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  • 201.
    Andersson, Johan P.A.
    et al.
    Department of Animal Physiology, Lund University.
    Linér, Mats H.
    Lund University Hospital.
    Rünow, Elisabeth
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Diving response and arterial oxygen saturation during apnea and exercise in breath-hold divers2002In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 882-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed the effects of apnea in air and apnea with face immersion in cold water (10°C) on the diving response and arterial oxygen saturation during dynamic exercise. Eight trained breath-hold divers performed steady-state exercise on a cycle ergometer at 100 W. During exercise, each subject performed 30-s apneas in air and 30-s apneas with face immersion. The heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation decreased and blood pressure increased during the apneas. Compared with apneas in air, apneas with face immersion augmented the heart rate reduction from 21 to 33% (P < 0.001) and the blood pressure increase from 34 to 42% (P < 0.05). The reduction in arterial oxygen saturation from eupneic control was 6.8% during apneas in air and 5.2% during apneas with face immersion (P < 0.05). The results indicate that augmentation of the diving response slows down the depletion of the lung oxygen store, possibly associated with a larger reduction in peripheral venous oxygen stores and increased anaerobiosis. This mechanism delays the fall in alveolar and arterial Po2 and, thereby, the development of hypoxia in vital organs. Accordingly, we conclude that the human diving response has an oxygen-conserving effect during exercise.

  • 202. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea in humans.1998In: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, ISSN 1066-2936, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 21-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the effect of the human diving response, defined as bradycardia and reduced peripheral blood flow, on arterial hemoglobin desaturation. We induced a diving response of different magnitudes by using apnea in air and apnea with face immersion. Each of21 subjects performed five apneas in air and five apneas with face immersion in 10°C water. Periods of apnea in both conditions were of the same duration in any individual subject (average: 126.4 s) and the order of air and water was equally distributed among subjects. Heart rate, skin capillary blood flow, arterial blood pressure, arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation during apneas, and end-tidal fractions of CO2 after apneas were recorded with non-invasive methods. The bradycardia and capillary blood flow reduction during apnea in air (7.8 and 37.7% change from control, respectively) were significantly potentiated by face immersion (13.6 and 55.9%, respectively). Arterial hemoglobin desaturated more during apnea in air (2.7%) compared to during apnea with face immersion (1.4%). We conclude that the potentiation of the human diving response with face immersion in cold water leads to a smaller decrease in arterial hemoglobin saturation, which may reflect an oxygen-conserving effect

  • 203. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Diving response and apneic time in humans. 1998In: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, ISSN 1066-2936, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare apneic time with the human diving response, defined as heart rate (HR) reduction and reduced skin blood flow, in groups with varying degrees of breath-hold diving experience. Apneic time and HR reduction at apneas in air and apneas with face immersion in cold water were thus recorded in nine groups. Skin capillary blood flow was recorded in six of the groups. All subjects received the same information on maximizing apneic duration, and no information about their progress during the apneas. The longest apneas and the most pronounced cardiovascular adjustments were found in the young, trained divers. It was found that apneic time was significantly correlated to HR reduction among the nine groups (r = 0.94, P < 0.001), and to skin capillary blood flow reduction among the six groups where the parameter was measured (r = 0.82, P < 0.05). The correlation between HR reduction and skin capillary blood flow reduction was also significant (r = 0.85, P < 0.05). When the difference in HR reduction and apneic time between apneas in air and apneas with face immersion were compared in the nine groups, it was found that all groups reacted with a more pronounced HR reduction during apneas with face immersion. All groups without prior breath-hold diving experience were found to perform shorter apneas with face immersion than apneas in air, or apneas of the same duration in both conditions, which has been reported in other studies. However, in all groups with diving experience, the apneic time was prolonged during apneas with face immersion. The results of this study suggest an oxygen-conserving effect of the diving response in trained apneic divers

  • 204. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effects of lung volume and involuntary breathing movements on the human diving response1997In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, Vol. 77, no 1/2, p. 19-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of lung volume and involuntary breathing movements on the human diving response were studied in 17 breath-hold divers. Each subject performed maximal effort apnoeas and simulated dives by apnoea and cold water face immersion, at lung volumes of 60%, 85%, and 100% of prone vital capacity (VC). Time of apnoea, blood pressure, heart rate, skin capillary blood flow, and fractions of end-expiratory CO 2 and O 2 were measured. The length of the simulated dives was the shortest at 60% of VC, probably because at this level the build up of alveolar CO 2 was fastest. Apnoeas with face immersion at 100% of VC gave a marked drop in arterial pressure during the initial 20?s, probably due to high intrathoracic pressure mechanically reducing venous return. The diving response was most pronounced at 60% of VC. We concluded that at the two larger lung volumes both mechanical factors and input from pulmonary stretch receptors influenced the bradycardia and vasoconstriction, resulting in a non-linear relationship between the breath-hold lung volume and magnitude of the diving response in the near-VC range. Furthermore, the involuntary breathing movements that appeared during the struggle phase of the apnoeas were too small to affect the diving response

  • 205. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gislén, Anna
    Holm, Boris
    Cardiovascular responses to cold water immersions of the forearm and face, and their relationship to apnoea2000In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, Vol. 83, no 6, p. 566-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apnoea as well as cold stimulation of the face or the extremities elicits marked cardiovascular reflexes in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether forearm immersion in cold water has any effect on the cardiovascular responses to face immersion and apnoea. We recorded cardiovascular responses to cold-water immersions of the forearm and face in 19 (part I) and 23 subjects (part II). The experimental protocol was divided in two parts, each part containing four tests: I1, forearm immersion during eupnoea; I2, face immersion during eupnoea; I3, forearm and face immersion during eupnoea; I4, face immersion during apnoea; II1, apnoea without immersion; II2, forearm immersion during apnoea; II3, face immersion during apnoea; and II4, forearm and face immersion during apnoea. The water temperature was 9–11 °C. Cold-water immersion of either the forearm or face was enough to elicit the most pronounced thermoregulatory vasoconstriction during both eupnoea and apnoea. During eupnoea, heart rate responses to forearm immersion (3% increase) and face immersion (9% decrease) were additive during concurrent stimulation (3% decrease). During apnoea, the heart rate responses were not affected by the forearm immersion. The oxygen-conserving diving response seems to dominate over thermoregulatory responses in the threat of asphyxia. During breathing, however, the diving response serves no purpose and does not set thermoregulatory adjustments aside

  • 206.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Hellsten, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Individuella idrottares upplevda källor till self-efficacy2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sources to self-efficacy among individual sportathletes based on self-efficacy theory and the high performance pyramid.  The objectives were to examine: (A) sources individual sportathletes uses in high self-efficacy (B) sources of individual athletes in low self-efficacy (C)  the relationship between self-efficacy and performance. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten individual athletes (five men and five women) in age 18 - 27. The results showed that past experience was the major source of high self-efficacy with expressions such as "trained well before" and "good preparation" used the most by the participants. "Performance anxiety" and "external pressure” were the largest source of low self-efficacy. Examining the relationship between self-efficacy and performance revealed two pattern, high self-efficacy in 90 % cases is associated with successful performance and low self-efficacy in 80% cases is associated with poor performance.

  • 207.
    Andersson, Jonathan
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    "Idrottspsykologi för mig är att vara mentalt stark" En kvalitativ studie om riksidrottselevers uppfattningar om idrottspsykologi i undervisningen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Over the past 200 years, schools have been through a lot of different reforms. Sports in school have evolved to sports and health, field days have been created and given more place in school and different forms of sport programs have emerged and have made an impact in the community. Within the various sports programs, students are studying special sports and different courses within this subject. Within the courses and the topic, there is even one samll topic that the students study, and that topic is sports psychology. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the different variations that occur among students’ perceptions on the teaching element and the sports psychology theories within the subject special sports at RIG-secondary schools.

    The study had a qualitativ research approach, a didactic triangle as an umbrella to create didactic questions for the study and semi-structed interview. In order to analyze the collected data, the study used inspiration from content analyzis. To understand the results, anthologies of sports psychology have been used along with an evaluation of special sports from previus research, and different learning theories. The results showed that there were various different perceptions of the meaning of sport psychology theories, motives to be taught in the field and how the teaching was done.

    The conclusion of the study is that there are different perceptions between students in a RIG-secondary school of the same phenomenon, sports psychology theories. Whatever the reason might be is difficult to say, but a varied education could be a good start for both the content and the students’ perception to be similar. Both from a previous assessment and this study, it has been determined that it will be important for schools, special sports and sports psychology, to look closely at how teaching occurs whilst listining to the students in order to make assessments involving them to see if changes or additions are needed.

  • 208.
    Andersson, Jonathan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Om eleverna och ämnena gynnas - ämnesintegrera: Lärares perspektiv på ämnesintegrering mellan idrott och hälsa och samhällskunskap2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 209.
    Andersson, Josefin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Nilsson, Elisabet
    Halmstad University, School of Teacher Education (LUT).
    Rör sig elever tillräckligt mycket?: En studie om pojkar och flickors fysiska aktivitet på fyra olika skolor2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which children's physical activity during school  hours  are  met  in  relation  to  today’s  health  recommendations.  This  study  was  a quantitative  research  method  through  study  with  pedometers  and  observation.  The  main instrument was pedometers which the pupils wore during one day at school. The study group consisted of 74 students, made up of 36 boys and 38 girls from the 4th grade in four schools in  southern Sweden. The  results demonstrate  that  the boys were physical active 47-50 % of what  they should and  the girls 33-36 % of what  they should according  to recommendations. The boys  took about 3000 more  steps  than  the girls.  In our  study only one boy  reached  the recommended  amount  of  steps  per  day,  but  no  girl  did. The  conclusion  is  that  the  pupils  are  inactive  during  their  time  in  school.    There  are differences  in  boys'  and  girls'  physical  activity,  both  within  each  school  and  between  the schools. The observation showed that the girls stand still more than the boys during break and the girls are generally less active than the boys at all four schools.

  • 210.
    Andersson, Josefina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Fysisk aktivitet på recept (FaR): En kvalitativ studie om patienters upplevelser 2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att analysera patienters upplevelser av fysisk aktivitet på recept (FaR) och på vilket sätt dessa upplevelser påverkar deras syn på hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.

    För att ta reda på syftet har en kvalitativ metod tillämpats. Sex stycken semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts och respondenterna består av tre kvinnor och tre män i åldrarna 57 till 73 år, som alla har eller har haft FaR.

    Till grund för analysen av studiens empiri har fyra teorier valts ut. Dessa teorier är: Institutionaliseringens ursprung, tillit och ontologisk trygghet, social responsivitet samt språk och kunskap i vardagslivet.

    Resultatet visar att upplevelsen av fysisk aktivitet (FaR) är positiv. Det visar även att denna upplevelse har påverkat synen på fysisk aktivitet och hälsa på ett positivt sätt. Den förändrade synen innebär ett bredare tänk när det gäller fysisk aktivitet och ökad insikt och medvetenhet när det gäller hälsa.  

  • 211.
    Andersson, Josefine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Rörelsens betydelse i förskolan: - en undersökning i en svart kåkstad2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this report has been to study if physical movement is used as an activity in a South African preschool and how, where and when physical movement is used in the preschool and also why they use the physical movement. I have under ten days been in a preschool in the black township Lingelihle to follow the teachers work. My view of literature treats following theme: What is physical movement and the meaning of physical movement for the child. The methods that I have used are qualitative interviews and observations. The result that I have found out from the interviews and observations shows that physical movement is used as an activity in the preschool. The teacher’s and the principal means that the child through physical movement develops socially and motor skill.

  • 212.
    Andersson, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Lärares tankar och idéer kring musik i idrottsundervisningen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur och varför lärare i ämnet idrott och hälsa på gymnasiet använder sig utav musik som ett pedagogiskt verktyg samt varför de inte använder musik. Syftet är även att undersöka om gymnasielärarna i ämnet idrott och hälsa blir påverkade av några yttre faktorer som kan resultera i att de använder musiken i sin undervisning. Studien är baserad på kvalitativa intervjuer med åtta lärare i ämnet idrott och hälsa på gymnasiet. Resultatet visar att lärarnas tankar och idéer kring användandet av musik samt hur de upplever att eleverna agerar till musik stämmer bra överens med tidigare forskning som visar många fördelar med att arbeta till musik. Resultatet visar även att de yttre faktorer som påverkar lärarna mest, när det gäller hur det använder sig utav musik i deras undervisning, är eleverna och deras musikintresse. Slutsatsen av studien är att lärarna upplever att musik motiverar och inspirerar elever till rörelseglädje samt en högre prestationsnivå. Hur de använder musiken är antingen som bakgrundmusik eller som ett hjälpmedel.

  • 213.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Andersson, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Samband mellan överkroppsstyrka och prestation i skidspåret hos svenska längdskidåkande juniorer.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has identified strength as a key factor for performance in cross-country skiing. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between upper body strength and performance in swedish junior cross-country skiers. 33 swedish young men and 23 young women age 17,3 ± 1,0 years volunteered to participate in specific tests during a summer training camp were they completed a test battery consisting of bench press and bench pull. The strength variables obtained were correlated with FIS-points (International Ski Federation´s ranking points for distance and sprint performance) used as the performance indicator. Correlations were performed by Spearman´s rank correlation coefficient for all variables. The results showed that FIS-points for sprint correlated significantly with both bench press and bench pull. No significant correlation was found between FIS-points for distance and bench pull. These results may predict performance for cross-country skiers and indicate a justification for increased proportion of strength training. 

  • 214.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Olsson, Isabelle
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    SPONSRING: En jämförande intervjustudie av tre fotbollsföreningar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 215.
    Andersson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Filipsson, Ann
    "Idrotten är ett hus som är öppet för alla": En studie om hur idrott kan fungera som en integrationsarena2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna kvalitativa fallstudie presenteras projektet Rookie – en sportskola för nyanlända. Med anledning till att invandringen ökar i landet och alla de problem som finns med segregation är det intressant att en studie om idrott som integrationsarena genomförs.

    Studien ökar förståelsen för hur idrott kan fungera som en arena för integration. Idrotten bidrar med språkstimulering, förbättrad hälsa, gemenskap, fostran och ökad förståelse för samhällets uppbyggnad. Efter intervjuer med berörda i projektet framkom det att Rookie, som integrationsprojekt, skulle skapa bättre möjligheter för nyanlända barn och unga att delta i olika fritidsaktiviteter, vilket skapar förutsättningar för en god hälsa, ökad integration och motverka utanförskap. Detta uppnåddes genom att låta deltagarna prova på olika idrottsaktiviteter och få en nära kontakt med de fritidsledare som medverkade. Utöver att deltagarna blev mer integrerade som en effekt av Rookie lärde de sig även bättre svenska, fick nya vänner och började idrotta.

    I studien framkommer vilka arbetsmetoder som lämpar sig för ett framgångsrikt utfall av ett idrottsintegrationsprojekt, bland annat att arbeta med förebilder samt att kommunen äger och genomför projektet. 

  • 216.
    Andersson, Madelene
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Davidsson, Oskar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Vad önskar utövarna?: En studie av herr- och damsimmares syn på ledarskapsbeteende2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie behandlar det önskade ledarskapsbeteende och den önskade relationen mellan utövare och coach enligt svenska simmare. Undersökningen omfattar 115 svenska simmare. Syftet med studien är att beskriva och analysera vilket ledarskapsbeteende herr- och damsimmare i Sverige önskar att en coach ska ha och hur de önskar att relationen mellan coach och aktiv ska vara. Studien undersökte även om det fanns ett samband mellan önskemål och kön på utövare. Alltså om kvinnor önskade ett visst typ av ledarskapsbeteende och relation till sin coach och män ett annat typ av ledarskapsbeteende och relation till sin coach. Den datainsamlingsmetod som använts är enkäter och detta både i webbformat och pappersformat. Den enkät som använts har varit en omgjord variant av Chelladurais och Salehs (1980) "leadership scale for sport", LSS.

    Resultatet av studien visar att svenska simmare önskar ett ledarskapsbeteende där träning och instruktion, demokratiskt beteende och positiv feedback används. I mindre grad önskar de ett ledarskapsbeteende där auktoritärt beteende och social support används. Resultatet visar även att det finns en skillnad i vad kvinnor generellt önskar och vad män generellt önskar. Dock är det inga markanta skillnader. De största skillnaderna bland önskemål finns mellan de som befann sig på internationell nivå/landslagsuppdrag och de som befann sig på regional nivå.

  • 217.
    Andersson, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Långtidsobservation av fysisk aktivitet och inaktivitet mätt med acelerometri2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att genom långtidsobservation (effektiv tid, 21 dagar) mätt med accelerometri, kartlägga och undersöka nivån av fysisk aktivitet och inaktivitet hos vuxna individer, samt undersöka hur den individuella variationen och variationen inom gruppen påverkar hur länge en individ behöver observeras för att korrekt kunna rangordna dem.

     Totalt deltog 33 vuxna individer, som bar en accelerometer på höger höft under all deras vakna tid i 4 veckor. Av dessa hade 27 individer valid accelerometerdata som sedan användes för vidare analys. Accelerometerinställningarna var satta till att registrera data över en axel med en tidsintervall av 5 sekunders epok. De skärningspunkter för de olika intensitetsnivåern var <100 counts per minute (cpm) för inaktivitet, 2000->6000 cpm för moderat till hög intensitet (MVPA) samt >6000 cpm för hög intensitet. Datan analyserades av deltagarnas ackumulerade tid i de valda intensitetsnivåerna/vecka. 

    Resultatet visar att samtliga individer är tillräckligt fysiskt aktiva i enlighet med nuvarande rekommandationer av fysisk aktivitet för vuxna, baserat på den ackumulerade tiden av MVPA/vecka. Beroende av vilken intensitetsnivå som oberverats styr hur lång mätperiod som krävs för att uppnå ett önskvärt reliabilitetsvärde av 0,8. För att observera inaktivitet krävs 16 veckor, för MVPA krävs 4 veckor och hög intensitet krävs 6 veckor.

     Sammanfattnigsvis, studien visar att genom att observara deltagarnas fysisika aktivitetnivå över en längre period inkluderas deras indivduella variation samt variationen inom gruppen. Variationen av hur lång mätperiod som krävs för de olika intensitetsnivåerna indikerar på hur variabelt beteende som fysisk aktivitet är över tid. 

  • 218.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Motions- och styrketräningsvanor i förhållande till självkänsla bland styrketränande kvinnor2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 219.
    Andersson, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Matchfixning – Ett hot mot idrotten?: En studie om uppfattningar, ansvarstagande och åtgärder2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to explore perceptions, responsibility and measures around matchfixing using an idiographic approach. The sample of consisted seven respondents with two players, two managers and three board members. The respondents belonged to associations in Gävleborg county sports federations linked to football and bandy. The study is based on semi-structured interviews and has the ideal of fair play, social structures and Kohlberg's moral development theory as the theoretical bases. The processing and analysis followed the three steps oftranscription, data reduction and creation of themes.

    The results from the interviews were divided into three themes that were formed after the purpose and issues. The respondent’s perceptions showed that there was a lack of knowledge regarding matchfixing and an economic threat related to the gaming industry. Regarding the measures they were directed against the betting line, values, interaction between performer and a deterrent punishment. The analysis revealed that sports is under change with the gaming industry and with a new different view of moral acts in sport. That’s something that poses a threat to the sport's good values with good ethics and morals, as well as an aggravating factor in working against matchfixning. The conclusion is that there are several worrying aspects in all three themes and a need for a common effort against matchfixing.

  • 220.
    Andersson, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Faktorer som kan påverka friluftsundervisningen: - en kvalitativ studie om idrottslärares uppfattningar om friluftsliv och friluftsundervisning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this qualitative interview study PE-teachers perceptions of outdoor teaching in schools in the North-West region of Götaland, in Sweden, were examined. The following key issues were examined; attitudes and experiences, frameworks, as well as didactic approach, which prevails in outdoor education, and the aim was to investigate outdoor education related to these factors. The study reveals, among other things, that:

    • The teachers have similar attitudes and experiences for outdoor recreation. Their vision seems to have been marked by experiences in later ages.

    • The teachers are relatively satisfied with the constitutional, organizational and physical frameworks of today, but that those frames are factors that affect outdoor teaching.

    • The teachers try to prioritize the field of outdoor activities to a greater extent than in the past, but they have slightly different didactical approaches.

    In order to investigate these issues, qualitative and semi-structured interviews were used as a method for data collection. Five different teachers at five different schools, in North-West of Götaland, has been interviewed. The study was anchored in three theoretical frameworks; habitus theory, frame factor theory and didactics.

  • 221.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Persson, Gustav
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wii Sports och Sport: En jämförelse av fysiska och emotionella skillnader och likheter i träningsspel jämfört med riktig träning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The purpose of this study is to compare the level of activity between playing wii Sports Tennis and wii Sports boxing, and the usual sports, and to see how the two variants are perceived.Issues:- How much strain ratio and energy consumption it gives to exercise wii sports compared with the playing of sport for real?- How do the test participants experience the different tests?- How are the two wii sports games against each other in terms of activity and fitness in the school environment?

    Method

    This is an experimental study in which 10 test participants (5 men and 5 women) have carried out four different physical tests. The tests consisted of either playing an exergame or playing a sport for 25 minutes. Physical activity was measured during the test using a heart rate monitor. All test participants completed all tests in the same order. After each test, all test participants filled out a questionnaire concerning their immediate subjective experiences of the test. The results from the questionnaire where later compiled with the results from the physical tests.

    Results

    The results showed that the physical activity of the tennis and wii tennis differed. Tennis generated in 30% higher average heart rate and 88% higher average energy expenditure. The comparison between boxing and wii boxing, gave no significant results. Wii boxing generated 32% higher average heart rate and 81% higher average energy expenditure compared to wii tennis. Test Study participants also considered wii boxing to be more suitable in physical education than wii tennis. They also felt that both wii boxing and tennis was more enjoyable than wii tennis.

    Conclusion

    Wii tennis generated the lowest physical activity as compared to the three other forms of exercise. The real sports were most suitable for school sports, however, wii boxing was more suitable than wii tennis. Test participants also considered the wii boxing as more enjoyable than wii tennis and tennis

  • 222.
    Andersson, Matts
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Friluftslivet i Utemagasinet "Ute eller inne": en kvantitativ studie om bilden av friluftslivet i Utemagasinet2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka den bild som tidskriften Utemagasinets gett oss av friluftsliv från 1990 till 2008. Frågeställningarna som jag arbetar efter är:

    1. Vilka friluftslivsaktiviteter rapporterar Utemagasinet om i sin tidskrift och har det skett någon förändring mellan 1990 och 2008?

    2. Vad är det för stilar som friluftslivet i Utemagasinet tillhör och om de skall kategoriseras enligt Sandells tre friluftsstilar som grund, syns det då någon förändring mellan 1990 - 2008?

    3. Finns det någon skillnad på synen av utrustningens betydelse för friluftslivet från 1990 till 2008?

    Metod

    Metoden som jag kommer att använda är en kvantitativ innehållsanalys där Utemagasinets tidskrifter från åren 1990, 2000 och 2008 kommer att granskas. Artiklarna delas in i grupper och ställas upp i diagram för att kunna presentera resultatet.

    Resultat

    Studien visar att de aktiviteter som Utemagasinet rapportera mest om är vandring, kajakpaddling, att gå på tur med skidor och skidor i offpist. Resultatet visar också på en minskad mångfald av aktiviteter under perioden 1990 till 2008.

    Analysen visar att det går att kategorisera in analysen av artiklarna i två av Sandells tre friluftsstilar; utrustning får ett större utrymme i tidskriften genom åren och större fokus läggs på att testa olika produkter.

    Slutsats

    Det har blivit färre artiklar som behandlar friluftsliv och större fokus läggs på resmål och utrustning. Det finns ett större antal artiklar om utrustning och resor 2008 jämfört med tidigare. Friluftsliv som beskrivs i tidskriften har gått mot Sandells passiva anpassningsstil vilket leder till att vi använder vår närmiljö mer frekvent än tidigare.

  • 223.
    Andersson, Melinda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Natur och djurs påverkan på den upplevda hälsan2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår upplevda hälsa påverkas av hur vi lever. Idag lever vi i stress och har höga krav på oss själva och andra vilket påverkar vår hälsa. Många lever idag med psykisk ohälsa. Idag finns det forskning som visar att djur och natur har positiva effekter på människors upplevda hälsa. Genom forskningen har verksamheter med hjälp av djur och natur skapats för att få personer med psykisk ohälsa uppleva en bättre hälsa.

    Syfte: syftet med uppsatsen är att få en förståelse för hur rehabiliteringsprocessen inom grön/djurrehabilitering, där djur och natur är grunden för hälsoarbetet, påverkat deltagarnas hälsa i form av beteende, sätt att tänka, syn på sig själv och social samvaro.

    Metod: En kvalitativmetod användes i form av enskilda intervjuer.

    Resultat/analys: Resultatet som togs fram visades att djuren och naturen hade flera positiva effekter på deltagarnas upplevda hälsa både direkt och i ett långsiktigt perspektiv. Miljön var kravlös och gjorde att fokus på den enskilde individen försvann. Detta minskade stressen, pressen och skapade en avslappning. Detta gjorde att de på ett avslappnat sätt kunde lära sig förändra sitt tänkande, beteende (identiteten) för att uppleva en bättre hälsa efter rehabiliteringen. Miljön hjälpte även till att skapa en bättre självkänsla, självförtroende, sätta gränser och skapade även en form av social gemenskap.

    Diskussion: vissa fördelar skedde enbart i regelbunden kontakt med naturen eller djuren. Dock hjälpte miljön till att förändra deltagarnas syn på sig själv, beteende och tankesätt även efter rehabiliteringen. Detta gjorde att de kunde fortsätta jobba med sig själv för att uppleva en bättre upplevd hälsa.

  • 224.
    Andersson, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Laget före jaget: En kvalitativ studie i hur innebandytränare arbetar för att få sina lag att prestera som lag2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver det praktiska arbetet för att få innebandy (herr) lag inom division 3 att samarbeta som ett lag. Frågeställningarna som låg till grund för rapporten var vilka metoder och på vilket sätt innebandytränare arbetar för att få ett lag att prestera som ett lag samt hur väl detta överrensstämmer med vad som finns skrivet i litteratur kring ämnet. Syftet var att skapa en förståelse för detta. För att genomföra studien användes en kvalitativ metod och det gjordes telefonintervjuer med fyra stycken innebandytränare.

    Exempel på vad studien mynnade ut i för resultat och slutsatser var bland annat att flera aspekter som belyses som viktiga i teorin i viss mån även tillämpas praktiskt. Dock visade det sig finnas brister och oklarheter ur flera dimensioner och tränarna skulle kunna arbeta på ett mer medvetet, strukturerat och konkretiserat sätt med exempelvis feedback och gruppstärkande övningar för att effektivisera samarbetet och sammanhållningen i laget. Samtliga av tränarna fattas kunskap inom idrottspsykologi, vilket på flera håll i teorin och även i svenska innebandyförbundets riktlinjer för innebandytränare beskrevs vara viktigt, och de borde därför införskaffa sig sådan kunskap. Division 3 ligger på en nivå där innebandyn börjar tas på allvar och i vilken träningsgrad samt krav ökar på både spelare och tränare för att uppnå bra tabellplacering och resultat, varför även arbetet inom lagen bör ske på ett mer strukturerat, medvetet och kunskapsorienterat sätt.

  • 225.
    Andersson, Niclas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Varumärkeskapital inom elitidrottsföreningar: Blir det som vi säger eller får vi säga som det blir?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored through semi-structured interviews how elite sports associations build their brand equity in professional sport . Six marketing managers within sports clubs operating in the respective compounds were interviewed to find out their views on the construction of a brand equity within this context. The reason for this was for the best way to take advantage of knowledge of experience and information that these respondents are sitting on. As many authors stating that I demonstrate in my introduction that Uggla (2002) Lagergren (1998) , Aaker (1996 ), so, the importance of brand increasingly important for organizations in today's society. In order to achieve good results while keeping abreast of market trends and assert itself against its competitors , it is becoming more discussion regarding trademark issues within organizations.

    The results of this study demonstrate how brand equity is created for elite sport associations through an internal process and impact. The study shows four factors that are important for the construction of a brand equity for an elite sports club.

    • Sporting achievements

    • The product

    • identity

    • Communication.

    These elements can be seen as an organic device that are affected by and interact . All parts of the unit are important but can only function optimally if the communication is an ally in the brand all parts. It is communication that distributes and transports information to all parts of the brand and the organic unity circulates and works best if the flow within the device is clean , that is, that the communication reaches its full potential.

    Brand , brand equity , communication , identity, sport

  • 226.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    The Effects of a New ACL-Injury Prevention Device on Knee Kinematics and Hamstring and Quadriceps Co-Contraction: A Pilot Study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) –injury is 3-5 times greater in female athletes compared to male athletes. This may be partially attributed to lower levels of hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction in females with subsequent knee kinematics that increases risk of ACL-injury. Finding training methods that improves co-contraction and increases knee stability is important.

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of a new device on hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction and to investigate if training with the device can alter knee kinematics in female athletes.

    Study design: Controlled experimental study design with repeated measures.

    Method: Twenty soccer and floor ball athletes were measured with electromyography (EMG) for hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction while performing squats with and without the device. Thirteen athletes also underwent three-dimensional kinematic analyses, measuring knee abduction angles (at initial ground contact and peak angle) during a drop jump, before and after a six week intervention period with the device. Friedman’s test and Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to assess differences and effect sizes (ES) were calculated.

    Results: Co-contraction was consistently larger on the device (medial side: p<0.001, ES=0.88; lateral side: p<0.001, ES=0.80) and the ratio of medial-to-lateral co-contraction increased (p=0.001, ES=0.79). In the kinematic analysis low adherence rates amongst our subjects meant that the effects of the device on kinematics could not be measured.

    Conclusion: Performing squats with the new training device stimulates increased hamstring-quadriceps co-contraction and increases the ratio of medial-to-lateral co-contraction. The effects of the device on knee kinematics have yet to be determined.

     

  • 227.
    Andersson Nyberg, Robin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Prestationsjämförelse mellan positionerna back och anfallare på daminnebandyspelare2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 228.
    Andersson, Rebecca
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Resonemang omkring motivation: En undersökning av elitsatsande gymnasieelevers motivationsfaktorer i fotboll vid en NIU skola i Sverige.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: 

    Elite soccer in combination with education is a unique and demanding task. The path towards a glory career in sports takes hard mental and physical training. The objectives in this study are 6 elite focused high school students studying high school education programs in combination with football profile. They are 3 of each gender. The purpose of the study was to find out more about their perspective of motivation and what makes them keep going towards a career in football in beside their education.

    The study is of empiric hermeneutic survey used qualitative method and interviewing to collect data. The results have shown several patterns and similarities, also differences. They all see motivation as a mental force. They appreciate the social factors from parents through support and commitment in their football. Several of them found their interests in football through their parent’s interest in football. They are motivated by development and promotion in divisions. They are all experiencing a need of having fun towards their elite focused career. 

  • 229.
    Andersson, Robert
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Cedergren, Joakim
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ishockeypublikens påverkan: "När det är bra tryck i arenan så är de ju som en sjätte spelare!"2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Titel: Ishockeypublikens påverkan – ”När det är bra tryck i arenan så är de ju som en sjätte spelare!” (Citatet i titeln är hämtat från intervjun med respondent 6)

    Nyckelord: Motivation, Självförtroende, Nervositet, Ängslan, Ishockeyspelare, Publikpåverkan.

    Till varje lag i elitserien finns det publik som vill stödja sitt lag. De använder sig utav olika metoder för att hjälpa sitt lag till framgång. Stödet från publiken påverkar naturligtvis spelarna men det finns en begränsad tidigare forskning som kan visa på vilket sätt de reagerar psykologiskt. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur eltishockeyspelares motivation, självförtroende och ängslan/nervositet påverkas av publiken under matchdagar. Metoden som användes för att uppfylla detta syfte var en kvalitativ intervju. De som deltog i studien var sju stycken (ålder 19-34 år) manliga elitseriespelare i ishockey från två olika lag. Lagen som valdes ut är båda framgångsrika och har starka traditioner inom svensk ishockey. För att analysera intervjuerna så har dessa transkriberats. Resultatdelen presenterades i tre olika delar utifrån de tre teman som intervjuerna utgick ifrån. Det visade sig att alla de tillfrågade spelarna tycker att det är som roligast med ishockey när det är fullsatt i arenan. Då blir det en extra laddning i luften och spelarnas motivation höjs. Samtidigt bildas en form av nervositet hos spelarna eftersom de då förstår att matchen betyder något extra. En viss nervositet innan match gör oftast att spelarna presterar bättre. I diskussionen kopplades tidigare forskning ihop med studiens resultat och flera av dem styrktes då med hjälp av de tidigare studierna. Vi analyserade och använde egna reflektioner för att verkligen fördjupa vår förståelse för hur elitishockeyspelare påverkas av publiken.

  • 230.
    Andersson, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Möjligheter till motivation för fysisk aktivitet: En interventionsstudie avsedd att motivera elever till fysisk aktivitet genom självbestämmande2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att under en femveckorsperiod undersöka möjligheterna till att förändra elevers motivation till fysisk aktivitet. Utifrån detta syfte formulerades följande frågeställning:

    • Vad sker med elevers motivation till fysisk aktivitet om den praktiska undervisningen utformas efter self-determination theory?

    För att utforma den praktiska undervisningen efter self-determination theory valdes Engstöms praktiker som en grund och stöttepelare i planeringen och genomförandet av lektionerna. Vilket gav en underliggande frågeställning till den ovanstående:

    - Vilka praktiker finns representerade i underökningsgruppen?

    Studien har genomförts på en högstadieskola i mellersta Sverige, där två klasser i årskurs (åk) 8 valdes ut att delta i studien. I undersökningsgruppen blev urvalet 14 elever och i kontrollgruppen 9 elever. Undersökningsgruppen genomförde en praktikenkät innan interventionen, vilken låg till grund i planeringen och genomförandet av lektionerna. De två klasserna genomförde en motivationsenkät före och efter interventionen för att mäta motivationsnivån. Resultatet av interventionsstudien visar att det skedde en viss förändring i de olika motivationsnivåerna. Det fanns dock ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan test ett och test två på någon av motivationsnivåerna, varken hos undersökningsgrupp eller hos kontrollgrupp.

  • 231.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Kuqi, Nepe
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Skolan - himmel eller helvete: en studie om elevers upplevelser av mobbning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka elevers upplevelser av förekomsten avmobbning i skolan. Eftersom vi studerar till idrottslärare är därför ett delsyfte attundersöka elevers upplevelser av förekomsten av mobbning i omklädningsrumföre och efter en idrottslektion. Utöver detta undersöktes även skillnader mellanpojkar och flickors upplevelser av förekomsten av mobbning och kränkningarsamt elevers upplevelser om lärare agerade för att förebygga, åtgärda ochmotverka mobbning. Studien grundade sig på en enkätundersökning somgenomfördes på tre högstadieskolor där 221 elever i årskurs nio deltog varav 124var pojkar och 97 var flickor. Resultatet av studien visade att 7 % av elevernaupplevde sig vara utsatta för mobbning i omklädningsrummet och 7 % aveleverna upplevde sig vara utsatta för mobbning i andra situationer i skolan.Pojkar upplevde sig oftare vara utsatta och utsätta andra elever för fysiskakränkningar och mobbning än flickor, medan flickor upplevde sig oftare varautsatta för social mobbning än pojkar. Hälften av respondenterna i studien ansågatt det förekom mobbning i stort sett alltid eller ibland på deras skola medanhälften menade att mobbning förekom sällan eller aldrig på deras skola.Resultatet visade även att ungefär hälften av respondenterna ansåg att lärarna påskolorna i stort sett alltid eller ibland agerade mot mobbning och ungefär likamånga ansåg att lärarna aldrig eller sällan agerade mot mobbning.

  • 232.
    Andersson, Terese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Menstruationscykelns och p-pillers påverkan på den fysiska prestationsförmågan2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraceptives on Sport Performance

    During the menstrual cycle, there is a variation of the female steriod hormones estrogen and progestogen. These hormones has mainly reproduktive functions, but do also affect other physiological systems, which may have an influence on athletic performance. The use of oral contraceptives among female athletes matches the use among the general population. There is a concern among female athletes and there coaches weather oral contraceptives can affect the performance. The purpose of this litterature review is to determine the effect of the menstrual cycle and the use of oral contraceptives on athletic performance. Most studies indicates that neither the aerobic performance or VO₂max changes during the mestrual cycle, but an increase in ventilation during the lutheal phase has been observed. In the lutheal phase, the body temperature is elevated, which can affect the performance negatively during physical activity in hot and humid conditions. Studies evaluating the anaerobic performance shows varied results, which can be explained by few study participants, different study designs and varying definitions of menstrual cycle phase. Some studies that have examined the strength variation have not seen any difference, and others have seen an advantage during the follicular phase, when it also seems to be beneficial to train more strength training to optimize training adaptation. The use of oral contraceptives can affect the body composition of female athletes. Fat mass and BMD can increase, and is seen mainly in athleteswith mestrual dysfunctions. This can be benificial for their health and decrease the risk of injury, but may decrease performace level. The effect of oral contraceptive administration on aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity and strength are unclear and the research has come up with varying results. Future studies should investigate oneoral contraceptive pill formulation at a time, andalso compare different formulations, to determineif that affect performance in different ways.

    Key words: menstruation, oral contraceptives, female athlete, performance, hormones

  • 233.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Between Performance and Beauty: Towards a sociological understanding of trajectories to drug use in a gym and bodybuilding context.2013In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 4, p. 69-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emanating from an ethnographic study of Swedish bodybuilders, this article aims to present a sociological understanding of various circumstances influencing the decision to begin taking performance-enhancing drugs. Theoretically, the research builds upon a constructionist approach, in which actors’ identity claims, the way they describe themselves and their group affiliation, are understood both as individual stories of identity construction and as discursive statements. The result shows that the willingness to perform, to focus on the body’s function, is a paradigmatic narrative being expressed throughout. As such, this performance oriented lifestyle can be related to traditional values saluted within organised sports and also understood as a fairly stable part of a hegemonic masculine construction. However, the results also show how the performance logic is entwined with a strong zest for bodily aesthetics. In the article, this cultural ambiguity is used as an analytical window through which one can see how different understandings of gender, health and doping continuously are socially negotiated in relation to contemporary fitness culture and public health organisations in Swedish society. By analysing doping trajectories in this way the article suggests that drug using practises could be understood as an activity performed along a continuum of cultural and societal (over-)conformity, rather than actions representing societal abnormality.

  • 234.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Fotbollens arbetarklass2010In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 4, p. 11-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kulturhistoriskt har fotboll dominerats av män och maskulinitet.

    Den manliga normen inom fotbollen tvingar spelare i damallsvenskan

    att anpassa sig och vänja sig vid begränsade resurser. De

    känner sig oönskade, går i opposition och utvecklar strategier för att

    distansera sig från den manliga dominansen.

  • 235.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    I viljan att prestera2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 8-12Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 236.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Negotiating Manhood: Doping and the mainstreaming of online marginal masculinities2017In: Presented at: International Network for Doping Research (INDR), Aarhus, August 24-25, 2017. / [ed] Ask Vest Christiansson and John Gleaves, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 237.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Reconceptualising the gender of fitness doping: Performing and negotiating masculinity through drug-use practices2015In: Evaluating the Unintended Effects of Anti-Doping, 27-28 August, 2015 / [ed] Ask Vest Christiansen, John Gleaves, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 238.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Reconceptualising the Gender of Fitness Doping: Performing and Negotiating Masculinity through Drug-Use Practices2015In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 4, p. 546-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses self-portrayals and gender constructions among Swedish male bodybuilders who are engaged in fitness doping. The empirical material comes from a larger ethnographic investigation into gym culture. The results show that there is a strong propensity to conform with particular gender fantasies that rests heavily on a binary understanding of gendered, doped bodies. However, this storyline does not apprehend the entire self-presentation of the analysed drug users. Negotiations and inclusive subversions of traditional gender norms are also expressed. For example, the narratives show how the use of performance-enhancing substances makes it possible for (heterosexual) men to approach, touch and express feelings of desire towards other men and their bodies. As such, this practice can be viewed as a contestation of hegemonic gender values, in which masculinity and fitness doping are detached from a quite heterosexist understanding, and turned into a symbolic world of homoerotic pleasure.

  • 239.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Smärta, pump och förkroppsligade läroprocesser på gymmet2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 240.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Steroider på nätet: Att använda sociala medier för att diskutera och legitimera dopning2016In: Presented at: DrogFOKUS 2016, nationell konferens om alkohol, narkotika, dopning och tobak, 13-20 Oktober, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sociala medier och olika internetforum har blivit en del av en ny självhjälpskultur där människor anonymt kan legitimera och diskutera sina erfarenheter av att använda prestationshöjande substanser(PED). Användarna är medvetna om att de riskerar sin egen hälsa men töjer på gränserna för att nå uppsatta mål.

  • 241.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    The Global Gym2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 242.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Elitmotionärens vardag - familjeliv, tidspussel och extremidrott2016In: Idrottsforskning, E-ISSN 2002-3944, no 18 majArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att kombinera vardagen som elitmotionär med ett fungerande familjeliv är ingen enkel ekvation. Uppoffringar, glädje, dåligt samvete och glada hejarop är en del av vardagen. Men på vems villkor och bekostnad formas egentligen elitmotionärens livsstil?

  • 243.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Female Fitness in the Blogosphere: Gender, Health, and the Body2013In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 3, no July-September, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  • 244.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Fitnessrevolutionen: Kropp, hälsa och gymkulturens globalisering2015Book (Other academic)
  • 245.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    From exercise to "exertainment": Body techniques and body philosophies within a differentiated fitness culture2015In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 6, p. 27-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on two highly influential body techniques used in contemporary gym and fitness culture, namely bodybuilding and group fitness activities. The paper presents detailed self-portraits of two highly esteemed and well-known individuals representing each of these spheres of exercise. Both body techniques have their roots in physical culture. However, whereas bodybuilding goes back to the historical roots of European physical culture developed during the 19th century, Les Mills group fitness activities are a more recent phenomenon, with roots in aerobics and in the fitness culture developed during the 1960s. The case stories are read as both portraits of individuals and histories of two different forms of body techniques and philosophies of the body, and the analysis suggests that the narratives are to be understood in relation to historical changes in how society is organised and what this implies in terms of national and global demands for specific bodies.

  • 246.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Gender, Fitness Doping and the Genetic Max: The Ambivalent Construction of Muscular Masculinities in an Online Community2016In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-13, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on written accounts posted on an online forum called Flashback.The purpose of the study was to explore how participants in this community negotiated themeanings of fitness doping and how such negotiations could be understood in terms of masculinity.The findings indicate that the Internet community studied in this article can be read as an example ofa transformational process in which ordinary rules are questioned and partly put out of play. In theworld of the bodybuilder, the marginal masculinity is, in certain senses, dominant. On the one hand,achieving a muscular and well-trained body is regarded as a core aspect of manhood within thecommunity. Marginal masculinity is thus momentarily transformed into dominant and hegemonicmasculinity. On the other hand, however, the findings also indicate that a drug-using, muscularmasculinity is constructed in negotiation with other central masculine ideals, such as the employableman and the responsible father. Found within the community is a complex and dynamic interplaybetween intersecting discourses of manhood.

  • 247.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gymkulturen balanserar på könsgränserna2014In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 4, p. 29-33Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Synen på relationen mellan kroppar och könsidentiteter varierar över tid inom gymkulturen. I dag finns en längtan efter tydliga skillnader mellan könen. Men spännvidden är stor mellan de som vill utmana och överskrida gränser, och de som försöker upprätthålla strikta normativa ideal.

  • 248.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Online Doping2015In: Paper presented at the Journal of youth studies conference, March 30-April 1, 2015, Copenhagen, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, but also internationally, official regimes and public health organizations conduct fairly comprehensive anti-doping measures. As a consequence, numerous ‘new’ ways to learn about and access these types of drugs have emerged. Social media and different Internet forums, for example, have become part of a new self-help culture in which mainly young people anonymously can approach these substances, discuss their experiences of using them, and minimize the possibility of encounters with the police. What we see today is the development of new doping trajectories. This presentation is based on a ethnographical inspired research project that focuses on how the use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs (PED) is perceived and negotiated socially in the context of an Internet-mediated and online community called Flashback. The results of the study are in accordance with similar studies on Internet bodybuilding communities. That is, even though the community members to a certain degree are aware of the risks and health costs of this kind of physical regime, the gains of using PED clearly dominate the discussions. Adding to this research, the results also indicate that in the imaginary world of online bodybuilding a number of ideas about the ‘genetic max’, as well as the ultimate possibility of exceeding one’s limits, and creating something special and extra-ordinary, circulate. These stories confirm in many ways the legitimate mission of searching for the ultimate bodybuilding adventure, using different means and methods to transcend the limits of the self/body.

  • 249.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Online doping: The new self-help culture of ethnopharmacology2016In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 957-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, but also internationally, official regimes and public health organizations conduct fairly comprehensive antidoping measures. As a consequence, numerous ‘new’ ways to learn about and access these types of drugs have emerged. Social media and different internet forums, for example, have become part of a new self-help culture in which people can anonymously approach these substances, discuss their experiences of using them and minimize the possibility of encounters with the police. This article focuses on how the use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs (PED) is perceived and negotiated socially in the context of an internet-mediated and online community calledFlashback. The results are in accordance with similar studies on internet bodybuilding communities. That is, even though the participants to a certain degree are aware of the risks and health costs of this kind of physical regime, the gains of using PED clearly dominate the discussions. Adding to this research, this article found that in the imaginary world of online bodybuilding a number of ideas about the ‘genetic max’, as well as the ultimate possibility of exceeding one’s limits, and creating something special and extraordinary, circulate. These stories confirm in many ways the legitimate mission of searching for the ultimate bodybuilding adventure, using different means and methods to transcend the limits of the self/body.

  • 250.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    The Fitness Revolution: Historical Transformations in the Global Gym and Fitness Culture.2014In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2066-8732, Vol. XXIII, no 3-4, p. 91-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, fitness gyms and private health clubs are a huge global business. Fitness has turned into a folk movement, but not one comparable to the old 20th-century movements, often connected to national sentiments, but instead a highly individualized preoccupation. In this article the historical development of modern gym and fitness culture is described and an analytically developed approach to the understanding of the emergence of this multi-billion-dollar phenomenon is developed. The analysis suggest that the techniques, tools, and physical exercises used today in gyms all over the world are the results of a physical culture developed and refined during the 20th century. The body ideals, exercises, techniques, and the pedagogy of fitness have become an increasingly international enterprise. A tentative analysis of the globalization of gym and fitness culture is developed and presented. Three important and decisive phases in the globalization of gym and fitness culture are identified and analyzed.

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