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  • 201.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Nilsson, Emma
    Swedish women's emotional experience of the first trimester in a new pregnancy after one or more miscarriages: a qualitative interview study2012In: Advances in Sexual Medicine, ISSN 2164-5191, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 38-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how Swedish women describe their emotional state of being during the eighth week through the eleventh week after they have become pregnant again after suffering a previous miscarriage. Method: A qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach has been used to analyze fourteen interviews that served as the data base for this study. The content analysis resulted in the development of five categories which evolved into one primary theme. Findings: The five categories identified were Worry and preoccupation; Distance; managing their feelings; Mourning what is lost; Guarded happiness and expectations. These categories were compiled into a main theme, “Worry consumes a lot of energy, but on the other side lies happiness”. This theme focused on whether the women could feel any happiness about being pregnant again despite their concerns with the previous miscarriage. Conclusions: The emotional states of the women when they get pregnant again are typically characterized by anxiety, worry and concerns about their current pregnancy. The women have a tendency to distance themselves emotionally from their pregnancy but also strive to find the joy of being pregnant again. During the new pregnancy they find themselves in need of support from their family and friends as well as in need of support from the healthcare system.

  • 202.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Jordmorfag, Innen
    Fakultet for helsevitenskap, Institutt for sykepleievitenskap – Vestfold, University College of Southeast, Kongsberg, Norway.
    The EKC-Model Provides Empathy, Knowledge and Care for Women that Encounter Health issues During the Reproductive Life2016In: International Journal of Gynecology & Clinical Practices, ISSN 2394-4986, Vol. 3, article id 121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EKC model (Empathy, Knowledge and Care) provides the necessary empathy, knowledge andcare for the women who encounter health issues during their reproductive life. This approach to caring requires that healthcare workers are knowledgeable in order to confirm that a patient has suffered a miscarriage or a IUFD (Intra-uterine fetus death). Through understanding and training in the EKC model the healthcare professional increases their ability to be sympathetic and empathetic to a patient’s needs. The workers get training in sexual and reproductive health in order to intimately understand how they affect the lives of individuals and their families.                                                                            l

    Sexual and reproductive health is a cross-sectional science that includes medicine, psychology, sociology and the caring sciences. Some of the more commonly experienced issues are in the areas of spontaneous abortion, miscarriages, invitrofertilization and adoption. Issues such as sexual abuse and violence towards women is another issue that is treatable with the EKC model. Pregnant women with diabetes type 1 fall under “maternity and diabetes” issues.

    Intimate knowledge about how the grieving process works is essential to be able to provide the necessary support to the patient. It is possible that the support will give them the courage and motivation to try and conceive again. One key aspect of the EKC model is to provide open and clear communication between the healthcare personnel and the patient, whether that communication is done face-to-face or otherwise. The structured EKC conversation provides a viable tool to help healthcare professionals assist their patients in coming to terms and resolving their loss.

  • 203.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Applicability of general grief theory to Swedish women's experience after early miscarriage, with factor analysis of Bonanno's taxonomy, using the Perinatal Grief Scale2010In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Grief is a normal phenomenon but showing great variation depending on cultural and personal features. Bonanno and Kaltman have nonetheless proposed five aspects of normal grief. The aim of this study was to investigate if women with miscarriage experience normal grief.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Content analyses of 25 transcribed conversations with women 4 weeks after their early miscarriages were classified depending on the meaning-bearing units according to Bonanno and Kaltman's categories. In the factor analyses, these categories were compared with the Perinatal Grief Scale and women's age, number of children and number of miscarriages, and gestational weeks.

    RESULTS: Women with miscarriage fulfill the criteria for having normal grief according to Bonanno and Kaltman. All of the 25 women had meaning-bearing units that were classified as cognitive disorganization, dysphoria, and health deficits, whereas disrupted social and occupational functioning and positive aspects of bereavement were represented in 22 of 25 women. From the factor analysis, there are no differences in the expression of the intensity of the grief, irrespective of whether or not the women were primiparous, younger, or had suffered a first miscarriage.

    CONCLUSION: Women's experience of grief after miscarriage is similar to general grief after death. After her loss, the woman must have the possibility of expressing and working through her grief before she can finish her pregnancy emotionally. The care-giver must facilitate this process and accept that the intensity of the grief is not dependent on the woman's age, or her number of earlier miscarriages.

  • 204.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgs sjukhus, Skövde, Sweden.
    Kvinnors sorg efter missfall kan minska med ändrade vårdrutiner2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 205. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Translation of the short version of the Perinatal Grief Scale into Swedish2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 269-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Women's emotions and grief after miscarriage are influenced not only by the context in which the miscarriage occurred but also by their past experience, the circumstances around the miscarriage and their future prospects. Their emotions therefore express a specific form of grief. Normally the time needed to work through the loss varies. A number of different scales, measuring women's emotions and grief after miscarriage have been published. One instrument that measures the specific grief, such as the grief after miscarriage is the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) that was designed to measure grief after perinatal loss and has good reliability and validity.

    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to translate the PGS into Swedish and to use the translation in a small pilot study.

    MATERIAL AND METHOD: The original short version of the PGS was first translated from English into Swedish and then back-translated into English, using different translators. During translation and back-translation, not only the linguistic and grammatical aspects were considered but also cultural differences. The Likert 5-point and a 10-point scale were tested in a pilot study where 12 volunteers anonymously answered the PGS twice. The intra-personal correlations were compared and analysed with weighted kappa-coefficient.

    FINDINGS: In all, five different versions were tested before the final Swedish version was established. The weighted kappa-coefficient for the volunteers was 0.58, which is regarded as representing good reproducibility.

    CONCLUSION: The PGS was translated successfully into Swedish and could be used in a Swedish population. As this work is rather time-consuming we therefore wish to publish the Swedish version so that it may be used by other researchers.

  • 206.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgssjukhus Skövde, Sweden.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, Sweden.
    Missfall: kvinnans upplevelser2004In: , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 207.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Skaraborgs Sjukhus Skövde.
    Berterö, Carina
    Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping, Sverige.
    Swansons omvårdnadsteori tillämpad vid samtal med barnmorska efter tidiga missfall2005In: Konferens Reproduktiv Hälsa, Svenska Barnmorskeförbundet, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Linköpings universitet.
    Berterö, Carina
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköpings universitet.
    Guilt and emptiness: women's experiences of miscarriage2004In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 543-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women who lose an early pregnancy are shocked when they are first given the information that they have miscarried. Later they feel guilt and emptiness. Heideggerian interpretive phenomenology has been used with 13 women from southwest Sweden to uncover their lived experience of miscarriage. Women plan their future with a child during early pregnancy. When miscarriage occurs it is not a gore, an embryo, or a fetus they lose, it is their child. They feel that they are the cause of the miscarriage through something they have done, eaten, or thought. They feel abandonment and they grieve for their profound loss; they are actually in bereavement.

  • 209.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lindén, Karolina
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sparud Lundin, Carina
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Berg, Marie
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A web-based support for pregnant women and new mothers with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Sweden (MODIAB-Web): study protocol for arandomized controlled trial2014In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 15, p. 513-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women with type 1 diabetes face particular demands in their lives in relation to childbearing. During pregnancy, in order to optimize the probability of giving birth to a healthy child, their blood glucose levels need to be as normal as possible. After childbirth, they experience a 'double stress': in addition to the ordinary challenges they face as new mothers, they also need to focus on getting their blood glucose levels normal. To improve self-management of diabetes and overall well-being in women with type 1 diabetes, a person-centered web-based support was designed to be tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to be used during pregnancy and early motherhood. This protocol outlines the design of this RCT, which will evaluate the effectiveness of the specially designed web-based support for mothers with type 1 diabetes in Sweden.

    Methods: The study is designed as an RCT. The web support consists of three parts: 1) evidence-based information, 2) a self-care diary, and 3) communication with peers. The primary outcome is general well-being evaluated with the Well-Being Questionnaire short version (W-BQ12) and diabetes management evaluated with the Diabetes Empowerment Scale, short version (SWE-DES). Women attending six hospital-based antenatal care centers in Sweden are invited to participate. The inclusion period is November 2011 to late 2014. The allocation of participants to web support (intervention group) and to usual care (control group) is equal (1:1). In total, 68 participants in each group will be needed to reach a statistical power of 80% with significance level 0.05.

    Discussion: The web support is expected to strengthen the women's personal capacity and autonomy during pregnancy, breastfeeding, and early motherhood, leading to optimal well-being and diabetes management.

  • 210.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Renström, Ragna
    Skaraborgssjukhus Skövde, sweden.
    Kvalitetshandbok, gynmottagningen, KSS1998Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Tullander-Tjörnstrand, Karin
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Decreased need for emergency services after changing management for suspected miscarriage2011In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 90, no 8, p. 921-923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effect of a changed routine to identify women with a nonviable pregnancy, in order to utilize health care resources more efficiently during office hours rather than relying on emergency care services. From hospital register data about where and when women with miscarriages were treated, there was a significant trend during a nine-year period for miscarriages to be more rarely diagnosed (p-value<0.001) in the emergency ward after office hours. The proportion of miscarriages that were diagnosed and handled at the emergency ward decreased from 31% in 2001 to 17% in 2009. Furthermore, the number of women showing up with bleeding at the emergency ward, but who also had a normal viable pregnancy, declined during the same period (p-value<0.01). Women with suspected miscarriage benefit from structured information and standardized management and can effectively be scheduled for day-time assessment including ultrasound with a concomitant reduced need for emergency services.

  • 212.
    Adolfsson Blomqvist, Josefin
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Strömsén, Emmy
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Vårdpersonals erfarenheter av patienter med demenssjukdom som vårdas palliativt: En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A great amount of elderly people suffer from different forms of dementia and unless these individuals suffer from another terminal disease the dementia will by its nature lead to death of the patient. Palliative care is often associated with cancer and cardiovascular diseases, however the palliative care is beginning to see the introduction of treatment for people with dementia.

    Aim: The aim was to highlight nursing staffs' experiences of patients suffering from dementia within gerontological care in end of life.

    Method: A literature review has been done based on search results from databases CINAHL complete, Pubmed and Ageline. The selected articles consisted of eight qualitative studies and two cross-sectional studies. The authors have based the analysis on Friberg's method of analysis.  

    Results: In the result describes Introduction of palliative care for the people suffering from dementia, nursing staffs´experience of symptom relief, the importance of good communication as well as hindrance and possibilities for good palliative care. It was discovered that it can be perceived as harder to judge when a patient suffering from dementia is in need of palliative care compared to patients with other medical conditions. This also resulted in the caring relationship between patient and nursing staff is of high importance for the recognition of symptoms. Nursing staff perceived there were flaws in the emotional support after having nursed a patient with dementia.

    Discussion: In the method discussion pros and cons regarding the chosen method is discussed, as well as the choice of articles and why some restrictions have been made. In the result discussion the result in relation to the theoretical entry points 6 S:s  is discussed. Correlations to person-centered care is discussed through the discussion of the result.

  • 213.
    Adolfsson, Emma
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Cornelius, Jenny
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Sjuksköterskans reaktioner och bearbetning av traumatiska händelser uppkomna i arbetet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjuksköterskornas arbetsvardag bestod av att ofta möta lidande och död hos sina patienter. De behövde i sitt arbete strategier för att hantera sina psykiska och känslomässiga reaktioner. Syftet med arbetet var att undersöka sjuksköterskans reaktioner och bearbetningsmetoder av traumatiska händelser uppkomna i arbetet. Metoden var litteraturstudie. Artiklarna analyserades enligt Evidence Based Nursing (EBN) gjord av Flemming (1998). Resultatet visade att sjuksköterskor reagerade på olika sätt och använde sig av varierande bearbetningsmetoder. Slutsatsen blev att bearbetningsmetoder efterfrågades och var väldigt viktigt för att undvika konsekvenser för sin hälsa.

  • 214.
    Adolfsson, Frida
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Holmén, Elin
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Stressorer i vårdmiljön och dess inverkan på sjuksköterskans omvårdnad2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The professions in health care are highly physically and especially mentally stressful jobs where time pressure and work rate continues to increase. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to illuminate stressors that may affect nursing outcomes. Method: The study was a literature review, 17 articles (3 qualitative and 14 quantitative) and a thesis which met the study's purpose was reviewed and analysed. Results and conclusion: Many factors and causes of ill health can today be found in the work environment and its increasingly greater demands on the individual. Each individual is unique and therefor affected differently by the same situations. The stressful experience and how each person handles the situation depends on all the factors in her/his whole life-world. It becomes clear that regardless of the situation, no one is doing well during long-term stress. The factors considered to contribute to the deterioration of quality of care includes lack of time, heavy workload, staff shortages, poor working conditions and reorganizations. These together and also separately, result in that nurses´ experiences of stress and dissatisfaction with their work, which may affect quality of patient care. Implication: Further research should focus on how nurses can influence the factors which leads to stress and a poor work environment and decrased quality of care.

     

  • 215.
    Adolfsson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Philipsson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer som kan påverka sjuksköterskans följsamhet till basala hygienrutiner2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health-related infections (HRI) are the most frequent occurring care damages in inpatient care. HRI’s does not only impact the individual patient, but it also creates high costs and causes high levels of stress at the organization, as well as the community level. Nurses’ application of and compliance with evidence-based guidelines regarding basic hygiene routines is the most effective way to prevent HRI. An examination of the various factors that contributes to the lack of compliance with the different guidelines are crucial in order to increase the theoretical and practical knowledge amongst nurses. This automatically leads to the performing of a safer patient care.

    Aim: The purpose of this literature study was to identify and describe the various factors that may impact the nurse's compliance with basic hygiene routines in the prevention of healthcare related infections and to describe the data collection methods in the academic literature.

    Method: A descriptive literature study with results from 12 scientific articles. The literature research was performed in the databases PubMed and Cinahl. The articles were also reviewed based on their data collection method.

    Main results: Several factors contributed to how the nurses followed evidence-based guidelines regarding basic hygiene routines. The accessibility that nurses had to hygiene products was a primary cause. Lack of knowledge, time shortage, and high workload were additional causes as to why the basic hygiene routines were not properly performed. Contrary to this, good colleagues, good communication, and a safe workplace proved to be factors with a positive impact on preventive work. Surveys, observations and combined data collection methods were used in the included scientific articles.

    Conclusion: There are several factors that affect nurses compliance with guidelines regarding basic hygiene routines. By creating awareness among nurses regarding these factors, they are given the possibility of improving the preventive work against HRI.

  • 216.
    Adolfsson, Josefin
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Lindström, Jeanette
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Postoperativa halsbesvär efter larynxmask: en jämförande pilotstudie2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The literature describes the laryngeal mask as a gentle alternative to intubation with endotracheal tube. Previous studies show that it is not unusual with throat discomfort postoperatively, in terms of sore throat and/or hoarseness/dysphonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and nature of throat discomfort postoperatively after the use of two different laryngeal masks. The authors conducted a pilot study in which nineteen adult patients, both men and women, who received Pro-Breathe® or I-gel® laryngeal mask during anesthesia was included. The patients were interviewed 60 minutes and 24 hours after the laryngeal mask were removed. The interview consisted of two sealed questions about sore throat and hoarseness/dysphonia and one open question about how it felt in the throat. The open question showed that other types of throat discomforts occurred, including irritability, difficulty swallowing, dryness and swelling sensation. The method of the pilot-study was suitable to use and responded to the study's purpose. The results showed that different types of throat discomfort were common postoperatively. Eight out of ten patients who received Pro-Breathe® and seven out of nine patients who received I-gel® had some type of throat discomfort.

  • 217.
    Adolfsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Berggren Nylund, Inga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Upplevelser av primärvården hos vuxna med Neurofibromatos typ 12015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe how adults with Neurofibromatosis type 1 experience their encounter with primary care

    Background: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant condition including café au lait spots on the skin and multiple benign tumours that grow from peripheral nerves. The severity of the condition varies. Pains and the unpredictability of the disease may cause concern and result in repeated visits to health centres. Nursing patients with NF1 can be a challenge. 

    The presence of multiple symptoms can cause difficulties in creating a holistic approach towards the patient. Despite the fact that one of 3000 has the condition it is relatively unknown. Few studies describe how people with NF1 experience primary care.  

    Design: A quantitative cross sectional study

    Method:  In 2015, 30 participants took part in a survey with multiple choice questions and space for comments about their experiences of primary care. 

    Results: Half of the participants perceived primary care generally as good or very good. However, 93 % perceived health professionals’ knowledge about NF1 as poor or very poor.  

    Conclusion: Many professions in primary care had insufficient knowledge and understanding of NF1. This study indicates the need of improved care and a deeper insight into patients’ problems. The authors suggest establishing more centres for rare diseases. Also care planning programmes for NF1 may result in improved care at health centres. More nursing research is needed on providing information about rare diseases.     

  • 218.
    Adolfsson, Kristin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Patriksson, Camilla
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Ambulanssjuksköterskors upplevelser av teamarbete utifrån ett patientsäkerhetsperspektiv: En intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ambulanssjuksköterskans arbetsmiljö är komplex och oförutsägbar då tidigare forskning påvisar flertalet faktorer som påverkar vården av patienten. Att främja patientens välbefinnande genom personcentrerad vård och minska vårdlidandet är ambulanssjuksköterskans mål med vårdandet. Personcentrerat bemötande, säkra bedömningar och avancerad sjukvård ställer höga krav på teamarbetet. Bristande teamarbete har påvisat att säker vård inte bibehålls. Syftet med studien var att beskriva ambulanssjuksköterskors upplevelser av teamarbetet utifrån ett patientsäkerhetsperspektiv. Metoden för datainsamlingen var intervjuer som analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Intervjuerna utfördes i ett landsting i södra Sverige. Ett strategiskt urval användes och resulterade i att elva ambulanssjuksköterskor deltog i studien. I resultatet framkom två huvudkategorier Kompetens och Ansvar i vårdsituationen samt Kollegialt samarbete. Vidare framkom två teman Ensamhet och Att vara trygg. I diskussionen diskuteras vald metod samt huvudfynden som framkom i studien där kompetens, erfarenhet och stöd från kollegan upplevdes betydelsefulla.

  • 219.
    Adolfsson, Lisa
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    ATT LEVA MED HIV/AIDS I SYDAFRIKA: en litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    BAKGRUND: Humant Immunbrist Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) är en pandemi som hårdast drabbat utvecklingsländer i världen. I Sydafrika är 6,300 000 HIV/AIDS positiva. Studier visar att människor som lever i fattigdom utsätts för den största risken att bli drabbad av HIV/AIDS, då utbildning och möjligheten till val av livsstil är låg. Skam och stigmatisering drabbar både människan i fråga och dess närstående. SYFTE: Syftet med studien är att beskriva Sydafrikanska människor upplevelse av sin livssituation efter en HIV/AIDS diagnos. METOD: Litteraturöversikt, åtta artiklar har analyserats för att nå arbetets resultat. RESULTAT: Resultatet är uppbyggt under tre huvudteman; Egenupplevt och samhällets skuldbeläggande hos HIV/AIDS-positiva människor, Viktiga faktorer för att uppnå en känsla av hälsa hos HIV/AIDS-positiva människor samt Behov och längtan av stöd från närstående. Resultatet beskriver att den drabbade värderar anonymitet högt för att undvika samhällets stigmatisering. Gott bemötande hos vårdpersonalen visade sig också vara en viktig faktor för välbefinnande hos människan, men även stöd från familj. Stödet från familjen upplevdes dock i vissa fall som svårt att finna. DISKUSSION: Stigma som är ett stort problem hos den drabbade skulle kunna minskas med utbildning och spridning av kunskap hos allmänheten. Bemötande som ger människan en känsla av trygghet och ett system som är gynnsamt för individens anonymitet är eftersökt. Detta trots att forskning visar att en öppenhet uppmuntras hos de HIV positiva för att minska stigma. Rädslan är dock för stor för att detta skulle kunna bli aktuellt för många

  • 220.
    Adolfsson, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Borg, Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    "När det skaver"- Skolsköterskans erfarenhet av psykisk ohälsa hos barn och tonåringar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 221.
    Adolfsson, Monica
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Unosen, Berit
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Icke farmakologiska metoder för att lindra postoperativ smärta hos vuxna 2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Postoperativ smärta är relaterad till vävnadsskadan som uppstår i samband med operation. Denna smärta kan många gånger vara svår att lindra optimalt med olika farmaka och underbehandlas i stor utsträckning. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva olika icke farmakologiska metoder som kan lindra postoperativ smärta hos vuxna. Metoden som användes bestod av en litteraturstudie där data samlades in genom systematiska databassökningar samt manuella sökningar. De icke farmakologiska metoder som framkom var specifik preoperativ information, avslappning, vägledd visualisering, akupunktur, massage, musik och vibrationsterapi. Metoderna kunde utföras av både sjuksköterskor och annan sjukvårdspersonal. Det framkom i flera artiklar att patienterna även kunde använda några av dessa metoder i egenvårdande syfte. De icke farmakologiska metoderna som framkom i litteraturstudien visade sig kunna lindra postoperativ smärta.

  • 222.
    Adolfsson, Per
    et al.
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Lindqvist, Åsa
    University West, Department of Health Sciences, Section for nursing - undergraduate level.
    Humor i byggandet av vårdrelationen mellan sjuksköterska och patient: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Humour has been a part of mankind since ancient time and affects the human being in several ways. Communication is essential in creating a relationship and humour may improve the possibility that a nurse and a patient succeed in building a therapeutic relationship.

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to illuminate humour in the therapeutic relationship between nurse and patient.

    Method: The method used was a literature review. Systematic searches were conducted in the databases Cinahl and PubMed where eight articles were found, a ninth article was found by a non-systematic search. The articles were then analyzed through Friberg's five-step model for literature reviews.

    Results: Four themes occurred. Humour as a brick in building a bridge in the therapeutic relationship, Experiences and effects of humour in the therapeutic relationship, Barriers and fears when using humour in the therapeutic relationship and Gender and humour in the therapeutic relationship. The result suggests that humour is useful in building a therapeutic relationship and is being used frequently, yet there are times when nurses hesitate to use humour due to the lack of experience. There also occurred a difference in how humour is used due to the gender of the patient.

    Conclusion: Humour is mainly a positive experience in the therapeutic relationship and should be used as it makes communication easier and makes it easier for nurses and patients to bond. The way using humour differs in gender must be considered by the nurse.

  • 223. Adolfsson Skinnar, Jonna
    et al.
    Österberg, Caroline
    Att vänta på organtransplantation: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva patienters upplevelse att vänta på organtransplantation.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt. Artiklarna har sökts i databaserna CINAHL, PubMed och Scopus. 15 artiklar valdes ut till resultatet, 3 artiklar hade kvantitativ ansats och 12 kvalitativ ansats.

    Resultat: 3 huvudkategorier presenteras i resultatet: Begränsningar innebar att vara bunden av teknisk apparatur och förhålla sig till en ny livsstil. Tiden fick nytt perspektiv och patienter upplevde att de alltid behövde vara beredda. Patienterna möttes av falskt alarm och upplevde väntan som oviss. Det fanns behov av stöd från anhöriga, patienter i samma situation och stöd från vårdpersonal. Tydlig och rak kommunikation var viktig för patienterna. Sjuksköterskan behövde finnas till hands. Trots oro fanns en känsla av en andra chans i livet.

    Slutsats: Patienter som väntar på en organtransplantation upplever att sjuksköterskan behöver vara tillgänglig, ha tydlig kommunikation, ge anpassad information utifrån individuella önskemål samt accepterar och förstår vikten av anhörigas närvaro och stöd så att varje patients enskilda behov kan bemötas.

  • 224.
    Adolfsson, Sophie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wernholm, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mastektomins påverkan på kvinnors livskvalitet: En systematisk litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I Sverige drabbas ungefär 20 kvinnor av bröstcancer varje dag och nästan hälften har genomgått en mastektomi. En av sjuksköterskans uppgifter är att ge stöd för att förbättra kvinnans livskvalitet, då kvinnan ska uppleva ett gott liv med harmoni i sig själv och sin omgivning.Studien förankrades i Katie Erikssons lidandeteori.

     

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva hur en mastektomi till följd av bröstcancer kan påverka kvinnors livskvalitet.

     

    Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie med induktiv ansats har använts. Datainsamlingen resulterade i 17 artiklar som sedan kvalitetsgranskades. Totalt ingick 14 artiklar. En manifest innehållsanalys genomfördes.

     

    Resultat: Resultatet utgörs av fyra huvudkategorier: Operationens fysiska och psykiska konsekvenser, Förändrade relationer, Inverkan av det kosmetiska resultatet med tre tillhörande underkategorier samt Acceptansens betydelse. En mastektomi leder till både fysiska och psykiska påfrestningar som påverkar livskvaliteten. Förmågan att skapa relationer försämrades. Många kvinnor upplevde bröstförlusten som påfrestande genom att kroppsuppfattningen, kvinnligheten och sexualiteten påverkades negativt. Äldre kvinnor accepterade förlusten lättare.

     

    Slutsats: Kvinnor som genomgått en mastektomi upplevde sämre livskvalitet där förlorandet av bröstet spelar stor roll. De drabbas emotionellt och förlusten har betydelse för livskvaliteten. Resultatet kan ge en ökad förståelse för sjuksköterskor som i sin tur kan vara ett stöd för att lindra lidande.

  • 225.
    Adolfsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Emil
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Beskrivning av interventioner för rökavvänjning för individer med KOL diagnos: - En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 226.
    Adolfsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Östlund, Titti
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patienters erfarenhet av sårpumpsbehandling vid svårläkta sår: en litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 227.
    Adolphson, Katja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Högberg, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Midwives' experiences of working conditions, perceptions of professional role and attitudes towards mothers in Mozambique2016In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 40, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: low- and middle-income countries still have a long way to go to reach the fifth Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality. Mozambique has accomplished a reduction of maternal mortality since the 1990s, but still has among the highest in the world. A key strategy in reducing maternal mortality is to invest in midwifery. AIM: the objective was to explore midwives' perspectives of their working conditions, their professional role, and perceptions of attitudes towards mothers in a low-resource setting. SETTING: midwives in urban, suburban, village and remote areas; working in central, general and rural hospitals as well as health centres and health posts were interviewed in Maputo City, Maputo Province and Gaza Province in Mozambique. METHOD: the study had a qualitative research design. Nine semi-structured interviews and one follow-up interview were conducted and analysed with qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: two main themes were found; commitment/devotion and lack of resources. All informants described empathic care-giving, with deep engagement with the mothers and highly valued working in teams. Lack of resources prevented the midwives from providing care and created frustration and feelings of insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: the midwives perceptions were that they tried to provide empathic, responsive care on their own within a weak health system which created many difficulties. The great potential the midwives possess of providing quality care must be valued and nurtured for their competency to be used more effectively.

  • 228.
    Adolphsson, Niclaz
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Davidsson, Barbro
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Debriefing: sett ur ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv samt dess relevans för omvårdnad2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 229.
    Adrelius, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Schultz, Ellinor
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Omvårdnadspersonals upplevelser i vårdandet av personer med självskadebeteende2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 230.
    Adrian, Cajsa
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hellgren, Evelina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Förekomsten av fysisk aktivitet och sömn hos äldre män och kvinnor med och utan depression.: En kvantitativ studie i samarbete med Swedish National Study on aging and Care Blekinge.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Medelåldern bland män och kvinnor ökar stadigt i Sverige samtidigt som psykisk ohälsa blir allt vanligare. Fysisk aktivitet och sömn är exempel på basala behov som ligger till grund för att uppnå en god hälsa. Sjuksköterskans uppgift är att motivera patienten genom att dela med sig av kunskaper och erfarenhet patienterna själva har möjlighet till förändringar och viljan till att tillfredsställa dessa behov.

    Syfte: Att undersöka förekomsten av fysisk aktivitet och sömn hos äldre män och kvinnor med och utan diagnosen depression.

    Metod: Designen är en kvantitativ deskriptiv tvärsnittsstudie i samråd med Swedish National Study on Aging and Care – Blekinges.

    Resultat: Resultatet visade att förekomsten av lätt fysisk aktivitet var vanligare än intensiv fysisk aktivitet hos äldre. Den fysiska aktiviteten utförs i högre grad av kvinnor med diagnosen depression och mer av män utan diagnosen depression. Hos de som deltog i studien förekom också sömnstörningar oftare vid depression.

    Slutsats: Sjuksköterskan bör motivera patienterna till förändringar med hjälp av omvårdnadsåtgärder. Detta kommer på lång sikt underlätta hälso- och sjukvården positivt eftersom medelåldern och den äldre befolkningen ökar. Fysisk aktivitet och god sömn är de grundläggande behov som minimerar och reducerar risken för depression hos män och kvinnor.

  • 231.
    Adrian Hansson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Kan gravida kvinnor som lider av övervikt eller fetma minska de negativa effekterna övervikten har på fostret och på barnets framtida hälsa?: -en systematisk litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 232.
    Adriansson, Martina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna.
    Bengtssson, Pernilla
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Sjuksköterskeutbildningarna.
    Patienters upplevelser av palliativ omvårdnad på sjukhus vid cancersjukdom2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:Majoriteten av de patienter som avlider i Sverige varje år till följd av cancer vårdas vid sin död på sjukhus. Många erhåller palliativ vård som innebär medicinska behandlingar eller omvårdnadsåtgärder i livets slutskede. Ett holistiskt förhållningssätt hjälper patienter att uppleva god livskvalitet i livets slutskede och uppnå en god död. Tidigare studier har påvisat svårigheter att tillgodose patienter på sjukhus en optimal palliativ omvårdnad. Via patienters upplevelser kan den omvårdnaden utvecklas. Syfte: Syftet med litteraturöversikten var att beskriva patienters upplevelser av palliativ omvårdnad på sjukhus vid cancersjukdom. Metod: En allmän litteraturöversikt baserad på kvalitativa artiklar som framkom efter systematiska databassökningar i Cinahl och PubMed. Dessa granskades med HKR:s granskningsmall för kvalitativa artiklar, analys genomfördes enligt Graneheim och Lundman (2004). Resultat: Följande sex kategorier framkom; Betydelsen av kontroll i livets slutskede, Upplevelsen av ensamhet, Den gode vårdaren och lojala patienten, Att vara beroende, Vikten av kontinuitet och Bibehålla sin självständighet. Resultatet visade att sjukhuset kunde vara en trygghet men att den palliativa omvårdnaden överlag präglades negativt av en stressig miljö där patienterna upplevde både ökad självständighet och ökat beroende. Diskussion: Arbetet bedöms tillförlitligt och verifierbart då datainsamling och analys är redovisat och kontinuerligt utvärderat i grupp. Pålitligheten stärks av att förförståelsen är redovisad. Resultatet bedöms överförbart till en sjukhuskontext, men kanske inte till patienter med andra diagnoser. Resultatet bidrar till ökad kunskap inom området palliativ omvårdnad. Tre huvudfynd belyses som påvisar en bristande holistisk omvårdnad relaterat till bland annat tidsbrist, ett medicinskt fokus samt okunskap hos vårdpersonalen angående palliativa omvårdnadsbehov.

  • 233.
    Adriazola, Mary Isabel
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Kjellström, Thima
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Att vara inlagd på flerbäddssal: En litteraturöversikt om hur patienter upplever att vårdas i en flerbäddssal inom somatisk vård.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Patients may have different experiences while they are cared for in a multiplebed

    room. Those experiences are influenced by the hospital environment,

    atmosphere, lack of space and communication. Dignity can be affected and

    offend in various ways depending on their own perceptions of dignity.

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to explore how patients experienced

    their own dignity in a multiple-bed room ward within somatic care.

    Methods: This literature review was based on 13 qualitative and one quantitative study

    and found in the databases CINAHL, Medline and PubMed. The results were

    compiled in a chart, where similarly themes were identified to created new

    themes.

    Results: The overall themes for this literature review are presented in six different

    themes. They are: Patients experiences of being independent, patients

    privacy, patients’ participation in being placed in a multiple-bed room,

    patients' experiences of being with others and how staffs’ response affects

    patients' experiences. The patients both positive and negative experiences are

    described.

    Discussions: The authors discuss the results based on Nordenfelt dignity concept, where

    dignity as moral stature, human dignity and the dignity of identity are

    involved.

    Keywords: Multiple-bed rooms, privacy, patients’ experience, dignity

  • 234.
    Adrovic, Ninella
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Fasth Nilsson, My
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Livet med en påse på magen: Upplevelser av att leva med en tarmstomi2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2015 uppskattades det finnas 43 000 individer med stomi i Sverige och denna siffra har sedan 2006 ökat successivt i hela landet. Stomin inverkar på individens sociala och intima liv och påverkar vardagliga aktiviteter och dagliga rutiner. Litteraturstudiens syfte är att beskriva upplevelser av att leva med en tarmstomi. Resultatet presenteras utifrån tre teman: upplevelser av stöd och information, upplevelser av att vara annorlunda och upplevelser av en ny livssituation. Nio underteman bildades utifrån dessa rubriker. Resultatet visar att tarmstomi innebär en stor förändring som påverkar individernas liv på olika sätt. Det konstateras att tarmstomi har en negativ inverkan i de flesta fall. Familj, närstående och sjuksköterskor har en betydelsefull roll för att individerna ska uppnå hälsa och välbefinnande.

  • 235.
    Adén, Camilla
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Caroline
    Strategier som sjuksköterskan använder vid bedömning av akut och postoperativ smärta2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 236.
    af Bjerkén, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Åslund, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Anestesisjuksköterskors erfarenheter av vård av patienter med missbruksproblem: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The aim of this study was to describe anaesthetic nurses' strategies for the nursing of patients with misuse dependency within anaesthetic care.Background Anaesthetic nurses daily meet patients with different backgrounds, conditions and needs. There are often different physiological and psychological factors that affect the anaesthesia and the anaesthetic care for persons with misuse problems than for persons without similar problems. These factors could be for example increased tolerance for drugs, impaired ability to digest drugs, increased bleeding tendency, stress and anxiety. The anaesthetic nurses' knowledge and understanding for earlier mentioned factors are of utmost importance for them to be able to perform a good and optimum anaesthetic care.Design The study was made with qualitative research design with semi-structured interviews.Methods The participants were chosen on a representative basis. The data collection consisted of semi-structured interviews with anaesthetic nurses in five hospitals in Sweden. The interviews were written down and analyzed using a qualitative content method.Results Twelve interviews were made during the autumn 2016. The analysis of the material resulted in three categories titled ”Having preparedness for action”, ”Communicating with the patient” and ”Being security conscious”. The categories consisted of eight subcategories that were titled ”Being prepared to adjust the doses”, ”Choosing the adequate medicine”, ”Managing bleeding tendency”, ”Handling difficulties with giving injections”, ”Establishing trust”, ”Being explicit”, ”Ensuring safety for the staff” and ”Ensuring safety for the patient”.Conclusion Anaesthetic nurses are aware of the physiological and psychological factors that affect the anaesthesia of patients with misuse dependency. They have conceived strategies for planning the anaesthesia and for preventing the emerging of problems. The predominant strategies contain drug related measures such as dose adjustment and selection of drugs. There are different opinions whether a PM or a general routine would increase the safety and improve the handling of patients with misuse dependency.Keywords: Anaesthetic nurse; Misuse; Strategies; Experiences

  • 237.
    af Burén, Julia
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Szanto, Anna
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av patienter med substansmissbruksproblematik: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Substance abuse has a negative impact on the body and is contributing to some of the world's diseases. The drug availability has increased, showing an upward trend. Patients with substance abuse who seek care feel that their needs are not taken seriously. The nurse’s role in this is to create a care that is as good and efficient as possible, where patients feel involved and respected.

    Aim: To investigate nurses' experiences of caring for people with substance use problems.

    Method: The literature review consisted of ten scientific articles taken from the databases Cinahl Complete and PubMed. All articles were based on nurses’ experiences of caring for patients with substance abuse. The result was constructed on the similarities and differences between the articles.

    Results: The results showed that nurses from various departments had different experiences of providing care to patients with substance abuse problems. Nurses working on different kind of departments did not have any specific training focused on substance abuse. In contrast, nurses who worked in psychiatry, detoxification centers, and alcohol and drug departments, had more experience of dealing with patients suffering from this sort of disease.

    Discussion: The discussion has been based on Parse's theory Humanbecoming. With help of the theory the discussion included the nurses’ different experiences and how healthcare is formed along this. It concluded with the impact education and healthcare environment has on the care for patients with substance abuse.

  • 238.
    af Ekenstam, Albert
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Lindström, Erik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Upplevelsen av stressrelaterad ohälsa: En rörelse mellan balans och obalans2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stress är idag något de flesta människor kan relatera till och stressystemet är ett av det mest grundläggande verktyg som människan utvecklat. Detta för att klara av de stora påfrestningar och belastningar det innebär att leva ett liv. Men vid långvarig stress utan att människan får chans till återhämtning och vila så utvecklas istället en ohälsa som kan vara svår att hantera. Denna ohälsa kallas stressrelaterad ohälsa och kan leda till en rad olika sjukdomar både inom det somatiska och det psykiatriska området. Begrepp som hälsa, livsrytm, lidande och det existentiella perspektivet blir nödvändiga att använda för att på ett djupare plan beskriva den obalans som uppkommer vid stressrelaterad ohälsa.

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att undersöka patienters upplevelser av stressrelaterad ohälsa och vägen till att finna balans. Metoden bygger på en litteraturstudie där enbart kvalitativa artiklar använts. I resultat framkom två teman: upplevelser av obalans och att finna balans med tillhörande subteman som presenteras i en vågrörelse. De drabbade lever ofta ett liv med höga krav, ensidiga relationer och tar även ett stort ansvar både i hemmet och på arbetet. Utan återhämtning och vila blir denna livsstil ohållbar vilket leder till en nedåtgående rörelse där "att nå botten" blir en slutstation men även en vändpunkt för de drabbade. Genom att förstå och ha kunskap om hur det är att leva med och uppleva stressrelaterad ohälsa kan sjuksköterskan stödja, skapa tillit och skapa en miljö så att den drabbade åter kan finna den balans som krävs för att uppnå hälsa.

  • 239.
    af Klint, Madeleine
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Jonasson, Paulina
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Ovisshet och väntan: Anhörigas upplevelser av att bli informerade av sjuksköterskor2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Bakgrund: Sjuksköterskor har till uppgift att informera anhöriga med hänsyn till tidpunkt, form och innehåll. Anhöriga har behov av att få information från sjuksköterskor. Studier visar att behovet av information inte tillfredsställs och att anhöriga lider i ovisshet och väntan.

     

    Syfte: Beskriva anhörigas upplevelser av att bli informerade av sjuksköterskor.

     

    Metod: En litteraturöversikt enligt Friberg (2006) har gjorts och baserats på nio vetenskapliga artiklar. Likheter i resultaten delades efter innehåll in i teman.

     

    Resultat: Anhöriga vill bli informerade på vardagligt språk, med få medicinska termer och informationen ska vara rak, sanningsenlig och patientnära. De vill inte behöva vänta på att få information, de vill få den kontinuerligt och inte riskera att få motsägelsefull information. Förmedlad information ska syfta till att anhöriga får förståelse för situationen den närstående befinner sig i, utvecklar tillit till sjuksköterskorna och blir delaktiga i vården av den närstående. Dessutom bör förmedlad information lämna utrymme för realistiskt hopp. 

     

    Diskussion: Det händer att sjuksköterskor talar i medicinsk jargong med varandra och då anpassar de inte språket efter de anhörigas förförståelse av sjukvården. Sjuksköterskor bör, således, väga sina ord med större omsorg. Anhöriga söker information från andra källor, vilket ställer högre krav på sjuksköterskor att uppdatera och anpassa sig efter dagens snabba informationsflöde. För att möta anhörigas vilja till delaktighet kan familjeronder öka informationsöverföringen. Anhöriga får där möta människor från olika professioner och ta vara på deras kunskaper om den närstående och på så sätt skapa sig en egen bild över situationen.

     

    Nyckelord: Anhöriga, behov, information, sjuksköterskor                     

  • 240.
    af Sandeberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet.
    Johansson, Eva M.
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagell, Peter
    4Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Wettergren, Lena
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet.
    Psychometric properties of the DISABKIDS Chronic Generic Module (DCGM-37) when used in children undergoing treatment for cancer2010In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 8, p. 109-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate data quality and psychometric properties of an instrument for measurement of health-related quality of life: DISABKIDS Chronic Generic Module (DCGM-37) used in school-aged children with cancer.

    METHODS: All school-children diagnosed with cancer in Sweden during a two-and-a-half year period were invited to participate in the study. Analysis was performed on combined data from two assessments, two and-a-half and five months after start of cancer treatment (n = 170). The instrument was examined with respect to feasibility, data quality, reliability and construct and criterion-based validity.

    RESULTS: Missing items per dimension ranged from 0 to 5.3 percent, with a majority below three percent. Cronbach's alpha values exceeded 0.70 for all dimensions. There was support for the suggested groupings of items into dimensions for all but six of the 36 items of the DCGM-37 included in this study. The instrument discriminated satisfactorily between diagnoses reflecting treatment burden.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate satisfactory data quality and reliability of the DCGM-37 when used in children undergoing treatment for cancer. Evaluation of construct validity showed generally acceptable results, although not entirely supporting the suggested dimensionality. Continued psychometric evaluation in a larger sample of children during and after treatment for cancer is recommended.

  • 241.
    Aferdita, Mehmetaj
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Skoug, Emelie
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Sjuksköterskans och Invandrarkvinnors upplevelser av mötet i vården: en litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Skandinavisk sjukvårdpersonal anser att det ibland är svårt att förstå patienter med en annan kultur och bakgrund vilket kan påverka mötet dem emellan. Kulturkrockar är därför inte helt ovanliga i vården vilket kan upplevas jobbigt för både sjuksköterskan och invandrarkvinnor. Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva sjuksköterskans och invandrarkvinnors upplevelser av mötet i vården. Metod: Under litteraturstudiens gång har vetenskapliga artiklar analyserats och sammanställts. Granskningen av artiklarna har resulterat till tre underrubriker som presenteras i resultatdelen. Resultat: Språksvårigheter är en av den vanligaste faktorn till kulturkrock mellan invandrarkvinnor och sjuksköterskor i vården. Enligt sjuksköterskorna är det viktigt att ha förståelse för kvinnornas värderingar och bakgrund för att kunna ge invandrarkvinnorna en anpassad och individuell omsorg. Sjuksköterskorna anser att mer tid behövs för att hinna ge omsorg till kvinnorna enligt kvinnornas önskemål som varierar beroende på deras olika kulturer. Invandrarkvinnorna anser att en bättre omsorg till dem är att ta hänsyn till deras religion, etnicitet och individuella önskemål. För att som sjuksköterska kunna få förståelse om andra människors tro måste sjusköterskan först förstå sitt eget levnadssätt som är påverkat av interaktion, sociala och kulturella bakgrunder. Diskussion: Enligt socialstyrelsen ska sjuksköterskan ge hela befolkningen vård och omsorg på lika villkor samt visa öppenhet och respekt för olika värderingar och trosuppfattningar.

  • 242.
    Afeworki, Tigisthi
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Andersson, Frida
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Alla Lika Olika: Vårdupplevelser för familjer där föräldrarna lever i en samkönad relation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Historically, people in same-sex relationships, have had a vulnerable position in society and are often victims of discrimination. In Sweden there is a law that prohibits discrimination related to sexual orientation. The aim of the health care law is that the entire population should have an equal health. Despite this, the selfrated heath of those who live in a same-sex relationship is often lower than the rest of the population. In healthcare, there is often a heteronormative approach, which can lead to uncertainty for families with a different constellation than heterosexuals. Aim: The aim of this study was therefore to describe how families with parents who lives in same-sex realtionship experienced meeting within health care. Method: To describe this, a qualitative content analysis with descriptive approach of 10 scientific articles were done. This was then discussed by Levinas's theory of the Other. Results: The results that emerged were that most positive experiences were based in a comfortness, which was born out of an acceptance from the healthcare side. The adverse experiences tended to be imbued with an emotional alienation, which in turn to an increased vulnerability. Conclusion: For all families to feel welcome and obvious, it would probably be helpful if health personell should meet each individual and family with an open mind, without making any assumptions on their lives. As the personell makes open questions and are comfortable with the answers, it might make it easier for all families to be honest with their situation.

  • 243.
    Affland, Susanna
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Jernberg Åkerstein, Ida
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda patienter med funktionsnedsättningar efter en strokediagnos: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stroke drabbar cirka 28 000 personer årligen i Sverige. Många drabbas av funktionsnedsättningar som kräver rehabilitering där sjuksköterskan spelar en viktig roll i den inledande rehabiliteringsfasen. Genom de funktionsnedsättningar patienter drabbas av blir vårdandet komplext och utmanande för sjuksköterskor.

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda patienter som drabbats av funktionsnedsättningar efter en strokediagnos. En litteraturstudie har genomförts. Databaserna som använts är Cinahl, Medline och Primo. Nio kvalitativa artiklar hittades och kvalitetsgranskades enligt Friberg (2017) och analyserades enligt Axelsson (2012) metod.  Två huvudteman identifierades i resultatet vilka var vårdandets komplexitet med subteman sjuksköterskans roll, utmaningar i vårdandet och vårdrelation, samt utmaningar i organisationen med subteman sjuksköterskans kompetens, samarbete i teamet och tidsbrist. Resultatet visade att sjuksköterskor upplevde att de hade en viktig roll i rehabiliteringen och vårdandet, att vårdandet av strokedrabbade var komplext och utmanande. Skapandet av vårdrelationer var viktigt men påverkades av den upplevda tidsbristen. Även sjuksköterskors kompetens och samarbetet i teamet upplevdes vara viktigt för att uppnå god och säker vård. För att tillgodose patienter den vård de kräver samt att skapa vårdrelationer är det viktigt att organisationen ses över för att tillgodose sjuksköterskor den tid och de resurser de behöver för att uppnå god vård.

  • 244.
    Afram, Basema
    et al.
    Department of Health Services Research, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Verbeek, Hilde
    Department of Health Services Research, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Bleijlevens, Michel
    Department of Health Services Research, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Challis, David
    University of Manchester, Manchester, England UK.
    Leino-Kilpi, Helena
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland/Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Karlsson, Staffan
    Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Soto, Maria
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, CHU Toulouse University Hospital, France.
    Renom-Guiteras, Anna
    School of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health, University of Witten/Herdecke, Germany.
    Saks, Kai
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Zabalegui, Adelaida
    Nursing Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain.
    Hamers, Jan
    Department of Health Services Research, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Predicting institutional long-term care admission in dementia: a mixed-methods study of informal caregivers’ reports2015In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 1351-1362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate agreement between: (1) expected reasons and actual reasons for admission of people with dementia according to informal caregivers; (2) scores on measurement instruments prior to admission and the actual reasons for admission according to informal caregivers.

    Background: Timely admission of people with dementia is a crucial issue. Information is highly warranted on whether informal caregivers are capable of prior identification of causes of admission and, can thus be considered a reliable prospective source on causes of admission.

    Design: A cohort study among informal caregivers of people with dementia who made a transition to institutional long-term care.

    Methods: Qualitative data on the expected and actual reasons for admission were collected via open-ended questions at baseline and follow-up. Furthermore, at baseline, data were collected using measurement instruments to measure pre-admission characteristics. Interviews took place between November 2010-April 2012. After categorizing the answers, the agreement between the expected and actual reasons was calculated. Furthermore, bivariate associations were calculated between the actual reasons for admission and scores on corresponding measurement instruments.

    Results/Findings: For most informal caregivers, there was agreement between their statements on the expected reason and the actual reason for admission. A third of the caregivers showed no conformity. Bivariate associations showed that there is also agreement between the actual reasons for admission and scores on corresponding measurement instruments.

    Conclusion: Informal caregivers can be considered reliable sources of information regarding what causes the admission of a person with dementia. Professional care should anticipate informal caregivers' statements and collaborate with them to strive for timely and appropriate admission. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 245.
    Afroz, B.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division of Public Health Sciences.
    Moniruzzaman, S.
    Karlstad University, Division of Public Health Sciences.
    Stark Ekman, Diana
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Andersson, R.
    Karlstad University, Division of Public Health Sciences.
    The impact of economic crisis on injury mortality: The case of the 'Asian crisis'2012In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 126, no 10, p. 836-838Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 246.
    Afshar, Parvaneh
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Björkert, Pernilla
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Nutrition och fallrisk hos äldre personer: en intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undernäring är ett stort problem inom vård och omsorg för äldre. Att få i sig rätt mängd näring och energi under ett dygn är en mänsklig rättighet. För att bibehålla sin vikt under ett sjukdomsförlopp ska det vara balans mellan intag och förbrukning av energi. Föratt uppnå god livskvalitet, förebygga sjukdom, återvinna hälsa är ett gott näringstillstånd nödvändigt. Det finns idag många riktlinjer och bedömningsinstrument för att bedöma och behandla undernäring. Att vara undernärd är allvarligt och en av de vanligaste orsakerna till att äldre personer ramlar och skadar sig hemma eller under en sjukhusvistelse. Att upptäcka och förhindra patientens omvårdnadsproblem är sjuksköterskans huvuduppgift.

    Syftet var att belysa omvårdnadspersonals upplevelse av nutrition hos äldre personer med falltendens under sjukhusvistelse.

    Kvalitativ metod användes med en induktiv ansats. Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med fem sjuksköterskor och fem undersköterskor som arbetar på ett akutgeriatriskt sjukhus. Intervjuerna analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultatet av insamlade data visade fyra teman:

    - Nutrition och fallrisk i omvårdnaden

    - Varierande helhetskontroll beroende på bemanning,

    - Svårigheter med nutrition för äldre personer med fallrisk

    - Rutiner.

    Omvårdnadspersonalen som består av sjuksköterskor och undersköterskor upplever att nutrition och fallrisk är två viktiga delar i omvårdnaden för äldre personer som vårdas på sjukhus. Vid stress och hög belastning upplever flera personer att helhetskontrollen gällande nutrition och fallrisk minskar kraftigt och kommunikationen mellan yrkeskategorier försämras. Genom dialog under arbetspasset, förbättras både patientens näringsintag och förebygger fallrisken.

    Slutsatsen visar att omvårdnadspersonal har ansvar för att uppfylla den äldre personens näringsbehov. Fungerande rutiner, samarbete och god kommunikation är viktigt men personalbrist och tidsbrist leder till bristande engagemang. Resultatet belyser att omvårdnadspersonal upplever att nutrition är en av många fallriskåtgärder, vikten av kommunikation i teamet tas upp samt fungerande rutiner men även de etiska dilemman som dyker upp.

    Studien visar att omvårdnadspersonal upplever att det finns ett samband mellan nutrition och fallrisk hos äldre personer på sjukhus.

  • 247.
    Aftevik, Monika
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Carlbark, Nina
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Musikens påverkan på individer med autismspektrumdiagnos: En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to have a limited capacity for social interactions, communications, and usually show hyper or hypo reactions to sensory stimuli. Time spent in health facilities can therefore be extra stressful. Since music is used for therapy or pain relief in cancer treatment and dementia care for example, it would be interesting to further explore the effects of music. The aim of this literature review was to investigate how individuals with ASD are affected by music. Eleven literature articles were analyzed and as a result, four themes emerged: physical, social, emotional influence and also focus and coping. Anxiety, mood, and social interactions were affected in a positive way by music or music therapy. Physical reactions in the brain were seen in regions underlying music perception and emotional processing. The nurse’s goal is person-centered care, and the knowledge of the effects of music and the possibility to use music in clinical practice, could make working with ASD patients easier. Future research on this subject could provide further knowledge and result in guidelines and routines for an easy use of music in the care of individuals with ASD.

  • 248.
    Aftonfalk, Anders
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University College.
    Norberg, Jennifer
    Sophiahemmet University College.
    Bemötande av närstående vid plötslig, oväntad död2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 249.
    Afzelius, Görel
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Hesse, Ylva
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
    Att hjälpa eller stjälpa: patientens delaktighet i vården2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 250.
    Afzelius, My
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjölund, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter och upplevelser av att vårda unga kvinnor som drabbats av bröstcancer - en kvalitativ intervjustudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Being diagnosed with breast cancer is an overwhelming experience,especially for young women of childbearing age, because they often find themselves in acomplex life situation. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe nurses’ experiences ofwhat is important in caring for young women with breast cancer. Method: The data wascollected by semi-structured qualitative interviews according to Kvale and Brinkmann. The transcribed interviews have been analyzed to understand their meaning. Results: Caring ofyoung women with breast cancer do not differ from other patient groups. Although allpatients should be treated on equal terms, caring should be individualized. Importantelements, such as deep conversations, are perceived as difficult in caring and referred toother professionals. However, the nurses stress the importance of these conversations to geta relationship with the patients. Discussion: A caring relationship is important in order toget access to what patients considers important in caring. Without a caring relationship, it isimpossible to give the patients the right support. Caring should be individualized becausethe perception of health is subjective. The nurses seem unfamiliar with self reflection whichshows in their unwillingness to discuss sensitive topics.

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