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  • 201.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Artfakta: Oncophorus wahlenbergii Liten knölmossa2018Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 202.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Intraspecific genetic variation in selected mosses of Scandinavian interglacial refugia suggests contrasting distribution history patterns2014Inngår i: Botanical journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4074, E-ISSN 1095-8339, Vol. 176, s. 295-310Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 203.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Resultat av laboratorieanalys av tre molekylära markörer för två kryptiska Hamatocaulis vernicosus-arter, för att bedöma dessas utbredning och förekomst i naturskyddade områden i södra Sverige2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on three molecular markers, the nuclearITS and the plastid rpl16 and trnL-trnF,the Swedish geographical distributions of the two cryptic species of the moss Hamatocaulis vernicosus (Mitt.) Hedenäsare evaluated. New sequences for all three markers were generated for 47 SSwedish samples; for two additional samples, the sequence for one marker couldbe generated. The aim was to cover as many occurrences of the species inprotected areas in S Sweden as possible. The geographical distributions of thenew samples and an additional 42 Swedish ones from an earlier study show thatthe southern cryptic species reaches northwards to N Uppland and the LakeSiljan area in Dalarna, whereas the northern cryptic species occurs in most ofSweden. In both the cryptic species of H.vernicsosus, haplotypes (approx. = ‘genotypes’) that are frequent in Swedenare also well represented in protected areas; of the four haplotypes that werefound only once, one is from a protected area.

  • 204.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Bisang, Irene
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Brukar du samla mossor när du reser utomlands?2015Inngår i: Myrinia, ISSN 1102-4194, Vol. 25, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The 'Nagoya Protocol' and its implications on collecting bryophytes abroad are discussed

  • 205.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Heinrichs, Jochen
    Schmidt, Alexander R.
    Bryophytes of the Burmese amber forest: Amending and expanding the circumscription of the Cretaceous moss genus Vetiplanaxis2014Inngår i: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, ISSN 0034-6667, E-ISSN 1879-0615, Vol. 209, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 206. Heikkila, Katriina
    et al.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Bonenfant, Sebastien
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Clays, Els
    Casini, Annalisa
    Dragano, Nico
    Erbel, Raimund
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    Houtman, Irene L.
    Joensuu, Matti
    Joeckel, Karl-Heinz
    Kittel, France
    Knutsson, Anders
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Koskinen, Aki
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson
    Marmot, Michael G.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Salo, Paula
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Suominen, Sakari
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Vaananen, Ari
    Westerholm, Peter
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Zins, Marie
    Theorell, Tores
    Hamer, Mark
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimaeki, Mika
    Job Strain and Tobacco Smoking: An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis of 166 130 Adults in 15 European Studies2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. e35463-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults. Methodology and Principal Findings: We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166 130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166 130 participants, 17% reported job strain, 42% were never smokers, 33% ex-smokers and 25% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18). Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up), there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking. Conclusions: Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.

  • 207. Heinrichs, Jochen
    et al.
    Hedenäs, Lars
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för botanik.
    Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons
    Feldberg, Kathrin
    Schmidt, Alexander R.
    An in situ preserved moss community in Eocene Baltic amber2014Inngår i: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, ISSN 0034-6667, E-ISSN 1879-0615, Vol. 210, s. 113-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 208.
    Helleberg, Hans
    Stockholms universitet.
    Biomarkers aiming at cancer risk estimation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons2001Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), a family of compounds that are formed in incomplete combustion of organic matter, occur as general pollutants in air and food. Exposure to PAH is, according to preliminary estimates, associated with non-acceptable cancer risks showing the need for improved data to be used in risk estimation. Risk assessment of PAH is a complex matter, i.a. because certain PAH could increase cancer risk by more than one mechanism, with different dose-response.

    This study deals mainly with development and evaluation of biomarkers for dose. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and fluoranthene in the early experiments, were chosen as indicators of PAH exposure. Among BaP metabolites, ± (anti)r-7,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) is regarded to be the predominant cancer initiator. In mice with deficient DNA repair, given BaP by gavage, the dGuo-N2 adduct levels in DNA, reflecting doses of BPDE, were approximately the same in different tissues. The results indicate that BPDE markers in blood could be used to measure the average target dose. The large amounts of blood proteins (serum-albumin (SA) and hemoglobin (Hb)) and the well defined in vivo turnover kinetics, without repair, make blood proteins more suitable dose monitors than DNA.

    A new way of isolating and measuring histidine (His) adducts of BPDE in SA and Hb has been developed. His adducts were released from the proteins by treatment with hydrazine. After derivatization and enrichment with C18 and cation solid phase extraction the His adduct was obtained in a form suitable for analysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The hydrazinolysis of BPDE-treated human Hb and SA released both new and earlier known adducts from the proteins. The level observed of His adducts in the SA and Hb corresponded to 70 and 10 %, respectively, of the total adduct level in the in vitro-treated proteins.

    Following acute treatment (i.p.) of mice with radiolabelled BaP the adducts in SA, Hb and DNA were determined. In the SA samples the His adducts from BPDE were quantified, as well as two other so far unidentified products from BaP metabolites. The levels of the His adduct were roughly 10 times higher in SA than in Hb. The dGuo-N2 adduct levels in liver and lung DNA were 14 - 40 times higher than the His adduct in SA per unit of weight.

    The mutagenic effectiveness of BPDE and g-radiation were determined in V79 cells. An incremental formation of one dGuo-N2 adduct per 108 nucleotides was found to have a mutagenic potency corresponding to that of about 1 cGy.

    The usefulness of biomarkers for genotoxic and immunotoxic effects in mice exposed to low levels of diesel exhaust (10 mg PAH per kg body weight) were examined. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was used to measure induction status of CYP1 isoenzymes and it was concluded that exposure to ambient levels of diesel exhaust would probably not lead to induction.

    On the basis of the results obtained some gaps in quantitative knowledge necessary in risk estimation of BaP has been filled and remaining gaps could be defined. It is indicated that the present methods together with other sensitive techniques are applicable in risk estimation of PAH at current exposure levels, that is in the low-dose range, below exposure levels leading to enzyme induction including promotion.

  • 209.
    Hellstrand, Malin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    Grön Flagg i förskolor: Hur arbetar förskolor med Grön Flagg?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbar utveckling delas upp i tre områden, ekologisk hållbarhet, social hållbarhet och ekonomisk hållbarhet. Dessa tre kompletterar och stödjer varandra. Grön Flagg är ett verktyg som är till stor hjälp för pedagoger på olika nivåer inom förskolan och skolan för att öka barnens förståelse för sambandet mellan naturen och ett hållbart samhälle i framtiden. Målet med min undersökning var att ta reda på hur förskolorna arbetar med Grön Flagg.

    Rapporten handlar om hur erfarna pedagoger hjälper barn i förskoleåldern förstå naturens möjligheter genom lek och övningar, samt förstå sambandet mellan naturen och ett hållbart samhälle.

  • 210.
    Helmersson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Molecular identification of mosquito species: Evaluation of a rapid DNA extraction method together with DNA barcoding as a tool for identification of species2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The current method to determine a mosquito specimen to a certain species is by morphological keys basically following the taxonomy developed by Carl Linnaeus in the 1700. Since Watson and Crick presented their model of the double-helix DNA in 1953, a new era of molecular based taxonomic studies have revolutionized the field. The revolution is not in terms of how the classification of species is done but how the biological diversity is seen. However, morphological, ecological and behavioral characteristics are still important and are used together with the information a gene or whole genome can give. DNA barcoding is one of the promising methods for molecular identification. A small segment of a gene, approximately 400-1000 base pairs (bp), are examined by a Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Like the barcodes in the grocery store these sequences work like unique ID: s for every species. This thesis shows how a fast DNA extraction method could be combined with DNA barcoding to get a 658-bp segment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) from different species of the mosquito family Culicidae. A total of 15 thoraxes or wings, from individual specimen of mosquitoes, were examined and 11 different barcode sequences could be retrieved. Six correspond to already published COI sequences and could therefore be determined to the species level, including a sequence from a new species for Sweden, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) nigrinus. All mosquitoes were collected during the national inventory of species in summer of 2012 in Sweden, ”Myggjakten”, and have been morphological examined by experts at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) prior to molecular determination. This thesis also highlights the importance of building a reference library of barcode sequences, so DNA barcoding could become an effective diagnostic tool. Inventory projects like “Myggjakten” may, if repeated, provide excellent material for such a library collection of barcode data.

  • 211.
    Hendriks, Hester S.
    et al.
    Utrecht University.
    Koolen, Lucas A. E.
    Utrecht University.
    Dingemans, Milou M. L.
    Utrecht University.
    Viberg, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Miljötoxikologi.
    Lee, Iwa
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Miljötoxikologi.
    Leonards, Pim E.G.
    VU University, Amsterdam.
    Ramakers, Geert M.J.
    University Medical Center Utrecht.
    Westerink, Remco H.S.
    Utrecht University.
    Effects on neonatal exposure to the flame retardant tetrabrombisphenol-A, aluminum diethylphosphinate or zinc stannate on long-term, potentiation and synaptic protein levels in mice2014Inngår i: Archives of Toxicology, ISSN 0340-5761, E-ISSN 1432-0738, Vol. 89, nr 12, s. 2345-2354Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame retardants such as tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) may exert (developmental) neurotoxic effects. However, data on (neuro)toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs) are scarce. Recent in vitro studies indicated a high neurotoxic potential for some HFFRs, e.g., zinc stannate (ZS), whereas the neurotoxic potential of other HFFRs, such as aluminum diethylphosphinate (Alpi), appears low. However, the in vivo (neuro)toxicity of these compounds is largely unknown. We therefore investigated effects of neonatal exposure to TBBPA, Alpi or ZS on synaptic plasticity in mouse hippocampus. Male C57bl/6 mice received a single oral dose of 211 µmol/kg bw TBBPA, Alpi or ZS on postnatal day (PND) 10. On PND 17–19, effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity were investigated using ex vivo extracellular field recordings. Additionally, we measured levels of postsynaptic proteins involved in long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as flame retardant concentrations in brain, muscle and liver tissues. All three flame retardants induced minor, but insignificant, effects on LTP. Additionally, TBBPA induced a minor decrease in post-tetanic potentiation. Despite these minor effects, expression of selected synaptic proteins involved in LTP was not affected. The flame retardants could not be measured in significant amounts in the brains, suggesting low bioavailability and/or rapid elimination/metabolism. We therefore conclude that a single neonatal exposure on PND 10 to TBBPA, Alpi or ZS does affect neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity only to a small extent in mice. Additional data, in particular on persistence, bioaccumulation and (in vivo) toxicity, following prolonged (developmental) exposure are required for further (human) risk assessment.

  • 212.
    Herberthson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Matematik och tillämpad matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, KarinLinköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.Kozlov, VladimirLinköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Matematik och tillämpad matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.Ljungkvist, EmmaLinköpings universitet, Nationellt superdatorcentrum (NSC).Singull, MartinLinköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Matematisk statistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Proceedings from Workshop: Mathematics in Biology and Medicine, 11-12 May 2017, Linköping University2017Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 213.
    Hjerpe, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik och statistik.
    The destruction of life in a self replicating system2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the question of why life can not be revived when death occurs due to lack of resources. For example, why can't something as simple as E.coli be revived after its death? The hypothesis is that death is not defined by the end of metabolism itself, but rather a continued metabolism which in turn destructs the entity itself. Consequently, a virus should not be capable of ”dying” due to its lack of metabolism.

    To study self replication, a recent mathematical model utilising Gillespie's algorithm and differential equations has been explored. Using this model, real systems such as the Formose reaction can be modeled. Furthermore, an analytical analysis has been carried out in order to study what impact a side reaction will have on a self replicating system's total growth rate. The result of the analysis states that the growth rate of a self replicating system peaks when all the reactions have the same reaction rate, and declines as the reaction rate of a side reaction increases.

    In conclusion, a self replicating system that either contains a side reaction or is coupled with another self replicating system can suffer an irreversible death. The reason for this is the metabolism that occurs when the resources have been depleted. At this point, other reactions not belonging to the main metabolism can destroy the self replication. This argument strengthens the hypothesis that a virus does not die in the same way as a living cell, as it does not have a metabolism of its own. 

  • 214.
    Holme, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Signatures of Currency Vertices2009Inngår i: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, ISSN 0031-9015, E-ISSN 1347-4073, Vol. 78, nr 3, s. 034801-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many real-world networks have broad degree distributions. For some systems, this means that the functional of the vertices is also broadly distributed, in other cases the vertices are equally significant, but in different ways. One example of the latter case is metabolic networks, where the high-degree vertices the currency metabolites-supply the molecular groups to the low-degree metabolites, and the latter are responsible for the higher-order biological function, Of Vital importance to the organism. In this paper, we propose a generalization of currency metabolites to currency vertices. We investigate the network structural characteristics of such systems, both in model networks and in sonic empirical systems. fit addition to metabolic networks, we find that a network of music collaborations and a network of e-mail exchange could be described by a division of the vertices into currency vertices and others.

  • 215.
    Holmström, Therese E.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Mattsson, Charlotte L.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Wang, Yanling
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Iakovleva, Irina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Petrovic, Natasa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Non-transactivational, dual pathways for LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation in primary cultures of brown pre-adipocytes2010Inngår i: Experimental Cell Research, ISSN 0014-4827, E-ISSN 1090-2422, Vol. 316, nr 16, s. 2664-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In many cell types, G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-induced Erk1/2 MAP kinase activation is mediated via receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) transactivation, in particular via the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), acting via GPCRs, is a mitogen and MAP kinase activator in many systems, and LPA can regulate adipocyte proliferation. The mechanism by which LPA activates the Erk1/2 MAP kinase is generally accepted to be via EGF receptor transactivation. In primary cultures of brown pre-adipocytes, EGF can induce Erk1/2 activation, which is obligatory and determinant for EGF-induced proliferation of these cells. Therefore, we have here examined whether LPA, via EGF transactivation, can activate Erk1/2 in brown pre-adipocytes. We found that LPA could induce Erk1/2 activation. However, the LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation was independent of transactivation of EGF receptors (or PDGF receptors) in these cells (whereas in transformed HIB-1B brown adipocytes, the LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation indeed proceeded via EGF receptor transactivation). In the brown pre-adipocytes, LPA instead induced Erk1/2 activation via two distinct non-transactivational pathways, one G(i)-protein dependent, involving PKC and Src activation, the other, a PTX-insensitive pathway, involving PI3K (but not Akt) activation. Earlier studies showing LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation being fully dependent on RTK transactivation have all been performed in cell lines and transfected cells. The present study implies that in non-transformed systems, RTK transactivation may not be involved in the mediation of GPCR-induced Erk1/2 MAP kinase activation

  • 216.
    Hultengren, Svante
    et al.
    Naturcentrum.
    Bohman, Petter
    Naturcentrum.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Biologi.
    Weibull, Henrik
    Naturcentrum.
    Inventeringar av kalkhällmarker i östra Dalsland2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturcentrum AB har på uppdrag av Länsstyrelsen i Västra Götaland genomfört inventeringar av naturvårdsintressanta arter på kalkhällmarker i östra Dalsland. Inventeringen har fokuserat på särskilt intressanta arter t ex rödlistade arter, sällsynta arter m m, inom grupperna fjärilar, bin, lavar, mossor och marksvampar. Dessutom har presenteras spridda observationer inom andra grupper, till exempel tvåvingar och trollsländor.

    De dalsländska kalkrika lerskifferhällmarkerna utgörs av någon mil breda, omvandlade berggrundsstråk i de mellersta och östra delarna av landskapet. Dessa kalkmarker skiljer sig från de geologiskt yngre och sedimentära kalkområdena som är typiska för till exempel Öland och Gotland. Förutsättningarna för floran och faunan i Dalslands kalkområden är unika genom det milda och fuktiga klimatet och att markke- min avviker något från de flesta andra kalkrika trakterna i Sverige. Dessa specifika förhållanden gynnar en lång rad sällsynta eller rödlistade arter.

    Fyra av de besökta områdena ligger på Ryrhalvön norr om Köpmannebro och den femte vid Ånimskogs kyrka. Samtliga delområden utgörs av västvända branter i direkt anslutning till sjöarna Ånimmen och Östebosjön. Miljöerna är generellt öppna och det västvända läget skapar ett varmt och solexponerat mikroklimat. I anslutning till de kala hällarna finns partier med tunna, kalkhaltiga jordlager och grusmarker. Graden av beskogning varierar både inom och mellan de olika delområdena.

    Inventeringarna genomfördes under några dagar under sommaren 2006 samt med en dags kompletterande lavinventering under februari 2008. Totalt på träffades 24 rödlistade arter fördelade enligt följande; sju fjärilsarter, två biarter, tre lavar, sex olika mossor och sex arter av svampar. Flera av dessa är ytterst sällsynta och har sin huvudsakliga utbredning i landet på dessa kalkrika lerskifferhällar. Vidare noterades ett 30-tal nya arter för landskapet Dalsland. Det största antalet nya fynd gjordes inom gruppen insekter vilket visar att kännedomen om landskapets insektsfauna är mycket bristfällig.

    Klot-tegellaven Psora globifera är klassad som starkt hotad (EN) och har huvuddelen av sina kända före- komster i kalkrika områden i Dalsland. Arten växer på lättvittrade, solexponerade, kalklerskifferhällar. I delområde 3 förekommer arten rikligt och i delområde 4 något mera sparsamt. Klotsporig skifferlav Sarcogyne distinguenda (VU) är en annan mycket sällsynt lav med få kända lokaler i landet av vilken den ena utgörs av delområde 5 (Carlsson 1998). Arten är knuten till klippor av kalklerskiffer. Det stora antalet arter gelélavar Collema spp. (sju stycken) är anmärkningsvärt även om ingen av arterna är rödlistade. Av mos-sorna bör särskilt nämnas hår-rosettmossa Riccia ciliata (VU), dvärgrosettmossa Riccia warnstorfii (VU) och trubbklockmossa Encalypta mutica (NT) vilka alla är mer eller mindre knutna till kalkhällar eller kalkrika jordar. Rosettmossorna växer rikligt i delområde 1 medan trubbklockmossan, som omfattas av habitatdi-rektivet inom Natura 2000, noterades i delområde 5. Brun fingersvamp Clavaria pullei (EN) noterades på gräsmarkerna i delområde 5. Arten verkar vara knuten till öppna och hävdade kalkrika marker. Bland in-sekterna utgör nyponsandbiet Andrena nitida (VU), fibblesandbiet A. fulvago (NT) och jungfrulinpraktmal Hypercallia citrinalis (NT) några av de mest anmärkningsvärda arterna. Nyponsandbiet som noterades i del-område 1 är mycket sällsynt och observerades senast 1949 i Dalsland.

    Inventeringarna som utförts är av stickprovskaraktär och det bedöms som sannolikt att fler värdefulla arter kan påträffas vid fördjupade inventeringar. Detta gäller både de behandlade delområdena och kalk-lerskiffermarker i allmänhet.

  • 217.
    Hägg, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologiska Beräkningar. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alserius, Thomas
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Anaesthesiology and Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Noori, Peri
    Computational Medicine Group (www.CompMed.se), Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skogsberg, Josefin
    Computational Medicine Group (www.CompMed.se), Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ruusalepp, Arno
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu, Estonia.
    Ivert, Torbjörn
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Anaesthesiology and Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tegnér, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologiska Beräkningar. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Björkegren, Johan
    Computational Medicine Group (www.CompMed.se), Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dual-Specificity Phosphatase-1—An Anti-Inflammatory Marker in Blood Independently Predicting Prolonged Postoperative Stay after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: DUSP1 – A Preoperative Blood Marker of Postoperative StayManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Perform multi-organ expression profiling to identify gene markers predicting postoperative complications and hospitalization after coronary artery by-pass grafting (CABG) surgery.

    Background: Identifying patients who are at increased risk of morbidity and prolonged post-operative stay is of interest from both health-economic and individual patient perspectives. Patients with diabetes often present with inflammatory conditions and have prolonged hospitalization after CABG. The recent development of technologies to generate high-dimensional data provides an opportunity to identify preoperative markers that can be used to help optimize preoperative planning to minimize postoperative complications.

    Methods: We analyzed 198 whole-genome expression profiles of liver, skeletal muscle, and visceral fat isolated from 66 patients undergoing CABG in the Stockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression (STAGE) study. The findings were validated in pre-operative blood samples isolated from 181 patients undergoing CABG at Tartu University Hospital.

    Results: As shown in other studies, diabetic CABG patients in the STAGE cohort also had prolonged hospitalization time (P<0.02). Out of ~50 000 mRNAs measures in the liver, skeletal muscle and visceral fat in 66 STAGE patients, the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory gene dual specificity phosphatase-1 (DUSP1) correlated independently with post-operative rehabilitation and separated the patients into those with normal (8 days) and prolonged hospitalization (>8 days). In the validation cohort, preoperative blood levels of DUSP1 separated patients with short and long hospitalization stay (P=9x10-10).

    Conclusions: From genome scans in three separate organs, we identified the anti-inflammatory gene DUSP1 as a pre-operative marker indicating risk for prolonged postoperative stay after CABG.

  • 218.
    Hägg, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologiska Beräkningar. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Salehpour, Mehran
    Ion Physics, Angström Laboratory, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Noori, Peri
    From the Computational Medicine Group, Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundström, Jesper
    From the Computational Medicine Group, Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skogsberg, Josefin
    From the Computational Medicine Group, Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Konrad, Peter
    Department of Surgery, Stockholm Söder Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosfors, Stefan
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Stockholm Söder Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tegnér, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologiska Beräkningar.
    Björkegren, Johan
    From the Computational Medicine Group, Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carbon-14 Dating to Determine Carotid Plaque Age: Carbon-14 Dating of Carotid PlaquesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale: The exact nature of atherosclerotic plaque development and the molecular mechanisms that lead to clinical manifestations of carotid stenosis are unclear. After nuclear bomb tests in the 1950s, atmospheric 14C concentrations rapidly increased. Since then, the concentrations have been declining, and the curve of declination can be used to date biological samples synthesized during the last five to six decades.

    Objective: To investigate plaque age as a novel characteristic of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with carotid stenosis.

    Methods and Results: Carotid plaques from 29 well-characterized endarterectomy patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis were analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry, and global gene expression of 25 plaque samples was profiled with HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. The average plaque age was 9.3 years, and inter- and intrasample standard variations were low (1–3.5 years); thus, most of the plaques were generated 5–15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with patient age or plaque size, determined by intima-media thickness, but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (P=0.0014). A cluster of functionally related genes enriched with genes involved in immune responses was activated in plaques with low plaque age, as were oxidative phosphorylation genes.

    Conclusion: Patients with mild insulin resistance have increased immune and inflammatory gene activity in their carotid plaques causing them to become instable, rapidly progressing into clinical manifestations at a relatively young age. These results show that plaque age, determined by 14C dating, is a novel and important characteristic of atherosclerotic plaques that will improve our understanding of the clinical significance and molecular underpinnings of atherosclerosis.

  • 219.
    Hägglund, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Dahl, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Carlsson, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Lhx2 is required for patterning and expansion of a distinct progenitor cell population committed to eye development2011Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 8, s. e23387-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Progenitor cells committed to eye development become specified in the prospective forebrain and develop subsequently into the optic vesicle and the optic cup. The optic vesicle induces formation of the lens placode in surface ectoderm from which the lens develops. Numerous transcription factors are involved in this process, including the eye-field transcription factors. However, many of these transcription factors also regulate the patterning of the anterior neural plate and their specific role in eye development is difficult to discern since eye-committed progenitor cells are poorly defined. By using a specific part of the Lhx2 promoter to regulate Cre recombinase expression in transgenic mice we have been able to define a distinct progenitor cell population in the forebrain solely committed to eye development. Conditional inactivation of Lhx2 in these progenitor cells causes an arrest in eye development at the stage when the optic vesicle induces lens placode formation in the surface ectoderm. The eye-committed progenitor cell population is present in the Lhx2(-/-) embryonic forebrain suggesting that commitment to eye development is Lhx2-independent. However, re-expression of Lhx2 in Lhx2(-/-) progenitor cells only promotes development of retinal pigment epithelium cells, indicating that Lhx2 promotes the acquisition of the oligopotent fate of these progenitor cells. This approach also allowed us to identify genes that distinguish Lhx2 function in eye development from that in the forebrain. Thus, we have defined a distinct progenitor cell population in the forebrain committed to eye development and identified genes linked to Lhx2’s function in the expansion and patterning of these progenitor cells.

  • 220. Hälldahl, Filip
    Gymnasielärares upplevelser av utomhusdidaktik i biologi2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 221.
    Härkönen, Tero
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Karlsson, Olle
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Bäcklin, Britt-Marie
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Moraeus, Charlotta
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för miljöforskning och övervakning.
    Sälpopulationer och sälhälsa2014Inngår i: Havet, ISSN 1654-6741, s. 93-94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 222.
    Högberg, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Department of Forest Ecology, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Plamboeck, Agneta H.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency Division of NBC-Defence, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Anders
    Department of Forest Ecology, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bhupinderpal-Singh, Singh
    Department of Forest Ecology, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Högberg, Mona
    Department of Forest Ecology, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Factors determining the 13C abundance of soil-respired CO2 in Boreal forests2005Inngår i: Stable isotopes and biosphere-atmosphere interactions: processes and biological controls / [ed] Lawrence B. Flanagan, James R. Ehleringer, Diane E. Pataki, Elsevier, 2005, s. 47-68Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of the isotopic composition of the CO2 respired from soils may reveal information about the important component of the ecosystem C balance. This is crucial, since a large terrestrial sink for atmospheric CO2 has been located in the northern hemisphere, and the vast boreal forests may be largely responsible. At the same time, boreal and arctic ecosystems have large amounts of C stored in the soil, and could potentially become a source of CO2 in a warmer climate promoting more rapid decomposition of soil organic matter. Furthermore, the northern hemisphere has complex dynamics in terms of annual fluctuations in both the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere and its δl3C. It is of utmost importance to understand the causes of this variability, since it interferes with the partitioning between the ocean and the terrestrial contributions in global models. This chapter aims to provide an update on the reviews by Flanagan and Ehleringer and Ehleringer et al. on the causation of the δ13C of the soil CO2 efflux and, in doing this, focuses on the boreal forests.

  • 223.
    Ingberg, Edvin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk kemi.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk kemi.
    Theodorsson, Annette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Neurokirurgiska kliniken US. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk kemi.
    Ström, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk kemi. veÖrebro University Hospital, Sweden; Unirsity of Örebro, Sweden.
    Effects of high and low 17 beta-estradiol doses on focal cerebral ischemia in rats2016Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, nr 20228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of the numerous animal studies of the effects of estrogens on cerebral ischemia have reported neuroprotective results, but a few have shown increased damage. Differences in hormone administration methods, resulting in highly different 17 beta-estradiol levels, may explain the discrepancies in previously reported effects. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that it is the delivered dose per se, and not the route and method of administration, that determines the effect, and that high doses are damaging while lower doses are protective. One hundred and twenty ovariectomized female Wistar rats (n = 40 per group) were randomized into three groups, subcutaneously administered different doses of 17 beta-estradiol and subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. The modified sticky tape test was performed after 24 h and the rats were subsequently sacrificed for infarct size measurements. In contrast to our hypothesis, a significant negative correlation between 17 beta-estradiol dose and infarct size was found (p = 0.018). Thus, no support was found for the hypothesis that 17 beta-estradiol can be both neuroprotective and neurotoxic merely depending on dose. In fact, on the contrary, the findings indicate that the higher the dose of 17 beta-estradiol, the smaller the infarct.

  • 224.
    Ingvarsson, Pär K
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Street, Nathaniel R
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Association genetics of complex traits in plants2011Inngår i: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 189, nr 4, s. 909-922Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Association mapping is rapidly becoming the main method for dissecting the genetic architecture of complex traits in plants. Currently most association mapping studies in plants are preformed using sets of genes selected to be putative candidates for the trait of interest, but rapid developments in genomics will allow for genome-wide mapping in virtually any plant species in the near future. As the costs for genotyping are decreasing, the focus has shifted towards phenotyping. In plants, clonal replication and/or inbred lines allows for replicated phenotyping under many different environmental conditions. Reduced sequencing costs will increase the number of studies that use RNA sequencing data to perform expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping, which will increase our knowledge of how gene expression variation contributes to phenotypic variation. Current population sizes used in association mapping studies are modest in size and need to be greatly increased if mutations explaining less than a few per cent of the phenotypic variation are to be detected. Association mapping has started to yield insights into the genetic architecture of complex traits in plants, and future studies with greater genome coverage will help to elucidate how plants have managed to adapt to a wide variety of environmental conditions.

  • 225.
    Innocenti, Nicolas
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Data Analysis and Next Generation Sequencing : Applications in Microbiology.2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a new technology that has revolutionized the way we study living organisms. Where previously only a few genes could be studied at a time through targeted direct probing, NGS offers the possibility to perform measurements for a whole genome at once. The drawback is that the amount of data generated in the process is large and extracting useful information from it requires new methods to process and analyze it.

    The main contribution of this thesis is the development of a novel experimental method coined tagRNA-seq, combining 5’tagRACE, a previously developed technique, with RNA-sequencing technology. Briefly, tagRNA-seq makes it possible to identify the 5’ ends of RNAs in bacteria and directly probe for their type, primary or processed, by ligating short RNA sequences, the tags, to the beginnings of RNA molecules. We used the method to directly probe for transcription start and processing sites in two bacterial species, Escherichiacoli and Enterococcus faecalis. It was also used to study polyadenylation in E. coli, where the ability to identify processed RNA molecules proved to be useful to separate direct and indirect regulatory effects of this mechanism. We also demonstrate how data from tagRNA-seq experiments can be used to increase confidence on the discovery of anti-sense transcripts in bacteria. Analyses of RNA-seq data obtained in the context of these experiments revealed subtle artifacts in the coverage signal towards gene ends, that we were able to explain and quantify based Kolmogorov’s broken stick model. We also discovered evidences for circularization of a few RNA transcripts, both in our own data sets and publicly available data.

    Designing the tags used in tagRNA-seq led us to the problem of words absent from a text. We focus on a particular subset of these, the minimal absent words (MAWs), and develop a theory providing a complete description of their size distribution in random text. We also show that MAWs in genomes from viruses and living organisms almost always exhibit a behavior different from random texts in the tail of the distribution, and that MAWs from this tail are closely related to sequences present in the genome that preferentially appear in regions with important regulatory functions.

    Finally, and independently from tagRNA-seq, we propose a new approach to the problem of bacterial community reconstruction in metagenomic, based on techniques from compressed sensing. We provide a novel algorithm competing with state-of-the-art techniques in the field.

  • 226.
    Isaksson, Rebecka
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Preparativ läkemedelskemi.
    Casselbrant, Anna
    Department of Gastrosurgical Research and Education, Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Elebring, Erik
    Department of Gastrosurgical Research and Education, Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Larhed, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Preparativ läkemedelskemi.
    Lars, Fändriks
    Department of Gastrosurgical Research and Education, Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Direct Stimulation of Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Reduce Nitric Oxide Production in Lipopolysaccharide Treated RAW264.7 Mouse MacrophagesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 227.
    Jacobsen, Annette
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Reference gene selection and validation for HT29 and VK2/E6E7 human epithelial cell lines treated with probiotic and pathogenic bacteria: HT29 and EK2/V6V7 reference gene selection2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of commensal bacteria to influence gene expression in host cells under the influence of pathogenic bacteria has already been demonstrated. Investigation of the extent of this interaction is important to understanding how bacteria can be used as probiotics in the future. Currently, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the most sensitive tool for evaluating relative changes to gene expression levels. However as a result of its sensitivity an appropriate method of normalisation must be used to account for any variation incurred in preparatory experimental procedures. These variations may result from differences in the amount of starting material, quality of extracted RNA, or in the efficiency of the reverse transcriptase or polymerase enzymes. Although selection of an endogenous control gene is the preferred method of normalisation, this selection is often made without proper validation of the gene’s appropriateness for the study in question. In this study we used qPCR data and applied four different algorithms (genormPLUS, BestKeeper, Normfinder, and comparative ΔCq) to evaluate eight different genes as to their suitability as endogenous controls for use in studies involving HT29 (colonic) and VK2/E6E7 (vaginal) human mucosal epithelial cells treated with probiotic and pathogenic bacteria. We found phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) to be most appropriate for HT29 cells, and transmembrane protein 222 (TMEM222) to be the best choice for VK2/E6E7 cells. In both cell lines reference stability would be improved by use of multiple endogenous controls. This study provides recommendations for stable endogenous control genes for use in further studies involving HT29 and VK2/E6E7 cells after bacterial challenge.

  • 228.
    Jakobsson, Tell
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Changes in the predominant human Lactobacillus flora during in vitro fertilisation2008Inngår i: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, ISSN 1476-0711, E-ISSN 1476-0711, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Signature matching of nucleotide sequences in the V1 and V3 regions 16S rRNA genes using pyrosequencing technology is a powerful tool for typing vaginal Lactobacilli to the species level and has been used for investigating the vaginal microbial niche. Methods: This study has characterized the normal cultivable vaginal Lactobacillus flora at varying estradiol levels in plasma, the study comprised 17 patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) treatment. The vaginal status of each participant was initially assessed as normal according to Amsel and Nugent criteria. Results: L. crispatus, L. gasseri and/or L. jensenii were present in 10of the patients throughout the study period, and little variation among these three species was encountered in individual patients. The flora of three women was dominated by L. delbrüeckii, L. rhamnosus or L. vaginalis. One woman exhibited a dominance of L. iners. The flora of the remaining three women were initially dominated by L. rhamnosus or L. reuteri, but as their estrogen levels rose, their flora composition altered, to become dominated by one of the three species most common in a normal, healthy vagina. Conclusion: Signature matching of nucleotide sequences in the V1 and V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes is a discriminative tool for the study of vaginal Lactobacilli and can be used to track the Lactobacillus flora under a variety of physiological conditions. © 2008 Jakobsson and Forsum, licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 229.
    Jepson, Paul D.
    et al.
    Zool Soc London, Inst Zool, London NW1 4RY, England..
    Deaville, Rob
    Zool Soc London, Inst Zool, London NW1 4RY, England..
    Barber, Jonathan L.
    Ctr Environm Fisheries & Aquaculture Sci, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, Suffolk, England..
    Aguilar, Alex
    Univ Barcelona, Dept Anim Biol, Barcelona, Spain.;Univ Barcelona, Biodivers Res Inst IRBio, Barcelona, Spain..
    Borrell, Asuncion
    Univ Barcelona, Dept Anim Biol, Barcelona, Spain.;Univ Barcelona, Biodivers Res Inst IRBio, Barcelona, Spain..
    Murphy, Sinead
    Zool Soc London, Inst Zool, London NW1 4RY, England..
    Barry, Jon
    Ctr Environm Fisheries & Aquaculture Sci, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, Suffolk, England..
    Brownlow, Andrew
    Scottish Marine Anim Stranding Scheme, SRUC Vet Serv Drummondhill, Inverness IV2 4JZ, Scotland..
    Barnett, James
    Univ Exeter, Environm & Sustainabil Inst, Penryn TR10 9EZ, Cornwall, England..
    Berrow, Simon
    Galway Mayo Inst Technol, Marine & Freshwater Res Ctr, Galway, Ireland..
    Cunningham, Andrew A.
    Zool Soc London, Inst Zool, London NW1 4RY, England..
    Davison, Nicholas J.
    Scottish Marine Anim Stranding Scheme, SRUC Vet Serv Drummondhill, Inverness IV2 4JZ, Scotland..
    ten Doeschate, Mariel
    Scottish Marine Anim Stranding Scheme, SRUC Vet Serv Drummondhill, Inverness IV2 4JZ, Scotland..
    Esteban, Ruth
    CIRCE, Conservat Informat & Res Cetaceans, Algeciras 11390, Spain..
    Ferreira, Marisa
    Univ Minho, Dept Biol, Soc Portuguesa Vida Selvagem, Marine Anim Tissue Bank Portugal, P-4719 Braga, Portugal.;CESAM, Oporto, Portugal..
    Foote, Andrew D.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Genov, Tilen
    Morigenos Slovenian Marine Mammal Soc, Piran 6330, Slovenia.;Univ Primorska, Sci & Res Ctr, Inst Biodivers Studies, Koper, Slovenia.;Univ Primorska, Fac Math Nat Sci & Informat Technol, Dept Biodivers, Koper, Slovenia..
    Gimenez, Joan
    CSIC, EBD, Dept Conservat Biol, Seville 42092, Spain..
    Loveridge, Jan
    Cornwall Wildlife Trust Marine Strandings Network, Truro TR4 9DJ, England..
    Llavona, Angela
    Coordinadora Estudio Mamiferos Marinos CEMMA, Gondomar 36380, Pontevedra, Spain..
    Martin, Vidal
    Soc Estudios Cetaceos Canarias SECAC, Lanzarote, Spain..
    Maxwell, David L.
    Ctr Environm Fisheries & Aquaculture Sci, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, Suffolk, England..
    Papachlimitzou, Alexandra
    Ctr Environm Fisheries & Aquaculture Sci, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, Suffolk, England..
    Penrose, Rod
    Marine Environm Monitoring, Cardigan SA43 2PS, Ceredigion, England..
    Perkins, Matthew W.
    Zool Soc London, Inst Zool, London NW1 4RY, England..
    Smith, Brian
    Nat Hist Museum, London SW7 5BD, England..
    de Stephanis, Renaud
    CSIC, EBD, Dept Conservat Biol, Seville 42092, Spain..
    Tregenza, Nick
    Cornwall Wildlife Trust Marine Strandings Network, Truro TR4 9DJ, England..
    Verborgh, Philippe
    CIRCE, Conservat Informat & Res Cetaceans, Algeciras 11390, Spain..
    Fernandez, Antonio
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Fac Vet, Gran Canaria, Spain..
    Law, Robin J.
    Zool Soc London, Inst Zool, London NW1 4RY, England.;Ctr Environm Fisheries & Aquaculture Sci, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, Suffolk, England..
    PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters2016Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 18573Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:-striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB "hotspots" for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  • 230.
    Jerkert, Jesper
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Ljud- och bildbehandling (Stängd 130101).
    Europarådet gör skarp markering mot kreationism2007Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 104, nr 43, s. 3216-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 231.
    Joandi, Linnéa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    The impact of climate change on aquatic systems and phytoplankton communities: A quantitative study of the impacts of altering food-quality on microzooplankton growth rate2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A global increase in atmospheric CO2 and temperature is assumed to affect the marine ecosystems in numerous ways, e.g. by altering ocean circulation patterns and changing nutrient regimes. The changes are expected to impact heavily on both phytoplankton communities as well as the rest of the marine food-web. Based on previous experimental studies that have investigated the impacts of varied algae food-quality on zooplankton, this quantitative study hypothesizes that (i) the tested microzooplankton species Brachionus plicatilis (rotifer) and Euplotes sp. (ciliate) will show high population growth rates (g) when fed with Nannochloropsis sp. grown under nutrient replete conditions, (ii) that the species will show a population growth rate close to zero when fed with algae grown on phosphorous-deficient media and (iii) that microzooplankton will be negatively affected by the algae grown in nitrogen-deficient media. The study thus aims to investigate how changes in the balance of energy and several chemical elements in ecological interactions, ecological stoichiometry, affect the growth rates of algal grazers. The results show that food-independent factors had a large impact on growth rates and resulted in unexpected, deviating trends. However, as the growth rates for B. plicatilis fed with phosphorous-deficient algae were lower than those of B. plicatilis fed with nitrogen-deficient algae, there is some support for the

  • 232.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindström, G.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI.
    Heeb, A.
    Swedish Board of Agriculture (Jordbruksverket).
    Milver, A.
    Gothenburg University.
    Rönnberg, R.
    Stockholm Vatten, Sweden.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, L.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI.
    Can spatial and temporal nutrient concentration variability be captured by catchment agro-geographical characteristics and water quality modelling?2015Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In water management, source areas need to be identified and seasonal variability of nutrient flows assessed to facilitate design of cost-efficient mitigation programs. This study aimed at investigating to what degree sub-catchment spatial and temporal nutrient concentration variability could be captured by their agro-geographical characteristics and water quality modelling.

    An agricultural catchment (160 km2) in Southeast Sweden was investigated with respect to source areas for phosphorus (P), nitrogen and particle losses. The specific aims were to 1) investigate the spatial variability of nutrient and particle concentrations and transport from different sub-catchments, 2) analyze if sub-catchment characteristics could explain differences in nutrient and particle concentration dynamics and overall nutrient losses, and 3) evaluate how well monitored temporal and spatial variability in nutrient concentrations could be simulated by a catchment model (HYPE). The purpose with the latter was to find recommendations for further model development and identify limitations for the use of catchment models in local water management.

    Water flow was measured in two stations during 2009-2011. Grab samples were collected in synoptic sampling campaigns covering 10 sampling points during periods that represented various water flow regimes. Water samples were analyzed for total P (TP), dissolved phosphate (PO4-P), nitrate (NO3-N) and suspended matter (SUSP). The HYPE model was setup with the same detailed agro-geographical data as used for the statistical analyses of spatial and temporal correlations. The results showed that the sub-catchment variability of all measured nutrient concentrations were correlated with agro-geographical characteristics. All fractions of P concentrations were strongly correlated with soil type, whereas NO3-N concentrations were more related to crop factors. With regard to temporal dynamics of monitored concentrations, links to seasonality and water flow were more significant for NO3-N than for TP. Concentrations generated from the water quality model (HYPE) did not capture the subcatchment or temporal variability indicated from monitoring, particularly not for P concentrations. Neither did the modelled correlation between agro-geographical factors and concentrations correspond to that found for monitored concentrations. Some suggestions for model improvement were identified. Although water quality models are useful for local water management when it comes to modelling the impact of e.g. measures or climate change, our results suggest that their value might still be more limited when assessing variability on the subcatchment scale.

  • 233.
    Johannesson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Temporal phosphorus dynamics affecting retention estimates in agricultural constructed wetlands2017Inngår i: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 103, s. 436-445Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from seven constructed wetlands (CWs) in the south of Sweden were analyzed to investigate the effects of water flow and season on inflow phosphorus (P) concentrations and temporal P retention variations in CWs receiving runoff from arable land. The form of P (dissolved or particulate) during different water flows (high and low) and seasons (warm and cold) was investigated using the results of total P (TP) and phosphate analyzed in grab samples that had been collected regularly or occasionally during two to nine years, along with continuous water flow measurements.

    The form of inflow and outflow P (particulate or dissolved P) differed between CWs, and also varied with season and flow. For instance, in three of the CWs, particulate P (PP) dominated the inflow during the cold period with high flow, while during the other periods the proportion of PP was approximately 50%. In one CW situated in a catchment with high clay content, PP dominated both inflow and outflow at all times. The average clay content in catchment top soils was positively correlated to the flow-weighted inflow TP concentrations.

    In three CWs receiving runoff through drainage pipes, the relationship between TP concentrations (TPin) and water flow was positive, both during high and low flow, and during warm and cold period. However, in four CWs that received surface water runoff, the relationship between TPin and water flow was positive during high flow periods (i.e. the 25% sampling occasions with the highest flow), and during low flow and warm period, the relationship was negative in these four wetlands, indicating either anoxic stagnant water upstream or influence from rural wastewater.

    The temporal dynamics of P concentrations mean that in some of the CWs, the main part of the annual P retention may occur during a few days with high water flows. The correlation between concentration and water flow suggests that the water sampling strategy may have a considerable impact on retention estimates, as exemplified by some calculation examples.

  • 234.
    Johannesson, Malin
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Prey choice of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) in the Gobi desert in southern Mongolia.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    To properly plan a conservation strategy for large, elusive carnivores that lives in remote areas, there is a need for correct information about their diet. Problematically, endangered species such as the snow leopard are difficult to obtain information on, due to their camouflage, secretiveness and isolated lives in rugged ecosystems. Global positioning system (GPS) collars can thus provide useful information on snow leopard ecology and behavior. This study took place in the Gobi desert in southern Mongolia, and aimed to investigate the prey choices of the snow leopard. In total there were 19 snow leopards captured between 2008 and 2013 that were fitted with GPS collars. These collars registered a position every fifth to seventh hour. Kill sites were found by visiting clusters of GPS locations. Ibex was the prey most dominated (66 %), followed by goat, sheep (20 %), and argali (8 %). The ibex and argali were sex- and age-classified.  Age and sex ratio of the killed ibex differed from the age and sex ratio of the ibex population. Adult ibex males seemed to be overrepresented among the kills (males <5 years 10 % and males >5 years 35 %), whereas females seemed underrepresented. Also in argali, the category most killed were males (56 %). The results show that snow leopards do not only kill prey larger than themselves, they also seem to select the largest age and sex categories among ibex and argali, although the different categories killed varied between seasons. Possible explanations for the results are discussed. The findings of this study will help to understand the feeding ecology of the snow leopard, and how to address the conservation and management issues in how to conserve this felid and its most important preys.

  • 235.
    Johanson, Ida
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    Utbildning i sex och samlevnad för lärarstudenter: - ett bortglömt kapitel?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Såväl internationell som nationell forskning visar att den sex- och samlevnadsundervisning som ges i skolan spelar roll för ungdomars sexuella hälsa och att läraren i detta sammanhang ses som en viktig kunskapskälla. Syftet med denna studie var att försöka ge en bild av på vilket sätt blivande lärare i Sverige blir förberedda för att undervisa i sex och samlevnad genom sin utbildning. För att undersöka detta användes följande frågeställning: Vad krävs för att läraren ska kunna bedriva en tillfredsställande sex- och samlevnadsundervisning? I studien användes kvalitativa intervjuer med en relativt hög grad av strukturering och en låg grad av standardisering. Fyra lärarstudenter på ett universitet i Mellansverige intervjuades. Det som framkommer är att det som krävs för att en lärare/lärarstudent ska kunna bedriva en tillfredsställande sex- och samlevnadsundervisning är en form av trygghet. Trygghet som kan upplevas när läraren har fått erfarenhet, kunskap om ämnet och verktyg att använda i undervisningen. Studien visar också ett samband mellan den utbildning som ges på lärarprogrammet och lärarstudenternas upplevda förmåga att undervisa elever i sex och samlevnad, men personliga egenskaper har också viss betydelse i detta sammanhang. Det framgår tydligt att det är svårt att få en relevant sex- och samlevnadsutbildning inom ramen för lärarutbildningen.

  • 236.
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för pedagogiska studier.
    Biologi på landsbygdens respektive tätortens förskolor: En intervjustudie om eventuella skillnader beroende på förskolans geografiska placering2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 237. Johansson, Jessica
    et al.
    Rankinen, Juha
    Inventering av flodpärlmussla i Fylleån norr om Gyltigesjön2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater environments are threatened worldwide, of which many of the species associatedwith freshwater. In 2014, 243 freshwater mussels were on the international Red List. One ofthem is the freshwater pearl mussel, Margaritifera margaritifera, which because of itscomplex life cycle can be counted as an indicator of whether a stream is worth protecting. It's since the early 1900's in decline throughout their range. Sweden is counted as a core area which is why we have not only a national but an international responsibility to conserve the species. The mussel is covered by the County Administrative Board of Hallands action plans for threatened species. The County Administrative Board has since 2004 made a number of inventories in the county to get an overview of the occurrence of the freshwater pearl mussel. Still, there are some streams that are not fully inventoried. We have inventoried the mainstream Fylleån from outlet to Gyltigesjön to Bygget, as well as tributaries. In the 80's some parts further downstream in Fylleån were inventoried and then no freshwater pearl mussels were found. Per Ingvarsson who is leading the inventories of freshwater pearl mussels in Halland has pointed out the upper part as an interesting area for mussels. This upper part of Fylleån has previously only been inventoried on two locations, therefore, we have now done a complete inventory to examine the presence of mussels.

    Some of the results of our survey:

    • No fresh water pearl mussels were found in the investigated waters.

    • The water in the river was heavily colored which complicated the inventory.

    • The majority of the route consisted of flowing water with a bottom of stone and/or blocks which are suitable habitat for mussels, but there were silt on the bottom.

    • No fish or fish larvae were found.

    • One duck mussel was found in the outlet to Gyltigesjön.

    In closing, we discuss what could be causing our results.

  • 238. Johansson, Karin S. L.
    et al.
    Luhrig, Katharina
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Rengefors, Karin
    Development of a quantitative PCR method to explore the historical occurrence of a nuisance microalga under expansion2016Inngår i: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 56, s. 67-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of marine and freshwater harmful algal bloom (HAB) species have colonized new areas and expanded their habitat range in recent years. Nevertheless it is notoriously difficult to establish when colonization first occurred, what the dispersal routes are, and to separate recent invasion from increases in existent but small populations. The freshwater raphidophyte Gonyostomum semen is a nuisance species that has expanded its habitat range and increased in abundance in northern Europe during the past decades. To evaluate to what extent sediments can be used for determining historic occurrence of G. semen, a quantitative real-time PCR method for detecting cysts of this algae was developed. This paper presents a qPCR protocol with a set of primers that are specific to Gonyostomum and with PCR conditions optimized for sediment samples from humic lakes, which are the common habitat of G. semen. With this sensitive method as few as 1.6 cysts per PCR reaction could be reliably quantified, corresponding to 320 cysts per g wet weight sediment Cysts were present in sediments with ages ranging from years to decades and their persistence allows detection of historic populations up to at least 50 years old. With this qPCR assay it will be possible to trace the presence of G. semen in environments prior to the onset of algae-specific monitoring programs as well as for quantification in water column samples.

  • 239.
    Jonasson, Jesper
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sånt är livet: En studie om elevers uppfattningar av liv och levande organismer2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har tidigare visat sig att lärare under biologilektioner ofta använder sig av begreppet liv som om detta vore ett självklart fenomen (Keeley, 2002) och enligt läroplanen ska elever lära sig skilja på levande organismer och icke levande omgivning (Skolverket, 2011). Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka uppfattningar elever i årskurs 4 har om fenomenet liv. Detta för att lyfta fram svårigheter och synliggöra hur undervisningen kan anpassas och förbättras med utgångspunkt i elevernas förförståelse. Studien baseras på en enkätundersökning som gjordes av sammanlagt 46 elever från två klasser. Därefter genomfördes 13 efterföljande intervjuer med elever från de båda klasserna. Det visar sig i denna studie att eleverna framför allt använder sig av tio olika kriterier för att bestämma om någonting lever eller inte. Dessa är rörelse, kognitiv förmåga, behov av näring, växande, skapande av ljud, andning, blodomlopp, färg, behov av vatten och förökning. Det visar sig även att eleverna inte konsekvent använder sig av några specifika kriterium utan ändrar dessa beroende på organismen. Eleverna i undersökningen anser även att det finns olika typer av liv och att organismer kan leva på olika sätt. Det visar sig även att flera av elevernas kriterium kan liknas med vetenskapliga teorier om liv, men att olika tolkningar av enskilda begrepp ofta leder till att objekt i undersökningen felaktigt klassificeras som levande eller döda.

  • 240. Jonsell, Bengt
    et al.
    Åhlander, Erik
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    The Linnean Anders Sparrman as traveller and collector in South Africa2016Inngår i: Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses, ISSN 0082-0644, Vol. 38, s. 75-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 241.
    Jonsson, Annie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Vetenskaplig utvärdering av åtgärdseffekter mot almsjukan inom projektet LifeELMIAS: Rapport till Naturvårdsverket 2017-10-312017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    EU-projektet ”LifeELMIAS - Saving wooded Natura 2000 habitats from invasive alien fungi species on the Island of Gotland, Sweden” startade i augusti 2013 och avslutas under 2018. Projektet har haft sitt fokus på att bekämpa och i bästa fall utrota almsjukan på Gotland, samt långsiktigt skydda och bevara den biologiska mångfalden som är speciellt knuten till alm och även ask. Projektet drivs av Skogsstyrelsen med flera samarbetspartners bland annat Naturvårdsverket. Från 2013 har bekämpningsåtgärderna finansierats i projektet LifeElmias och det kostar i medeltal 5 miljoner kronor per år. För att kunna ta ställning till hur almsjukan ska hanteras på Gotland efter projektavslut har Naturvårdsverket beställt följande utvärdering. I uppdraget har det ingått att sammanställa vad som genomförts i LifeElmias och vilka slutsatser man kan göra, samt en diskussion om framtida möjligheter.

     

    Så snart almsjukan upptäcktes på Gotland 2005 sattes bekämpningsåtgärder in som har pågått fram till idag. Till och med 2009 spred sig sjukdomen mycket snabbt på ön. Därefter har den stoppats upp och dess spridningstakt har inte ökat signifikant sedan dess. Det finns tyvärr inget som tyder på att det skulle vara möjligt att utrota sjukdomen på Gotland. Ett uppehåll i bekämpningen kommer att innebära att almsjukan återigen går in i en starkt växande fas. Då skulle upp till 90% av almbeståndet kunna slås ut på bara några år. Fram till idag har endast 3% av beståndet på 1 miljon almar insjuknat. Almarterna dör inte ut helt om man slutar med bekämpningen men förekomsterna kommer till största delen bestå av unga träd och buskartade bestånd. Vilken total effekt det har på den biologiska mångfalden generellt går inte att förutsäga. Artsammansättningen kommer dock att förändras och populationsstorlekar påverkas i både negativ och positiv riktning.

     

    Den hittills mest effektiva metoden att bekämpa almsjukan har varit att upptäcka sjuka träd och destruera dem. Nya möjligheter med fjärranalys för att inventera finns inom räckhåll och med hjälp av ekologisk geografisk modellering skulle man kunna finna strategier för att effektivisera kontrollen eller upprätta skyddszoner för specifikt bevarande av almbestånden inom Natura 2000-områdena. Både fjärranalys och ekologisk modellering kräver dock ett utvecklingsarbete med anpassningar för de specifika situationerna med almsjuka, Gotlands geografi, klimat med flera faktorer. Men dessa metoder skulle långsiktigt kunna effektivisera arbetet och minska kostnaderna för ett fortsatt kontrollprogram.

  • 242.
    Jonsson, Ann-Louise
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Summoner's Garden: Ett gestaltningsförslag på en corporate garden baserad på ett pc-spel2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete syftar till att skapa ett gestaltningsförslag till en trädgård baseratpå pc-spelet League of Legends. Arbetet följer konceptet corporate garden då detbaseras på en produkt som är skapad av ett företag. Arbetet ska besvara frågan ”Hur kanett gestaltningsförslag för en corporate garden för spelföretaget Riot Games medinspiration från spelet League of Legends se ut?”, ”Hur uppfattar spelarna landskapet ispelet?” samt ”Vilka växter kan passa i en miljö med halvskugga till skugga, lågt pHvärdesamt relativt hög markfuktighet i zon 1? ”. Metoderna som nyttjades var en kortlitteratursökning åtföljt av en mer omfattande studie av spelets landskapsgrafik samtenkätfrågor till målgruppen spelarna. Motiven till tagna beslut presenteras tillsammansmed växtvalen, varpå illustrationsplanen presenteras. Som komplement till dennaanvänds exempelskisser i mindre skala för att kunna peka på detaljer, såsom placeringav växtval. Resultatet pekar på 25 stycken olika växter som passar i de olikaståndorterna. Växtvalen består av lignoser, perenner, mossor och knölar/lökar.Illustrationsplanen visar en stor parkliknande trädgård i pc-spelet League of Legendsanda.

  • 243.
    Kalathil, Aravind Nambiar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    The effect of Magnetic Fields on Dictyostelium discoideum, Osteoblasts and Fibroblasts2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of EM waves on cells has been a subject of growing interest for many years. In this project we tried to recreate the increased proliferation rate noticed in the Dictyostelium discoideum.

    The effect was not initially observed in the osteoblasts, since the experiments were attempted without a complete understanding of all the parameters involved that increased the proliferation rate.

    However, with the fibroblast cell, a similar trendline was achieved, with the highest difference in growth peaking at 22% using a magnetic field of 20Hz and 2300μT.

    In this project we try to explore the implications of such an effect, why it refused to work with one cell line, and why it worked with another, even though the effect was not as pronounced as it was with the amoebas. 

  • 244.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Koivisto, Mika
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Seeing Blue As Red: A Hypnotic Suggestion Can Alter Visual Awareness of Colors2016Inngår i: International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis, ISSN 0020-7144, E-ISSN 1744-5183, Vol. 64, nr 3, s. 261-284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Some highly hypnotizable individuals have reported changes in objects' color with suggestions given in normal waking state. However, it is not clear whether this occurs only in their imagination. The authors show that, although subjects could imagine colors, a posthypnotic suggestion was necessary for seeing altered colors, even for a hypnotic virtuoso. She reported posthypnotic color alterations also selectively in response to specific target shapes in briefly presented object arrays. Surprisingly, another highly hypnotizable person showed a very different pattern of results. The control participants could not simulate virtuosos' results by applying cognitive strategies. The results imply that hypnosis can alter the functioning of automatic visual processes but only in some of the most hypnotizable individuals.

  • 245.
    Karlsson , Eva-Lena
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Frenander Lake, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Hållbar utveckling med början i förskolan?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    The objective of our study was to get knowledge about how teachers think when they make purchases to preschool. Do they consider making environmentally conscious purchases? Do they work actively to transfer environmental consciousness to the children?

    We chose to interview nine preschool teachers and one cook in two different local municipalities. Our investigation showed that there was a very low engagement in these issues. The teachers said that they were very strictly bound to already existing public contracts and did not see any possibilities to influence the preschools consumption.

    The teachers hade no idea that not only their work could result in environmental savings in the school, but also result in attitudes changes among the children, their parents and, in the long term, society in general. The teachers wished they had a concrete environmental mission and they did what they could with the available resources.

    With our essay we aim to show teachers in the primary school that their choices are important and that it is possible to influence, even on a small scale.

  • 246.
    Karlsson, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fallahshahroudi, Amir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johnsen, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hagenblad, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Leif
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The effect of a domestication related mutation in the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) on photoperiodic response and reproduction in chickenManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) has been suggested to be a “domestication locus” in the chicken. A strong selective sweep over the gene in domestic breeds of chicken, but not in the ancestral Red Junglefowl, and significant effects of a mutation in TSHR on domestication related traits in chicken, indicate that the gene has been important for the chicken domestication. The TSHR play a key role in the signal transduction of seasonal reproduction, which is characteristically less strict in domestic animals. We investigated the effect of the mutation on reproductive traits as well as TSHB, TSHR, DIO2 and DIO3 gene expression during altered day length (photoperiod) in females and males intercross chickens homozygous for the mutation (d/d) or wild type homozygotes (w/w). This allowed an assessment of the effect of genotype at this locus against a random mix of RJF and WL genotypes throughout the rest of the genome. The TSHR gene expression was significantly lower in both d/d females and males, in comparison to w/w individuals, indicating a strong effect of the “domestic” mutation on gene expression. The d/d females showed a faster increase in the onset of laying than w/w females, and d/d males showed a reduced response to altered day length in testicular size and significant lower levels of TSHB and DIO3 expression, in comparison to w/w males. Additionally, pure White Leghorn females kept under natural day length in Sweden during December showed active ovaries and significant lower levels of TSHR and DIO3 expression in comparison to Red Junglefowl females kept under similar conditions. Our study suggest that the TSHR mutation affects photoperiodic response in chicken in the direction of being less dependent on seasonal reproduction, a typical domestication feature, and may therefore have been important for the chicken domestication.

  • 247.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Brink, Matilda
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Annala, Elina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Potential application areas for Fresenius Kabi's bonus products2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the project was to investigate existing markets within the food- and cosmetic industry in order to determine a strategy for market entrance with the bonus product of Fresenius Kabi. The original bonus product, P080, is a rest product from the process where phospholipids are extracted from egg yolk powder. P80 is a refine version of the P080 where egg yolk oil has been extracted, hence the protein content in P80 is higher. The extracted egg yolk oil is the final portion of the bonus product. Thereby, the original bonus product can be divided into two refined fractions. This project investigates the potential for each of these three substances to be a part of a fictive product. 

    By scanning the global protein market as well as the egg yolk protein and egg oil market, seven potential product segments were discovered. These segments were further evaluated in order to bring out specific products that were potential candidates as products based on the bonus product. 

    The analysis resulted in two fictive products based on P080; high value nutrition bars and snacks for seniors, one based on P80; protein powder, and one based on egg yolk oil; dietary supplement. All presented in three business cases.

  • 248.
    Karlsson, Pauline
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Anläggande av naturstig: ett sätt att främja intresset för och öka kunskapen om naturen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En naturstig utgörs vanligtvis av ett antal skyltar längst med en promenadslinga. Genom attgå stigen och ta del av texter och bilder får besökaren en flexibel form av guidning inaturområdet. Naturstigar är på det sättet ett bra sätt att locka ut människor i naturen. Ennaturstig kan bli forum för bland annat undervisning, rekreation och närturism. Stigarnaerbjuder en mer tillgänglig och tillrättalagd natur, som i vissa sammanhang är mer attraktivän den helt vilda.Som en del av mitt syfte har jag anlagt en naturstig vid Stadsbondgården i Fyllinge utanförHalmstad. I linje med syftet innehåller rapporten även forskning relaterat till ekoturism ochnaturstigar, för att kunna fungera som en metodvägledning för framtida anläggande avnaturstigar.Via mina skyltar ville jag uppmuntra till upptäckarlust, och ge naturstigsbesökaren enbegynnande eller fördjupad relation till naturen. Jag jobbade med en grundtanke om att visapå den rika biologiska mångfalden som även den stadsnära naturen besitter.En utvärdering av den färdiga stigen visade på brister i tydlighet och vägvisning. Innehålletpå skyltarna beskrevs av de flesta som positivt. Naturstigen uppfattades av en majoritet somvacker, lärorik och värd ett återbesök.

  • 249.
    Karlsson, Simon
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Christiansson, Jonas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Granö fiskavledare2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvinning av vattenkraft från Granö kraftstation påbörjades på slutet av 1950-talet. Ålen har sedan dess varit hindrad att passera genom kraftverket av ett finmaskigt och höglutande nät under ålens vandringssäsonger. Den alternativa vägen runt stationen har varit med spillvatten eller ner i den gamla ålkistan placerad i intagskanalen. Det är okänt hur många ålar som faktiskt vandrat ut med spillvattnet, men fångsterna i den gamla ålkistan har varit begränsade och mängder med ålar har dött på nätet. Ålen är nu akut hotad och åtgärder att mildra kraftverkens negativa inverkan på utvandrande blankål har högsta prioritet.

    Till följd av problem med igensättning av den så kallade ålspärren uppstod ett dammbrott 2010. För att öka dammsäkerheten och effektiviteten för åluppsamling designades och uppfördes en ny fiskavledare med åluppsamlingsanläggning 2011. Granö fiskavledare är unik i sitt slag då den har intagsgaller av kompositmaterial, ställbara lutningar (30-40˚), samt flyktöppningar som leder till en uppsamlingsbur. Vattnet från uppsamlingen pumpas tillbaka till intagskanalen, för att undvika onödigt spill.

    En stor del av utvärderingen bestod i märkning och spårning av blankål i anslutning till avledaren. Märkningsförsöken under 2012 och 2013 visade att endast en liten proportion av fisken hittar flyktöppningarna och kommer till uppsamlingsburen, dessutom har skador på fisken kunna relateras till avledaren och uppsamlingsburen. Totalt har 284 ålar märkts och 475 har visuellt bedömts för skador efter passage genom avledaren eller referensfisket Havbältan. Trots två dåliga ålvandringsår har majoriteten av den radiomärkta fisken ankommit till avledaren och totalt har 15 fisk återfångades. Hydrauliska mätningar i flyktöppningarna visar att vattenflödena igenom avledarsystemet är låga och andelen (vatten genom avledaren/totalflöde) är långt under rekommenderat vilket kan vara en anledning till de få återfångsterna av fisk.

  • 250.
    Karthikraj, Karthikraj
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Crosstalk between DNA repair and chromatin modifications2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
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