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  • 201.
    Nair, Ramkumar B
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Ravula, Vamsikrishna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Neurospora intermedia pellets for enhanced ethanol and fungal biomass production from wheat straw2017Inngår i: Proceedings of 39th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies at our research group have described an ‘integrated-biorefinery’ model for the existing 1st generation wheat-based ethanol facilities, by using edible filamentous fungus, Neurospora intermedia. The process focuses on the production of 2nd generation ethanol together with fungal biomass (for animal or aquaculture feed applications) from wheat straw. A final ethanol yield of 94% (theoretical maximum based on substrate glucan content) was obtained with N. intermedia fermentation in dilute phosphoric acid pretreated (0.7%w/v acid, 7min at 201±4°C) and enzymatically hydrolyzed (10FPU cellulase/g substrate) straw. Fungal cultivation in liquid straw hydrolysate resulted in a maximum of 3.71±0.11g/L dry fungal biomass. Considering the industrial significance of the fungal process, attempts were made to manipulate N. intermedia to grow as pellet forms in the straw hydrolysate, for the first time. Of the various culture conditions screened, stable pellet morphology was obtained at pH 3.0 to 5.5, resulting in uniform pellets with size ranging from 2.5 to 4.25mm. Fermentation using N. intermedia pellets in the liquid straw hydrolysate, resulted in about 31% increase in the ethanol yield, with an improved glucose assimilation by the pellets (82% reduction) as opposed to filamentous forms (51% reduction), at similar culture conditions. The growth of fungal pellets in presence of inhibitors (at different concentrations of acetic acid and furfural) resulted in about 11% to 45% increase in ethanol production as compared to filamentous forms, at similar growth conditions in the liquid straw hydrolysate. Detailed results on N. intermedia pelletization in liquid straw hydrolysate will be discussed in this presentation.

  • 202.
    Nair, Ramkumar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Lennartsson, Patrik
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Mycelial pellet formation by edible ascomycete filamentous fungi, Neurospora intermedia2016Inngår i: AMB Express, ISSN 2191-0855, E-ISSN 2191-0855, Vol. 6, nr 31, artikkel-id 10.1186/s13568-016-0203-2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pellet formation of filamentous fungi in submerged culture is an imperative topic of fermentation research. In this study, we report for the first time the growth of filamentous ascomycete fungus,Neurospora intermedia in its mycelial pellet form. In submerged culture, the growth morphology of the fungus was successfully manipulated into growing as pellets by modifying various cultivation conditions. Factors such as pH (2.0–10.0), agitation rate (100–150 rpm), carbon source (glucose, arabinose, sucrose, and galactose), the presence of additive agents (glycerol and calcium chloride) and trace metals were investigated for their effect on the pellet formation. Of the various factors screened, uniform pellets were formed only at pH range 3.0–4.0, signifying it as the most influential factor for N. intermedia pellet formation. The average pellet size ranged from 2.38 ± 0.12 to 2.86 ± 0.38 mm. The pellet formation remained unaffected by the inoculum type used and its size showed an inverse correlation with the agitation rate of the culture. Efficient glucose utilization was observed with fungal pellets, as opposed to the freely suspended mycelium, proving its viability for fast- fermentation processes. Scale up of the pelletization process was also carried out in bench-scale airlift and bubble column reactors (4.5 L).

  • 203.
    Navrátil, Marián
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teknisk biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cimander, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teknisk biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teknisk biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On-line multisensor monitoring of yogurt and Filmjolk fermentations on production scale2004Inngår i: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 52, nr 3, s. 415-420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry and electronic nose (EN) data were used for on-line monitoring of yogurt and filmjölk (a Swedish yogurt-like sour milk) fermentations under industrial conditions. The NIR and EN signals were selected by evaluation of principal component analysis loading vectors and further analyzed by studying the variability of the selected principal components. First principal components for the NIR and the EN signals were used for on-line generation of a process trajectory plot visualizing the actual state of fermentation. The NIR signals were also used to set up empirical partial least-squares (PLS) models for prediction of the cultures' pH and titratable acidity (expressed as Thorner degrees, °T). By using five or six PLS factors the models yielded acceptable predictions that could be further improved by increasing the number of reliable and precise calibration data. The presented results demonstrate that the fusion of the NIR and EN signals has a potential for rapid on-line monitoring and assessment of process quality of yogurt fermentation.

  • 204.
    Nilsson, Oskar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Optimization of Single Cell Protein production from spent silfite liquor using Paecilomyces variotii2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Fish has for a long time been a very important source of protein for human kind and with the world population at an all-time high, 7.5 billion and rapidly growing, the demand for fish as a food source is also at an all-time high and rapidly increasing. This has in turn led to overexploitation of many of the fish stocks of the world ocean’s and in many cases to depletion of fish stocks. The demand for sustainable food sources and sustainable usage of the world ocean’s fish stocks is therefore a subject with great deal of interest today. Much of the fish caught today are used for production of fish meal for usage as fish food at fish farms, which also increases the depletion of fish stocks around the globe.

    One way of dealing with this problem is to replace the fish meal as protein source in fish feed with protein from agricultural crops which in many cases are done today by usage of soy bean protein. This however poses another problem as the agricultural crops take up vast amount of land, in many cases obtained by diminishing the rainforests in the area. Another usage for the soybean would be as a direct human food source. Agricultural products are also dependent on environmental conditions to ensure reasonable production. The problems related to production of fish meal and soy has sparked the idea of using microorganisms for production of Single cell protein for usage as protein source in fish feed. Single cell protein can be produced in closed fermentation vessels and can be produced at a controlled rate and under controlled manners, while taking up negligible land space.

    During this thesis, the production of single cell protein from spent sulfite liquor using the filamentous fungi Paecilomyces variotii was examined. The aim of the project was to examine the effect of cultivation parameters (i.e., pH, temperature and nutrients) on the production of biomass as well as the protein content of the biomass. The correlation of the biomass growth and protein content have also been examined.

    The project was carried out by performing several experiment cultivations using spent sulfite liquor provided by Domsjö Fabriker in Örnsköldsvik. This process enables the utilization of a residual stream from the pulp industry which gives this process a huge environmental upside compared to similar processes as for example the commercial production of Quorn (a Single cell based food product) which utilizes pure glucose.

    The results showed that the protein content will steadily decrease as the biomass production increases hence it is desirable to keep the cultivation time at a minimum while maximizing biomass production during that time frame. It also points towards that the highest protein content is present in the young cell mass.

    The key conclusion from this thesis is however that it is possible to lower the pH of the cultivation from pH 6 down to pH 4.5 while still maintaining the biomass production and increasing the protein content. The highest obtained protein content was 62.7% at pH 4.5. The high protein content might be due to a slightly longer lag phase in the beginning of the cultivation which yields a higher number of younger cells in the final broth thus increasing protein content. Running the process at a lower pH is a huge advantage for industrial implementation as this on large scale means significant lower amounts of chemicals needed for pH adjusting of the spent sulfite liquor which renders the process much more economical. This is because pH adjustment today is one of the most costly process steps in the production of bioethanol from spent sulfite liquor. 

  • 205.
    Nilsson, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Bauer, Fredric
    Chemical Engineering, Lund University.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Chemical Engineering, Lund University.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Wännström, Sune
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Berglund, Kris
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Techno-economics of carbon preserving butanol production using a combined fermentative and catalytic approach2014Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 161, s. 263-269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel process for n-butanol production which combines a fermentation consuming carbon dioxide (succinic acid fermentation) with subsequent catalytic reduction steps to add hydrogen to form butanol. Process simulations in Aspen Plus have been the basis for the techno-economic analyses performed. The overall economy for the novel process cannot be justified, as production of succinic acid by fermentation is too costly. Though, succinic acid price is expected to drop drastically in a near future. By fully integrating the succinic acid fermentation with the catalytic conversion the need for costly recovery operations could be reduced. The hybrid process would need 22% less raw material than the butanol fermentation at a succinic acid fermentation yield of 0.7 g/g substrate. Additionally, a carbon dioxide fixation of up to 13 ktonnes could be achieved at a plant with an annual butanol production of 10 ktonnes

  • 206.
    Nitsos, Christos
    et al.
    Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
    Matis, Konstantinos A.
    Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
    Triantafyllidis, Kostas
    Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Centre for Research and Technology-Hellas (CPERI/CERTH), 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in the bioethanol production process2013Inngår i: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 110-122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The natural resistance to enzymatic deconstruction exhibited by lignocellulosic materials has designated pretreatment as a key step in the biological conversion of biomass to ethanol. Hydrothermal pretreatment in pure water represents a challenging approach because it is a method with low operational costs and does not involve the use of organic solvents, difficult to handle chemicals, and "external" liquid or solid catalysts. In the present work, a systematic study has been performed to optimize the hydrothermal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass (beech wood) with the aim of maximizing the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose in the treated solids and obtaining a liquid side product that could also be utilized for the production of ethanol or valuable chemicals. Hydrothermal treatment experiments were conducted in a batch-mode, high-pressure reactor under autogeneous pressure at varying temperature (130-220 °C) and time (15-180 min) regimes, and at a liquid-to-solid ratio (LSR) of 15. The intensification of the process was expressed by the severity factor, log Ro. The major changes induced in the solid biomass were the dissolution/removal of hemicellulose to the process liquid and the partial removal and relocation of lignin on the external surface of biomass particles in the form of recondensed droplets. The above structural changes led to a 2.5-fold increase in surface area and total pore volume of the pretreated biomass solids. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose increased from less than 7 wt % for the parent biomass to as high as 70 wt % for the treated solids. Maximum xylan recovery (60 wt %) in the hydrothermal process liquid was observed at about 80 wt % hemicellulose removal; this was accomplished by moderate treatment severities (log R o=3.8-4.1). At higher severities (log Ro=4.7), xylose degradation products, mainly furfural and formic acid, were the predominant chemicals formed. Green fuels and chemicals: The enzymatic digestibility of cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass towards fermentable glucose can be increased significantly by hydrothermal pretreatment in pure water under relatively mild conditions. Appropriate selection of the pretreatment temperature and time also leads to a process liquid that can be enriched in xylose or in furfural and acetic acid

  • 207.
    Nitsos, Christos
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Triantafyllidis, Kostas
    Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Centre for Research and Technology-Hellas (CPERI/CERTH), 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece, Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Evaluation of Mediterranean Agricultural Residues as a Potential Feedstock for the Production of Biogas via Anaerobic Fermentation2015Inngår i: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2015, artikkel-id 171635Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal, dilute acid, and steam explosion pretreatment methods, were evaluated for their efficiency to improve the methane production yield of three Mediterranean agricultural lignocellulosic residues such as olive tree pruning, grapevine pruning, and almond shells. Hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreatments provided low to moderate increase in the digestibility of the biomass samples, whereas steam explosion enabled the highest methane yields to be achieved for almond shells at 232.2 ± 13.0 mL CH4/gVS and olive pruning at 315.4 ± 0.0 mL CH4/gVS. Introduction of an enzymatic prehydrolysis step moderately improved methane yields for hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreated samples but not for the steam exploded ones.

  • 208.
    Nitsos, Christos
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik. Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Triantafyllidis, Kostas
    Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki; Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Centre for Research and Technology-Hellas (CPERI/CERTH).
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Investigation of different pretreatment methods of Mediterranean-type ecosystem agricultural residues: characterisation of pretreatment products, high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production2017Inngår i: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural and agro-industrial lignocellulosic residues represent an important renewable resource for the production of fuels and chemicals towards a bio-based economy. Olive pruning, vineyard pruning and almond shells are important residues from agricultural activities in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. In the current work, bioethanol production from the above three types of agro-residues was studied, focusing on the effect of different pretreatment methods on enzymatic saccharrification efficiency of cellulose and production of second-generation bioethanol. Dilute acid, hydrothermal and steam explosion pretreatments were compared in order to remove hemicellulose and facilitate the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the hemicellulose-deficient biomass to glucose. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed in a free-fall mixing reactor enabling high solids loading of 23% w/w. This allowed hydrolysis of up to 67% of available cellulose in almond shells and close to 50% in olive pruning samples, and facilitated high ethanol production in the subsequent fermentation step; the highest ethanol concentrations achieved were 47.8 g/L for almond shells after steam explosion and 42 g/L for hydrothermally pretreated olive pruning residue.

  • 209.
    Nitsos, Christos
    et al.
    Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
    Mihailof, Chrysa M.
    Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Centre for Research and Technology-Hellas (CPERI/CERTH), 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Matis, Konstantinos A.
    Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
    Lappas, Angelos A
    Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Centre for Research and Technology-Hellas (CPERI/CERTH), 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Triantafyllidis, Kostas
    Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Centre for Research and Technology-Hellas (CPERI/CERTH), 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece.
    The Role of Catalytic Pretreatment in Biomass Valorization Toward Fuels and Chemicals2013Inngår i: The Role of Catalysis for the Sustainable Production of Bio-fuels and Bio-chemicals, Elsevier, 2013, s. 217-260Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose toward fermentable glucose is of paramount importance for the production of ethanol or other high-value chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass via the biochemical route. A pretreatment step is usually required that alters the structure and composition of biomass, reduces its recalcitrance, and allows the efficient enzymatic conversion of carbohydrates into sugars. Biomass pretreatment aims mainly at the selective separation of hemicellulose and/or lignin, either as oligomers or as smaller sugar and phenolic molecules, which can be further converted enzymatically or via chemical catalysis to platform chemicals or fuel precursors. In this chapter, a review of the most widely applied pretreatment methods is presented, with the aim of elucidating the role of chemical or biochemical catalysis in this first step of biomass valorization

  • 210.
    Nitsos, Christos
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Organosolv fractionation of softwood biomass for biofuel and biorefinery applications2018Inngår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id 50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Softwoods represent a significant fraction of the available lignocellulosic biomass for conversion into a variety of bio-based products. Its inherent recalcitrance, however, makes its successful utilization an ongoing challenge. In the current work the research efforts for the fractionation and utilization of softwood biomass with the organosolv process are reviewed. A short introduction into the specific challenges of softwood utilization, the development of the biorefinery concept, as well as the initial efforts for the development of organosolv as a pulping method is also provided for better understanding of the related research framework. The effect of organosolv pretreatment at various conditions, in the fractionation efficiency of wood components, enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production yields is then discussed. Specific attention is given in the effect of the pretreated biomass properties such as residual lignin on enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, the valorization of organosolv lignin via the production of biofuels, chemicals, and materials is also described. 

  • 211.
    Nitsos, Christos
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Stoklosa, Ryan J.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.
    Karnaouri, Anthi C
    Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, University of Rome Tor Vergata.
    Vörös, Dimitrij
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Lange, Heikko
    Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, University of Rome Tor Vergata.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Crestini, Claudia
    Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, University of Rome Tor Vergata.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Isolation and Characterization of Organosolv and Alkaline Lignins from Hardwood and Softwood Biomass2016Inngår i: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 4, nr 10, s. 5181-5193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Isolation of lignins from hardwood and softwood biomass samples, containing 26.1% and 28.1% lignin, respectively, has been performed with the use of alkaline and organosolv pretreatment methods. The effect of catalyst loading, ethanol content, particle size, and pretreatment time on the yields and properties of the isolated lignins were investigated. Alkaline lignins had higher carbohydrate content - up to 30% - and exhibited higher molecular weights in the range of 3000 Da, with a maximum phenolic hydroxyl content of 1 mmol g-1 for birch and 2 mmol g-1 for spruce. Organosolv lignins, on the other hand, showed high purity - 93% or higher - despite the more extensive biomass dissolution into the pretreatment medium; they also exhibited a lower range of molecular weights between 600 and 1600 Da depending on the source and pretreatment conditions. Due to the lower molecular weight, phenolic hydroxyl content was also increased, reaching as high as 4 mmol g-1 with a simultaneous decrease in aliphatic hydroxyl content as low as 0.6 mmol g-1. Efficient lignin dissolution of 62% for spruce and 69% for birch, achieved at optimal pretreatment conditions, was combined with extensive hemicellulose removal

  • 212. Nordgren, Daniel
    et al.
    Hedman, Henry
    Padban, Nader
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Ash transformations in pulverised fuel co-combustion of straw and woody biomass2013Inngår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 105, s. 52-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ash transformation processes have been studied during co-firing of wheat straw and pine stem wood and softwood bark. Pilot-scale trials in a 150 kW pulverised-fuel-fired burner were performed. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were made to support the interpretation of the results. The results show that reactions involving condensed phases are kinetically limited compared to reactions between gaseous ash compounds. Accordingly, the conditions promote gas phase reactions resulting in the formation of chlorides, sulphates and carbonates whereas reactions involving condensed reactants are suppressed. Both the slagging and fouling propensities of all co-firing mixes were reduced compared to that for pure straw. For the wood/straw mixes this was mainly due to a dilution of the ash forming elements of straw whereas for straw/bark, an additional effect from interaction between the fuel ash components was observed to reduce slagging. In general it can be concluded that under powder combustion conditions equilibrium is approached selectively and that the ash matter is strongly fractionated. The general results in this paper are useful for straw-fired power stations looking for alternative co-firing fuels.

  • 213.
    Nordlander, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH.
    Modeling of a full-scale biogas plant using a dynamic neural network2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 214.
    Nylander, Filip
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Enginering.
    Sunner, Hampus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering.
    Olsson, Lisbeth
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Westman, Gunnar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Enginering.
    Synthesis and enzymatic hydrolysis of a diaryl benzyl ester model of a lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC)2016Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 70, nr 5, s. 385-391Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific degradation of the bonds between lignin and carbohydrates is an important step towards separating individual lignocellulosic biopolymers for sustainable production of materials and chemicals. One of the most established covalent lignin-carbohydrate (LC) interactions is the ester bond between the α- or γ-hydroxyl group of a lignin phenylpropane unit and a glucuronic acid side chain of xylan. In this work, a model of the LC benzyl ester bond was synthesized in a one-pot reaction from a β-O-4 lignin unit and d-glucuronic acid, both from commercial sources. The resulting lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) model was unstable in aqueous solution. However, at pH 4, the rate of spontaneous hydrolysis was sufficiently low to allow for enzymatic splitting experiments. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the LC benzyl ester bond of the LCC model was demonstrated by means of the glucuronoyl esterase StGE2 from Sporotrichum thermophile, which showed a preference for erythro forms of the LCC model

  • 215.
    Ofoli, R.
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Komolprasert, V.
    Michigan State University.
    Saha, B.C.
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Extrusion liquefaction and saccharification of carbohydrate substrates1990Inngår i: Food biotechnology, ISSN 0890-5436, E-ISSN 1532-4249, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 365-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of accomplishing enzymatic liquefaction and saccharification of carbohydrate formulations during one pass in a twin-screw food extruder. The combined liquefaction and saccharification process was carried out on a cereal grain formulation in a pilot-scale twin screw Baker Perkins extruder, using thermophilic α- and β-amylase. The biggest limitation on the process was the short residence times characteristic of the extruder. This problem was partially overcome by a combination of screw configurations, mass flow rates and RPM which extended the residence times and enhanced the extent of reaction. Results indicate that this type of technology may provide some opportunities for the food and biochemical industry.

  • 216.
    Olofsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Lamela, Teresa
    Necton SA, Olhao, Portugal.
    Nilsson, Emmelie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bergé, Jean-Pascal
    IFREMER, Nantes, France.
    del Pino, Victória
    Necton SA, Olhao, Portugal.
    Uronen, Pauliina
    Neste Oil, Ctr Technol, Porvoo, Finland.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Combined Effects of Nitrogen Concentration and Seasonal Changes on the Production of Lipids in Nannochloropsis oculata 2014Inngår i: Marine Drugs, ISSN 1660-3397, E-ISSN 1660-3397, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 1891-1910Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Instead of sole nutrient starvation to boost algal lipid production, we addressed nutrient limitation at two different seasons (autumn and spring) during outdoor cultivation in flat panel photobioreactors. Lipid accumulation, biomass and lipid productivity and changes in fatty acid composition of Nannochloropsis oculata were investigated under nitrogen (N) limitation (nitrate:phosphate N:P 5, N:P 2.5 molar ratio). N. oculata was able to maintain a high biomass productivity under N-limitation compared to N-sufficiency (N:P 20) at both seasons, which in spring resulted in nearly double lipid productivity under N-limited conditions (0.21 g L−1 day−1) compared to N-sufficiency (0.11 g L−1 day−1). Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased from 76% to nearly 90% of total fatty acids in N-limited cultures. Higher biomass and lipid productivity in spring could, partly, be explained by higher irradiance, partly by greater harvesting rate (~30%). Our results indicate the potential for the production of algal high value products (i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acids) during both N-sufficiency and N-limitation. To meet the sustainability challenges of algal biomass production, we propose a dual-system process: Closed photobioreactors producing biomass for high value products and inoculum for larger raceway ponds recycling waste/exhaust streams to produce bulk chemicals for fuel, feed and industrial material.

  • 217.
    Olofsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Lamela, Teresa
    Necton SA, Olhao, Portugal.
    Nilsson, Emmelie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bergé, Jean-Pascal
    IFREMER, Nantes, France.
    del Pino, Victória
    Necton SA, Olhao, Portugal.
    Uronen, Pauliina
    Neste Oil, Ctr Technol, Porvoo, Finland.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Combined Effects of Nitrogen Concentration and Seasonal Changes on the Production of Lipids in Nannochloropsis oculata 2014Inngår i: Marine Drugs, ISSN 1660-3397, E-ISSN 1660-3397, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 1891-1910Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Instead of sole nutrient starvation to boost algal lipid production, we addressed nutrient limitation at two different seasons (autumn and spring) during outdoor cultivation in flat panel photobioreactors. Lipid accumulation, biomass and lipid productivity and changes in fatty acid composition of Nannochloropsis oculata were investigated under nitrogen (N) limitation (nitrate:phosphate N:P 5, N:P 2.5 molar ratio). N. oculata was able to maintain a high biomass productivity under N-limitation compared to N-sufficiency (N:P 20) at both seasons, which in spring resulted in nearly double lipid productivity under N-limited conditions (0.21 g L−1 day−1) compared to N-sufficiency (0.11 g L−1 day−1). Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased from 76% to nearly 90% of total fatty acids in N-limited cultures. Higher biomass and lipid productivity in spring could, partly, be explained by higher irradiance, partly by greater harvesting rate (~30%). Our results indicate the potential for the production of algal high value products (i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acids) during both N-sufficiency and N-limitation. To meet the sustainability challenges of algal biomass production, we propose a dual-system process: Closed photobioreactors producing biomass for high value products and inoculum for larger raceway ponds recycling waste/exhaust streams to produce bulk chemicals for fuel, feed and industrial material.

  • 218.
    Olsson, Carina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth A.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi. RISE., Innventia.
    Reimann, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi. RISE., Innventia.
    Carbon fibres from precursors produced by dry-jet wet-spinning of kraft lignin blended with kraft pulps2017Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 71, nr 4, s. 275-283Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A part of kraft lignin (KL) can be used as a value-added product without detracting the chemical recovery and the energy balance of the kraft mill. The focus of this study is the production of light-weight carbon fibres (CFS) from KL obtained by the LignoBoost process. For this purpose, crude KL and various cellulose products from kraft pulping of hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW) were dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIm][OAc]) and submitted to dry-jet wet-spun to obtain precursor fibres containing 70% KL and 30% cellulose, which were thermally stabilised and further converted by thermal treatments into CF. The initial and final products were characterised with respect to, e.g. mole mass distribution, thermal properties, tensile strength and tensile modulus determination. The optimised precursor fibres are smooth and flexible with similar mechanical properties as commercial textile fibres. The best CFS made had a tensile strength of 780 MPa and a tensile modulus of 68 GPa and are thus stronger and stiffer than those produced by melt-spinning of SW-based lignins alone. The new CFS based on dry-jet wet-spun precursors still have a high potential for further improvements.

  • 219.
    Pan, Borlan
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Time-resolved fluorescence and anisotropy of covalently coupled 1-pyrenebutyric acid for monitoring the crystallization conditions of lysozyme1997Inngår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 171, nr 1-2, s. 226-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-resolved fluorescence and anisotropy measurements of trace amounts of 1-pyrenebutyric acid labeled hen egg-white lysozyme (PBA-HEL) were used to characterize hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) crystallization conditions. The effects of sodium chloride and protein concentrations on the fluorescence lifetimes and rotational correlation times of the labeled protein were examined. These results were compared with the effects of the salts ammonium acetate and ammonium sulfate. Addition of protein precipitants caused increases in the rotational correlation times which were attributed to a combination of steric, hydrodynamic, general electrostatic and specific ionic interactions. This decrease in the rotational mobility of HEL appears to be a necessary but not sufficient condition to allow the formation of specific interactions leading to crystallization. The results demonstrated that fluorescence measurements are effective in characterizing and monitoring protein crystallization processes prior to the appearance of macroscopic crystals.

  • 220.
    Pan, Borlan
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Chakraborty, Reena
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Time resolved fluorescence and anisotropy of 1-pyrene butyric acid and pyranine as probes of solvent organization in sucrose solutions1993Inngår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 130, nr 3-4, s. 587-599Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The microenvironment of solute-solvent interactions in aqueous sucrose solutions, ranging from 0 to 80 wt% in concentration, was investigated using time resolved fluorescence techniques. The fluorescence lifetimes and rotational correlation times of the trace fluorescent probes, PBA (1-pyrene butyric acid) and pyranine (trisodium 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonate), were measured in sucrose solutions. The behavior of the fluorescence lifetimes and the increase in the rotational correlation times with increasing sucrose concentration provided no evidence for the formation of water exclusive solute clusters in the metastable solutions. Instead, the results indicated the formation of a network of hydrogen bonding interactions between dispersed sucrose molecules.

  • 221. Papapetridis, Ioannis
    et al.
    van Dijk, Marlous
    van Maris, Antonius J. A.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi. Delft University Technology, Netherlands.
    Pronk, Jack T.
    Metabolic engineering strategies for optimizing acetate reduction, ethanol yield and osmotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae2017Inngår i: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Glycerol, whose formation contributes to cellular redox balancing and osmoregulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is an important by-product of yeast-based bioethanol production. Replacing the glycerol pathway by an engineered pathway for NAD(+)-dependent acetate reduction has been shown to improve ethanol yields and contribute to detoxification of acetate-containing media. However, the osmosensitivity of glycerol non-producing strains limits their applicability in high-osmolarity industrial processes. This study explores engineering strategies for minimizing glycerol production by acetate-reducing strains, while retaining osmotolerance. Results: GPD2 encodes one of two S. cerevisiae isoenzymes of NAD(+)-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH). Its deletion in an acetate-reducing strain yielded a fourfold lower glycerol production in anaerobic, low-osmolarity cultures but hardly affected glycerol production at high osmolarity. Replacement of both native G3PDHs by an archaeal NADP(+)-preferring enzyme, combined with deletion of ALD6, yielded an acetate-reducing strain the phenotype of which resembled that of a glycerol-negative gpd1 Delta gpd2 Delta strain in low-osmolarity cultures. This strain grew anaerobically at high osmolarity (1 mol L-1 glucose), while consuming acetate and producing virtually no extracellular glycerol. Its ethanol yield in high-osmolarity cultures was 13% higher than that of an acetate-reducing strain expressing the native glycerol pathway. Conclusions: Deletion of GPD2 provides an attractive strategy for improving product yields of acetate-reducing S. cerevisiae strains in low, but not in high-osmolarity media. Replacement of the native yeast G3PDHs by a heterologous NADP(+)-preferring enzyme, combined with deletion of ALD6, virtually eliminated glycerol production in high-osmolarity cultures while enabling efficient reduction of acetate to ethanol. After further optimization of growth kinetics, this strategy for uncoupling the roles of glycerol formation in redox homeostasis and osmotolerance can be applicable for improving performance of industrial strains in high-gravity acetate-containing processes.

  • 222.
    Papaspyrid, L. -M.
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens.
    Sbokov, E.
    National Technical University of Athens.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of dietary fibres and glucans by submerged cultures of two greek mushroom species, Ganoderma australe and Pleurotus ostreatus2012Inngår i: Acta alimentaria, ISSN 0139-3006, E-ISSN 1588-2535, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 200-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of bioactive total dietary fibres (TDF) and glucans (α- and β-glucans) in submerged cultures of wild Ganoderma australe and commercial Pleurotus ostreatus, both of Greek origin. The contents of glucans and TDF were determined by using the respective Megazyme enzymatic kits. Glucose and yeast extract (YE) were suggested as appropriate carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for obtaining simultaneously high production of TDF and β-glucans by G. australe, which are compounds of great pharmacological interest, whereas maltose and YE were found favourable for high production of the above-mentioned functional components by P. ostreatus. The data obtained in this study provide useful information for further development of the studied mushroom fermentation process on a scale of the bioreactor aiming at enhanced TDF and β-glucan production.

  • 223.
    Papaspyridi, Lefki-Maria
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens.
    Aligiannis, Nektarios
    University of Athens.
    Topakas, Evangelos
    National Technical University of Athens.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Skaltsounis, Alexandros-Leandros
    University of Athens.
    Fokialakis, Nikolas
    University of Athens.
    Submerged fermentation of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus in a batch stirred tank bioreactor as a promising alternative for the effective production of bioactive metabolites2012Inngår i: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 2714-2724Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the submerged fermentation procedure in the production of bioactive metabolites of the common edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. The biomass of the mushroom strain was produced by submerged fermentation in a batch stirred tank bioreactor and extracted by solvents of increasing polarity. The dichloromethane and methanol extract were fractioned by different techniques including Adsorption Chromatography and Fast Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (FCPC). The structures of pure compounds were elucidated with 1D/2D NMR-spectroscopic analyses, and chemical correlations combined with GC/MS and LC/MS experiments. Nineteen metabolites (e.g., fatty acids, phenolic metabolites, nucleotides and alkaloids) were isolated. Beyond the production of known metabolites, we report herein the production also of trans-3,4-dihydro-3,4,8-trihydroxynapthalen-1(2H)-one, indolo-3-carboxylic acid, 3-formylpyrrole and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, that have pharmaceutical interest and are isolated for the first time from Pleurotus strains.This work indicates the great potential of the established bioprocess for the production of P. ostreatus mycelia with enhanced metabolic profile.

  • 224.
    Papaspyridi, Papaspyridi, Lefki Maria
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens.
    Sinanoglou, V.J.
    Technological Educational Institution of Athens Instrumental Food Analysis Laboratory, Department of Food Technology.
    Strati, I.F.
    Technological Educational Institution of Athens Instrumental Food Analysis Laboratory, Department of Food Technology.
    Katapodis, P.
    University of Ioannina, Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biological Applications and Technologies.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Fatty acid profiles of Pleurotus ostreatus and Ganoderma australe grown naturally and in a batch reactor2013Inngår i: Acta alimentaria, ISSN 0139-3006, E-ISSN 1588-2535, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 328-337Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-polar lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of the commercial edible strain of Pleurotus ostreatus and the medicinal wild strain of Ganoderma australe were determined. A comparison of the FA profile was conducted between mycelium grown under optimum bioreactor conditions and naturally occurring fruit bodies in both species. Both strains contained unsaturated FA (UFA), amounting to 55–77% of total FA content, whereas the proportion of essential FA was contributive, permitting their consideration as potential food ingredients. Bioreactor process resulted in a significant total FA content increase accompanied with a considerable effect on ratios of nutritional interest (MUFA/SFA, PUFA/SFA, oleic/linoleic).

  • 225.
    Parreiras, Lucas S.
    et al.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Breuer, Rebecca J.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Narasimhan, Ragothaman Avanasi
    University of Wisconsin.
    Higbee, Alan J.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Reau, Alex La
    University of Wisconsin.
    Tremaine, Mary T.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Qin, Li
    University of Wisconsin.
    Willis, Laura B.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Bice, Benjamin D.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Bonfert, Brandi L.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Pinhancos, Rebeca C.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Balloon, Allison J.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Uppugundla, Nirmal
    Michigan State University.
    Liu, Tongjun
    Michigan State University.
    Li, Chenlin
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Tanjore, Deepti
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Ong, Irene
    University of Wisconsin.
    Li, Haibo
    University of Wisconsin.
    Pohlmann, Edward L.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Serate, Jose
    University of Wisconsin.
    Withers, Sydnor T.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Simmons, Blake Alexander
    Joint BioEnergy Institute, California, Deconstruction Division, Berkeley.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Westphall, Michael S.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Coon, Joshua J.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Sato, Trey
    University of Wisconsin.
    Engineering and two-stage evolution of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for anaerobic fermentation of xylose from AFEX pretreated corn stover2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikkel-id e107499Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH.

  • 226.
    Paschos, Thomas
    et al.
    Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Xiros, Charilaos
    National Technical University of Athens, Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Ethanol effect on metabolic activity of the ethalogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum2015Inngår i: BMC Biotechnology, ISSN 1472-6750, E-ISSN 1472-6750, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikkel-id 15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Fusarium oxysporum is a filamentous fungus which has attracted a lot of scientific interest not only due to its ability to produce a variety of lignocellulolytic enzymes, but also because it is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses to ethanol. Although this fungus has been studied a lot as a cell factory, regarding applications for the production of bioethanol and other high added value products, no systematic study has been performed concerning its ethanol tolerance levels. Results In aerobic conditions it was shown that both the biomass production and the specific growth rate were affected by the presence of ethanol. The maximum allowable ethanol concentration, above which cells could not grow, was predicted to be 72 g/L. Under limited aeration conditions the ethanol-producing capability of the cells was completely inhibited at 50 g/L ethanol. The lignocellulolytic enzymatic activities were affected to a lesser extent by the presence of ethanol, while the ethanol inhibitory effect appears to be more severe at elevated temperatures. Moreover, when the produced ethanol was partially removed from the broth, it led to an increase in fermenting ability of the fungus up to 22.5%. The addition of F. oxysporum’s system was shown to increase the fermentation of pretreated wheat straw by 11%, in co-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusions The assessment of ethanol tolerance levels of F. oxysporum on aerobic growth, on lignocellulolytic activities and on fermentative performance confirmed its biotechnological potential for the production of bioethanol. The cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes of this fungus could be exploited within the biorefinery concept as their ethanol resistance is similar to that of the commercial enzymes broadly used in large scale fermentations and therefore, may substantially contribute to a rational design of a bioconversion process involving F. oxysporum. The SSCF experiments on liquefied wheat straw rich in hemicellulose indicated that the contribution of the metabolic system of F. oxysporum in a co-fermentation with S. cerevisiae may play a secondary role.

  • 227.
    Paschos, Thomas
    et al.
    Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Xiros, Charilaos
    National Technical University of Athens, Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by co-cultures of Fusarium oxysporum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae enhances ethanol production from liquefied wheat straw at high solid content2015Inngår i: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 76, s. 793-802Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A co-fermentation process involving Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Fusarium oxysporum was studied, using hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw as substrate. In the first step of the study, we examined liquefaction of the material in a free-fall reactor. Both the enzyme loading and the dry matter content affected severely the liquefaction efficiency. In the second step (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments), we found that the enzymatic system of F. oxysporum contributed significantly to substrate hydrolysis, while its metabolic system played a secondary role in fermentation. SSF in the presence of F. oxysporum cells and enzymes gave 62 g L−1 ethanol. In the third step of the study, a semi-consolidated bioprocess was designed in which F. oxysporum culture (submerged or solid-state) was added at the SSF stage along with S. cerevisiae. The addition of solid F. oxysporum culture increased ethanol production by 19%, leading to a final ethanol concentration of 58 g L−1. The present study proposes a semi-consolidated process combining two microorganisms for the fermentation at high solids concentration of a liquefied material using an in house free fall mixing reactor. The semi-consolidated process proposed not only increased the ethanol yields significantly, but could also lead to lower overall cost of the process by incorporating in-situ enzyme production.

  • 228.
    Passoth, Volkmar
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Johanna
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dekkera bruxellensis and Lactobacillus vini form a stable ethanol-producing consortium in a commercial alcohol production process2007Inngår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 73, nr 13, s. 4354-4356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ethanol production process of a Swedish alcohol production plant was dominated by Dekkera bruxellensis and Lactobacillus vini, with a high number of lactic acid bacteria. The product quality, process productivity, and stability were high; thus, D. bruxellensis and L. vini can be regarded as commercial ethanol production organisms.

  • 229.
    Payne, Mark J.
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Raman spectroscopic studies of titanium aloxides using UV excitation1986Inngår i: Better ceramics through chemistry II: symposium held April 15-19, 1986, Palo Alto, California, U.S.A. / [ed] C. Jeffrey Brinker, Materials Research Society, 1986, s. 627-631Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Raman spectroscopy can be this hindered by the presence of fluorescing impurities. In this study, Raman spectra were recorded for various titanium alkoxides (ethoxide, isopropoxide, isobutoxide) as a function of concentration and laser excitation wavelength. Fluorescence can be avoided by using uv-excitation (363. 8 nm). In addition, titanium alkoxides exhibit a preresonance Raman enhancement as the excitation wavelength approaches the UV. This result is confirmed by a uv-visible absorption spectrum of the isopropoxide.

  • 230.
    Periyannan Rajeswari, Prem Kumar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik och nanobioteknologi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jönsson, Håkan N
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik och nanobioteknologi.
    Andersson Svahn, Helene
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteomik och nanobioteknologi.
    Droplet size influences division of mammalian cell factories in droplet microfluidic cultivation2016Inngår i: Electrophoresis, ISSN 0173-0835, E-ISSN 1522-2683Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of using droplet microfluidics for screening mammalian cell factories has been limited by the difficulty in achieving continuous cell division during cultivation in droplets. Here, we report the influence of droplet size on mammalian cell division and viability during cultivation in droplets. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, the most widely used mammalian host cells for biopharmaceuticals production were encapsulated and cultivated in 33, 180 and 320 pL droplets for 3 days. Periodic monitoring of the droplets during incubation showed that the cell divisions in 33 pL droplets stopped after 24 h, whereas continuous cell division was observed in 180 and 320 pL droplets for 72 h. The viability of the cells cultivated in the 33 pL droplets also dropped to about 50% in 72 h. In contrast, the viability of the cells in the larger droplets was above 90% even after 72 h of cultivation, making them a more suitable droplet size for 72-h cultivation. This study shows a direct correlation of microfluidic droplet size to the division and viability of mammalian cells. This highlights the importance of selecting suitable droplet size for mammalian cell factory screening assays.

  • 231.
    Phongpreecha, Thanaphong
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.
    Hool, Nicholas C.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.
    Stoklosa, Ryan J.
    Sustainable Biofuels and Co-Products Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, USDA, ARS, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, USA.
    Klett, Adam S.
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, USA.
    Foster, Cliff E.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.
    Bhalla, Aditya
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.
    Holmes, Daniel
    Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.
    Thies, Mark C.
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, USA.
    Hodge, David B.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, USA.
    Predicting lignin depolymerization yields from quantifiable properties using fractionated biorefinery lignins2017Inngår i: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 19, nr 21, s. 5131-5143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin depolymerization to aromatic monomers with high yields and selectivity is essential for the economic feasibility of many lignin-valorization strategies within integrated biorefining processes. Importantly, the quality and properties of the lignin source play an essential role in impacting the conversion chemistry, yet this relationship between lignin properties and lignin susceptibility to depolymerization is not well established. In this study, we quantitatively demonstrate how the detrimental effect of a pretreatment process on the properties of lignins, particularly β-O-4 content, limit high yields of aromatic monomers using three lignin depolymerization approaches: thioacidolysis, hydrogenolysis, and oxidation. Through pH-based fractionation of alkali-solubilized lignin from hybrid poplar, this study demonstrates that the properties of lignin, namely β-O-4 linkages, phenolic hydroxyl groups, molecular weight, and S/G ratios exhibit strong correlations with each other even after pretreatment. Furthermore, the differences in these properties lead to discernible trends in aromatic monomer yields using the three depolymerization techniques. Based on the interdependency of alkali lignin properties and its susceptibility to depolymerization, a model for the prediction of monomer yields was developed and validated for depolymerization by quantitative thioacidolysis. These results highlight the importance of the lignin properties for their suitability for an ether-cleaving depolymerization process, since the theoretical monomer yields grows as a second order function of the β-O-4 content. Therefore, this research encourages and provides a reference tool for future studies to identify new methods for lignin-first biomass pretreatment and lignin valorization that emphasize preservation of lignin qualities, apart from focusing on optimization of reaction conditions and catalyst selection.

  • 232.
    Quershi, Nasib
    et al.
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Bioenergy Research Unit, Peoria, IL.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Vertès, Alain
    London Business School.
    Biorefineries: Integrated Biochemical Processes for Liquid Biofuels2014Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 233.
    Qureshi, Nasib
    et al.
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Bioenergy Research Unit, Peoria, IL.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Vertès, Alain
    London Business School.
    Preface2014Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 234.
    Rasimas, J. P.
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Blanchard, G. J.
    Michigan State University.
    A molecular lock-and-key approach to detecting solution phase self-assembly: a fluorescence and absorption study of carminic acid in aqueous glucose solutions1996Inngår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3654, Vol. 100, nr 17, s. 7220-7229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a novel approach to the study of complex ternary systems where a fluorescent chromophore contains a functionality that incorporates into precrystalline aggregates in concentrated solutions. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach by using carminic acid, a fluorescent molecule possessing a pendant glycosyl moiety, in aqueous glucose solutions. We report the steady state absorption and emission response of carminic acid as well as its picosecond dynamical response. These data, taken collectively, show that saturated glucose solutions exhibit anomalous molecular scale organization and that the persistence time of this organization is significantly less than a nanosecond. Our results indicate that kinetic contributions to crystallization are expected to play an important, sometimes dominant, role in this technologically important process.

  • 235.
    Rasimas, J. P.
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Blanchard, G. J.
    Michigan State University.
    Measuring self-assembly in solution: incorporation and dynamics of a "Tailor-made impurity" in precrystalline glucose aggregates1996Inngår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3654, Vol. 100, nr 42, s. 17034-17040Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the onset of crystallization from solution using a fluorescent probe molecule that incorporates selectively into precrystalline glucose aggregates that form in supersaturated aqueous glucose solutions. We achieve incorporation of the fluorophore into the aggregates by virtue of the fluorophore pendant glycosyl moiety and compare the rotational diffusion data for this molecule to that for the nonglycosylated, native probe molecule. This experimental approach, in conjunction with semiempirical calculations to understand the electronic response of the fluorescent probe, provides insight into the formation and size of precrystalline glucose aggregates. Our data indicate that the aggregates effectively isolate the fluorophore from the solution over a range of glucose concentrations spanning the saturation point and that the lifetime of these aggregates is on the order of a nanosecond for aggregates that include the glycosylated probe molecule. The subtle but important differences between these results and those we reported previously for carminic acid in aqueous glucose solutions point to the significant role of labile protons in mediating the formation and dynamics of precrystalline glucose aggregates.

  • 236.
    Reissig, Alexander
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teknisk biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evaluation of on-line cell viability and L-lactate measurements in soft sensor for mammalian cell cultures2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing demand on more effective cell culture reactors has driven optimization works to increase output of products. This has led to development of soft sensors that uses mathematical formulas to increase the available information for the parameters during runs. In the project two parameters was evaluated for use in such a soft sensor, viability by measuring on-line capacitance with Aber probe and L-lactate production using BioSenz apparatus. To determine how well these could be used both were used on batch reactors measuring on a mouse-mouse B cell hybridoma culture which produced IgG1. On-line measurements were performed by probes which measured directly on the cell suspension or withdrew sterile sample from the reactor. Measuring viability gave results with low error, which can be concluded to the variation in reference cell count, but it could not be determined if measuring L-lactate production with BioSenz works in reactors of this size. More work needs to be done on other types of reactors, like fed-batch or perfusion, or lower working volumes. 

  • 237. Richau, KH
    et al.
    Kudahettige-Nilsson, Rasika
    Pujic, P
    Kudahettige, NP
    Sellstedt, A
    Structural and gene expression analyses of uptake hydrogenases and other proteins involved in nitrogenase protection in Frankia2013Inngår i: Journal of Biosciences, ISSN 0250-5991, E-ISSN 0973-7138, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 703-713Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 238.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Broad sugar range for succinic acid fermentation2007Inngår i: Industrial Bioprocessing, ISSN 1056-7194, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 9-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers from Sweden's Lule°a University of Technology investigated the ability of Escherichia coli strain AFP184 to ferment different sugars in a medium suitable for large-scale industrial production of succinic acid. The highest yield was with glucose, 0.83 grams of succinic acid per gram of glucose (g/g) consumed anaerobically. No catabolite repression was detected in mixed sugar fermentation.

  • 239. Rova, Ulrika
    The catalytically essential long-range electron/proton pathway in mouse ribonucleotide reductase1998Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 240. Rova, Ulrika
    et al.
    Adrait, Annie
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Pötsch, Stephan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Gräslund, Astrid
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Thelander, Lars
    Umeå universitet.
    Evidence by mutagenesis that Tyr370 of the mouse ribonucleotide reductase R2 protein is the connecting link in the intersubunit radical transfer pathway1999Inngår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 274, nr 34, s. 23746-23751Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribonucleotide reductase catalyzes all de novo synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides. The mammalian enzyme consists of two non-identical subunits, the R1 and R2 proteins, each inactive alone. The R1 subunit contains the active site, whereas the R2 protein harbors a binuclear iron center and a tyrosyl free radical essential for catalysis. It has been proposed that the radical properties of the R2 subunit are transferred ~35 Å to the active site of the R1 protein, through a coupled electron/proton transfer along a conserved hydrogen-bonded chain, i.e. a radical transfer pathway (RTP). To gain a better insight into the properties and requirements of the proposed RTP, we have used site-directed mutagenesis to replace the conserved tyrosine 370 in the mouse R2 protein with tryptophan or phenylalanine. This residue is located close to the flexible C terminus, known to be essential for binding to the R1 protein. Our results strongly indicate that Tyr370 links the RTP between the R1 and R2 proteins. Interruption of the hydrogen-bonded chain in Y370F inactivates the enzyme complex. Alteration of the same chain in Y370W slows down the RTP, resulting in a 58 times lower specific activity compared with the native R2 protein and a loss of the free radical during catalysis.

  • 241. Rova, Ulrika
    et al.
    Goodtzova, K.
    Umeå universitet.
    Ingemarson, R.
    Umeå universitet.
    Behravan, G.
    Umeå universitet.
    Graslund, A.
    Umeå universitet.
    Thelander, L.
    Umeå universitet.
    Evidence by site-directed mutagenesis supports long-range electron transfer in mouse ribonucleotide reductase1995Inngår i: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 34, nr 13, s. 4267-4275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mammalian ribonucleotide reductase consists of two nonidentical subunits, proteins R1 and R2, each inactive alone. The R1 protein binds the ribonucleotide substrates while the R2 protein contains a binuclear iron center and a tyrosyl free radical, essential for activity. The crystal structures of the corresponding Escherichia coli proteins suggest that the distance from the active site in R1 to the tyrosyl radical buffed in R2 is about 35 Å. Therefore, an electron pathway was suggested between the active site and the tyrosyl radical. Such a pathway could include a conserved tryptophan on the suggested RI interaction surface of R2 and a conserved aspartic acid hydrogen bonded both to the tryptophan and to a histidine iron ligand. To find experimental support for such an electron pathway, we have replaced the conserved tryptophan in mouse R2 with phenylalanine or tyrosine and the aspartic acid with alanine. All the mutated R2 proteins were shown to bind metal with the same affinity as native R2 and to form the binuclear iron center. In addition, the W103Y and D266A proteins formed a normal tyrosyl free radical while only low amounts of radical were observed in the W103F protein. Neither the kinetic rate constants nor the equilibrium dissociation constant of the R1/R2 complex was affected by the mutations as shown by BIAcore biosensor technique. However, all mutant R2 proteins were completely inactive in the enzymatic assay, supporting the hypothesis that the tryptophan and aspartic acid residues are important links in an amino acid residue specific long-range electron transfer.

  • 242.
    Sarris, Dimitris
    et al.
    Agricultural University of Athens.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Agricultural University of Athens.
    Aggelis, George
    University of Patras.
    Koutinas, Apostolis
    Agricultural University of Athens.
    Papanikolaou, Seraphim
    Agricultural University of Athens.
    Aerated vs non-aerated conversions of molasses and olive mill wastewaters blends into bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under non-aseptic conditions2014Inngår i: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 56, s. 83-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MAK-1 to convert blends of molasses and olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) into compounds of higher added-value under aerated and non-aerated conditions was studied in the current investigation. Noticeable decolorization (up to 60%) and moderate removal of phenolic compounds (up to 28%, w/w) was observed. Under aerated conditions in non-sterile shake-flask cultures, cultures in molasses-based media in which supplementation with OMWs had been performed did not significantly decrease ethanol and biomass production in comparison with control experiments (cultures in which no OMWs had been added). Ethanol of 34.3 g L−1 (with simultaneous yield of ethanol produced per sugar consumed of ∼0.40 g g−1) and biomass of 7.3 g L−1 (with yield of ∼0.08 g g−1) was observed. Under similar aerated bioreactor cultures, biomass production (up to 5.7 g L−1 with yield of biomass produced per sugar consumed of ∼0.07 g g−1) decreased while, on the other hand, ethanol biosynthesis was notably enhanced (up to 41.8 g L−1 with yield of ethanol produced of ∼0.49 g g−1 – value very close to the maximum theoretical one). Comparing non-sterile aerated with non-aerated bioreactor experiments, biomass production showed some slight increase and ethanol production slightly increased in the latter case. It is concluded that S. cerevisiae MAK-1 is a microorganism of importance amenable for simultaneous OMWs remediation and production of added-value compounds.

  • 243.
    Schmidt, Peter Paul
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Katterle, Bettina
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Thelander, Lars
    Umeå universitet.
    Gräslund, Astrid
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Kinetic evidence that a radical transfer pathway in protein R2 of mouse ribonucleotide reductase is involved in generation of the tyrosyl free radical1998Inngår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 273, nr 34, s. 21463-21472Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Class I ribonucleotide reductases consist of two subunits, R1 and R2. The active site is located in R1; active R2 contains a diferric center and a tyrosyl free radical (Tyr()), both essential for enzymatic activity. The proposed mechanism for the enzymatic reaction includes the transport of a reducing equivalent, i.e. electron or hydrogen radical, across a 35-Å distance between Tyr() in R2 and the active site in R1, which are connected by a hydrogen-bonded chain of conserved, catalytically essential amino acid residues. Asp266 and Trp103 in mouse R2 are part of this radical transfer pathway. The diferric/Tyr() site in R2 is reconstituted spontaneously by mixing iron-free apoR2 with Fe(II) and O2. The reconstitution reaction requires the delivery of an external reducing equivalent to form the diferric/Tyr() site. Reconstitution kinetics were investigated in mouse apo-wild type R2 and the three mutants D266A, W103Y, and W103F by rapid freeze-quench electron paramagnetic resonance with ≤4 Fe(II)/R2 at various reaction temperatures. The kinetics of Tyr() formation in D266A and W103Y is on average 20 times slower than in wild type R2. More strikingly, Tyr() formation is completely suppressed in W103F. No change in the reconstitution kinetics was found starting from Fe(II)-preloaded proteins, which shows that the mutations do not affect the rate of iron binding. Our results are consistent with a reaction mechanism using Asp266 and Trp103 for delivery of the external reducing equivalent. Further, the results with W103F suggest that an intact hydrogen-bonded chain is crucial for the reaction, indicating that the external reducing equivalent is a H(). Finally, the formation of Tyr() is not the slowest step of the reaction as it is in Escherichia coli R2, consistent with a stronger interaction between Tyr() and the iron center in mouse R2. A new electron paramagnetic resonance visible intermediate named mouse X, strikingly similar to species X found in E. coli R2, was detected only in small amounts under certain conditions. We propose that it may be an intermediate in a side reaction leading to a diferric center without forming the neighboring Tyr().

  • 244.
    Schwartz, Albert M.
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Comparison of supersaturation profiles employed on lysozyme crystallization from a hanging drop2001Inngår i: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 81-85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber optic Raman spectroscopy combined with a partial least-squares regression model was used as a monitor of lysozyme concentration during crystallization in a hanging-drop experiment in real time. Raman spectral features of the buffer and protein were employed to build the regression model. The use of fiber optic technology coupled with Raman spectroscopy, which is ideal for use with aqueous solutions, results in a powerful, noninvasive probe of the changing environment within the solution. Monitoring the concentration changes of the lysozyme within the hanging drop permits a measurement of the level of supersaturation of the system and provides for the potential of dynamic control of the crystallization process. Previously, hanging-drop experiments have been monitored in real time. These experiments have given insight into the changing environment of the hanging drop as the lysozyme within the hanging drop concentrates and nucleates and as crystal growth continues. Upon alteration of the ionic strength of the reservoir, the number, size, and quality of the resultant crystals has been affected. This investigation compares the resultant supersaturation of the lysozyme crystallization within the hanging drop by employing various reservoir conditions. These conditions include a constant ionic strength reservoir, a step change in reservoir ionic strength, and a differential change in reservoir ionic strength.

  • 245.
    Schwartz, Albert M.
    et al.
    University of Michigan.
    Berglund, Kris
    In situ monitoring and control of lysozyme concentration during crystallization in a hanging drop2000Inngår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 210, nr 4, s. 753-760Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber optic Raman spectroscopy combined with a partial least-squares regression model was demonstrated as a monitor of lysozyme concentration during crystallization in a hanging drop experiment in real time. Raman spectral features of the buffer and protein were employed to build the regression model. The use of fiber optic technology coupled with Raman spectroscopy, which is ideal for use with aqueous solutions, results in a powerful noninvasive probe of the changing environment within the solution. Lysozyme concentrations were monitored in experiments at a constant reservoir ionic strength. Data from these uncontrolled experiments were used to determine rates of supersaturation, induction times, and the number and size of the resultant lysozyme crystals. Control experiments were performed by introducing step changes in the reservoir ionic strength. The step changes were initiated by comparing in situ rates of supersaturation with the rates of supersaturation calculated from the uncontrolled data. Monitoring the concentration changes of the lysozyme within the hanging drop permits a measurement of the level of supersaturation of the system and enhances the possibility of dynamic control of the crystallization process.

  • 246.
    Schwartz, A.M.
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Use of Raman spectroscopy for in situ monitoring of lysozyme concentration during crystallization in a hanging drop1999Inngår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 203, nr 4, s. 599-603Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber optic Raman spectroscopy combined with a partial least-squares regression model was investigated as a means to monitor lysozyme concentration during crystallization in a hanging drop experiment in real time. Raman spectral features of the buffer and protein were employed to build the regression model. This model was used to calculate the compositional changes within the hanging drop. The use of fibre optic technology coupled with Raman spectroscopy, which is ideal for use with aqueous media, results in a powerful noninvasive probe of the changing environment within the solution. These preliminary findings indicate that solubility as well as supersaturation measurements can be made.

  • 247.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Jääskelainen, A
    Savonia Univ Appl Sci, Environm Engn, Kuopio, Finland.
    Suhonen, A.
    Savonia Univ Appl Sci, Environm Engn, Kuopio, Finland.
    Laatikainen, R.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Pharm, Kuopio, Finland.
    Hakalehto, E.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Pharm, Kuopio, Finland.
    Using slaughterhouse waste in a biochemical-based biorefinery – results from pilot scale tests2017Inngår i: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, s. 1275-1284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel biorefinery concept was piloted using protein-rich slaughterhouse waste, chicken manureand straw as feedstocks. The basic idea was to provide a proof of concept for the production ofplatform chemicals and biofuels from organic waste materials at non-septic conditions. Thedesired biochemical routes were 2,3-butanediol and acetone–butanol fermentation. The resultsshowed that hydrolysis resulted only in low amounts of easily degradable carbohydrates.However, amino acids released from the protein-rich slaughterhouse waste were utilized andfermented by the bacteria in the process. Product formation was directed towards acidogeniccompounds rather than solventogenic products due to increasing pH-value affected by ammoniarelease during amino acid fermentation. Hence, the process was not effective for 2,3-butanediolproduction, whereas butyrate, propionate,γ-aminobutyrate and valerate were predominantlyproduced. This offered fast means for converting tedious protein-rich waste mixtures intoutilizable chemical goods. Furthermore, the residual liquid from the bioreactor showedsignificantly higher biogas production potential than the corresponding substrates. Thecombination of the biorefinery approach to produce chemicals and biofuels with anaerobicdigestion of the residues to recover energy in form of methane and nutrients that can beutilized for animal feed production could be a feasible concept for organic waste utilization.

  • 248.
    Scott, Felipe
    et al.
    School of Biochemical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso.
    Li, Muyang
    DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Williams, Daniel L.
    DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Conejeros, Raúl
    School of Biochemical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Aroca, German
    School of Biochemical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso.
    Corn stover semi-mechanistic enzymatic hydrolysis model with tight parameter confidence intervals for model-based process design and optimization2015Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 177, s. 255-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty associated to the estimated values of the parameters in a model is a key piece of information for decision makers and model users. However, this information is typically not reported or the confidence intervals are too large to be useful. A semi-mechanistic model for the enzymatic saccharification of dilute acid pretreated corn stover is proposed in this work, the model is a modification of an existing one providing a statistically significant improved fit towards a set of experimental data that includes varying initial solid loadings (10 to 25 % w/w) and the use of the pretreatment liquor and washed solids with or without supplementation of key inhibitors. A subset of 8 out of 17 parameters was identified, showing sufficiently tight confidence intervals to be used in uncertainty propagation and model analysis, without requiring interval truncation via expert judgment.

  • 249.
    Severin, Kathryn G.
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Ledford, Jeffrey S.
    Michigan State University.
    Torgerson, Beatrice A.
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Characterization of titanium and zirconium valerate sol-gel films1994Inngår i: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 6, nr 7, s. 890-898Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    FTIR and XPS have been used to characterize titanium and zirconium valerate thin films prepared using sol-gel techniques. Films were prepared by hydrolysis of titanium(IV) isopropoxide or zirconium(IV) n-propoxide in excess valeric acid at room temperature. Film solution chemistry, from precursors to cast films, was followed with FTIR. The structure and chemical composition of films spin cast from fresh and day-old solutions were determined. Results of these studies suggest that all films consist of a metal-oxygen polymer backbone coordinated with bidentate valerate ligands. No evidence for the presence of alkoxide ligands has been found. A small amount of water is present in all cast films. While solution aging experiments indicate that the zirconium film structure does not change with solution reaction time, carboxylate ligand concentrations are higher in titanium films made from aged solutions. Titanium films made from aged solutions contain slightly less than 1.5 valerate ligands/titanium atom. Zirconium films are more highly carboxylated with almost two valerate groups per metal center.

  • 250.
    Shanks, B. H.
    et al.
    Iowa State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Contact nucleation from aqueous sucrose solutions1985Inngår i: AIChE Journal, ISSN 0001-1541, E-ISSN 1547-5905, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 152-154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Both initial size and growth rate distributions are observed for contact nuclei of sucrose. Results presented indicate sucrose contact nuclei appear to grow at a size independent rate and that the proper method of analysis of the growth rate dispersion present is the 'constant crystal growth' (CCG) model. Curvature in semilogarithmic population density-size plots from continuous sucrose crystallization studies is probably due to growth rate dispersion and not size dependent growth.

23456 201 - 250 of 297
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