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  • 201.
    Carlsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Wanby, Pär
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University;Kalmar County Hospital.
    Lexne, Erik
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Mathold, Karin
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Nobin, Rebecca
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Ericson, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Nordqvist, Ola
    Kalmar County Council.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Older Swedish Adults with High Self-Perceived Health Show Optimal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Whereas Vitamin D Status Is Low in Patients with High Disease Burden2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controversy pervades the definition of adequate and optimal vitamin D status. The Institutes of Medicine have recommended serum 25(OH) D levels above 50 nmol/L based upon evidence related to bone health, but some experts, including the Endocrine Society and International Osteoporosis Foundation, suggest a minimum serum 25(OH) D level of 75 nmol/L to reduce the risk of falls and fractures in older adults. In a cross-sectional study, we compared vitamin D status in people >= 75 years selected from four groups with a frailty phenotype, combined with a control group free from serious illness, and who considered themselves completely healthy. Only 13% of the 169 controls were vitamin D deficient (S-25(OH) D) < 50 nmol/L), in contrast with 49% of orthopedic patients with hip fractures (n = 133), 31% of stroke patients (n = 122), 39% of patients visiting the hospital's emergency department >= 4 times a year (n = 81), and 75% of homebound adult residents in long-term care nursing homes (n = 51). The mean vitamin D concentration of the healthy control group (74 nmol/L) was similar to a suggested optimal level based on physiological data and mortality studies, and much higher than that of many officially recommended cut-off levels for vitamin D deficiency (< 50 nmol/L). The present study provides a basis for planning and implementing public guidelines for the screening of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D treatment for frail elderly patients.

  • 202.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Gonzalez, A. D.
    Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change2009In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 89, no 5, p. S1704-S1709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic warming is caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, with agriculture as a main contributor for the latter 2 gases. Other parts of the food system contribute carbon dioxide emissions that emanate from the use of fossil fuels in transportation, processing, retailing, storage, and preparation. Food items differ substantially when GHG emissions are calculated from farm to table. A recent study of approximate to 20 items sold in Sweden showed a span of 0.4 to 30 kg CO2 equivalents/kg edible product. For protein-rich food, such as legumes, meat, fish, cheese, and eggs, the difference is a factor of 30 with the lowest emissions per kilogram for legumes, poultry, and eggs and the highest for beef, cheese, and pork. Large emissions for ruminants are explained mainly by methane emissions from enteric fermentation. For vegetables and fruits, emissions usually are <= 2.5 kg CO2 equivalents/kg product, even if there is a high degree of processing and substantial transportation. Products transported by plane are an exception because emissions may be as large as for certain meats. Emissions from foods rich in carbohydrates, such as potatoes, pasta, and wheat, are <1.1 kg/kg edible food. We suggest that changes in the diet toward more plant-based foods, toward meat from animals with little enteric fermentation, and toward foods processed in an energy-efficient manner offer an interesting and little explored area for mitigating climate change.

  • 203.
    Cattaneo, Adriano
    et al.
    U. for Hlth. Serv. Res./Intl. Coop., Istituto per l'Infanzia, Trieste, Italy .
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Koletzko, Berthold
    Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University of Munich, Germany .
    Guzman, Luis Ruiz
    Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, Barcelona, Spain .
    Protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe: current situation2005In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the current situation regarding protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe, as a first step towards the development of a blueprint for action.

    DESIGN AND SETTING: A questionnaire was completed by 29 key informants and 128 other informants in the EU, including member states, accession and candidate countries.

    RESULTS: EU countries do not fully comply with the policies and recommendations of the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding that they endorsed during the 55th World Health Assembly in 2002. Some countries do not even comply with the targets of the Innocenti Declaration (1990). Pre-service training on breast-feeding practice is inadequate and in-service training achieves only low to medium coverage. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative is well developed only in three countries; in 19 countries, less than 15% of births occur in baby-friendly hospitals. The International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, endorsed in 1981 by all countries, is not fully applied and submitted to independent monitoring. The legislation for working mothers meets on average the International Labour Organization standards, but covers only women with full formal employment. Voluntary mother-to-mother support groups and trained peer counsellors are present in 27 and 13 countries, respectively. Breast-feeding rates span over a wide range; comparisons are difficult due to use of non-standard methods. The rate of exclusive breast-feeding at 6 months is low everywhere, even in countries with high initiation rates.

    CONCLUSIONS: EU countries need to revise their policies and practices to meet the principles inscribed in the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding in order to better protect, promote and support breast-feeding.

  • 204.
    Cattaneo, Adriano
    et al.
    U. for Hlth. Serv. Res./Intl. Coop., Istituto per l'Infanzia, Trieste, Italy .
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Koletzko, Berthold
    Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University of Munich, Germany .
    Guzman, Luis Ruiz
    Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, Barcelona, Spain .
    Protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe: current situation2005In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the current situation regarding protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe, as a first step towards the development of a blueprint for action.

    DESIGN AND SETTING: A questionnaire was completed by 29 key informants and 128 other informants in the EU, including member states, accession and candidate countries.

    RESULTS: EU countries do not fully comply with the policies and recommendations of the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding that they endorsed during the 55th World Health Assembly in 2002. Some countries do not even comply with the targets of the Innocenti Declaration (1990). Pre-service training on breast-feeding practice is inadequate and in-service training achieves only low to medium coverage. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative is well developed only in three countries; in 19 countries, less than 15% of births occur in baby-friendly hospitals. The International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, endorsed in 1981 by all countries, is not fully applied and submitted to independent monitoring. The legislation for working mothers meets on average the International Labour Organization standards, but covers only women with full formal employment. Voluntary mother-to-mother support groups and trained peer counsellors are present in 27 and 13 countries, respectively. Breast-feeding rates span over a wide range; comparisons are difficult due to use of non-standard methods. The rate of exclusive breast-feeding at 6 months is low everywhere, even in countries with high initiation rates.

    CONCLUSIONS: EU countries need to revise their policies and practices to meet the principles inscribed in the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding in order to better protect, promote and support breast-feeding.

  • 205.
    Cavalli, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Pan, Gang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Nord, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Wadelius, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Looking beyond GWAS: allele-specific transcription factor binding drives the association of GALNT2 to HDL-C plasma levels2016In: Lipids in Health and Disease, ISSN 1476-511X, E-ISSN 1476-511X, Vol. 15, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been associated to cardiovascular disease. The high heritability of HDL-C plasma levels has been an incentive for several genome wide association studies (GWASs) which identified, among others, variants in the first intron of the GALNT2 gene strongly associated to HDL-C levels. However, the lead GWAS SNP associated to HDL-C levels in this genomic region, rs4846914, is located outside of transcription factor (TF) binding sites defined by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments in the ENCODE project and is therefore unlikely to be functional. In this study we apply a bioinformatics approach which rely on the premise that ChIP-seq reads can identify allele specific binding of a TF at cell specific regulatory elements harboring allele specific SNPs (AS-SNPs). EMSA and luciferase assays were used to validate the allele specific binding and to test the enhancer activity of the regulatory element harboring the AS-SNP rs4846913 as well as the neighboring rs2144300 which are in high LD with rs4846914. Findings: Using luciferase assays we found that rs4846913 and the neighboring rs2144300 displayed allele specific enhancer activity. We propose that an inhibitor binds preferentially to the rs4846913-C allele with an inhibitory boost from the synergistic binding of other TFs at the neighboring SNP rs2144300. These events influence the transcription level of GALNT2. Conclusions: The results suggest that rs4846913 and rs2144300 drive the association to HDL-C plasma levels through an inhibitory regulation of GALNT2 rather than the reported lead GWAS SNP rs4846914.

  • 206.
    Cecilia, Olsson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Waling, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    School meals do not have a given place in Swedish school's quality management2016In: Health Education Journal, ISSN 0017-8969, E-ISSN 1748-8176, Vol. 75, no 8, p. 961-971Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Sweden is one of three countries worldwide which has a legal requirement to ensure that pupils in compulsory school should be offered free, nutritious school meals. Furthermore, the law states that school meal provision should be included in schools' internal quality management (IQM) system. The objective of this study was to examine to what extent schools in Sweden are following the legal requirement to include school meals in IQM and the relationship between this inclusion and the application of government advisory guidelines regarding school meals.

    Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Head teachers evenly distributed across all regions in Sweden representing municipality schools, independent schools and Sami schools. Method: Web-based questionnaire completed by 216 head teachers.

    Results: About half of the schools did not meet the legal requirement to include schools meals in the IQM. Furthermore, familiarity with and use of the National Food Agency (NFA) guidelines and the web-based tool School Food Sweden, as well as activities considered as part of a pedagogical school meal and the inclusion of school meals in interdisciplinary work, were reported to be less common in schools not including school meals in their IQM system.

    Conclusion: Findings suggest that when there is inclusion of school meals in a school's quality management system, the school is also more likely to include school meals as part of educational activities. By acknowledging school meal provision as part of the educational process, possibilities are opened up for health-promoting activities to prevent non-communicable disease.

  • 207.
    Cederholm, T
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Jensen, Gordon L.
    Univ Vermont, Coll Med, Deans Off, Burlington, VT USA.;Univ Vermont, Coll Med, Dept Med, Burlington, VT 05405 USA..
    To Create a Consensus on Malnutrition Diagnostic Criteria: A Report From the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) Meeting at the ESPEN Congress 20162017In: JPEN - Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, ISSN 0148-6071, E-ISSN 1941-2444, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 311-314Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) Congress in Copenhagen, Denmark (September 2016), representatives of the 4 largest global parenteral and enteral nutrition (PEN) societies from Europe (ESPEN), the United States (American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [ASPEN]), Asia (Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Society of Asia [PENSA]), and Latin America (Latin American Federation of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [FELANPE]) and from national PEN societies around the world met to continue the conversation on how to diagnose malnutrition that started during the Clinical Nutrition Week, Austin, Texas (February 2016). Current thinking on diagnostic approaches was shared; ESPEN suggested a grading approach that could encompass various types of signs, symptoms, and etiologies to support diagnosis. ASPEN emphasized where the parties agree; that is, that the 3 major published approaches (ESPEN, ASPEN-Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and Subjective Global Assessment [SGA]) all propose weight loss as a key indicator for malnutrition. FELANPE suggested that the anticipated consensus approach needs to prioritize a diagnostic method that is available for everybody since resources differ globally. PENSA highlighted that body mass index varies by ethnicity/race and that sarcopenia/muscle mass evaluation is important for the diagnosis of malnutrition. A Core Working Committee of the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition has been established (comprising 2 representatives each from the 4 largest PEN societies) that will lead consensus development in collaboration with a larger working group with broad global representation, using e-mail, telephone conferences, and face-to-face meetings during the upcoming ASPEN and ESPEN congresses. Transparency and external input will be sought. Objectives include (1) consensus development around evidence-based criteria for broad application, (2) promotion of global dissemination of the consensus criteria, and (3) seeking adoption by the World Health Organization and the International Classification of Diseases.

  • 208.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Fish consumption and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for prevention or treatment of cognitive decline, dementia or Alzheimer's disease in older adults - any news?2017In: Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care, ISSN 1363-1950, E-ISSN 1473-6519, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 104-109Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Twenty years of research indicates that fish and n-3 fatty acids (FAs), for example docosahexaenoic acid, may attenuate cognitive decline including Alzheimer's disease in older people. This review concerns reports during 2015-2016 in humans.

    RECENT FINDINGS: One prospective cohort study showed that seafood consumption was related to less neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in brain autopsies from elderly care residents. In a large 5-year intervention no effects on cognition could be shown either in n-3 FA supplemented or in control patients. Two meta-analyses in community-dwelling patients support preservation of cognition with higher fish intake. Older adults with memory complaints may improve cortical blood flow during memory challenges by n-3 FA supplementation. Recalculations from a report in Alzheimer's disease patients indicated a dose-response pattern between increments of serum n-3 FAs and cognitive improvement. Still, a Cochrane review (using three randomized control trials) concluded that n-3 FAs cannot provide any 6-month benefit in patients with mild/moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    SUMMARY: The accumulated knowledge indicates that healthy populations may have preventive benefits from fish and docosahexaenoic acid intake, like older adults with memory complaints/mild cognitive impairment, and maybe subgroups of patients with mild/moderate Alzheimer's disease may also show such benefits. Still, more studies are needed.

  • 209.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Letter to the Editor - Should significant weight loss mandated to be "unintentional" for resulting in and regarded as malnutrition?2016In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 235-235Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lågt proteinintag ger minskad muskelmassa hos äldre2008In: Nordisk Nutrition, Vol. 3, p. 13-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Barazzoni, R
    Austin, P
    Ballmer, P
    Biolo, G
    Bischoff, S C
    Compher, C
    Correia, I
    Higashiguchi, T
    Holst, M
    Jensen, G L
    Malone, A
    Muscaritoli, M
    Nyulasi, I
    Pirlich, M
    Rothenberg, E
    Schindler, K
    Schneider, S M
    de van der Schueren, M A E
    Sieber, C
    Valentini, L
    Yu, J C
    Van Gossum, A
    Singer, P
    ESPEN guidelines on definitions and terminology of clinical nutrition2017In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 49-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A lack of agreement on definitions and terminology used for nutrition-related concepts and procedures limits the development of clinical nutrition practice and research.

    OBJECTIVE: This initiative aimed to reach a consensus for terminology for core nutritional concepts and procedures.

    METHODS: The European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) appointed a consensus group of clinical scientists to perform a modified Delphi process that encompassed e-mail communication, face-to-face meetings, in-group ballots and an electronic ESPEN membership Delphi round.

    RESULTS: Five key areas related to clinical nutrition were identified: concepts; procedures; organisation; delivery; and products. One core concept of clinical nutrition is malnutrition/undernutrition, which includes disease-related malnutrition (DRM) with (eq. cachexia) and without inflammation, and malnutrition/undernutrition without disease, e.g. hunger-related malnutrition. Over-nutrition (overweight and obesity) is another core concept. Sarcopenia and frailty were agreed to be separate conditions often associated with malnutrition. Examples of nutritional procedures identified include screening for subjects at nutritional risk followed by a complete nutritional assessment. Hospital and care facility catering are the basic organizational forms for providing nutrition. Oral nutritional supplementation is the preferred way of nutrition therapy but if inadequate then other forms of medical nutrition therapy, i.e. enteral tube feeding and parenteral (intravenous) nutrition, becomes the major way of nutrient delivery.

    CONCLUSION: An agreement of basic nutritional terminology to be used in clinical practice, research, and the ESPEN guideline developments has been established. This terminology consensus may help to support future global consensus efforts and updates of classification systems such as the International Classification of Disease (ICD). The continuous growth of knowledge in all areas addressed in this statement will provide the foundation for future revisions.

  • 212.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Barazzoni, R.
    Italien.
    Austin, Peter
    Storbritannien.
    Ballmer, Peter
    Schweiz.
    Biolo, G.
    Italien .
    Bischoff, Stephan C.
    Tyskland.
    Compher, C.
    USA.
    Correia, Isabel
    Brasilien.
    Higashiguchi, T.
    Japan.
    Hoist, Mette
    Danmark.
    Jensen, Gordon L.
    USA.
    Malone, Ainsley
    USA.
    Muscaritoli, Maurizio
    Italien.
    Nyulasi, I.
    Australien.
    Pirlich, Matthias
    Tyskland.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap.
    Schindler, Karin
    Österrike.
    Schneider, Stephane M.
    Frankrike.
    de van der Schueren, M. A. E.
    Nederländerna.
    Sieber, Cornel
    Tyskland.
    Valentini, L.
    Tyskland.
    Yu, J. C.
    Kina.
    Van Gossum, André
    Belgien.
    Singer, Pierre
    Israel.
    ESPEN guidelines on definitions and terminology of clinical nutrition2017In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 49-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    A lack of agreement on definitions and terminology used for nutrition-related concepts and procedures limits the development of clinical nutrition practice and research.

    Objective

    This initiative aimed to reach a consensus for terminology for core nutritional concepts and procedures.

    Methods

    The European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) appointed a consensus group of clinical scientists to perform a modified Delphi process that encompassed e-mail communication, face-to-face meetings, in-group ballots and an electronic ESPEN membership Delphi round.

    Results

    Five key areas related to clinical nutrition were identified: concepts; procedures; organisation; delivery; and products. One core concept of clinical nutrition is malnutrition/undernutrition, which includes disease-related malnutrition (DRM) with (eq. cachexia) and without inflammation, and malnutrition/undernutrition without disease, e.g. hunger-related malnutrition. Over-nutrition (overweight and obesity) is another core concept. Sarcopenia and frailty were agreed to be separate conditions often associated with malnutrition. Examples of nutritional procedures identified include screening for subjects at nutritional risk followed by a complete nutritional assessment. Hospital and care facility catering are the basic organizational forms for providing nutrition. Oral nutritional supplementation is the preferred way of nutrition therapy but if inadequate then other forms of medical nutrition therapy, i.e. enteral tube feeding and parenteral (intravenous) nutrition, becomes the major way of nutrient delivery.

    Conclusion

    An agreement of basic nutritional terminology to be used in clinical practice, research, and the ESPEN guideline developments has been established. This terminology consensus may help to support future global consensus efforts and updates of classification systems such as the International Classification of Disease (ICD). The continuous growth of knowledge in all areas addressed in this statement will provide the foundation for future revisions.

  • 213.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Bosaeus, I.
    Barazzoni, R.
    Bauer, J.
    Van Gossum, A.
    Klek, S.
    Muscaritoli, M.
    Nyulasi, I.
    Ockenga, J.
    Schneider, S. M.
    de van der Schueren, M. A. E.
    Singer, P.
    Diagnostic criteria for malnutrition - An ESPEN Consensus Statement2015In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 335-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To provide a consensus-based minimum set of criteria for the diagnosis of malnutrition to be applied independent of clinical setting and aetiology, and to unify international terminology. Method: The European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) appointed a group of clinical scientists to perform a modified Delphi process, encompassing e-mail communications, face-to-face meetings, in group questionnaires and ballots, as well as a ballot for the ESPEN membership. Result: First, ESPEN recommends that subjects at risk of malnutrition are identified by validated screening tools, and should be assessed and treated accordingly. Risk of malnutrition should have its own ICD Code. Second, a unanimous consensus was reached to advocate two options for the diagnosis of malnutrition. Option one requires body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) <18.5 to define malnutrition. Option two requires the combined finding of unintentional weight loss (mandatory) and at least one of either reduced BMI or a low fat free mass index (FFMI). Weight loss could be either >10% of habitual weight indefinite of time, or >5% over 3 months. Reduced BMI is <20 or <22 kg/m(2) in subjects younger and older than 70 years, respectively. Low FFMI is <15 and <17 kg/m(2) in females and males, respectively. About 12% of ESPEN members participated in a ballot; >75% agreed; i.e. indicated >= 7 on a 10-graded scale of acceptance, to this definition. Conclusion: In individuals identified by screening as at risk of malnutrition, the diagnosis of malnutrition should be based on either a low BMI (<18.5 kg/m(2)), or on the combined finding of weight loss together with either reduced BMI (age-specific) or a low FFMI using sex-specific cut-offs.

  • 214.
    Cederholm, Tommy E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Letter to the Editor: Diagnostic criteria for malnutrition: Consequences for the nutrition teams2017In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 309-309Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 215.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Jensen, Gordon L.
    Univ Vermont, Coll Med, Deans Off, Burlington, VT USA.; Univ Vermont, Coll Med, Dept Med, Burlington, VT USA..
    To create a consensus on malnutrition diagnostic criteria: A report from the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) meeting at the ESPEN Congress 20162017In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 7-10, article id S0261-5614(16)31342-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the ESPEN Congress in Copenhagen, Denmark (September 2016) representatives of the 4 largest global PEN-societies from Europe (ESPEN), USA (ASPEN), Asia (PENSA) and Latin America (FELANPE), and from national PEN-societies around the world met to continue the conversation on how to diagnose malnutrition that started during the Clinical Nutrition Week, Austin, USA (February 2016). Current thinking on diagnostic approaches was shared; ESPEN suggested a grading approach that could encompass various types of signs, symptoms and etiologies to support diagnosis. ASPEN emphasized where the parties agree; i.e. that the three major published approaches (ESPEN, ASPEN/AND and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA)) all propose weight loss as a key indicator for malnutrition. FELANPE suggested that the anticipated consensus approach needs to prioritize a diagnostic methodology that is available for everybody since resources differ globally. PENSA highlighted that BMI varies by ethnicity/race, and that sarcopenia/muscle mass evaluation is important for the diagnosis of malnutrition. A Core Working Committee of the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) has been established (comprised of two representatives each from the 4 largest PEN-societies) that will lead consensus development in collaboration with a larger Working Group with broad global representation, using e-mail, telephone conferences, and face-to-face meetings during the up-coming ASPEN and ESPEN Congresses. Transparency and external input will be sought. Objectives include: 1. Consensus development around evidence-based criteria for broad application. 2. Promotion of global dissemination of the consensus criteria. 3. Seeking adoption by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

  • 216.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Univ Uppsala Hosp, Dept Geriatr Med, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Morley, John E.
    St Louis Univ, Sch Med, Div Geriatr Med, St Louis, MO 63104 USA; St Louis Univ, Sch Med, Div Endocrinol, St Louis, MO 63104 USA.
    Nutrient interface with biology and aging2015In: Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care, ISSN 1363-1950, E-ISSN 1473-6519, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of review: To highlight recent conundrums in the interface of nutrition, biology and aging.

    Recent findings: A Mediterranean diet with extra virgin olive oil, or similar plant-based diets, including five helpings of fruit and vegetables, exercise and nonsmoking are the mainstays of aging successfully. Recent studies have questioned the utility of weight loss in older persons, the use of antioxidant vitamin supplements as well as the appropriate level of sodium intake. The understanding of the role of ethnicity in the levels of vitamin D-binding protein has questioned the measurement of 25(OH)vitamin D by itself. Gut microbiota may also appear important for aging.

    Summary: Continuous scientific advances are leading us to question whether some of our nutrient beliefs need to be altered in older persons.

  • 217.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Kost, nutrition och hälsa - en introduktion2015In: Mat och hälsa: en klinisk handbok / [ed] Cederholm, Tommy; Rothenberg, Elisabeth, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 23-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 218.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rothenberg, ElisabetKristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Mat och hälsa: en klinisk handbok2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskaper och vetenskapligt förankrade insikter kring matens betydelse för människans hälsa tilltar samtidigt som intresset för kost och hälsa ökar hos både patienter och allmänhet. Personal inom vård och omsorg upplever därför ofta svårigheter att orientera sig i flödet av hälsobudskap där buden dessutom kan vara motstridiga. Läkare, sjuksköterskor och annan vårdpersonal har ett kontinuerligt behov av att uppdatera sina kunskaper om mat, nutrition och hälsa. 


    Bokens första del ger råd om nutritionshandläggning vid speciella sjukdomar, t.ex. hjärt–kärlsjukdomar, diabetes och fetma.Dessutom fokuseras nutritionens betydelse vid vanliga kroniska sjukdomar såsom mag-tarm-, njur- och demenssjukdom.Åldrandet, mat och nutrition diskuteras i flera kapitel.Vårdprocessen vid utredning och behandling belyses. Bokens andra del ger kliniskt relevant kunskap om näringslära och kostrekommendationer. T.ex. avhandlas hälsoeffekter och behov av fett, kolhydrater och protein, omega-3-fettsyror och vitamin D,hälsoeffekter av traditionell medelhavskost, och dess nordiska motsvarighet, liksom olika typer av populära koster.


    I den här boken samlas kunskapen hos tjugosex av Sveriges främsta forskare inom nutritionsområdet på ett lättillgängligt sätt för att ge evidensbaserade svar på många av de frågor som möter sjukvårdspersonal.

  • 219.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Osteoporos2015In: Mat och hälsa: en klinisk handbok / [ed] Cederholm, Tommy; Rothenberg, Elisabet, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 101-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 220.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Ödlund Olin, Ann
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Behandling av nutritionsproblem2015In: Mat och hälsa: en klinisk handbok / [ed] Cederholm, Tommy; Rothenberg, Elisabet, Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 143-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 221.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Mat, måltid, hälsa i 24-timmarsperspektivet. Kristianstad University, Resrarch environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap.
    Ödlund Olin, Ann
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Utredning av nutritionsproblem (undernäring och fetma)2015In: Mat och hälsa: en klinisk handbok / [ed] Cederholm, Tommy; Rothenberg, Elisabet, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 135-142Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 222.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Theme Aging, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jensen, G. L.
    Univ Vermont, Larner Coll Med, Deans Off, Burlington, VT USA;Univ Vermont, Larner Coll Med, Dept Med, Burlington, VT USA.
    Correia, M. I. T. D.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Dept Surg, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Gonzalez, M. C.
    Univ Catolica Pelotas, Postgrad Program Hlth & Behav, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
    Fukushima, R.
    Univ Tokyo, Sch Med, Dept Surg, Dept Med, Tokyo, Japan.
    Higashiguchi, T.
    Fujita Hlth Univ, Sch Med, Dept Surg & Palliat Med, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.
    Baptista, G.
    Univ Cent Venezuela, Univ Hosp Caracas, Med Fac,Cent Univ Venezuela, Chief Nutr Support Unit,Hosp Univ,Acad Caracas, Caracas, Venezuela.
    Barazzoni, R.
    Univ Trieste, Osped Cattinara, Dept Med Technol & Translat Sci, Trieste, Italy.
    Blaauw, R.
    Stellenbosch Univ, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Div Human Nutr, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Coats, A. J. S.
    Monash Univ, Clayton, Vic, Australia;Univ Warwick, Warwick, England.
    Crivelli, A. N.
    Hosp HIGA San Martin, Unit Nutr Support & Malabsorpt Dis, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Evans, D. C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Surg, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Gramlich, L.
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Fuchs-Tarlovsky, V.
    Hosp Gen Mexico City, Dept Clin Nutr, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Keller, H.
    Univ Waterloo, Schlegel UW Res Inst Aging, Waterloo, ON, Canada;Univ Waterloo, Dept Kinesiol, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
    Llido, L.
    St Lukes Med Ctr Quezon City, Clin Nutr Serv, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Malone, A.
    Amer Soc Parenteral & Enteral Nutr, Silver Spring, MD USA;Mt Carmel West Hosp, Columbus, OH USA.
    Mogensen, K. M.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Nutr, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Morley, J. E.
    St Louis Univ Hosp, Div Geriatr, St Louis, MO USA.
    Muscaritoli, M.
    Sapienza Univ Rome, Dept Clin Med, Rome, Italy.
    Nyulasi, I.
    Alfred Hlth, Dept Nutr, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;La Trobe Univ, Dept Rehabil Nutr & Sport, Dietet Practice, Bundoora, Vic, Australia;Monash Univ, Cent Clin Sch, Dept Med, Clayton, Vic, Australia.
    Pirlich, M.
    Imperial Oak Outpatient Clin, Endocrinol Gastroenterol & Clin NutritionBerlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Pisprasert, V.
    Khon Kaen Univ, Coll Med, Dept Med, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
    de van der Schueren, M. A. E.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Amsterdam, Netherlands;HAN Univ Appl Sci, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Fac Hlth & Social Studies, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Siltharm, S.
    Minist Sci & TechnologyBangkok, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Singer, P.
    Rabin Med Ctr, Dept Gen Intens Care, Petah Tiqwa, Israel;Tel Aviv Univ, Sackler Sch Med, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Tappenden, K.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Kinesiol & Nutr, Chicago, IL USA.
    Velasco, N.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Sch Med, Dept Nutr Diabet & Metab, Santiago, Chile.
    Waitzberg, D.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sch Med, Dept Gastroenterol, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Yamwong, P.
    Siriaj Hosp, Dept Med, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Yu, J.
    Peking Union Med Coll Hosp, Dept Gen Surg, GI Surg & Nutr Metab Div, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Van Gossum, A.
    Free Univ Brussels, Hop Erasme, Clin Intestinal Dis & Nutr Support, Dept Gastroenterol, Brussels, Belgium.
    Compher, C.
    Univ Penn, Sch Nursing, Biobehav Hlth Sci Dept, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA;Univ Penn, Sch Nursing, Nutr Programs, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    GLIM criteria for the diagnosis of malnutrition - A consensus report from the global clinical nutrition community2019In: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, ISSN 2190-5991, E-ISSN 2190-6009, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 207-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale; This initiative is focused on building a global consensus around core diagnostic criteria for malnutrition in adults in clinical settings.

    Methods: In January 2016, the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) was convened by several of the major global clinical nutrition societies. GLIM appointed a core leadership committee and a supporting working group with representatives bringing additional global diversity and expertise. Empirical consensus was reached through a series of face-to-face meetings, telephone conferences, and e-mail communications.

    Results: A two-step approach for the malnutrition diagnosis was selected, i.e., first screening to identify "at risk" status by the use of any validated screening tool, and second, assessment for diagnosis and grading the severity of malnutrition. The malnutrition criteria for consideration were retrieved from existing approaches for screening and assessment. Potential criteria were subjected to a ballot among the GLIM core and supporting working group members. The top five ranked criteria included three phenotypic criteria (weight loss, low body mass index, and reduced muscle mass) and two etiologic criteria (reduced food intake or assimilation, and inflammation or disease burden). To diagnose malnutrition at least one phenotypic criterion and one etiologic criterion should be present. Phenotypic metrics for grading severity as Stage 1 (moderate) and Stage 2 (severe) malnutrition are proposed. It is recommended that the etiologic criteria be used to guide intervention and anticipated outcomes. The recommended approach supports classification of malnutrition into four etiology-related diagnosis categories.

    Conclusion: A consensus scheme for diagnosing malnutrition in adults in clinical settings on a global scale is proposed. Next steps are to secure further collaboration and endorsements from leading nutrition professional societies, to identify overlaps with syndromes like cachexia and sarcopenia, and to promote dissemination, validation studies, and feedback. The diagnostic construct should be re-considered every 3-5 years.

  • 223.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Intestinal Gene Expression Profiling and Fatty Acid Responses to a High-fat Diet2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) regulates nutrient uptake, secretes hormones and has a crucial gut flora and enteric nervous system. Of relevance for these functions are the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the solute carriers (SLCs). The Adhesion GPCR subfamily is known to mediate neural development and immune system functioning, whereas SLCs transport e.g. amino acids, fatty acids (FAs) and drugs over membranes. We aimed to comprehensively characterize Adhesion GPCR and SLC gene expression along the rat GIT. Using qPCR we measured expression of 78 SLCs as well as all 30 Adhesion GPCRs in a twelve-segment GIT model. 21 of the Adhesion GPCRs had a widespread (≥5 segments) or ubiquitous (≥11 segments) expression. Restricted expression patterns were characteristic for most group VII members. Of the SLCs, we found the majority (56 %) of these transcripts to be expressed in all GIT segments. SLCs were predominantly found in the absorption-responsible gut regions. Both Adhesion GPCRs and SLCs were widely expressed in the rat GIT, suggesting important roles. The distribution of Adhesion GPCRs defines them as a potential pharmacological target.

    FAs constitute an important energy source and have been implicated in the worldwide obesity increase. FAs and their ratios – indices for activities of e.g. the desaturase enzymes SCD-1 (SCD-16, 16:1n-7/16:0), D6D (18:3n-6/18:2n-6) and D5D (20:4n-6/20:3n-6) – have been associated with e.g. overall mortality and BMI. We examined whether differences in FAs and their indices in five lipid fractions contributed to obesity susceptibility in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD), and the associations of desaturase indices between lipid fractions in animals on different diets. We found that on a HFD, obesity-prone (OP) rats had a higher SCD-16 index and a lower linoleic acid (LA) proportions in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than obesity-resistant rats. Desaturase indices were significantly correlated between many of the lipid fractions. The higher SCD-16 may indicate higher SCD-1 activity in SAT in OP rats, and combined with lower LA proportions may provide novel insights into HFD-induced obesity. The associations between desaturase indices show that plasma measurements can serve as proxies for some lipid fractions, but the correlations seem to be affected by diet and weight gain.

  • 224.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Alsiö, Johan
    Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fatty acid desaturase indices in rats: Associations between plasma, liver and adipose tissue lipid fractions and the effects of a high-fat diet and diet-induced obesityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alterations in fatty acid (FA) desaturase indices are linked to obesity-related disorders. As desaturases affect FA composition increased understanding of their regulation across lipid fractions with varying functions is essential. In this study we have examined desaturases and selected FAs to establish their degree of co-regulation in five different lipid fractions and under different dietary conditions, including diet-induced obesity (DIO).

    Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly grouped into three groups, one fed a chow diet ad libitum (control) and two fed a high-fat diet (HFD): one ad libitum (AL-HFD) and the other one calorically pair fed to the chow-fed group (HFD-paired). FA composition in subcutaneous adipose tissue triacylglycerols (SAT-TG), liver (phospholipids and triacylglycerols) and plasma (phospholipids and cholesterol esters) was assessed. Delta-5 desaturase (D5D), delta-6 desaturase (D6D) and stearoyl-CoA-desaturase 1 (SCD-16) indices were calculated from product-to-precursor FA ratios and proportions of long-chain FAs were measured.

    Results: Positive correlations were found for the desaturase indices between the five lipid fractions, especially for SCD-16 and almost exclusively between liver and plasma fractions. Only SCD-16 in SAT-TG of the AL-HFD group correlated with gain in body weight. Independent of weight gain, the HFD decreased all SCD-16 indices and most FA proportions, but D5D and D6D indices were fraction- and tissue-dependently increased.

    Conclusion: Desaturase indices are especially correlated for SCD-16 and between lipid and plasma lipid fractions, suggesting that SAT-TG desaturation is differentially regulated compared with the other studied lipid fractions. The correlations are however influenced by diet and weight gain, further suggesting such factors should be taken into account when using desaturase indices.

  • 225.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Alsiö, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Västermark, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 index is increased and linoleic acid is decreased in obesity-prone rats fed a high-fat diet2013In: Lipids in Health and Disease, ISSN 1476-511X, E-ISSN 1476-511X, Vol. 12, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Fatty acid (FA) composition and desaturase indices are associated with obesity and related metabolic conditions. However, it is unclear to what extent desaturase activity in different lipid fractions contribute to obesity susceptibility. Our aim was to test whether desaturase activity and FA composition are linked to an obese phenotype in rats that are either obesity prone (OP) or resistant (OR) on a high-fat diet (HFD).

    METHODS

    Two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were given ad libitum (AL-HFD) or calorically restricted (HFD-paired; pair fed to calories consumed by chow-fed rats) access to a HFD. The AL-HFD group was categorized into OP and OR sub-groups based on weight gain over 5 weeks. Five different lipid fractions were examined in OP and OR rats with regard to proportions of essential and very long-chain polyunsaturated FAs: linoleic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) product 16:1n-7. FA ratios were used to estimate activities of the delta-5-desaturase (20:4n-6/20:3n-6), delta-6-desaturase (18:3n-6/18:2n-6), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1; 16:1n-7/16:0, SCD-16 and 18:1n-9/18:0, SCD-18), de novo lipogenesis (16:0/18:2n-6) and FA elongation (18:0/16:0). Fasting insulin, glucose, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were measured in plasma.

    RESULTS

    After AL-HFD access, OP rats had a significantly higher SCD-16 index and 16:1n-7 proportion, but a significantly lower LA proportion, in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) triacylglycerols, as well as significantly higher insulin and leptin concentrations, compared with OR rats. No differences were found between the two phenotypes in liver (phospholipids; triacylglycerols) or plasma (cholesterol esters; phospholipids) lipid fractions or for plasma glucose or adiponectin concentrations. For the desaturase indices of the HFD-paired rats, the only significant differences compared with the OP or OR rats were higher SCD-16 and SCD-18 indices in SAT triacylglycerols in OP compared with HFD-paired rats.

    CONCLUSION

    The higher SCD-16 may reflect higher SCD-1 activity in SAT, which in combination with lower LA proportions may reflect higher insulin resistance and changes in SAT independent of other lipid fractions. Whether a lower SCD-16 index protects against diet-induced obesity is an interesting possibility that warrants further investigation.

  • 226.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Sleep duration and energy intake: timing matters2014In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 100, no 5, p. 1402-1403Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 227.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Brandell, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ros, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Broman, Jan-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Increased Impulsivity in Response to Food Cues after Sleep Loss in Healthy Young Men2014In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1786-1791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveTo investigate whether acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to decreased cognitive control when food cues are presented during a task requiring active attention, by assessing the ability to cognitively inhibit prepotent responses. MethodsFourteen males participated in the study on two separate occasions in a randomized, crossover within-subject design: one night of TSD versus normal sleep (8.5 hours). Following each nighttime intervention, hunger ratings and morning fasting plasma glucose concentrations were assessed before performing a go/no-go task. ResultsFollowing TSD, participants made significantly more commission errors when they were presented no-go food words in the go/no-go task, as compared with their performance following sleep (+56%; P<0.05). In contrast, response time and omission errors to go non-food words did not differ between the conditions. Self-reported hunger after TSD was increased without changes in fasting plasma glucose. The increase in hunger did not correlate with the TSD-induced commission errors. ConclusionsOur results suggest that TSD impairs cognitive control also in response to food stimuli in healthy young men. Whether such loss of inhibition or impulsiveness is food cue-specific as seen in obesitythus providing a mechanism through which sleep disturbances may promote obesity developmentwarrants further investigation.

  • 228. Chajes, V.
    et al.
    Assi, N.
    Biessy, C.
    Ferrari, P.
    Rinaldi, S.
    Slimani, N.
    Lenoir, G. M.
    Baglietto, L.
    His, M.
    Boutron-Ruault, M. C.
    Trichopoulou, A.
    Lagiou, P.
    Katsoulis, M.
    Kaaks, R.
    Kuehn, T.
    Panico, S.
    Pala, V.
    Masala, G.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.
    Peeters, P. H.
    van Gils, C.
    Hjartaker, A.
    Olsen, K. Standahl
    Barnung, R. Borgund
    Barricarte, A.
    Redondo-Sanchez, D.
    Menendez, V.
    Amiano, P.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Key, T.
    Khaw, K. T.
    Merritt, M. A.
    Riboli, E.
    Gunter, M. J.
    Romieu, I.
    A prospective evaluation of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in the EPIC study2017In: Annals of Oncology, ISSN 0923-7534, E-ISSN 1569-8041, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 2836-2842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intakes of specific fatty acids have been postulated to impact breast cancer risk but epidemiological data based on dietary questionnaires remain conflicting.

    Materials and methods: We assessed the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Sixty fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in pre-diagnostic plasma phospholipids from 2982 incident breast cancer cases matched to 2982 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risk of breast cancer by fatty acid level. The false discovery rate (q values) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. Subgroup analyses were carried out by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression in the tumours.

    Results: A high level of palmitoleic acid [odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest OR (Q4–Q1) 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14–1.64; P for trend = 0.0001, q value = 0.004] as well as a high desaturation index (DI16) (16:1n–7/16:0) [OR (Q4–Q1), 1.28; 95% C, 1.07–1.54; P for trend = 0.002, q value = 0.037], as biomarkers of de novo lipogenesis, were significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Levels of industrial trans-fatty acids were positively associated with ER-negative tumours [OR for the highest tertile compared with the lowest (T3–T1)=2.01; 95% CI, 1.03–3.90; P for trend = 0.047], whereas no association was found for ER-positive tumours (P-heterogeneity =0.01). No significant association was found between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk, overall or by hormonal receptor.

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that increased de novo lipogenesis, acting through increased synthesis of palmitoleic acid, could be a relevant metabolic pathway for breast tumourigenesis. Dietary trans-fatty acids derived from industrial processes may specifically increase ER-negative breast cancer risk.

  • 229. Chajes, Veronique
    et al.
    Biessy, Carine
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Freisling, Heinz
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Scalbert, Augustin
    de Mesquita, Bas Bueno
    Romaguera, Dora
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Hansen, Camilla Plambeck
    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Katzke, Verana
    Neamat-Allah, Jasmine
    Boeing, Heiner
    Bachlechner, Ursula
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Naska, Androniki
    Orfanos, Philippos
    Pala, Valeria
    Masala, Giovanna
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Skeie, Guri
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Agudo, Antonio
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Jose Sanchez, Maria
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Ramon Quiros, Jose
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Sonested, Emily
    Key, Tim
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicolas J.
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Slimani, Nadia
    Plasma Elaidic Acid Level as Biomarker of Industrial Trans Fatty Acids and Risk of Weight Change: Report from the EPIC Study2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 2, article id e0118206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between dietary trans fatty acids and weight gain, and the evidence remains inconsistent. The main objective of the study was to investigate the prospective association between biomarker of industrial trans fatty acids and change in weight within the large study European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC) cohort. Methods Baseline plasma fatty acid concentrations were determined in a representative EPIC sample from the 23 participating EPIC centers. A total of 1,945 individuals were followed for a median of 4.9 years to monitor weight change. The association between elaidic acid level and percent change of weight was investigated using a multinomial logistic regression model, adjusted by length of follow- up, age, energy, alcohol, smoking status, physical activity, and region. Results In women, doubling elaidic acid was associated with a decreased risk of weight loss ( odds ratio ( OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval ( CI) = 0.55- 0.88, p = 0.002) and a trend was observed with an increased risk of weight gain during the 5- year follow- up ( OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.97- 1.56, p = 0.082) ( p- trend<. 0001). In men, a trend was observed for doubling elaidic acid level and risk of weight loss ( OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.66- 1.01, p = 0.062) while no significant association was found with risk of weight gain during the 5- year follow- up ( OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.88- 1.33, p = 0.454). No association was found for saturated and cismonounsaturated fatty acids. Conclusions These data suggest that a high intake of industrial trans fatty acids may decrease the risk of weight loss, particularly in women. Prevention of obesity should consider limiting the consumption of highly processed foods, the main source of industrially- produced trans fatty acids.

  • 230. Chan, SSM
    et al.
    Luben, R
    Olsen, A
    Tjonneland, A
    Kaaks, R
    Lindgren, S
    Grip, O
    Bergmann, MM
    Boeing, H
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Karling, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Overvad, K
    Veno, SK
    van Schaik, F
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, B
    Oldenburg, B
    Khaw, K-T
    Riboli, E
    Hart, AR
    Association between high dietary intake of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid and reduced risk of Crohn's disease2014In: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0269-2813, E-ISSN 1365-2036, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 834-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There are plausible mechanisms for how dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, could prevent Crohn's disease (CD).

    Aim To conduct a prospective study to investigate the association between increased intake of DHA and risk of CD.

    Methods Overall, 229702 participants were recruited from nine European centres between 1991 and 1998. At recruitment, dietary intakes of DHA and fatty acids were measured using validated food frequency questionnaires. The cohort was monitored through to June 2004 to identify participants who developed incident CD. In a nested case-control analysis, each case was matched with four controls; odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for quintiles of DHA intake, adjusted for total energy intake, smoking, other dietary fatty acids, dietary vitamin D and body mass index.

    Results Seventy-three participants developed incident CD. All higher quintiles of DHA intake were inversely associated with development of CD; the highest quintile had the greatest effect size (OR=0.07; 95% CI=0.02-0.81). The OR trend across quintiles of DHA was 0.54 (95% CI=0.30-0.99, P-trend=0.04). Including BMI in the multivariate analysis, due to its correlation with dietary fat showed similar associations. There were no associations with the other dietary fatty acids studied.

    Conclusion There were inverse associations, with a biological gradient between increasing dietary docosahexaenoic acid intakes and incident Crohn's disease. Further studies in other populations should measure docosahexaenoic acid to determine if the association is consistent and the hypothesis tested in randomised controlled trials of purely docosahexaenoic acid supplementation.

  • 231. Chandyo, Ram K.
    et al.
    Ulak, Manjeswori
    Sommerfelt, Halvor
    Schneede, Jørn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Ueland, Per M.
    Strand, Tor A.
    Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 mu g/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (< 2 mu g/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 mu g per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 mu g. Low plasma cobalamin (< 150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon.

  • 232. Cheung, L.
    et al.
    Gertow, J.
    Werngren, O.
    Folkersen, L.
    Petrovic, Natasa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Franco-Cereceda, A.
    Eriksson, P.
    Fisher, R. M.
    Human mediastinal adipose tissue displays certain characteristics of brown fat2013In: Nutrition & Diabetes, ISSN 2044-4052, E-ISSN 2044-4052, Vol. 3, no UNSP e66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The amount of intra-thoracic fat, of which mediastinal adipose tissue comprises the major depot, is related to various cardiometabolic risk factors. Autopsy and imaging studies indicate that the mediastinal depot in adult humans could contain brown adipose tissue (BAT). To gain a better understanding of this intra-thoracic fat depot, we examined possible BAT characteristics of human mediastinal in comparison with subcutaneous adipose tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adipose tissue biopsies from thoracic subcutaneous and mediastinal depots were obtained during open-heart surgery from 33 subjects (26 male, 63.7 +/- 13.8 years, body mass index 29.3 +/- 5.1 kg m(-2)). Microarray analysis was performed on 10 patients and genes of interest confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in samples from another group of 23 patients. Adipocyte size was determined and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) protein expression investigated with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The microarray data showed that a number of BAT-specific genes had significantly higher expression in the mediastinal depot than in the subcutaneous depot. Higher expression of UCP1 (24-fold, P < 0.001) and PPARGC1A (1.7-fold, P = 0.0047), and lower expression of SHOX2 (0.12-fold, P < 0.001) and HOXC8 (0.14-fold, P < 0.001) in the mediastinal depot was confirmed by qPCR. Gene set enrichment analysis identified two gene sets related to mitochondria, which were significantly more highly expressed in the mediastinal than in the subcutaneous depot (P < 0.01). No significant changes in UCP1 gene expression were observed in the subcutaneous or mediastinal depots following lowering of body temperature during surgery. UCP1 messenger RNA levels in the mediastinal depot were lower than those in murine BAT and white adipose tissue. In some mediastinal adipose tissue biopsies, a small number of multilocular adipocytes that stained positively for UCP1 were observed. Adipocytes were significantly smaller in the mediastinal than the subcutaneous depot (cross-sectional area 2400 +/- 810 versus 3260 +/- 980 mu m(2), P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Human mediastinal adipose tissue displays some characteristics of BAT when compared with the subcutaneous depot at microscopic and molecular levels.

  • 233. Cho, Karl
    et al.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lökk, Johan
    Calcium intake in elderly patients with hip fractures2008In: Food & nutrition research, ISSN 1654-6628, Vol. 52, p. 1654-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dietary calcium intake is assumed important in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. However, people in countries with a high calcium intake from commodities such as milk and milk products have a high incidence of hip fracture. The effect and influence of calcium intake in the prevention of osteoporotic fracture vary from different studies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate premorbid daily calcium intake in patients with low energy hip fractures during four consecutive years. DESIGN: In total 120 patients (mean age 78+/-8.5 (SD) years) were included between 2002 and 2005. The patients answered a structured food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and interviews on patients' daily calcium intake from food and supplements took place during a 6-month period before the fracture. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed in a subgroup of 15 patients. RESULTS: The mean daily calcium intake from food and supplementation was 970+/-500 mg. However, 38% of patients had an intake below the recommended 800 mg/day. There was no significant relationship between calcium intake and age, gender, bone mineral density, serum calcium or albumin, type of fracture or body mass index. The mean free plasma calcium concentration was 2.3+/-0.1, i.e. within the reference limit. In 2005, 80% of the patients who underwent DEXA had manifest osteoporosis. There was a trend towards decreased calcium intake over the observation period, with a mean calcium intake below 800 mg/day in 2005. CONCLUSIONS: Hip fracture patients had a mean calcium intake above the recommended daily intake, as assessed by a FFQ. However, more than one-third of patients had an intake below the recommended 800 mg/day. The intake appeared to decrease over the investigated years. The relationship between calcium intake and fracture susceptibility is complex.

  • 234.
    Cho, Sunghee
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Sugar sweetened beverages – psychosocial, behavioral, and dietary determinants, and association to obesity: A cross-sectional study among university students in San Luis Potosí and Yucatán, Mexico2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity is a rapidly growing public health problem with negative health consequences in Mexico, resulted from the nutrition transition. In Mexico calories from sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) accounts for 19% of total energy intake. Although young adults are major SSB consumers, is an understudied population.

    Aims: To investigate the association between SSB and obesity as well as associations between various factors and overconsumption of widely consumed SSB in Mexican university students.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study includes 442 nursing and nutrition students from two universities in Mexico. Demographic, psychological, behavioral, dietary, and SSB intake (soft drinks, agua frescas, juice drinks) data were collected through a self-administrative questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall. Anthropometric data were measured. Independent t-test and binary logistic regression were used to investigate the associations.

    Results: Overweight and obese students consumed more soft drinks than normal weight students. Studying nutrition were associated with lower odds of all SSB overconsumption while consuming higher calories were associated with higher odds of all SSB overconsumption. Unhealthy diet patterns were associated with soft drinks overconsumption, but were opposite for agua frescas. Moderate-intensity exercise was associated to decreased soft drinks overconsumption but vigorous-intensity exercise was more likely to increase soft drinks and agua frescas overconsumption

    Conclusion: Agua frescas were related to better dietary patterns and considered as healthier than other SSB. Future studies need to use better assessment methods for dietary and anthropometric data and distinguish sports beverage from soft drinks for better understanding of association between physical activity and SSB intake.

  • 235.
    Chung, Rosanna
    et al.
    Heart Research Institute, Australia.
    Wang, Zeneng
    Cleveland Clin, OH 44106 USA.
    Bursill, Christina A.
    South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Australia.
    Wu, Ben J.
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Bailee, Philip J.
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Rye, Kerry-Anne
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Effect of long-term dietary sphingomyelin supplementation on atherosclerosis in mice2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e0189523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sphingomyelin (SM) levels in the circulation correlate positively with atherosclerosis burden. SM is a ubiquitous component of human diets, but it is unclear if dietary SM increases circulating SM levels. Dietary choline increases atherosclerosis by raising circulating trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels in mice and humans. As SM has a choline head group, we ask in this study if dietary SM accelerates atherosclerotic lesion development by increasing circulating SM and TMAO levels. Three studies were performed: (Study 1) C57BL/6 mice were maintained on a high fat diet with or without SM supplementation for 4 weeks prior to quantification of serum TMAO and SM levels; (Study 2) atherosclerosis was studied in apoE(-/-) mice after 16 weeks of a high fat diet without or with SM supplementation and (Study 3) apoE(-/-) mice were maintained on a chow diet for 19 weeks without or with SM supplementation and antibiotic treatment prior to quantification of atherosclerotic lesions and serum TMAO and SM levels. SM consumption did not increase circulating SM levels or atherosclerosis in high fat-fed apoE(-/-) mice. Serum TMAO levels in C57BL/6 mice were low and had no effect atherosclerosis lesion development. Dietary SM supplementation significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic arch of chow-fed apoE(-/-) mice. This study establishes that dietary SM does not affect circulating SM levels or increase atherosclerosis in high fat-fed apoE(-/-) mice, but it is anti-atherogenic in chow-fed apoE(-/-) mice.

  • 236.
    Cook, C
    et al.
    United Kingdom Sports Council, London, England .
    Beaven, C. Martyn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kilduff, L P
    Swansea Univ, Coll Engn, Swansea, W Glam, Wales.
    Drawer, S
    United Kingdom Sports Council, London, England .
    Acute caffeine ingestion increases voluntarily chosen resistance training load following limited sleep2012In: International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, ISSN 1526-484X, E-ISSN 1543-2742, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 157-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION:This study aimed to determine whether caffeine ingestion would increase the workload voluntarily chosen by athletes in a limited sleep state.

    METHODS:In a double-blind, crossover study, sixteen professional rugby players ingested either a placebo or 4 mg·kg-1 caffeine 1 h before exercise. Athletes classified themselves into non-deprived (8 h+) or sleep-deprived states (6 h or less). Exercise comprised four sets of bench press, squats, and bent rows at 85% 1-RM. Athletes were asked to perform as many repetitions on each set as possible without failure. Saliva was collected prior to administration of placebo or caffeine, and again prior to and immediately after exercise and assayed for testosterone and cortisol.

    RESULTS:Sleep deprivation produced a very large decrease in total load (p = 1.98 x 10-7).Caffeine ingestion in the non-deprived state resulted in a moderate increase in total load with a larger effect in the sleep deprived state resulting in total load similar to those observed in the non-deprived placebo condition.Eight of the sixteen athletes were identified as caffeine responders.Baseline testosterone was higher (p < 0.05) and cortisol trended lower in non-sleep deprived states.Changes in hormones from pre-dose to pre-exercise correlated to individual workload responses to caffeine.Testosterone response to exercise increased with caffeine compared to placebo, as did cortisol response.

    CONCLUSIONS:Caffeine increased voluntary workload in professional athletes, emphasised further under conditions of self-reported limited sleep. Caffeine may prove worthwhile when athletes are perceived as tired, especially in individuals identified as responders.

  • 237. Cooper, A. J.
    et al.
    Forouhi, N. G.
    Ye, Z.
    Buijsse, B.
    Arriola, L.
    Balkau, B.
    Barricarte, A.
    Beulens, J. W. J.
    Boeing, H.
    Buchner, F. L.
    Dahm, C. C.
    de Lauzon-Guillain, B.
    Fagherazzi, G.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Gonzalez, C.
    Grioni, S.
    Kaaks, R.
    Key, T. J.
    Masala, G.
    Navarro, C.
    Nilsson, P.
    Overvad, K.
    Panico, S.
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Roswall, N.
    Sacerdote, C.
    Sanchez, M-J
    Slimani, N.
    Sluijs, I.
    Spijkerman, A. M. W.
    Teucher, B.
    Tjonneland, A.
    Tumino, R.
    Sharp, S. J.
    Langenberg, C.
    Feskens, E. J. M.
    Riboli, E.
    Wareham, N. J.
    Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct prospective study and meta-analysis2012In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 66, no 10, p. 1082-1092Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the prospective association of FVI with T2D and conduct an updated meta-analysis. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-InterAct (EPIC-InterAct) prospective case-cohort study nested within eight European countries, a representative sample of 16 154 participants and 12 403 incident cases of T2D were identified from 340 234 individuals with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. For the meta-analysis we identified prospective studies on FVI and T2D risk by systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE until April 2011. In EPIC-InterAct, estimated FVI by dietary questionnaires varied more than twofold between countries. In adjusted analyses the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest with lowest quartile of reported intake was 0.90 (0.80-1.01) for FVI; 0.89 (0.76-1.04) for fruit and 0.94 (0.84-1.05) for vegetables. Among FV subtypes, only root vegetables were inversely associated with diabetes 0.87 (0.77-0.99). In meta-analysis using pooled data from five studies including EPIC-InterAct, comparing the highest with lowest category for FVI was associated with a lower relative risk of diabetes (0.93 (0.87-1.00)). Fruit or vegetables separately were not associated with diabetes. Among FV subtypes, only green leafy vegetable (GLV) intake (relative risk: 0.84 (0.74-0.94)) was inversely associated with diabetes. Subtypes of vegetables, such as root vegetables or GLVs may be beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, while total FVI may exert a weaker overall effect.

  • 238. Copland, Lotta
    et al.
    Liedman, Bengt
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Bosaeus, Ingvar
    Effects of nutritional support long time after total gastrectomy2007In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 605-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & aims

    Long-term effects of total gastrectomy on nutritional status are not well known, neither is the role of nutritional support. Dietary counselling is usually individualized, but generally not well defined. We aimed to evaluate effects of individualized oral nutritional support long time after total gastrectomy.

    Methods

    Dietary advice was given, aiming for an energy and protein rich diet, using ordinary food and liquid supplements tailored to individual needs and preferences. Counselling was repeated monthly. Body weight and a 4-day food record were obtained at baseline, and thereafter—at month 1, 3, 6 and 12. Body composition, resting and total energy expenditure were measured at baseline and at 12 months.

    Results

    Thirteen of 15 included patients completed the study. Though a trend of weight gain was seen after 1 month, there was no significant weight change at 12 months as weight development was quite heterogeneous. Six patients who remained healthy during the study (all with BMI<25) gained weight (p<0.05), while five patients with intercurrent co-morbidity and two with initial BMI>25 lost weight or remained stable.

    Conclusions

    Nutritional intervention long time after total gastrectomy did not change body weight, body composition or energy metabolism. Intercurrent co-morbidity appeared to have a major impact on outcome, as the nutritional support was more effective in patients who remained healthy and had a BMI<25.

  • 239. Copland, Lotta
    et al.
    Liedman, Bengt
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Ellegård, Lars
    Hustvedt, Bo-Egil
    Bosaeus, Ingvar
    Validity of the ActiReg system and a physical activity interview in assessing total energy expenditure in long-term survivors after total gastrectomy2008In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 842-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Malnutrition is common after total gastrectomy. There is a need for clinically useful methods to assess energy requirements. We aimed to validate measurements of energy expenditure by an activity monitor (ActiReg) and a physical activity interview (HPAQ(modified)), in long-term survivors after gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma, using doubly labelled water as reference method.

    METHODS: Total energy expenditure (TEE) was estimated by DLW (14 days), ActiReg (3 days) and HPAQ(modified) (7 days) in 15 patients. Measurements were repeated after 12 months. Basal metabolic rate was measured with indirect calorimetry.

    RESULTS: ActiReg and HPAQ(modified) both underestimated TEE by 180 (+/-254 SD) and 130 (+/-326 SD)kcalday(-1), i.e. 14% vs. 12%, respectively. However, this was evident only at higher levels of physical activity (PAL(DLW)> or =1.65), whereas at lower levels (PAL<1.65) no difference was found. There were no changes in TEE over time independent of the method used. DLW and ActiReg had approximately the same width of the 95% confidence interval of this estimate, while it was 2.4 times larger by HPAQ(modified).

    CONCLUSION: Both simple methods underestimated total energy expenditure at higher, but not at lower physical activity levels. The ActiReg method appears useful to estimate changes in TEE over time.

  • 240.
    Copland, Lotta
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Ellegård, Lars
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Hyltander, Anders
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Bosaeus, Ingvar
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Muscle mass and exercise capacity in cancer patients after major upper gastrointestinal surgery2010In: e - SPEN: the European e-journal of clinical nutrition and metabolism, ISSN 1751-4991, Vol. 5, no 6, p. e265-e271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & aims

    Nutritional therapy has traditionally been evaluated by changes in weight and in food intake, while body composition and function may be of greater clinical significance. We investigated relationships between total body skeletal muscle mass (TBSMM), energy balance and exercise capacity in 41 patients before, 6 and 12 months after curatively intended major upper gastrointestinal surgery.

    Methods

    TBSMM and body energy content were assessed by DXA. Exercise capacity was measured on a treadmill. Energy balance was defined as the difference in body energy content at two points in time.

    Results

    During the first postoperative year average weight loss was 7% although 1 our of 3 patients remained weight stable (WS). Average TBSMM decreased significantly at 6 months (0.9 kg, p < 0.01), but was regained at 12 months, as was exercise capacity. 72% of weight losing patients (WL) lost TBSMM compared to 17% of WS patients, p < 0.01. Both TBSMM and changes in TBSMM, but not changes in energy content, were correlated to exercise capacity, r2 = 0.49, p < 0.001 and r2 = 0.15, p < 0.05 respectively.

    Conclusions

    TBSMM and exercise capacity were clearly related in cancer patients after major upper gastrointestinal surgery, as were changes in TBSMM and exercise capacity. Energy balance was not directly correlated to exercise capacity, but more WS than WL patients increased their TBSMM indicating a possible influence by energy balance.

  • 241. Crowe, F. L.
    et al.
    Key, T. J.
    Appleby, P. N.
    Overvad, K.
    Schmidt, E. B.
    Egeberg, R.
    Tjonneland, A.
    Kaaks, R.
    Teucher, B.
    Boeing, H.
    Weikert, C.
    Trichopoulou, A.
    Ouranos, V.
    Valanou, E.
    Masala, G.
    Sieri, S.
    Panico, S.
    Tumino, R.
    Matullo, G.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.
    Boer, J. M. A.
    Beulens, J. W. J.
    van der Schouw, Y. T.
    Quiros, J. R.
    Buckland, G.
    Sanchez, M-J
    Dorronsoro, M.
    Huerta, J. M.
    Moreno-Iribas, C.
    Hedblad, B.
    Jansson, J. H.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Khaw, K-T
    Wareham, N.
    Ferrari, P.
    Illner, A-K
    Chuang, S-C
    Norat, T.
    Danesh, J.
    Riboli, E.
    Dietary fibre intake and ischaemic heart disease mortality: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heart study2012In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 66, no 8, p. 950-956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence from prospective studies is consistent in showing an inverse association between dietary fibre intake and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but whether dietary fibre from various food sources differ in their effect on IHD risk is less clear. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of total and food sources of dietary fibre with IHD mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heart study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were 306 331 men and women from eight European countries. Dietary fibre intake was assessed using centre or country-specific diet questionnaires and calibrated using a 24-h diet recall. RESULTS: After an average follow-up of 11.5 years, there were 2381 IHD deaths among participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline. The calibrated intake of dietary fibre was inversely related with IHD mortality; each 10 g/day was associated with a 15% lower risk (relative risk (RR) 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.99, P = 0.031). There was no difference in the associations of the individual food sources of dietary fibre with the risk of IHD mortality; RR for each 5 g/day higher cereal fibre intake was 0.91 (CI: 0.82-1.01), RR for each 2.5 g/day fruit fibre intake was 0.94 (CI: 0.88-1.01) and RR for each 2.5 g/day vegetable fibre intake was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.76-1.07). CONCLUSION: A higher consumption of dietary fibre is associated with a lower risk of fatal IHD with no clear difference in the association with IHD for fibre from cereals, fruits or vegetables.

  • 242. Dahl, A. K.
    et al.
    Reynolds, C. A.
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Magnusson, P. K. E.
    Pedersen, N. L.
    Multifactorial analysis of changes in body mass index across the adult life course: a study with 65 years of follow-up2014In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 1133-1141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although the negative consequences on health of being obese are well known, most adults gain weight across the lifespan. The general increase in body mass index (BMI) is mainly considered to originate from behavioral and environmental changes; however, few studies have evaluated the influence of these factors on change in BMI in the presence of genetic risk. We aimed to study the influence of multifactorial causes of change in BMI, over 65 years. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Totally, 6130 participants from TwinGene, who had up to five assessments, and 536 from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging, who had up to 12 assessments, ranging over 65 years were included. The influence of lifestyle factors, birth cohort, cardiometabolic diseases and an individual obesity genetic risk score (OGRS) based on 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms on change in BMI was evaluated with a growth model. For both sexes, BMI increased from early adulthood to age of 65 years, after which the increase leveled off; BMI declined after age of 80 years. A higher OGRS, birth after 1925 and cardiometabolic diseases were associated with higher average BMI and a steeper increase in BMI prior to 65 years of age. Among men, few factors were identified that influence BMI trajectories in late life, whereas for women type 2 diabetes mellitus and dementia were associated with a steeper decrease in BMI after the age of 65 years. CONCLUSIONS: There are two turning points in BMI in late adulthood, one at the age of 65 years and one at the age 80 years. Factors associated with an increase in BMI in midlife were not associated with an increase in BMI after the age of 65 years. These findings indicate that the causes and consequences of change in BMI differ across the lifespan. Current health recommendations need to be adjusted accordingly.

  • 243.
    Dahl Lassen, Anne
    et al.
    Danmark.
    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke
    Danmark.
    Haapala, Irja
    Finland.
    Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria
    University of Gävle.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Beck, Anne Marie
    Danmark.
    Fagt, Sisse
    Danmark.
    Food at Work around the Clock – The Nordic Model: report from a Nordic Workshop, November 4, 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report brings together 12 invited presentations and outcomes of a workshop on food and meals for employees working irregular hours “around the clock”. The workshop, “Food at work around the clock – The Nordic Model”, was hosted by the National Food Institute at the Technical University of Denmark on November 4, 2016, in Lyngby, near Copenhagen, Denmark. This was a culmination of the collaboration started in 2015 between researchers from the hosts institute, Gävle University and Kristianstad University in Sweden, and the School of Applied Educational Sciences and Teacher Education in Finland. The workshop was funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers.

  • 244.
    Dahl Lassen, Anne
    et al.
    National Food Institute, Danish Technical University, Denmark.
    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke
    National Food Institute, Danish Technical University, Denmark.
    Haapala, Irja
    School of Applied Educational Sciences and Teacher Education, Savonlinna, Finland; School of Social and Political Sciences, the University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Department of Food and Meal Science, Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Beck, Anne Marie
    Institute of Nutrition and Midwifery, Metropolitan University College, Denmark.
    Fagt, Sisse
    National Food Institute, Danish Technical University, Denmark.
    Food at Work around the Clock – The Nordic Model: Report from a Nordic Workshop, November 4, 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report brings together 12 invited presentations and outcomes of a workshop on food and meals for employees working irregular hours “around the clock”. The workshop, “Food at work around the clock – The Nordic Model”, was hosted by the National Food Institute at the Technical University of Denmark on November 4, 2016, in Lyngby, near Copenhagen, Denmark. This was a culmination of the collaboration started in 2015 between researchers from the hosts institute, Gävle University and Kristianstad University in Sweden, and the School of Applied Educational Sciences and Teacher Education in Finland. The workshop was funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers.

  • 245. Dahm, Christina C.
    et al.
    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders
    Crowe, Francesca L.
    Roswall, Nina
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Drogan, Dagmar
    Boeing, Heiner
    Teucher, Birgit
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Adarakis, George
    Zylis, Dimosthenes
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Chajes, Veronique
    Jenab, Mazda
    Palli, Domenico
    Pala, Valeria
    Tumino, Rosario
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    van Kranen, Henk
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Quiros, Jose R.
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Lujan-Barroso, Leila
    Larranaga, Nerea
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Johansson, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology. The Nutrition and Metabolism Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Wark, Petra A.
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Key, Tim J.
    Overvad, Kim
    Fatty acid patterns and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition2012In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 96, no 6, p. 1354-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fatty acids in blood may be related to the risk of prostate cancer, but epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent. Blood fatty acids are correlated through shared food sources and common endogenous desaturation and elongation pathways. Studies of individual fatty acids cannot take this into account, but pattern analysis can. Treelet transform (TT) is a novel method that uses data correlation structures to derive sparse factors that explain variation. Objective: The objective was to gain further insight in the association between plasma fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer by applying TT to take data correlations into account. Design: We reanalyzed previously published data from a case-control study of prostate cancer nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. TT was used to derive factors explaining the variation in 26 plasma phospholipid fatty acids of 962 incident prostate cancer cases matched to 1061 controls. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing data in covariates. ORs of prostate cancer according to factor scores were determined by using multivariable conditional logistic regression. Results: Four simple factors explained 38% of the variation in plasma fatty acids. A high score on a factor reflecting a long-chain n-3 PUFA pattern was associated with greater risk of prostate cancer (OR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.86; P-trend = 0.041). Conclusion: Pattern analyses using TT groupings of correlated fatty acids indicate that intake or metabolism of long-chain n-3 PUFAs may be relevant to prostate cancer etiology. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:1354-61.

  • 246.
    Daivadanam, Meena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics. Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Achutha Menon Ctr Hlth Sci Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011, Kerala, India.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci Global Hlth, Tomtebodavagen 18A, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ravindran, T. K. Sundari
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Achutha Menon Ctr Hlth Sci Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011, Kerala, India..
    Thankappan, K. R.
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Achutha Menon Ctr Hlth Sci Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011, Kerala, India..
    Sarma, P. S.
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Achutha Menon Ctr Hlth Sci Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011, Kerala, India..
    Wahlström, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci Global Hlth, Tomtebodavagen 18A, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Development of a Tool to Stage Households' Readiness to Change Dietary Behaviours in Kerala, India2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11, article id e0165599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary interventions and existing health behaviour theories are centred on individuals; therefore, none of the available tools are applicable to households for changing dietary behaviour. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a practical tool that could be administered by community volunteers to stage households in rural Kerala based on readiness to change dietary behaviour. Such a staging tool, comprising a questionnaire and its algorithm, focusing five dietary components (fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar and oil) and households (rather than individuals), was finalised through three consecutive pilot validation sessions, conducted over a four-month period. Each revised version was tested with a total of 80 households (n = 30, 35 and 15 respectively in the three sessions). The tool and its comparator, Motivational Interviewing (MI), assessed the stage-of-change for a household pertaining to their: 1) fruit and vegetable consumption behaviour; 2) salt, sugar and oil consumption behaviour; 3) overall readiness to change. The level of agreement between the two was tested using Kappa statistics to assess concurrent validity. A value of 0.7 or above was considered as good agreement. The final version was found to have good face and content validity, and also a high level of agreement with MI (87%; weighted kappa statistic: 0.85). Internal consistency testing was performed using Cronbach's Alpha, with a value between 0.80 and 0.90 considered to be good. The instrument had good correlation between the items in each section (Cronbach's Alpha: 0.84 (fruit and vegetables), 0.85 (salt, sugar and oil) and 0.83 (Overall)). Pre-contemplation was the most difficult stage to identify; for which efficacy and perceived cooperation at the household level were important. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first staging tool for households. This tool represents a new concept in community-based dietary interventions. The tool can be easily administered by lay community workers and can therefore be used in large population-based studies. A more robust validation process with a larger sample is needed before it can be widely used.

  • 247.
    Daivadanam, Meena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Wahlström, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Thankappan, K. R.
    Ravindran, T. K. Sundari
    Balancing expectations amidst limitations: the dynamics of food decision-making in rural Kerala2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Food decision-making is a complex process and varies according to the setting, based on cultural and contextual factors. The study aimed to understand the process of food decision-making in households in rural Kerala, India, to inform the design of a dietary behaviour change intervention. Methods: Three focus group discussions (FGDs) and 17 individual interviews were conducted from September 2010 to January 2011 among 13 men and 40 women, between 23 and 75 years of age. An interview guide facilitated the process to understand: 1) food choices and decision-making in households, with particular reference to access; and 2) beliefs about foods, particularly fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar and oil. The interviews and FGDs were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The analysis revealed one main theme: 'Balancing expectations amidst limitations' with two sub-themes: 'Counting and meeting the costs'; and 'Finding the balance'. Food decisions were made at the household level, with money, time and effort costs weighed against the benefits, estimated in terms of household needs, satisfaction and expectations. The most crucial decisional point was affordability in terms of money costs, followed by food preferences of husband and children. Health and the risk of acquiring chronic diseases was not a major consideration in the decision-making process. Foods perceived as essential for children were purchased irrespective of cost, reportedly owing to the influence of food advertisements. The role of the woman as the homemaker has gendered implications, as the women disproportionately bore the burden of balancing the needs and expectations of all the household members within the available means. Conclusions: The food decision-making process occurred at household level, and within the household, by the preferences of spouse and children, and cost considerations. The socio-economic status of households was identified as limiting their ability to manoeuvre this fine balance. The study has important policy implications in terms of the need to raise public awareness of the strong link between diet and chronic non-communicable diseases.

  • 248.
    Daivadanamn, Meena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Huvila, Isto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Dahl, Jo-Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Empowering towards healthy behaviours2016In: Ending Childhood Obesity: Actions through health and food equity, Uppsala University, 2016, p. 34-39Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 249.
    Dakanalis, Antonios
    et al.
    Univ Pavia, Dept Brain & Behav Sci, Pavia, Italy.;Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Surg & Interdisciplinary Med, Milan, Italy..
    Clerici, Massimo
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Surg & Interdisciplinary Med, Milan, Italy..
    Caslini, Manuela
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Surg & Interdisciplinary Med, Milan, Italy..
    Gaudio, Santino
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Univ Campus Biomed, Ctr Integrated Res, Rome, Italy..
    Serino, Silvia
    Catholic Univ, Dept Psychol, Milan, Italy..
    Riva, Giuseppe
    Catholic Univ, Dept Psychol, Milan, Italy.;Ist Auxol Italiano, Appl Technol Neuropsychol Lab, Milan, Italy..
    Carra, Giuseppe
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Surg & Interdisciplinary Med, Milan, Italy.;UCL, Fac Brain Sci, Div Psychiat, London, England..
    Predictors of initiation and persistence of recurrent binge eating and inappropriate weight compensatory behaviors in college men2016In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 581-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveThe transition to college is considered as a risk period for the development of behavioral symptoms of eating disorders (BSEDs) and some evidence suggests that, amongst men, these symptoms occurring on a regular basis remain relatively stable over the college period. Nevertheless, little is known about factors associated with persistent engagement in and initiation of recurrent (or regular) binge eating and inappropriate weight compensatory behaviors in this population. The objective of this report was to address these research gaps. MethodData were examined from 2,555 male first-year college students who completed an assessment of potential vulnerability factors and BSEDs at the beginning of the autumn semester (baseline) and nine months later (end of the spring semester; follow-up). ResultsElevated negative affectivity, body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, and lower self-esteem at baseline were predictive of persistent engagement in regular binge eating and four compensatory behaviors (self-induced vomiting, laxative/diuretic abuse, fasting, exercise) at follow-up, as well as initiation of all these behaviors occurring regularly (i.e., at least weekly for 3 months). Self-objectification (thinking and monitoring the body's outward appearance from a third-person perspective) emerged as the largest contributor of both the initiation and persistence of all behavioral symptoms. DiscussionData emphasize that the same psychological factors underlie initiation and persistence of recurrent BSEDs and should shape the focus of future interventions for college men.

  • 250.
    Danielsson, Jessica
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Nilsson, Pontus
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Elevers måltider under skoldagen: en undersökning av energi- och näringsintag bland elever i årskurs 32010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är viktigt att elever i skolan äter tillräckligt mycket mat under skoldagen så att de orkar hålla koncentrationen uppe och kan prestera bra i skolan. Syftet var att undersöka om innehållet av energi (kcal), protein, fett och kolhydrater är tillräckligt i maten som elever i årskurs 3, som är på fritidshem före och efter skolan, äter till frukost, lunch och mellanmål under en skoldag. En kartläggning gjordes över vad åtta elever åt under tre måltider under en skoldag och intaget energi- och näringsintag beräknades i relation till Livsmedelsverkets rekommendationer. Resultatet visade att elevernas energi- och näringsintag var bäst under frukosten, även om det var lågt hos de flesta. Under lunchen minskade energi- och näringsintaget och blev ännu sämre vid eftermiddagens mellanmål. Generellt sett var elevernas energi- och näringsintag för lågt under denna skoldag i jämförelse med Livsmedelsverkets rekommendationer. Slutsatsen är att skolan behöver medverka till att barnen dels äter mer mat, dels äter mer varierat under de måltider som serveras i skolan. 

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