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  • 201.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    et al.
    National Institute of Psychosocial Factors and Health.
    Söderström, Marie
    National Institute of Psychosocial Factors and Health.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute of Psychosocial Factors and Health ; Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, Jens
    National Institute of Psychosocial Factors and Health.
    Søndergaard, Hans-Peter
    National Institute of Psychosocial Factors and Health.
    Aleksander, Perski
    National Institute of Psychosocial Factors and Health.
    Disturbed sleep and fatigue in occupational burnout2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 121-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate sleep with polysomnography and self-ratings and the diurnal pattern of sleepiness and fatigue in a group suffering from severe occupational burnout.

    METHOD: Twelve white-collar workers on long-term sick leave (>3 months) and 12 healthy controls with high and low scores on the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) were included. A 1-night polysomnographic recording (after habituation) was carried out at home, and sleepiness and mental fatigue were rated at different times of the day for weekdays and the weekend. Precipitating factors at the time of the illness at work and real life were considered, and different dimensions of occupational fatigue were described. A repeated-measures analysis of variance using two or three within group factors was used to analyze the data.

    RESULTS: The main polysomnographic findings were more arousals and sleep fragmentation, more wake time and stage-1 sleep, lower sleep efficiency, less slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep, and a lower delta power density in non-rapid eye movement sleep in the burnout group. The burnout patients showed pronounced sleepiness and mental fatigue at most times of the day for weekdays without reduction during weekends. The precipitating factor was occupational stress (psychiatric interview), and work stress indicators were increased.

    CONCLUSIONS: Occupational burnout is characterized by impaired sleep. It is suggested that impaired sleep may play a role in the development of fatigue or exhaustion in burnout.

  • 202.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet ; National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Institutet ; National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health.
    Söderström, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet ; National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health.
    Microarousals during sleep are associated with increased levels of lipids, cortisol, and blood pressure2004In: Psychosomatic Medicine, ISSN 0033-3174, E-ISSN 1534-7796, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 925-931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Previous work has demonstrated a link between restricted sleep and risk indicators for cardiovascular and metabolic disease, such as levels of cortisol, lipids, and glucose. The present study sought to identify relations between polysomnographic measures of disturbed sleep (frequency of arousals from sleep, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency) and a number of such indicators. A second purpose was to relate the number of arousals to mood, stress, work characteristics, and other possible predictors in daily life.

    Methods: Twenty-four people (10 men, 14 women; mean age 30 years), high vs. low on burnout, were recruited from a Swedish IT company. Polysomnographically recorded sleep was measured at home before a workday. Blood pressure, heart rate, morning blood sample, and saliva samples of cortisol were measured the subsequent working day. They were also recorded for diary ratings of sleep and stress, and a questionnaire with ratings of sleep, stress, work conditions, and mood was completed.

    Results: A stepwise regression analysis using sleep parameters as predictors brought out number of arousals as the best predictor of morning cortisol (serum and saliva), heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and LDL/HDL-ratio. Work stress/unclear boundaries between work and leisure time was the best predictor of arousals among the stress variables.

    Conclusion: Consistent with sleep restriction experiments, sleep fragmentation was associated with elevated levels of metabolic and cardiovascular risk indicators of stress-related disorders. Number of arousals also seems to be related to workload/stress.

  • 203.
    Ekstrand, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Lund, Sweden;Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Hand Surg, Malmo, Sweden.
    Lexell, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation Medicine. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Hlth Sci, Lulea, Sweden;Lund Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Brogardh, Christina
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol & Rehabil Med, Lund, Sweden;Lund Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Test-Retest Reliability Of The Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LISAT-11) And Association Between Items In Individuals With Chronic Stroke2018In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 50, no 8, p. 713-718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the test-retest reliability of the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11) and the association between items in individuals with chronic stroke. Design: Test-retest design. Subjects: Forty-five individuals (mean age 65 years) with mild to moderate disability at least 6 months post-stroke. Methods: LiSat-11, which includes 1 global item "Life as a whole" and 10 domain-specific items, was rated on 2 occasions, one week apart. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by kappa statistics, the percent agreement (PA) and the Svensson rank-invariant method. The association between items was evaluated with the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho). Results: The kappa coefficients showed good to excellent agreement (0.59-0.97) and the PA <= 1 point was high (> 89%) for all items. According to the Svensson method, a small systematic disagreement was found for "Partner relationship". The other items showed no systematic or random disagreements. All domain-specific items, except one ("Sexual life") were significantly correlated with "Life as a whole" (rhos 0.29-0.80). Conclusion: LiSat-11 is considered reliable and can be recommended for assessing life satisfaction after stroke. The association between items indicates that LiSat-11 measures various aspects that can impact on an individual's life satisfaction.

  • 204.
    Ekstrand, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Lund, Sweden;Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Hand Surg, Malmo, Sweden.
    Lexell, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation Medicine. Lund Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Brogårdh, Christina
    Lund Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Lund, Sweden;Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol & Rehabil Med, Lund, Sweden.
    Test-Retest Reliability of The Participation Domain of the Stroke Impact Scale in Persons with Chronic Stroke2018In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 50, no 9, p. 843-846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the test-retest reliability and variability of the Participation domain of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS Participation) in persons with stroke as it is widely used to assess perceived participation in rehabilitation after stroke.

    Design: A test-retest design. Subjects: Forty-five persons (mean age 65 years) with mild to moderate disability at least 6 months post-stroke.

    Methods: The SIS Participation domain was rated on 2 occasions, 1 week apart. The test-retest reliability of the total score was evaluated using Kappa statistics. The 8 item scores were evaluated by the proportion of participants who rated the same score (percentage agreement, PA) or +/- 1 point (PA <= 1 point) at T1 and T2. The Svensson method was used to evaluate systematic and random disagreement.

    Results: The test-retest reliability of the total score showed excellent agreement (Kappa coefficient = 0.79). The items showed high PA <= 1 point (> 82%). No items, except 2, showed a systematic disagreement, and no items showed a random disagreement according to the Svensson method.

    Conclusion: The SIS Participation domain is reliable in persons with chronic stroke and mild to moderate disability and can be used to assess perceived participation in this population.

  • 205. Ekström, Andreas
    et al.
    Eng-Larsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Isaksson, Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Kurland, Lisa
    Nordberg, Martin
    Changes in Emergency Department Patient Inflow after a Terrorist Attack in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the impact the terrorist attack in downtown Stockholm had on the inflow of patients to the emergency departments of Stockholm's hospitals. Controlling for the initial shock to infrastructure, we find that the inflow was reduced by 8% over two weeks following the attack. After two weeks the inflow returned to pre-attack levels, without any "rebound effect". The results indicate that many emergency department visits are not urgent, and that these patients may self-select to cancel service under certain circumstances.

  • 206.
    Ekström, Lina
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hansson, Frida
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Beslut om övergången från kurativ till palliativ vård: Sjuksköterskors upplevelser och erfarenheter2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, there are life-sustaining treatment that can prolong patients’ lives. This may make it difficult for medical personnel to set the limit for when the transition from curative to palliative care should be performed in institutional care. The purpose of the study was to describe the nurses’ experiences when a decision would be taken on when the patient went from curative to palliative care. In this study fifteen scientific articles were reviewed and analyzed. Four headlines emerged from the result: involvement, point in time, education/experience and feelings. One thing nurses had in common was that they thought that their opinion did not matter for the doctors about the transition from curative to palliative care, even though they spent more time with the patient and had a holistic point of view on the situation. The point in time was important in regards to when the decision was made and when the curative treatment was brought to an end. One difference between nurses was their experience and how secure they felt within their occupation. The nurses felt that it was difficult when there were not straight directives on how the treatment should be carried out. To be more secure in their jobs as nurses, there should be a higher level of education introduced throughout all of the health and medical care fields and there should be more research done about the patient’s experiences in their situation.

  • 207.
    El Malla, Hanan
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Karolinska institutet, Sophiahemmet.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Göteborgs universitet, Karolinska institutet.
    Wilderäng, Ulrica
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Elborai, Yasser El Sayed
    Cairo University Hospital, Egypt. National Cancer Institute, Cairo, Egypt.
    Ylitalo, Nathalie
    Göteborgs universitet, Karolinska institutet.
    Parental trust in health care: A prospective study from the Children's Cancer Hospital in Egypt2013In: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 548-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Patient-physician communication and patient satisfaction are important elements of cancer care. Trust is considered to be crucial for the patient-physician relationship, yet little is to be found in the literature regarding what factors may influence trust.

    METHODS: We assessed predictors of trust in health-care professionals and in the medical care by administering two questionnaires, one at start of chemotherapy treatment and one at the time of the third chemotherapy cycle, to 304 parents of children with newly diagnosed cancer at the Children's Cancer Hospital in Cairo, Egypt.

    RESULTS: Parents' trust in the medical care at the time of the child's third chemotherapy cycle was significantly associated with the following at the start of treatment: having received at least moderate information about the disease (relative risk (RR) 13.2; 95% CI 7.8-22.3) and the treatment (RR 17.2; 95% CI 9.5-31.4), having the opportunity to communicate with the child's physicians (RR 21.3; 95% CI 11.7-38.8), being satisfied with the physicians conversation style (RR 30.6; 95% CI 14.4-64.9), having the emotional needs met (RR 22.2; 95% CI 11.8-41.9), and being met with care by the child's physicians (RR 32.0; 95% CI 15.2-67.7). After multivariable model selection, the strongest predictor of trust at the time of the third chemotherapy cycle was to be met with care at the start of treatment.

    CONCLUSION: Parents being met with care by the child's physicians at the beginning of the child's chemotherapy treatment develop an increased trust in the medical care.

  • 208.
    El Malla, Hanan
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Göteborgs universitet, Karolinska institutet.
    Ylitalo Helm, Nathalie
    Göteborgs universitet, Karolinska institutet.
    Wilderäng, Ulrica
    Göteborgs universitet.
    El Sayed Elborai, Yasser
    Egypten.
    Elshami, Mohammad
    Egypten.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Karolinska institutet, Sophiahemmet högskola.
    Cancer disclosure-account from a pediatric oncology ward in Egypt.2017In: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 679-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Informing the child about his/her diagnosis and treatment plan is essential; research has shown that it is related to the patient's quality of life and adherence to medication.

    METHODS: For 7 months during 2008 (February to September), 2 study-specific questionnaires were constructed and administered to 304 parents of children diagnosed with cancer at the Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt.

    RESULTS: Among the 313 eligible parents of children diagnosed with cancer, 304 (97%) answered the first questionnaire and 281 (92%) answered the second questionnaire. We found that nearly three-quarters (72%) of the parents had their child's cancer diagnosis communicated by the physician. Among the 72%, the rate of the children present with the parent or parents during the disease disclosure conversation was 39% (n = 85/219). The majority of the children were in the age group 5-18 years (55%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cancer disclosure at the Children's Cancer Hospital is to a certain degree common; yet even when disclosure does take place, it is mainly in the absence of the child. Moreover, the information provided during the conversation may not be fully comprehended by the parent or the child because of the physician's misleading use of terms when disclosing the disease. Therefore, better practice should be developed for disease disclosure, and proper communication should be established between the patients and the provider; patient autonomy should also have an influence in the clinical practice.

  • 209.
    El Malla, Hanan
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Ylitalo Helm, Nathalie
    Göteborgs universitet, Karolinska institutet.
    Wilderäng, Ulrica
    Göteborgs universitet.
    El Sayed Elborai, Yasser
    Children’s Cancer Hospital Cairo, National Cancer Institute, Cairo, Egypt.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Göteborgs universitet, Karolinska institutet.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Karolinska institutet, Sophiahemmet.
    Adherence to medication: A nation-wide study from the Children's Cancer Hospital, Egypt.2013In: World journal of psychiatry, ISSN 2220-3206, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 25-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To investigate adherence to medical regimen and predictors for non-adherence among children with cancer in Egypt.

    METHODS: We administered two study specific questionnaires to 304 parents of children diagnosed with cancer at the Children's Cancer Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, one before the first chemotherapy treatment and the other before the third. The questionnaires were translated to colloquial Egyptian Arabic, and due, to the high illiteracy level in Egypt an interviewer read the questions in Arabic to each parent and registered the answers. Both questionnaires consisted of almost 90 questions each. In addition, a Case Report Form was filled in from the child's medical journal. The study period consisted of 7 mo (February until September 2008) and we had a participation rate of 97%. Descriptive statistics are presented and Fisher's exact test was used to check for possible differences between the adherent and non-adherent groups. A P-value below 0.05 was considered significant. Software used was SAS version 9.3 for Windows (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, United States).

    RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-one (90%) parents answered the second questionnaire, regarding their child's adherence behaviour. Approximately two thirds of the children admitted to their third chemotherapy treatment had received medical recommendations upon discharge from the first or second chemotherapy treatment (181/281, 64%). Sixty-eight percent (123/181) of the parents who were given medical recommendations reported that their child did not follow the recommendations. Two main predictors were found for non-adherence: child resistance (111/123, 90%) and inadequate information (100/123, 81%). In the adherent group, 20% of the parents (n = 12/58) reported trust in their child's doctor while 14 percent 8/58 reported trust in the other health-care professionals. Corresponding numbers for the non-adherent group are 8/123 (7%) for both their child's doctor and other health-care professionals. Almost all of the parents expressed a lack of optimism towards the treatment (116/121, 96%), yet they reported an intention to continue with the treatment for two main reasons, for the sake of their child's life (70%) (P = 0.005) and worry that their child would die if they discontinued the treatment (81%) (P < 0.0001).

    CONCLUSION: Non-adherence to medical regimen is common among children diagnosed with cancer in Egypt, the main reasons being child resistance and inadequate information.

  • 210.
    Elander, Astrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Adherence to inhalation technique and drugsin general in asthma- and COPD-patients.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 211.
    Elfving Olsson, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Skolsköterskans roll i arbetet att upptäcka och bemöta barn som har en förälder med alkohol missbruk: en intervjustudie2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the National Institute of Public Health about 350 000 Swedish children are living in homes where one or both adults has an alcohol addiction. Only one percent of these children is identified and offered support groups or similar activities, the rest goes by undetected through all of the educational years. The purpose of this study was to examine how the school nurse is working to identify children whose parents have an alcohol abuse and how they support these children. What support the school nurse wish to have in their work with these children, and how they keep themselves updated on the problems of these children. The basis of this study is based on a number of semi-structured questions. These questions were asked when interviewing ten school nurses. The material was analyzed by means of a qualitative content analysis. The results of the study demonstrate that the school nurse discovers children whose parents have an alcohol abuse by being watchful  and by gutfeeling in the meeting with the children and they are observent in the healthteam. They are giving support through personal contact with the children and by putting them in contact with

     other professions and buisnesses to provide them the support they need. The schoolnurse keeps her self updated of the problem through courses and lectures and by seeking information her self. The school nurse also cooperate with different professions round the school, and uses their own experiences from work and personal life.

  • 212.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Baek Larsen, Louise
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Tranberg, Roy
    Ortopeden, Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset, Gothenburg University, Göteborg.
    Ramstrand, Nerrolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Fysiska aspekter2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 213.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Baek Larsen, Louise
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Tranberg, Roy
    Ortopeden, Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset, Gothenburg University, Göteborg.
    Ramstrand, Nerrolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Psykosociala aspekter2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 214.
    Eliasson, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Påverkas läshastigheten och valet av färgat overlay av ljusets färgtemperatur?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka om ljusets färgtemperatur påverkar läshastigheten och valet av ett färgat overlay.

    Metod: I studien deltog 35 personer, 26 kvinnor och 9 män. Tre deltagare uteslöts då de inte klarade normalvärdena för de kliniska tester som genomfördes. De deltagare som klarade de kliniska testerna läste ett lästest under två ljuskällor med olika färgtemperatur, en varmvit och en neutralt vit. Testet lästes i en minut med och utan färgade overlays under båda ljuskällorna och antalet lästa ord noterades. Antalet lästa ord analyserades sedan med parade t-tester i Microsoft Excel. Även valet av färgade overlays sammanställdes och analyserades.

    Resultat: Det fanns ingen signifikant skillnad i läshastighet mellan ljuskällorna utan färgade overlays. Det fanns inte heller någon signifikant förbättring av läshastigheten med overlays. Det enda undantaget var att overlayet som valdes under den varmvita ljuskällan förbättrade läshastigheten under den neutralt vita ljuskällan med 2,5 %. Nio deltagare valde exakt samma overlay under båda ljuskällorna, 23 deltagare (72 %) valde overlay som skilde sig mellan ljuskällorna.

    Slutsats: Läshastigheten utan overlay påverkas inte av ljuskällans färgtemperatur. En majoritet av deltagarna valde olika färgade overlays under de båda ljuskällorna. Däremot syns ingen skillnad i läshastighet beroende på vilket färgat overlay som används till respektive ljuskälla.

  • 215.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Företagshälsovårdens arbete med förebyggande arbetsmiljöåtgärder inom fysisk arbetsmiljö: Arbetssätt, metoder och effekter2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En av företagshälsovårdens viktigaste uppgifter är att arbeta med primärpreventiva tjänster för att förebygga arbetsrelaterade ohälsa hos sina kundföretag. Det finns generellt sett lite internationell forskning om företagshälsovård och dess förebyggande arbetsmiljöarbete. Denna litteraturstudie syftar till att undersöka hur företagshälsovården arbetar som utförare av arbetsmiljöinterventioner hos olika kundföretag med inriktning på primärprevention gällande fysisk arbetsmiljö. Sju artiklar inkluderades i studien. Resultatet visar att det finns få studier där det tydligt framgår att företagshälsovården är utförare av interventionen. De inkluderade studierna visar att när ett multidisciplinärt team varit involverat samt när interventioner har skett på flera nivåer, det vill säga på organisations-, grupp- och individnivå så har effekten varit positiv. Framgångsrika arbetssätt som testats av företagshälsovården för ett primärpreventivt arbete inom fysisk arbetsmiljö har bland annat inneburit systematiska riskbedömningar och teamarbete tillsammans med kundföretaget.

  • 216.
    Elihn, Karine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Cronholm, Pontus
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Midander, Klara
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    Möller, Lennart
    Cellular doses of partly soluble Cu particle aerosols at the air-liquid interface using an in vitro lung cell exposure system2013In: Journal of Aerosol Medicine, ISSN 1941-2711, E-ISSN 1941-2703, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 84-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is currently a need to develop and test in vitro systems for predicting the toxicity of nanoparticles. One challenge is to determine the actual cellular dose of nanoparticles after exposure.

    Methods: In this study, human epithelial lung cells (A549) were exposed to airborne Cu particles at the air–liquidinterface (ALI). The cellular dose was determined for two different particle sizes at different deposition conditions, including constant and pulsed Cu aerosol flow.

    Results: Airborne polydisperse particles with a geometric mean diameter (GMD) of 180nm [geometric standarddeviation (GSD) 1.5, concentration 105 particles/mL] deposited at the ALI yielded a cellular dose of 0.4–2.6 lg/cm2 at pulsed flow and 1.6–7.6 lg/cm2 at constant flow. Smaller polydisperse particles in the nanoregime (GMD80 nm, GSD 1.5, concentration 107 particles/mL) resulted in a lower cellular dose of 0.01–0.05 lg/cm2 at pulsedflow, whereas no deposition was observed at constant flow. Exposure experiments with and without cells showed that the Cu particles were partly dissolved upon deposition on cells and in contact with medium.

    Conclusions: Different cellular doses were obtained for the different Cu particle sizes (generated with different methods). Furthermore, the cellular doses were affected by the flow conditions in the cell exposure system and the solubility of Cu. The cellular doses of Cu presented here are the amount of Cu that remained on the cells after completion of an experiment. As Cu particles were partly dissolved, Cu (a non negligible contribution) was, in addition, present and analyzed in the nourishing medium present beneath the cells. This study presents cellular doses induced by Cu particles and demonstrates difficulties with deposition of nanoparticles at the ALI and of partially soluble particles.

  • 217.
    Ellingsen, Sidsel
    et al.
    Haraldsplass University College, Bergen.
    Rosland, Jan-Henrik
    Sunniva, Clinic for Palliative Care, Bergen, Bergen University).
    Roxberg, Åsa
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Kristoffersen, Kjell
    Agder University, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Alvsvåg, Herdis
    Experience of time when living with Incurable Disease: A qualitative study2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Ellis, Rachel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Molander, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark..
    Predicting Speech-in-Noise Recognition from Performance on the Trail Making Test: Results from a Large-Scale Internet Study2016In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 73-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of an internet-based version of the trail making test (TMT) to predict performance on a speech-in-noise perception task.

    Design: Data were taken from a sample of 1509 listeners aged between 18 and 91 years old. Participants completed computerized versions of the TMT and an adaptive speech-in-noise recognition test. All testing was conducted via the internet.

    Results: The results indicate that better performance on both the simple and complex subtests of the TMT are associated with better speech-in-noise recognition scores. Thirty-eight percent of the participants had scores on the speech-in-noise test that indicated the presence of a hearing loss.

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that the TMT may be a useful tool in the assessment, and possibly the treatment, of speech-recognition difficulties. The results indicate that the relation between speech-in-noise recognition and TMT performance relates both to the capacity of the TMT to index processing speed and to the more complex cognitive abilities also implicated in TMT performance.

  • 219.
    Elmberg, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU).
    Lerner, Henrik
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Hessel, Rebecca
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Potential disease transmission from wild geese and swans to livestock,poultry and humans: a review of the scientific literature from a One Health perspective2017In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 1300450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are more herbivorous waterfowl (swans and geese) close to humans, livestock and poultry than ever before. This creates widespread conflict with agriculture and other human interests, but also debate about the role of swans and geese as potential vectors of disease of relevance for human and animal health. Using a One Health perspective, we provide the first comprehensive review of the scientific literature about the most relevant viral, bacterial, and unicellular pathogens occurring in wild geese and swans. Research thus far suggests that these birds may play a role in transmission of avian influenza virus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and antibiotic resistance. On the other hand, at present there is no evidence that geese and swans play a role in transmission of Newcastle disease, duck plague, West Nile virus, Vibrio, Yersinia, Clostridium, Chlamydophila, and Borrelia. Finally, based on present knowledge it is not possible to say if geese and swans play a role in transmission of Escherichia coli, Pasteurella, Helicobacter, Brachyspira, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Microsporidia. This is largely due to changes in classification and taxonomy, rapid development of identification methods and lack of knowledge about host specificity. Previous research tends to overrate the role of geese and swans as disease vectors; we do not find any evidence that they are significant transmitters to humans or livestock of any of the pathogens considered in this review. Nevertheless, it is wise to keep poultry and livestock separated from small volume waters used by many wild waterfowl, but there is no need to discourage livestock grazing in nature reserves or pastures where geese and swans are present. Under some circumstances it is warranted to discourage swans and geese from using wastewater ponds, drinking water reservoirs, and public beaches. Intensified screening of swans and geese for AIV, West Nile virus and anatid herpesvirus is warranted.

  • 220.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rethinking the hand-over process2012In: Journal of Paramedic Practice, ISSN 1759-1376, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 5-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RACTThe article focuses on the hand-over process as clinical hand-over of patient. It mentions that hand-over may begin if the fire or the police service are the first responders at the scene of an accident and they hand-over the responsibility for the injured patients to the ambulance. It says that hand-over also starts when the injured is handling over the responsibility for their own body to the first responders.

  • 221.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. 641006.
    Almerud Österberg, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Utvärdering av projekt Första InsatsPerson (FIP)2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 222.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences. 641006.
    Sandvide, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Integrerade interprofessionella lärandemiljöer2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 223.
    Elmstedt, Sixten
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Mogensen, Hanna
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallmans, Dan-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Tavelin, Björn
    Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, Umea, Sweden.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholms Sjukhem Fdn, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindskog, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Cancer patients hospitalised in the last week of life risk insufficient care quality - a population-based study from the Swedish Register of Palliative Care2019In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 432-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One-quarter of all cancer deaths in Sweden occur in hospitals. If the place of death affects the quality of end-of-life (EOL) is largely unknown.

    Methods: This population-based, retrospective study included all adults cancer deaths reported to the Swedish Register of Palliative Care in 2011-2013 (N = 41,729). Hospital deaths were compared to deaths occurring in general or specialised palliative care, or in nursing homes with respect to care quality indicators in the last week of life. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with specialised palliative home care as reference.

    Results: Preferred place of death was unknown for 63% of hospitalised patients and consistent with the actual place of death in 25% compared to 97% in palliative home care. Hospitalised patients were less likely to be informed when death was imminent (OR: 0.3; CI: 0.28-0.33) as were their families (OR: 0.51; CI: 0.46-0.57). Validated screening tools were less often used in hospitals for assessment of pain (OR: 0.32; CI: 0.30-0.34) or other symptoms (OR: 0.31; CI: 0.28-0.34) despite similar levels of EOL symptoms. Prescriptions of as needed drugs against anxiety (OR: 0.27; CI: 0.24-0.30), nausea (OR: 0.19; CI: 0.17-0.21), or pulmonary secretions (OR: 0.29; CI: 0.26-0.32) were less prevalent in hospitals. Bereavement support was offered after 57% of hospital deaths compared to 87-97% in palliative care units and 72% in nursing homes.

    Conclusions: Dying in hospital was associated with inferior end-of-life care quality among cancer patients in Sweden.

  • 224.
    Emanuelsson Blanck, Agneta
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nightingale2012In: Filosofi och medicin: från Platon till Foucault / [ed] Lennart Nordenfelt, Stockholm: Thales, 2012, p. 151-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 225. Emilsson, L.
    et al.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Koster, M.
    Lambe, M.
    Ludvigsson, J. F.
    Review of 103 Swedish Healthcare Quality Registries2015In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 277, no 1, p. 94-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: In the past two decades, an increasing number of nationwide, Swedish Healthcare Quality Registries (QRs) focusing on specific disorders have been initiated, mostly by physicians. Here, we describe the purpose, organization, variables, coverage and completeness of 103 Swedish QRs. Methods: From March to September 2013, we examined the 2012 applications of 103 QRs to the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR) and also studied the annual reports from the same QRs. After initial data abstraction, the coordinator of each QR was contacted at least twice between June and October 2013 and asked to confirm the accuracy of the data retrieved from the applications and reports. Results: About 60% of the QRs covered 80% of their target population (completeness). Data recorded in Swedish QRs include aspects of disease management (diagnosis, clinical characteristics, treatment and lead times). In addition, some QRs retrieve data on self-reported quality of life (EQ5D, SF-36 and disease-specific measures), lifestyle (smoking) and general health status (World Health Organization performance status, body mass index and blood pressure). ConclusionDetailed clinical data available in Swedish QRs complement information from government-administered registries and provide an important source not only for assessment and development of quality of care but also for research.

  • 226.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindquist, H.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Bergmark, K.
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Participation in water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery: Experiences of significant factors for continuing exercising as a part of cancer rehabilitation2018In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 27, no 1, article id e12736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although physical exercising has great benefits, little is known regarding factors of significance for cancer survivors to continue exercising within their rehabilitation. The objective was to describe factors experienced to be of significance for cancer survivors to continue with water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery. Women (n=29) who had undergone breast cancer surgery (mastectomy 79%, axillary surgery 86%, and radiotherapy 86%) for median (md) 13 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) was followed up regarding their rehabilitation, arm function Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (md 14, IQR 7-32), EQ-5D score (md 0.8, IQR 0.73-1.0) and quality of life EQ health barometer (md 80, IQR 64-95). We performed qualitative focus-group interviews regarding the womens views (n=24). The women had participated in water-exercising 1-46 semesters, md 8 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) semesters. Nearly all, 97%, participated in the water-exercising group every week, and 21 (72%) had participated in the water-exercising group at least half of the time since their breast cancer surgery, without complications. The women experienced that factors of significance to continue with water-exercising were the convenience of easily modified weightless exercising in the water, social interaction, and access to a private dressing room. These factors would be important to consider to encourage continuing in exercising.

  • 227.
    Engelbrekt, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    Familjeterapeuters erfarenhet av att arbeta med temat sexualitet i familjeterapi2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka familjeterapeuters erfarenheter av att arbeta med

    temat sexualitet i familjeterapi. För att försöka besvara detta genomfördes intervjuer

    med fem legitimerade familjeterapeuter som hade erfarenheter av att arbeta med par.

    Frågeställningarna var; Förekommer temat sexualitet i de samtal familjeterapeuter

    har? Hur ser familjeterapeuter på sin roll när det gäller temat sexualitet i samtalen?

    Fem intervjuer genomfördes och analyserades med tematisk analys. Resultatet visar

    att temat sexualitet ofta kommer upp i familjeterapeuternas samtal främst när det

    gäller parsamtal där temat initierades av familjeterapeuterna oavsett vilket uppdrag

    som presenterades. Tema sexualitet kom även upp i individualsamtal men då mer

    sammankopplat med det problem man sökte för. Familjeterapeuterna ansåg att det är

    deras ansvar att ta upp temat sexualitet. För att våga detta krävdes att terapeuten var

    trygg med ämnet sexualitet. Faktorer som bidrog till denna trygghet var

    familjeterapeuternas inställning till och klargörande av sin egen sexualitet, kunskaper

    i ämnet sexualitet, handledning där sexualitet togs upp samt tillgång till forum där

    man kunde prata om sexualitet.

  • 228.
    Englund-Lehmann, Lena
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Validitet och reliabilitet av ett arbetsbelastningsindex (AI) i en FHV enkät2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    The purpose of this work was to scientifically evaluate the sustainability of parts of  a company-specific survey within the Occupational Health Services (FHV). The service is called HALU which is an abbreviation of the “Work Health and Lifestyle” survey and provided by Feelgood AB. HALU is a questionnaire that is used frequently towards the customer and answered on an individual level with subsequent health interviews and a statement regarding the organization's performance in order to identify the health, lifestyle and working situation of the organization. In this work, questions regarding workloads were evaluated. There were six different workload questions, and the question in this paper were whether these issues had an internal consistency, validity and reliability, and if these issues’ correlation to questions about health during the past year. These analyzes were designed as cross-sectional studies The work also included a longitudinal study in which survey responses from the same individual on two occasions analyzed to see if the responses of workload and health has correlation at two different response times. The material used is a selection from Feelgood database from which includes total includes 130,422 HALU surveys. This sample includes 17,513 surveys from 201007. The study was performed in three steps: Step 1 was a reliability study in which the internal consistency analysis regarding workload questions in the questionnaire . A workload index was created (AI) Stage 2 was a validity study where the correlation coefficient analyzed for correlation between the AI which was calculated in step 1 and the in -depth study of health issues. Step 3 was also a validity study where the correlation coefficient was analyzed in terms of relationships between different survey occasions in the same individual, in order to see if the change in workload results in change in self-perceived health . The result showed that there was strong internal consistency regarding workload issues and that there was correlation between workload and health in a cross section . There were also correlation between survey responses occasions but this was low.

  • 229.
    Engström, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Information to the patient: an attempt to satisfy the patient's need for information1986Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissatisfaction with medical information is a common problem among patients. There is also evidence that patients lack information that physicians believe they have given to the patient. The aims of this study were to 1) survey patients' subjective need for, and satisfaction with, the information that they received during their hospital stay 2) develop and evaluate systematic routines for giving information to the patients and also communication and collaboration between the medical and nursing staff concerning the satisfaction of the patients' need for information.

    The study was an intervention project and the research perspective was organizational psychology.

    Survey study. The patients experienced a considerable need for medical information, especially about the examination results and prognosis. The patients' need for information regarding prognosis was the least satisfied.

    Intervention 1. A general improvement of the information to the patients occurred when the systematic routines were established. The patients' subjective need for information was unchanged throughout two years. Their satisfaction with information, after an initial improvement, did not increase throughout these two years. There was low correlation between the patients' and their physicians' estimations concerning the patients' need for information on diagnosis, prognosis and examination results. Likewise, concerning the adequacy of that information.

    Intervention 2. Communication and collaboration between the medical and nursing staff included a system for assessment and solution of the patients' information problems. Problem-solving took place at a multidisciplinary team conference (MTC). Medical problems were better elucidated than the patients' psychological problems. After training of registered nurses (RN) as conference chairpersons, the patients need for information was better understood. The staff reported 42 information problems after training compared to two before. For half of the information problems decisions were discussed on steps to be taken in order to satisfy the patients' need for information. A year after the system for assessment and solution of information problems was established, the patients were more satisfied with information about examinations and their results and on information about medication (p< 0.05). Further, new norms for the patients' need for information were established and a change was initiated.

    The results are discussed with regard to how and why patients' shall have information, by whom and to whom information shall be given, when and where information shall be given and which content it shall have.

  • 230.
    Enqvist, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Sundström, Martina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Standardisering av talperceptionstestet Lyssna-Säg: Diskrimination och identifikation av svenska konsonantkontraster i betingelserna tyst och babbel hos typiskt utvecklade barn2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Impaired speech perception occurs in several groups of children enrolled at Speech Language Pathology and Audiological clinics. There may be children with language impairment, cognitive impairments, hearing impairments and children with (Central)Auditory Processing Disorders (CAPD). At present no standardized speech perceptiontest in Swedish provides information about how children discriminate, identify and produce speech sound contrasts in words. It is therefore of great importance to develop diagnostic tools to obtain a reliable test procedure and enable differential diagnostics.The present study had two purposes, to prepare and standardize a new speech perceptiontest (the Listen-Say test) and to investigate how typically developing children in grade 1 and 2 perform in quiet and in babble noise. The study included 21 children. Results showed that the children discriminated significantly more correct consonant contrasts inquiet compared to babble noise for all consonant contrasts combined. The study alsoshowed differences in some of the contrasts that were examined, both between quiet andbabble noise and between grades, grade 2 discriminated more correct contrasts thangrade 1. Significantly shorter reaction times for correct recognition of target words inbabble noise compared to quiet was observed. It is necessary to develop the test additionally prior to use in clinical practice. Nevertheless, the first data collection highlights important aspects of speech perception of Swedish consonant contrasts inquiet and in babble noise.

  • 231. Enroth, Stefan
    et al.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Effects of Long-Term Storage Time and Original Sampling Month on Biobank Plasma Protein Concentrations2016In: EBioMedicine, ISSN 0360-0637, E-ISSN 2352-3964, Vol. 12, p. 309-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of clinical biobank samples is crucial to their value for life sciences research. A number of factors related to the collection and storage of samples may affect the biomolecular composition. We have studied the effect of long-time freezer storage, chronological age at sampling, season and month of the year and on the abundance levels of 108 proteins in 380 plasma samples collected from 106 Swedish women. Storage time affected 18 proteins and explained 4.8–34.9% of the observed variance. Chronological age at sample collection after adjustment for storage-time affected 70 proteins and explained 1.1–33.5% of the variance. Seasonal variation had an effect on 15 proteins and month (number of sun hours) affected 36 proteins and explained up to 4.5% of the variance after adjustment for storage-time and age. The results show that freezer storage time and collection date (month and season) exerted similar effect sizes as age on the protein abundance levels. This implies that information on the sample handling history, in particular storage time, should be regarded as equally prominent covariates as age or gender and need to be included in epidemiological studies involving protein levels.

  • 232. Enthoven, Paul
    et al.
    Molander, Peter
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Gerdle, Björn
    Does level of experienced pain guide selection to multimodal pain rehabilitation?2016In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 233.
    Enthoven, Paul
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Div Physiotherapy, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Div Physiotherapy, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Landen Ludvigsson, Maria
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Div Physiotherapy, Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Rehabil, Motala, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Motala, Sweden.
    Wibault, Johanna
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Div Physiotherapy, Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Motala, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Dept Act & Hlth, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Peterson, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD). Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Div Physiotherapy, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Oberg, Birgitta
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Div Physiotherapy, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Validity, internal consistency and self-rated change of the patient enablement instrument in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain2019In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 51, no 8, p. 587-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Patient enablement reflects patient's understanding of and coping with illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the content validity, construct validity, internal consistency and selfrated change (SRC) of the Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) in patients with whiplash-associated disorders, cervical radiculopathy and mixed chronic pain treated in different settings.

    Design: Psychometric analyses. Participants: Patients with disabling non-malignant chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Methods: Participants answered questionnaires on disability (Neck Disability Index (NDI) or Functional Rating Index (FRI)), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS) and general health (EuroQol; EQ-5D). Content validity, construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis), internal consistency and cut-off for SRC were investigated for the PEI after treatment. The SRC value was the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve optimal cut-off point.

    Results: After treatment all items were completed by 516 patients (mean standard deviation (SD) age 45.1 years (SD 10.1), women 75% (n=385)). The 1-factor PEI model had approximate fit to the data. The internal consistency Cronbach's alpha was between 0.878 and 0.929 for the 3 groups. Correlations between the PEI and the NDI/FRI, HADS and EQ-5D were fair to good. The SRCROC for whiplash-associated disorders, cervical radiculopathy and mixed chronic pain groups was 5, 6 and 4 points in the PEI, respectively.

    Conclusion: The PEI showed fair content validity, construct validity and internal consistency. However, the scale needs further development to improve measurement of change.

  • 234.
    Enweji, Nizar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Kheri, Amani
    Kerje, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Abdel-Muhsin, Abdel-Muhsin
    Babiker, Hamza
    Swedberg, Göte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Dynamics of asymptomatic malaria infections as revealed by microsatellite typingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Enweji, Nizar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Sharif, Hanan
    Swedish University of agricultural Sciences.
    Abdel-Muhsin, Abdel-Muhsin
    Babiker, Hamza
    Swedberg, Göte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Real-time quantitative PCR for determining Plasmodium falciparum parasite density in patients with asymptomatic infection in a seasonal transmission area.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 236.
    Erhardsdotter, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekelund, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bland lagar, jornalmallar och medicinska termer: En studie av barnlogopeders journalföring2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att skriva journal utgör en stor del av logopeders administrativa arbete, och för att reglera och kvalitetssäkra journalers hantering och innehåll finns det lagar och föreskrifter som måste följas. Journalmallar utformas till viss del efter dessa lagar och föreskrifter, men varierar beroende på typ av verksamhet och journalsystem. Att effektivisera och standardisera journalföring är viktigt då journalen kan fungera som en kommunikationsväg för flera vårdgivare, samt som informationskälla för patient och anhöriga. Journalen bör därför vara enkel att följa och vara skriven med ett språk som i så stor grad som möjligt kan förstås av olika yrkesprofessioner inom vården. Att följa upp hur dessa mallar efterföljs, samt om förbättringar kan göras, är därför ett värdefullt arbete.

    Syftet med studien har varit att kartlägga hur sökorden i statusdelen används av fem yrkesverksamma barnlogopeder, och om de använde sökorden utifrån verksamhetens lokala mall. Ytterligare en aspekt författarna ansåg var av intresse att studera var språkbruk och förståelighet i journalerna, vilket gjordes i pilotform av författarna själva. Totalt analyserades 15 journaler.

    Resultatet i kartläggningen av användandet av sökord i journalernas statusdel visade bland annat att information fördes in under fel sökord i sju av de femton journalerna utifrån journalmallen. Författarna kom i studien bland annat fram till att mallen som journalen skrivs efter behöver vara väldefinierad och tydligt utformad för att minska tolkningsfriheten för att få så enhetliga, tydliga och lättförståeliga journaler som möjligt.

  • 237.
    Erichsen Andersson, Annette
    et al.
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Anesthesia, Surgery, and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Petzold, Max
    Akademistatistik - Centre for Applied Biostatistics, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Karlsson, Jón
    Department of Orthopedics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden / The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Bengt I.
    Department of Orthopedics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden / The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Comparison between mixed and laminar airflow systems in operating rooms and the influence of human factors: Experiences from a Swedish orthopedic center2014In: American Journal of Infection Control, ISSN 0196-6553, E-ISSN 1527-3296, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 665-669Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 238.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Intermediate-sized (skeletin) filaments of heart Purkinje fibres: an investigation into their morphology, composition and function1979Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 239.
    Eriksson, Anna L.
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Böttiger, Ylva
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ekman, Agneta
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reis, Margareta
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Persson, Katarina
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Pettersson Kymmer, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; University Hospital of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wallerstedt, Susanna M.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Läkemedelsarbete behöver vara integrerat i klinisk utbildning: Att göra många läkemedelsgenomgångar ökar trygghet och reflektion över patientens behandling, visar enkätstudie [Preparing for the licence to prescribe in medical school: a questionnaire study on medical students professional confidence in the art of prescribing].2019In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 116, article id FHCTArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A prerequisite for rational use of medicines is adequate prescribing skills; drug treatment is a complex task requiring diagnostic competence combined with pharmacologic knowledge and patient communication skills. Acquiring professional confidence in the art of prescribing is essential during medical training. The results of this questionnaire study, conducted in four medical schools in Sweden after the course in internal medicine (252 respondents; response rate: 74%; median age: 24 years, 61% female), show that 45% and 62% were confident in performing medication reviews and writing medication summary reports, respectively, i.e. the basics of prescribing. The confidence increased by the number of reviews and reports performed, i.e. the extent of practice (correlation coefficients: 0.41 and 0.38, respectively, both p<0.0001), as did the extent of the students' reflection on important aspects of drug treatment such as adherence, adverse reactions, renal function, dosing, and drug interactions. In multivariate regression analyses, major predictors for confidence in performing medication reviews were extent of practice and extent of clinical supervision. The results suggest that these factors are keys to acquiring professional confidence in the art of prescribing.

  • 240.
    Eriksson, Anni
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    Jämlik vård: en undersökning om den tekniska hörselrehabiliteringen påverkas av patientens ålder2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Jämlik vård är att alla ska bemötas, behandlas och vårdas på lika villkor oavsett enskilda faktorer. I hörselrehabiliteringen ingår det flera delar och varje del ska utgå från helhetsperspektivet och ske i samverkan med den enskilde. Audionomen ska inte påverkas av faktorer såsom kön eller ålder. Tidigare studier visar dock att ålder är en avgörande faktor i många fall, det råder en form av ålderism och åldersdiskriminering inom vården. Inga tidigare studier har hittats på hur den tekniska rehabiliteringen påverkas av ålder inom hörselvården varför detta låg i vårt intresse.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur jämlik den tekniska rehabiliteringen är inom hörselvården beroende på patienternas ålder.

    Metod: Studien är deskriptiv retrospektiv och är gjord genom journalgenomgång.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar inte några tydliga skillnader i den tekniska rehabiliteringen beroende på patientens ålder. Patienternas behov varierade mycket både inom grupperna och mellan grupperna. Skillnader kunde dock ses gällande patienter med samma behov och typ av hörapparat där patienter oavsett ålder kunde ha fått olika typer av hörapparater trots samma behov/mål.

    Slutsatser: Inga generella slutsatser kan dras huruvida den tekniska hörselrehabiliteringen är jämlik eller ej. Fler studier behövs inom ämnet där urvalet är större.

  • 241.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rex, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    En fokusgruppstudie om Utbildning i svenska för invandrare (SFI): SFI-lärares syn på utbildningen och relaterade språkliga områden2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Utbildning i svenska för invandrare (SFI) ryms flera logopediskt intressanta områden. För att få en större inblick i SFI gjordes därför denna kvalitativa studie över lärares syn på undervisning inom SFI med hjälp av två fokusgruppintervjuer och grundad teori som forskningsansats. Denna studie har som huvudsyfte att spegla hur SFI-lärare ser på såväl sin egen undervisning som undervisning inom detta område i stort. Vidare frågar sig författarna hur lärare ser på de språkliga områdena: fonologi, grammatik, lexikon, pragmatik samt läs- och skrivförmåga. Uppsatsen genomsyras av tre huvudteman;

    samhälle, SFI-undervisning och individ, som uppstått under pågående studie. En fördjupad modell har dessutom gjorts över temat SFI-undervisning.. Det framkommer att SFI-undervisning är ett komplext område som både påverkar och påverkas av såväl individ som samhälle. Sammanfattningsvis framkommer att varje tema var för sig genomsyras av en central del; resurser, tid respektive individualisering. Samhället styr vilka resurser som finns att tillgå och hur SFI i stora drag organiseras. På SFI påverkar tidsaspekten till vilken grad undervisningen kan individualiseras för den enskilda eleven. Två områden som särskilt utmärker sig i intervjusamtal kring behov av resurser är uttalsvårigheter samt läs- och skrivsvårigheter och dyslexi.

    Slutligen beskrivs att det vore av intresse att utreda vilka personresurser som redan finns och vad de i nuläget arbetar med samt effekten av detta. Författarna föreslår därmed att vidare studier görs för att utröna om individualisering av undervisning kan underlättas med hjälp av ökade resurser eller samarbeten och i så fall hur dessa bör vara utformade. Vid en sådan studie skulle också frågan om logopeder är en yrkeskategori som skulle kunna komplettera eller utgöra en hjälp för SFI, kunna besvaras.

  • 242.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rex, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vad kommer en treåring ihåg?: En studie om svenska barns arbetsminne och fonologi2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are few studies regarding phonological skills related to working memory in young children. There is also a lack of tests of working memory for children in the younger ages. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine the relationship between visual working memory, phonological working memory and the ability to manage phonological representations, in three-year-olds. This was done by collecting comparison data of threeyear- old children’s results on the newly developed tablet-test ”KUBEN” (Cognitive development in young children), which measures the abilities visual and phonological working memory and phonological discrimination. In addition test for phonological production, also tested with tablet, and nonword repetition were used. A total of 91 Swedish three-year-old children with typical development participated in the study.

    For especially visual working memory, there was a lack of material with which to compare, but the result showed that children performed as expected regarding all tested abilities. The abilities improved with increasing age. On the contrary, neither gender nor experience of using tablets, affected the results of the children’s performance. The result of this study further describes relations between the tested abilities. There were correlations between all the abilities in this study that measures phonological representations (phonological discrimination, nonword repetition and phonological production). However, these phonological abilities did not correlate with the test of phonological working memory, which is a less expected finding. A possible explanation may be that it is difficult to test phonological working memory separately in children as young as three years old. Neither was there a correlation between tests of phonological and visual working memory, which indicates that two different abilities of working memory were tested. This confirms the faction within research arguing that visual and phonological working memory are separated abilities, already in young children.

  • 243.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Wikstrom, Lotta
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linnaeus University, Sweden; Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Broström, Anders
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology. Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Association of pain ratings with the prediction of early physical recovery after general and orthopaedic surgery-A quantitative study with repeated measures2017In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 73, no 11, p. 2664-2675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To compare different levels of self-rated pain and determine if they predict anticipated early physical recovery in patients undergoing general and orthopaedic surgery. Background: Previous research has indicated that average self-rated pain reflects patients ability to recover the same day. However, there is a knowledge gap about the feasibility of using average pain ratings to predict patients physical recovery for the next day. Design: Descriptive, quantitative repeated measures. Methods: General and orthopaedic inpatients (n = 479) completed a questionnaire (October 2012-January 2015) about pain and recovery. Average pain intensity at rest and during activity was based on the Numeric Rating Scale and divided into three levels (0-3, 4-6, 7-10). Three out of five dimensions from the tool "Postoperative Recovery Profile" were used. Because few suffered severe pain, general and orthopaedic patients were analysed together. Results: Binary logistic regression analysis showed that average pain intensity postoperative day 1 significantly predicted the impact on recovery day 2, except nausea, gastrointestinal function and bladder function when pain at rest and also nausea, appetite changes, and bladder function when pain during activity. High pain ratings (NRS 7-10) demonstrated to be a better predictor for recovery compared with moderate ratings (NRS 4-6), day 2, as it significantly predicted more items in recovery. Conclusion: Pain intensity reflected general and orthopaedic patients physical recovery postoperative day 1 and predicted recovery for day 2. By monitoring patients pain and impact on recovery, patients need for support becomes visible which is valuable during hospital stays.

  • 244.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hagström, Katja
    Department of Environmental Science, Örebro University, Örebro, .
    Axelsson, Sara
    Örebro Univ Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med.
    Nylander-French, Leena
    Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA .
    Tape-stripping as a method for measuring dermal exposure to resin acids during wood pellet production2008In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 10, p. 345-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific method for quantifying dermal exposure to the resin acids 7-oxodehydroabietic acid (7-OXO), dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), abietic acid (AA), and pimaric acid (PA). In addition the method was evaluated in occupational settings during production of wood pellets. Tape-strips were spiked with the substances to evaluate the recovery of the acids from the tape. The removal efficiency of the tape was assessed by tape-stripping a specified area on a glass plate spiked with resin acids. The recovery of the acids from human skin in vivo was evaluated by applying acids in methanol onto the skin of volunteers. Occupational dermal exposure to the resin acids was assessed by tape-stripping the skin of workers involved in the production of wood pellets. The resin acids were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The limit of detection was 15 pg (7-OXO), 150 pg (DHAA), 285 pg (AA) and 471 pg (PA) per injection. The recovery from spiked tapes was in general 100%. The removal efficiency of the tape was 48–101%. Recovery tests from human skin in vivo showed a mean recovery of 27%. Quantifiable amounts of resin acids were observed on four different skin areas with an increase in exposure during a work shift. This study shows that occupational dermal exposure to resin acids can be assessed by tape-stripping and quantified by LC-MS.

  • 245.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Moritz, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Att förklara läsförståelse hos förstaklassare: En studie om vilka kognitiva förmågor som förklarar läsförståelse hos barn i årskurs ett2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Phonological awareness, decoding skills, letter knowledge and working memory capacity predict early reading skills. The aim of the present study was to examine how these different basic cognitive abilities together can explain reading comprehension in children during first year of school. Reading comprehension, decoding, phonological awareness, letter knowledge and working memory were studied in 36 children in first grade with normal hearing and had Swedish as their native language. The results show that decoding and phonological awareness together explain 62 % of the variance in reading comprehension among the participants. The conclusion from the present study is that decoding and phonological awareness predict reading comprehension during first grade.

  • 246.
    Eriksson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hammarström, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Värmeballongbehandling som endometriedestruktion vid rikliga gynekologiska blödningar: Utfallet av en behandling2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mellan 200901 och 201212 genomgick 77 kvinnor värmeballongbehandling på grund av rikliga gynekologiska blödningar vid en gynekologisk klinik i Mellansverige. Postoperativt fick sju kvinnor stanna kvar över natten på grund av smärta och illamående, en kvinna fick stanna kvar då hon hade blödningsproblematik sedan tidigare och hennes blödningsbenägenhet kontrollerades, en kvinna fick problem med sitt blodsocker då hon var insulinbehandlad diabetiker och fick stanna för observation och tre kvinnor kunde inte tömma blåsan efter operationen. Sammanlagt åtta kvinnor fick endometrit efter värmeballongbehandlingen varav en fick läggas in för intravenös antibiotikabehandling. Fem av 77 kvinnor valde att hysterektomera sig inom ett år efter värmeballongbehandlingen, antigen på grund av fortsatta besvär med rikliga blödningar efter endometriedestruktionen eller på grund av kraftiga underlivssmärtor efter komplikationer som orsakades av värmeballongbehandlingen - enbart en kvinna valde på egen begäran hysterektomi trots ett normalt blödningsmönster efter värmeballongbehandlingen då hon önskade bli amenorreisk. 

  • 247.
    Falck, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    Norlander, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    "Man tittar liksom med deras ögon": - Erfarenheter av föräldragruppsbehandlingen Perspektiv2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föräldrars mentaliseringsförmåga är avgörande för ett barns psykiska hälsa och utveckling.

    Utifrån detta utformades föräldragruppsbehandlingen Perspektiv med eklektisk utgångspunkt

    i framför allt Theraplay och Dialektisk beteendeterapi. Behandlingen gavs till föräldrar med

    barn mellan 0-12 år med allvarlig barnpsykiatrisk problematik med varierad symtombild och

    etiologi. En kvalitativ studie med fokusgruppsintervjuer genomfördes med syfte att undersöka

    föräldrars erfarenheter av behandlingen och eventuella upplevelser av effekt. Resultaten

    redovisas i teman som visar upplevelse av god effekt, vilket tolkas och diskuteras utifrån

    terapeutisk gruppeffekt, mentaliseringsutveckling och generalisering i vardagen vilka bygger

    på varandra i en cirkulär process. Resultaten stöder tidigare forskning som visar att

    föräldragruppsbehandling och mentaliseringsutveckling i grupp är effektivt. Studiens resultat

    motiverar fortsatt användning inom barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin och fortsatt

    metodutveckling.

  • 248.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Stuart, Geoffrey W.
    La Trobe University Melbourne, Australia.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bram, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lönebrink, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University.
    Visual Acuity in Adults with Asperger’s Syndrome: No Evidence for “Eagle-Eyed” Vision2011In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 70, no 9, p. 812-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are defined by criteria comprising impairments in social interaction and communication.Altered visual perception is one possible and often discussed cause of difficulties in social interaction and social communication. Recently,Ashwin et al. suggested that enhanced ability in local visual processing in ASC was due to superior visual acuity, but that study has been thesubject of methodological criticism, placing the findings in doubt.

    Methods: The present study investigated visual acuity thresholds in 24 adults with Asperger’s syndrome and compared their results with 25control subjects with the 2 Meter 2000 Series Revised ETDRS Chart.

    Results: The distribution of visual acuities within the two groups was highly similar, and none of the participants had superior visual acuity.

    Conclusions: Superior visual acuity in individuals with Asperger’s syndrome could not be established, suggesting that differences in visualperception in ASC are not explained by this factor.Acontinued search for explanations of superior ability in local visual processing in personswith ASC is therefore warranted.

  • 249.
    Fallmark, Gunneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    Det finns evidens för lek inom barnpsykoterapi!: En systematisk litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Barns mentala ohälsa ökar kraftigt. Barnpsykoterapi med inslag av fri lek, här kallad lekterapi, har under många år varit den traditionella behandlingen av barn i behov av psykoterapi. För att ha en möjlighet att kunna jämföras vetenskapligt med andra dokumenterade behandlingsmetoder behöver evidensen för lekterapi som behandlingsmetod undersökas, stärkas liksom spridas. 

    Syftet med föreliggande uppsats är att undersöka kunskapsläget inom lekterapi som behandlingsmetod inom barnpsykoterapi. 

    Totalt 41 studier har granskats systematiskt enligt evidensbaserad medicinsk metod. Tjugoen av dem poängbedömdes medan övriga 20 delades upp i temagrupper för att visa ett ytterligare djup och bredd av de analyserade studierna. Tretton studier av de 21 poängbedömda fick minst 80% av totalpoängen, gradering I, och sju stycken graderingen II, d. v. s. 70-80% av max poängen. Enligt internationell praxis av gradering av evidensstyrka för slutsatser, visar två studier, eller fler, med ett högt bevisvärde eller god systematisk översikt på ett starkt vetenskapligt underlag som ger god evidens. Som ett bifynd visade sig 16 av de 41 studierna även ha en direkt anknytning till affektiv neurovetenskaplig forskning. 

    Rekommendationen är att använda barnpsykoterapi med fri lek för barn som ska behandlas vid mental ohälsa.

  • 250. Farrohknia, Nasim
    et al.
    Castrén, Maaret
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lind, Lars
    Oredsson, Sven
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Asplund, Kjell
    Göransson, Katarina
    Emergency department triage scales and their components: a systematic review of the scientific evidence2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 19, no 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency department (ED) triage is used to identify patients' level of urgency and treat them based on their triage level. The global advancement of triage scales in the past two decades has generated considerable research on the validity and reliability of these scales. This systematic review aims to investigate the scientific evidence for published ED triage scales. The following questions are addressed:

    1. Does assessment of individual vital signs or chief complaints affect mortality during the hospital stay or within 30 days after arrival at the ED?

    2. What is the level of agreement between clinicians' triage decisions compared to each other or to a gold standard for each scale (reliability)?

    3. How valid is each triage scale in predicting hospitalization and hospital mortality?

    A systematic search of the international literature published from 1966 through March 31, 2009 explored the British Nursing Index, Business Source Premier, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and PubMed. Inclusion was limited to controlled studies of adult patients (≥15 years) visiting EDs for somatic reasons. Outcome variables were death in ED or hospital and need for hospitalization (validity). Methodological quality and clinical relevance of each study were rated as high, medium, or low. The results from the studies that met the inclusion criteria and quality standards were synthesized applying the internationally developed GRADE system. Each conclusion was then assessed as having strong, moderately strong, limited, or insufficient scientific evidence. If studies were not available, this was also noted.

    We found ED triage scales to be supported, at best, by limited and often insufficient evidence.

    The ability of the individual vital signs included in the different scales to predict outcome is seldom, if at all, studied in the ED setting. The scientific evidence to assess interrater agreement (reliability) was limited for one triage scale and insufficient or lacking for all other scales. Two of the scales yielded limited scientific evidence, and one scale yielded insufficient evidence, on which to assess the risk of early death or hospitalization in patients assigned to the two lowest triage levels on a 5-level scale (validity).

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