is greater here than elsewhere. Women’s housework hours are also most positively associated with well-being in the traditional model, although well-being decreases when housework hours become too long. In the market-oriented model, women’s paid working hours and housework hours are instead associated with decreasing well-being, the former association appearing to be caused by work–family conflict. The strongest positive association between men’s paid working hours and well-being is found in the market-oriented model, but again, control for work–family conflict reveals positive associations in this and other models. Hence, among both mothers and fathers, work–family conflict appears to be one important reason why paid working hours are not more clearly associated with high levels of well-being.

  • 207.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Föräldraskapsideal och deras förverkligande: En forskarrapport om föräldrars uppfattning om vad som underlättar och förhindrar ett delat föräldraskap i Sverige2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 208.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vem gör vad när? Kvinnors och mäns tid i betalt och obetalt arbete2014Ingår i: Ojämlikhetens dimensioner: uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige / [ed] Marie Evertsson & Charlotta Magnusson, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, s. 158-184Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 209.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Grönlund, Anne
    Workplace Skill Investments - An Early Career Glass Ceiling? Job Complexity and Wages Among Young Professionals in Sweden2018Ingår i: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 368-386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite higher educational investments, women fall behind men on most indicators of labour market success. This study investigates whether workplace skill investments set men and women off on different tracks in which the human capital acquired through higher education is either devalued or further developed. A survey sample of Swedish men and women who recently graduated from five educational programmes, leading to occupations with different gender composition, is analysed (N approximate to 2300). Results show that, a few years after graduation, men are more likely than women to acquire complex jobs and that this difference contributes to early career gender gaps in wages and employee bargaining power. The findings do not support the notion that child-related work interruptions provide a main mechanism for sorting women into less complex jobs.

  • 210.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Halldén, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Könslönegapets utveckling. Betydelsen av yrkets kvalifikationsnivå och familjeansvar2014Ingår i: Ojämlikhetens dimensioner: uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige / [ed] Marie Evertsson & Charlotta Magnusson, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, s. 185-211Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 211.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Halldén, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Stagnation only on the surface? The implications of skill and family responsibilities for the gender wage gap in Sweden, 1974–20102017Ingår i: British Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0007-1315, E-ISSN 1468-4446, Vol. 68, nr 4, s. 595-619Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The wage differential between women and men persists in advanced economies despite the inflow of women into qualified occupations in recent years. Using five waves of the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey (LNU), this paper explores the gender wage gap in Sweden during the 1974–2010 period overall and by skill level. The empirical analyses showed that the general gender wage gap has been nearly unchanged for the past 30 years. However, the gender difference in wage in less qualified occupations fell considerably, whereas the gender pay gap remained stable for men and women in qualified occupations. The larger significance of family responsibilities for wages in qualified occupations is one likely explanation for this result.

  • 212.
    Boye, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nermo, MagnusStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lönsamt arbete: familjeansvarets fördelning och konsekvenser2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 213. Bradbury, Bruce
    et al.
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Labour Income, Social Transfers and Child Poverty2019Ingår i: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 143, nr 1, s. 251-276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper documents the variation in living standards of the poorest fifth of children in rich (and some middle-income) nations, with a focus on the relative importance and interaction of social transfers (net of taxes) and labour market incomes. Overall, the cross-national variation in the disposable income of disadvantaged children is comprised equally of variation in market and transfer income (with the two negatively correlated). The English-speaking countries stand out as all having relatively low market incomes, but substantial variation in transfer income. Their low market incomes reflect low employment hours in Australia and primarily low hours in the UK and Ireland, while in the US and Canada low hours and low pay contribute equally. Comparing incomes prior to and after the 2008 financial crisis, the real disposable incomes of the poorest fifth decreased substantially in Greece, Spain and Ireland, but were relatively stable in other rich nations.

  • 214.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Can the trailing spouse phenomenon be explained by employer recruitment choices?2018Ingår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, nr 6, artikel-id e2141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that couples tend to relocate for the sake of the man's career rather than the woman's, also known as the “trailing spouse phenomenon.” The role of employer choices in this process is unknown however. If employers are hesitant to make job offers to women who live a long way from the workplace (e.g., because of work–family balance concerns or a perceived risk that they will not follow through on their applications, or stay hired if employed), this tendency might constitute an underlying mechanism behind the moving premium of partnered men. Ours is the first study to empirically test whether employers prefer geographically distant men over geographically distant women. We sent applications for 1,410 job openings in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parental status to otherwise equivalent applications from cohabiting or married women and men and recorded employer callbacks to these. The results indicate that employers in general tend to disfavour job applicants who live a long way from the employer's workplace. This tendency is stronger for women, both for mothers and for women with no children. Our estimated effects are imprecise but clearly suggest that employer recruitment choices contribute to the trailing spouse phenomenon by offering men a larger pool of geographically distant jobs. We call for more research on this hitherto ignored mechanism behind the trailing spouse phenomenon.

  • 215. Bratberg, Espen
    et al.
    Davis, Jonathan
    Mazumder, Bhashkar
    Nybom, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Schnitzlein, Daniel D.
    Vaage, Kjell
    A Comparison of Intergenerational Mobility Curves in Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the US2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 119, nr 1, s. 72-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine intergenerational mobility differences between Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the US. Using ranks, we find that the US is substantially less intergenerationally mobile than the three European countries and that the most mobile region of the US is less mobile than the least mobile regions of Norway and Sweden. Using a linear estimator of income share mobility, we find that the four countries have very similar rates of intergenerational mobility. However, when we use non-parametric versions of rank and income share mobility, we find that the US tends to experience lower upward mobility at the bottom of the income distribution than Norway and Sweden.

  • 216. Breen, R.
    et al.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Explaining Change in Social Fluidity: Educational Equalization and Educational Expansion in Twentieth-Century Sweden2007Ingår i: American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 112, nr 6, s. 1775-1810Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 217. Breen, Richard
    et al.
    Mood, Carina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Nuffield College, Oxford University, UK.
    How much scope for a mobility paradox? The relationship between social and income mobility in Sweden2016Ingår i: Sociological Science, ISSN 0132-1625, E-ISSN 2330-6696, Vol. 3, s. 39-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often pointed out that conclusions about intergenerational (parent–child) mobility can differ depending on whether we base them on studies of class or income. We analyze empirically the degree of overlap in income and social mobility; we demonstrate mathematically the nature of their relationship; and we show, using simulations, how intergenerational income correlations relate to relative social mobility rates. Analyzing Swedish longitudinal register data on the incomes and occupations of over 300,000 parent–child pairs, we find that social mobility accounts for up to 49 percent of the observed intergenerational income correlations. This figure is somewhat greater for a fine-graded micro-class classification than a five-class schema and somewhat greater for women than men. There is a positive relationship between intergenerational social fluidity and income correlations, but it is relatively weak. Our empirical results, and our simulations verify that the overlap between income mobility and social mobility leaves ample room for the two indicators to move in different directions over time or show diverse patterns across countries. We explain the circumstances in which income and social mobility will change together or co-vary positively and the circumstances in which they will diverge.

  • 218.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Children's Living Conditions: Studies on Health, Family and School2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation includes four empirical studies, each of which focuses on specific aspects of children’s living conditions.

    Study I analyses the association between young people’s social relations and health complaints using Swedish nationally representative survey data on 10- to 18-year-olds. Both relations with parents and with peers are associated with health complaints. Relational content is more strongly associated with health complaints than is relational structure. With regard to relational content, strained relations are more strongly associated with health complaints than are supportive relations.

    Study II investigates how effort and reward in school are associated with pupils’ subjective health using data from the Stockholm School Survey. Both effort and reward are shown to be positively associated with subjective health, and in particular pupils who report to put in high effort in school have high levels of subjective health. Contextual variation in health is found for girls but not for boys.

    Study III is based on Swedish register data and analyses the association between family type and choice of programme in upper secondary school. Children in single-mother households less often choose the natural science/technology (NT) programme compared with children who live with two original parents. Having a resident or a non-resident parent with NT skills is positively associated with choice of the NT programme.

    Study IV analyses the association between family type and social support, health, and material resources in 24 countries. The data are derived from the international Health Behaviour of School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. In a majority of the countries studied, children in single-mother households report smaller resources compared with children living with two original parents. No clear pattern is found with regard to differences between countries.

  • 219.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Family structure and children’s living conditions: A comparative study of 24 countries2010Ingår i: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 127-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses large-scale cross-national data from 24 countries to describe the living conditions of children residing with a single mother as compared with children who live with two original parents. Three central areas are studied: children’s social support, health, and material resources. The data are derived from the international WHO study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) of 2001/02. The survey includes nationally representative samples of school pupils of 11, 13, and 15 years of age in countries in Europe and North America and in Israel. After relevant selections, total n=95,335. The general finding is that children in single-mother households have lower social support from parents, poorer health, and smaller material resources than children living with two original parents. The general tendency is rather similar across a large number of countries although more differences are found in some countries and fewer in others. There is no clear pattern in how the association with family type varies between countries, for example, according to the share of single-mother households, by welfare state regime, or in relation to single parents’ employment rates.

  • 220.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Parent presence and gender-typicalness of educational choice2008Ingår i: British Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0007-1315, E-ISSN 1468-4446, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 757-782Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Given parental influence on children’s educational choices, new family constellations may impact on sex segregation in school and thus in the labour market. This paper addresses the question of what consequence father absence and stepfather presence may have for choice of the male-dominated natural science/technology (NT) programme in Swedish upper secondary school. The data include register information on all pupils who attended the ninth grade of the Swedish compulsory school in 1998 and 1999 and their parents (n=73,824). While children in mother-only households are less likely to choose the NT programme compared with children residing with two original parents, this is accounted for by differences in socioeconomic conditions and in grade sum. Fathers, like mothers, also have a more direct influence on children’s educational choices of field of study via their own education and occupation. However, what has not been noted in previous research is that this also applies to 'absent' fathers and, for boys, to stepfathers as well.

  • 221.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Future orientation, gambling and risk gambling among youth: A study of adolescents in Stockholm2019Ingår i: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between adolescents’ future orientation and their engagement in gambling and in risk gambling, respectively. The data used come from the Stockholm School Survey, collected in 2016 among students in the ninth grade in elementary school (15–16 years) and in the second grade of upper secondary school (17–18 years) in Stockholm municipality (n = 11,661). The results showed that adolescents who expected their future to be ‘much worse’ than that of others were more inclined to engage in gambling and in risk gambling compared with adolescents who expected their future to be similar to that of others. Furthermore, adolescents who expected their future to be ‘much better’ than that of others had an increased likelihood of engaging in gambling but not in risk gambling. The results are discussed in the light of elements from rational choice theory.

  • 222.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Do health complaints in adolescence negatively predict the chance of entering tertiary education in young adulthood?2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 878-885Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Self-reported psychological and psychosomatic health complaints, such as nervousness, sadness, headache and stomach-ache, are common among adolescents, particularly among girls, and studies suggest that the prevalence has risen among adolescent girls during the last few decades. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the potential long-term consequences of such health complaints. The aim of the current study was to assess whether psychological and psychosomatic health complaints in adolescence predict the chance of entering tertiary education in young adulthood among women and men. Methods: The data used are from the Swedish Young-LNU, which is based on a nationally representative sample with self-reported survey information from adolescents aged 10–18 years in 2000 and from the same individuals at ages 20–28 in 2010 (n=783). Information was also collected from parents and from official registers. Results: Linear probability models showed that self-reported psychological complaints in adolescence were associated with a lower chance of having entered tertiary education 10 years later. This association was accounted for by differences in grade point average (GPA), suggesting that GPA may mediate the association between psychological complaints and later education. The pattern was similar for both genders. Furthermore, among men, psychosomatic complaints in adolescence were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of having entered tertiary education 10 years later when adjusting for GPA and social class in adolescence. A similar but non-significant tendency was found among women. Conclusions: The findings suggest that health complaints in adolescence may have long-term consequences in terms of lower educational attainment.

  • 223.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    School-performance indicators and subjective health complaints: are there gender differences?2012Ingår i: Sociology of Health and Illness, ISSN 0141-9889, E-ISSN 1467-9566, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 608-625Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although boys and girls are generally located in the same physical school environment, it may be experienced differently by, and have varying implications for, boys and girls. Girls like school more and achieve higher school marks, but they also perceive more school-related pressure. Based on a total sample of 8456 ninth grade pupils in Stockholm in 2004, this study uses multilevel linear regression to analyse differences between boys and girls with regard to a number of school-performance indicators (demands, motivation, teacher support and school marks) and their association with subjective health complaints. Results showed that girls perceive more demands, show greater academic motivation, perform better in school and report more emotional support from teachers than boys. In contrast, instrumental and appraisal support from teachers are more commonly reported by boys. Associations between school-performance indicators and subjective health complaints were slightly stronger for girls than for boys. Contextual variation in health complaints, especially between classes, was found only for girls. High achievement motivation and emotional teacher support in the school class was associated with better pupil health, suggesting that a positive climate in terms of motivation and support favours class health as a whole.

  • 224.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    School-related stress and subjective health: Effort and reward among school pupilsArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyses the relationship between effort and reward in school and the subjective health of ninth grade pupils in Stockholm, Sweden. Effort is constructed from two items: the pupil’s own assessment of his or her effort in very difficult school tasks, and whether he or she chooses to do something else if the school task is perceived as boring. Reward is operationalized in two alternate ways: as school marks, and as appreciation from teachers. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey (Stockholmsenkäten) of 2004, a survey of all pupils in the greater Stockholm area who attended the ninth and final grade of comprehensive school in 2004 (n=8,695). Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted. The main findings are that both effort and reward are positively related to pupils’ subjective health, and that high effort in particular is associated with better subjective health. Low effort combined with low reward in terms of school marks is associated with the poorest health, although this is largely accounted for by confounding variables. Low effort and low reward in terms of little appreciation from teachers are associated with the poorest health also when potential confounders are controlled for. Contextual effects on subjective health are found for girls but not for boys.

  • 225.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Pros and cons of social relations: An analysis of adolescents’ health complaints2006Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 611-623Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the association between social relations and psychological and psychosomatic health complaints, among adolescents in Sweden. We focused on relationships with parents, as well as relationships with peers in school and in leisure time. Both the structure and the content of relations were analysed. For the latter, we looked at supportive as well as strained relations. The data was the pooled child supplements of the Swedish welfare surveys conducted in 2000–2003. This constitutes a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of 10–18-year-olds (n=5137), where information was collected from both adolescents and their parents. Results showed that young people's social relations with parents and peers clearly covaried with their health complaints. With regard to family relations and psychological complaints, the association was more pronounced for relational content than for relational structure. For instance, whether relations with parents were strained or not seemed more relevant than family structure and parental working hours. Moreover, strained relations were more strongly associated with health complaints, especially psychosomatic complaints, than were supportive relations. This applied to relationships with parents as well as with peers in school.

  • 226. Brunborg, Geir Scott
    et al.
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Storvoll, Elisabet E.
    Latent developmental trajectories of episodic heavy drinking from adolescence to early adulthood: Predictors of trajectory groups and alcohol problems in early adulthood as outcome2018Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 389-395Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. To identify latent developmental episodic heavy drinking (EHD) trajectory groups for Norwegian adolescents, investigate risk factors associated with group membership and to assess differences in alcohol problems between different groups in early adulthood. Design and Methods. Data were from 1266 individuals measured at four time points from age 13/14years to age 26/27years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify groups with different EHD development. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigated if gender, impulsivity, school commitment, parents' socio-economic status, frequency of seeing parents drunk and parental knowledge could predict group membership. Differences in alcohol problem scores at age 26/27 were also assessed. Results. Four trajectory groups were identified: stable high', early increasers', late increasers' and stable low'. Membership of the high-risk trajectory groups stable high' and early increasers' was predicted by high impulsivity, low school commitment, high frequency of seeing parents drunk and low parental knowledge. The risk of alcohol problems at age 26/27 was greater for the stable high' group, the early increasers' and the late increasers' compared with the stable low' group. The stable high' and early increasers' had similar risk of alcohol problems. Discussion and Conclusions. Stable high and early increasing EHD in adolescence was associated with more alcohol problems in early adulthood. Such trajectories were predicted by high impulsivity, low school commitment, high frequency of seeing parents drunk and low parental knowledge. [Brunborg GS, Norstrom T, Storvoll EE. Latent developmental trajectories of episodic heavy drinking from adolescence to early adulthood: Predictors of trajectory groups and alcohol problems in early adulthood as outcome.

  • 227.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Making their mark. Disentangling the Effects of Neighbourhood and School Environments on Educational Achievement2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 228.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Making their mark: the effects of neighbourhood and upper secondary school on educational achievement2008Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 463-478Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the literature on neighbourhood and school effects on individual educational outcomes by asking whether and to what extent adolescent educational achievement in metropolitan Sweden is determined by neighbourhood and upper secondary school characteristics net of observed individual-level background attributes. Extensive cross-classified multilevel regression analyses of comprehensive leaving certificate data for around 26,000 upper secondary school students show that characteristics attributable to upper secondary schools matter much more for the variability in achievement than do neighbourhoods. There are also indications of contextual effects of neighbour and schoolmate characteristics that operate above and beyond the impact of observed individual-level background attributes. Since the estimated effects of concentrations of (dis)advantage and immigrant density at neighbourhood and school level point in different directions, this study demonstrates the benefits of analysing the effects of neighbourhood and school on individual educational outcomes at the same time.

  • 229.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Neighbourhood effects on young people’s future living conditions: longitudinal findings from Sweden2012Ingår i: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 325-337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Neighbourhood effects on young people's future living conditions: longitudinal findings from Sweden Using extensive longitudinal data for three Swedish birth cohorts born in the late 1970s, this study asked whether the social characteristics of the neighbourhood affect future outcomes that are important for their living conditions (labour-market participation, economic hardship and criminality). To assist decision-making about the balance between area-targeted policies and wider form of social interventions at the individual level, this study also assessed whether the estimated impact of neighbourhood context has any bearing on the effect of preventive interventions directed at distressed neighbourhoods. The overall findings suggest that there is no clear evidence that the impact of neighbourhood varies sufficiently between the different types of neighbourhoods when selection and other confounding factors have been taken into consideration. It is concluded that the estimated effect of neighbourhood on youth development does not underpin area-targeted policies directed at distressed neighbourhoods.

  • 230.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Om särskilt kvalificerad kontaktperson - mentorskap och dess effekter2010Ingår i: Ungdomar som begår brott - Vilka insatser fungerar? / [ed] A-K. Andershed, K. Söderholm Carpelan, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag , 2010, s. 108-119Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 231.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Phantom of the Neighbourhood: Longitudinal Studies on Area-based Conditions and Individual Outcomes2006Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of three self-contained but interrelated empirical studies focusing on theoretical, empirical and political questions in the multidisciplinary field of neighbourhood effect research. Along with a comprehensive introductory essay, each study addresses questions concerning the potential influence of neighbourhood characteristics on individual social and economic outcomes at different life stages.

    Study I combines longitudinal register and survey data from the ‘golden era’ of Swedish welfare policy to evaluate a hypothesised impact of neighbourhood poverty during adolescence on a wide range of outcomes (including, but not limited to, educational and employment status) within a counterfactual model framework based on matching on propensity scores. Extensive empirical analyses indicate that, when two groups of children who are identical according to observed factors before age 10 (including household income, family structure and welfare receipt) live in different types of neighbourhood in adolescence, the outcome for those who grow up in a poor neighbourhood is not more likely to be worse than for those who grow up in a more affluent neighbourhood.

    Study II considers the maximum theoretical scope of unique neighbourhood influence experienced during the years of growth on individuals’ later life income and social assistance recipiency. A three-level hierarchical linear model is applied to simultaneously distinguish variation in the outcomes over time from variation that is attributable to differences between neighbourhoods. By utilising longitudinal register data derived from a birth cohort who grew up in Stockholm at a time when Swedish welfare policy ambitions were at a peak, this study attempts to estimate the long-term significance of neighbourhood origin in the Swedish setting. The analyses clearly show that prior place of residence accounts for an exceedingly modest proportion of the variation in cohort members’ subsequent income and receipt of social assistance.

    Study III explores the hypothesised negative impact of disadvantaged neighbourhood conditions, individual disadvantage, and degree of labour market establishment on levels of social trust. Using data from the Swedish Longitudinal Survey among Unemployed, ordered logit regression analyses indicate that low levels of social trust are contingent upon perceived neighbourhood disorder, personal powerlessness, perceived fear of victimisation, and accumulated episodes of temporary employment. The tentative results also indicate that neighbourhood disorder, powerlessness, and fear of victimisation interact, magnifying the negative impact on social trust.

  • 232.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nyström, M.
    Om ungdomstjänst och dess effekter2010Ingår i: Ungdomar som begår brott : vilka insatser fungerar? / [ed] A-K. Andershed, K. Söderholm Carpelan, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag , 2010, s. 103-107Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 233.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Rojas, Yerko
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Rethinking the Long-term Consequences of Growing up in a Disadvantaged Neighbourhood: Lessons from Sweden2012Ingår i: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 729-747Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using extensive longitudinal register data for more than 80 000 young metropolitan Swedes, this study addresses the effect of a disadvantaged neighbourhood social context on groupings of outcomes that are important for the living conditions of young adults. The overall results show that growing up in a disadvantaged neighbourhood increases the risk of experiencing comparably more unemployment, having less education and receiving more social assistance than similar young people from more affluent neighbourhoods. However, when the estimated effects of neighbourhood are assessed by means of an epidemiological impact measure that takes the prevalence of the risk factor at population level into account; these effects prove to be minimal. We discuss possible drawbacks of placing too much emphasis on policies targeting disadvantaged neighbourhoods versus universal social policy measures.

  • 234.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sellström, Eva
    Inst. f. hälsovetenskap, Östersund, Mittuniversitet.
    Arnoldsson, Göran
    Statistiska insitututionen, Umeå universitet.
    Boendesegregationens konsekvenser för ungdomars framtida levnadsförhållanden2010Ingår i: Social Rapport 2010, socialstyrelsen , 2010, s. 204-220Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 235.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Stenberg, Sten-Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Does Social Assistance Recipiency Influence Unemployment?: Macro-level Findings from Sweden in a Period of Turbulence2007Ingår i: Acta Sociologica, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 347-362Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 236.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Effectiveness of Sweden's Contact Family/Person Program for older children2015Ingår i: Research on social work practice, ISSN 1049-7315, E-ISSN 1552-7581, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 190-200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To estimate the impacts of Sweden’s Contact Family/Person Program (CFPP) for older children on participants’ long-term outcomes related to mental health problems, illicit drug use, public welfare receipt, placement in out-of-home care, educational achievement, and offending. Method: We analyzed longitudinal register data on more than 1,000,000 individuals born between 1973 and 1984, including 6,386 individuals who entered CFPP at 10–13 years of age, with a follow-up until 2008. The program impact was estimated by means of propensity score matching. Results: Outcomes for those who had received the intervention were not better than that for matched peers who did not receive the intervention. Conclusions: The results did not find support for CFPP effectiveness in reducing risks of compromised long-term development in older children.

  • 237.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Long-term outcomes of Sweden’s Contact Family Program for children2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 238.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Long-term outcomes of Sweden's Contact Family Program for children2013Ingår i: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 37, nr 6, s. 404-414Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To assess the long-term impacts of Sweden's Contact Family Program (CFP) for children on participants' future outcome profiles, here conceptualized as combinations of outcomes related to mental health problems, public welfare receipt, illicit drug use, placement in out-of-home care, educational achievement, and offending. Methods: We analyzed longitudinal register data on more than 950,000 children born 1980-90, including 6693 children who entered CFP at 2-5 years of age, with a follow-up until 2008. Children's outcome profiles were identified by latent class analysis. The average program impact was estimated by means of propensity score matching. Results: Long-term outcomes for those who had received the intervention were not better than for matched peers who did not receive the intervention. Simulation-based sensitivity analyses indicate that some of our estimated negative treatment effects may be affected by unobserved factors related to program participation and outcomes. However, both selection and outcome effects must be extremely strong in order to generate notable positive effects of CFP participation. Conclusions: The results did not find support for CFP effectiveness in reducing risks of compromised long-term development in children. Since the intervention reaches a high-risk group of children and is popular among users, volunteer families and professionals, the program should be reinforced with knowledge-based components that target known risk factors for child welfare recipients.

  • 239.
    Buhai, I. Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Cottini, Elena
    Westergaard-Nielsen, Niels
    How Productive Is Workplace Health and Safety?2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 119, nr 4, s. 1086-1104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the causal impact of workplace health and safety practices on firm performance, using Danish longitudinal matched employer–employee data merged with unique cross-sectional representative firm survey data on work environment conditions. We estimate standard production functions, augmented with workplace environment indicators, addressing both time-invariant and time-varying potentially relevant unobservables in the production process. We find positive and large productivity effects of improved physical dimensions of the health and safety environment, specifically, “internal climate” and “monotonous repetitive work”.

  • 240. Bukodi, Erzsebet
    et al.
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Goldthorpe, John H.
    The effects of social origins and cognitive ability on educational attainment: Evidence from Britain and Sweden2014Ingår i: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 57, nr 4, s. 293-310Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous work we have shown that in Britain and Sweden alike parental class, parental status and parental education have independent effects on individuals’ educational attainment. In this paper we extend our analyses, first by also including measures of individuals’ early-life cognitive ability, and second by bringing our results for Britain and Sweden into direct comparative form. On the basis of extensive birth-cohort data for both countries, we find that when cognitive ability is introduced into our analyses, parental class, status and education continue to have significant, and in fact only moderately reduced and largely persisting, effects on the educational attainment of members of successive cohorts. There is some limited evidence for Britain, but not for Sweden, that cognitive ability has a declining effect on educational attainment, and a further cross-national difference is that in Britain, but not in Sweden, some positive interaction effects occur between advantaged social origins and high cognitive ability in relation to educational success. Overall, though, cross-national similarities are most apparent, and especially in the extent to which parental class, status and education, when taken together, create wide disparities in the eventual educational attainment of individuals who in early life were placed at similar levels of cognitive ability. Some wider implications of these findings are considered.

  • 241. Bukodi, Erzsébet
    et al.
    Eibl, Ferdinand
    Buchholz, Sandra
    Marzadro, Sonia
    Minello, Alessandra
    Wahler, Susanne
    Blossfeld, Hans-Peter
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Schizzerotto, Antonio
    Linking the macro to the micro: a multidimensional approach to educational inequalities in four European countries2018Ingår i: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 26-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research into educational inequalities has shown the importance of decomposing social origins into parental class, status and education, representing economic, socio-cultural and educational family resources, respectively. But we know little about how inequalities in educational attainment at the micro-level map onto institutional characteristics of educational systems at the macro-level, if we treat social origins in a multidimensional way. Drawing on the rich over-time variation in educational systems in four European countries–Britain, Sweden, Germany and Italy–this paper develops and tests a number of hypotheses regarding the effects of various components of social origins on individuals’ educational attainment in different institutional contexts. It is evident from our results that a great deal of similarity exists across nations with different educational systems inthe persisting importance for individuals’ educational attainment of parental class, status and education. But our findings also indicate that changes in the institutional features of educational systems have, in some instances although not in others, served to reinforce or to offset the social processes generating educational inequalities at the micro level.

  • 242.
    Burn, Ian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Not All Laws are Created Equal: Legal Differences in State Non-Discrimination Laws and the Impact of LGBT Employment Protections2018Ingår i: Journal of Labor Research, ISSN 0195-3613, E-ISSN 1936-4768, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 462-497Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I study the impact of legal differences in state employment nondiscrimination acts (ENDAs) for gay men and lesbian women on labor market outcomes. Employing a DDD approach, I show that enacting an employment non-discrimination act is associated with increased wages of gay men and decreased employment of lesbian women. If all employment non-discrimination acts are treated as identical, these laws increased the hourly wages of gay men by 2.7% and decreased the employment of lesbian women by 1.7% and their hours worked by 0.7 hours. The results show that the strength of the law can result in heteroge-neous effects of the laws for gay men, but not for lesbian women. ENDAs with both punitive and compensatory damage provisions resulted in smaller wage increases for gay men than ENDAs with only compensatory damage provisions. ENDAs with longer statutes of limitations for complaints increased the employment of gay men, whereas laws with shorter statutes of limitations decreased employment. Based on the estimates from the state-level employment non-discrimination acts, I argue that extending federal protections under Title VII would lead to a small increase in the wages of gay men, but would significantly reduce the employment of lesbian women.

  • 243.
    Burn, Ian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Kettler, Kyle
    The More You Know, the Better You’re Paid? Evidence from Pay Secrecy Bans for Managers2019Ingår i: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately half of Americans are employed at firms where employees are forbidden or discouraged from discussing their pay with coworkers. Employees who violate these rules may be subject to punishment or dismissal. While many employees are legally protected from reprisal under the National Labor Rights Act, the law exempts managers from these protections. Eleven states have passed laws banning pay secrecy policies for managers. In this paper, we explore what effect these state laws had on the wages and employment of managers. We find pay secrecy bans increased the wages of managers by 3.5% but had no effect on the gender wage gap, job tenure, or labor supply. The effects are heterogeneous along a number of dimensions. Below the median wage, female managers experienced a 2.9% increase in their wages relative to male managers. Above the median wage, male managers experienced a 2.7% increase in their wages relative to female managers. The wage gains were concentrated among managers employed at firms with fewer than 500 employees.

  • 244.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Career outcomes in the Swedish labor market: three contextual studies2001Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper I:Being Different in the Workplace: Job Mobility into other Workplaces and Shifts into Unemployment. This study evaluates contradictory theoretical predictions about the consequences of belonging to a minority in a workplace context. The impact of workplace sex and ethnic composition on its constituent members' voluntary (workplace shifts) and involuntary (unemployment) mobility out of the workplace is assessed. Multilevel models are estimated on a sample of 1,959 Swedish workplaces for which information is available on all employees. The results indicate that the sex composition of the workplace does not affect men's and women's propensity for job shifts into other workplaces. However, natives have a higher propensity to leave workplaces with relatively many immigrants. Moreover, women and immigrants who are in a small minority run significantly larger risks of ending up in unemployment. No such association is found for men when they are in the minority, or for natives in workplaces with a large proportion of immigrants. Thus, the minority position is disadvantageous for women and immigrants. In contrast to previous research, the ethnic composition effects dwarf those of sex composition. This dimension of "being different" thus seems more important for involuntary as well as voluntary moves out of workplaces.

    Paper II:What You See is Not Always What You Get. Imperfect Information in the Job-Worker Matching Process, and Its Consequences for the Attainment of Occupational Prestige. This study uses Swedish job history data to test the hypothesis that easily observable characteristics of both jobs and workers matter more for the individual attainment of job rewards when better information about such characteristics is not available. The notion of "easily observable worker characteristics" is operationalized as formal education, and that of "easily observable job characteristics" is operationalized as occupational prestige. The results are consistent with the hypothesis and previous empirical evidence obtained using US data. The formal education of workers influences employers' decisions about hiring, but in employer-internal mobility employers appear to make use of more direct measures of worker ability. Moreover, the longer the employer has had an opportunity to observe a worker, the smaller the influence of formal education on internal job mobility outcomes. Similarly, easily observable characteristics of jobs influence workers' mobility between employers, i.e. when other job information is unavailable or difficult to observe. Workers were also found to use more easily observable characteristics early on in the job-worker matches, but with time in the job, these characteristics lose their influence on job mobility decisions.

    Paper III:Pay Reference Standards and Pay Satisfaction. What Do Workers Evaluate Their Pay Against? Reference group theory postulates that actors' satisfaction originates in relative rather than absolute standing, but largely neglects the question of what these comparison standards actually are. This study contributes to filling this void through an empirical investigation of the standards against which workers evaluate their pay. The associations between several indicators of reference pay and pay satisfaction are examined in a random sample of Swedish employees. The data set is unusually rich in its information about both the individual and the structural context in which worker pay satisfaction is formed: the past pay of the worker, and the pay level of the organizational, occupational, and national labor market context. The results indicate that workers' satisfaction primarily stems from more general comparisons with others in their occupation, and in the labor market at large. Comparisons with co-workers' and the individuals' own past pay, are of minor importance. Reference group theory as applied to pay comparisons would therefore benefit from a focus on this more general level.

  • 245.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Anni, Erlandsson
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Do Employers Prefer Fathers? Evidence from a Field Experiment Testing the Gender by Parenthood Interaction Effect on Callbacks to Job Applications2017Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 337-348Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In research on fatherhood premiums and motherhood penalties in career-related outcomes, employers’ discriminatory behaviours are often argued to constitute a possible explanation for observed gender gaps. However, there is as yet no conclusive evidence of such discrimination. Utilizing a field experiment design, we test (i) whether job applicants are subject to recruitment discrimination on the basis of their gender and parenthood status, and (ii) whether discrimination by gender and parenthood is conditional on the qualifications required by the job applied for. We applied for 2,144 jobs in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parenthood status to fictitious job applicants. Based on the rate of callbacks, we do not find that employers practise systematic recruitment discrimination on the basis of the job applicants’ gender or parental status, neither in relation to less qualified nor more highly qualified jobs.

  • 246.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Moulding Parents’ Childcare?: A Comparative Analysis of Paid Work and Time with Children in Different Family Policy Models2011Ingår i: Work-Life Balance in Europe: The Role of Job Quality / [ed] Drobnic, Sonja & Guillén, Ana, Palgrave Macmillan , 2011, s. 207-230Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 247.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Family Formation and Men's and Women's Attainment of Workplace Authority2012Ingår i: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 90, nr 3, s. 795-816Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish panel data, we assess whether the gender gap in supervisory authority has changed during the period 1968-2000, and investigate to what extent the gap can be attributed to gender-specific consequences of family formation. The results indicate that the gap has narrowed modestly during the period, and that the life-event of parenthood is a major cause. As long as women and men are childless and single, the gender gap in supervisory authority is marginal, even reversed. When men become fathers, however, they strongly increase their chances for supervisory authority whereas women's chances remain unaffected when they become mothers. We also find a male "marriage premium" on workplace authority, but this premium is generated by selection.

  • 248.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gähler, Michael
    Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Kvinnors underrepresentation på chefspositioner – en familjeangelägenhet?2007Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 249.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gähler, Michael
    Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Kvinnors underrepresentation på chefspositioner - en familjeangelägenhet?2008Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 33-46Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 250.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gähler, Michael
    Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    The gender gap in workplace authority in Sweden 1968–2000 – a family affair?2007Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    We assess whether the gender gap in authority in Sweden has changed during the period 1968–2000, and investigate to what extent family factors are respon-sible for this gap. We find that the gap has narrowed modestly during this period, and identify the life-event of parenthood as a major cause of the gap. When men become fathers, they gain authority; when women become mothers, they do not. Our fixed effects panel estimates of the effects of family factors deviate from the cross-sectional estimates, suggesting that unobserved individ-ual heterogeneity – routinely neglected in this line of research – matters.

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