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  • 201.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Performance of landfills of hazardous waste with special respect to the function of clay liners2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is based on four papers related to the performance of near-surface low-level (LLW) repositories (landfills) focusing on construction and performance of clay liners in the cappings. The first paper discusses the source of hazardous wastes, their location and their impact on public health. The paper also discusses the scientific basis of the selection of the isolation of such wastes taking in account also cost issues. The paper also shows rules and principles of composing and constructing isolation of such waste according to American and German regulations. The second paper deals with the criteria for locating plants for processing and disposal of hazardous waste in Iraq with special respect to environmental, geological and socio-economic factors. Referring to these criteria a potential disposal site in the Al-Jezira desert is assessed in the paper. The third paper describes the properties of two candidate Iraqi smectitic clays of potential value for isolating hazardous wastes. These clays have been and are still being examined in order to determine their performance and usability for waste isolation. The fourth paper, finally, discusses in detail the hydration-dehydration processes in clay liners in cappings of waste landfills in desertic climates. It also deals with construction issues.

  • 202.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hazardous wastes problems in Iraq: a suggestion for an environmental solution2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq passed through many destructive wars where the country infrastructures have been destroyed. Consequently, various types of hazardous wastes generated from 1991 and 2003 wars are exposed in different parts of Iraq without any aspect of human and environment considerations. Contaminants are found in the form of contaminated rubble with depleted uranium (DU). Landfill disposal is still an economical and vital solution that should serve between 500-1000 years for confining hazardous wastes like DU. The longevity of a hazardous waste landfill is mainly controlled by clay based liners. There are many factors affecting the performance of clay liners. These factors were discussed in this research. The main requirements of hazardous waste landfills were listed according to USEPA and German regulations. Finally, the main aspects of landfill siting criteria in Iraq were suggested.

  • 203.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hazardous wastes problems in Iraq:a suggestion for an environmental solution2013In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq passed through many destructive wars where the country infrastructures have been destroyed. Consequently, various types of hazardous wastes generated from 1991 and 2003 wars are exposed in different parts of Iraq without any aspect of human and environment considerations. Contaminants are found in the form of contaminated rubble with depleted uranium (DU). Landfill disposal is still an economical and vital solution that should serve between 300-1000 years for confining hazardous wastes like DU. The longevity of a hazardous waste landfill is mainly controlled by clay based liners. There are many factors affecting the performance of clay liners. These factors were discussed. The main requirements of hazardous waste landfills were listed according to USEPA and German regulations. Finally, the main aspects of landfill siting criteria in Iraq were suggested.

  • 204.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Proposed site selection criteria for hazardous waste disposal facilities in Iraq2012In: Waste Management and the Environment VI / [ed] V. Popov; H. Itoh; C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2012, p. 309-319Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazardous wastes in Iraq can be considered as a looming crisis due to its severe impact on health and environment after the 1991 and 2003 wars. The most dangerous type is depleted uranium waste. It is classified by EU and USEPA as Low-Level radioactive Waste and a simple and sufficiently safe way of isolating it from the biosphere is to turn it into a landfill confined within tight dikes. Selection of a disposal site requires a number of conditions to be fulfilled, like socio/economic, environmental and geotechnical criteria, which, in combination, determine where such landfills can be located. This is particularly obvious for Iraq, with its large desertic areas that are available for constructing landfills of hazardous waste. The climatic conditions are suitable and the deep groundwater level valuable for minimizing or avoiding contamination of the area. Heavy rain may occasionally fall requiring special measures to be taken for maintaining stability and tightness. This paper lists suitable site selection criteria for landfills of hazardous waste with special respect to Iraq. An example of a suitable disposal site is described and assessed.

  • 205.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Natural smectitic soils for protective liners in arid climate2014In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 102, p. 104-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compacted clay liners (CCL) can be used to isolate hazardous wastes like the soil and military scrap contaminated with depleted uranium that emanated from the Iraqi wars in 1991 and 2003. Near-surface repositories for such dangerous waste can preferably be located in the Iraqi deserts, which make up 60% of the territory of Iraq. CCLs are usually constructed using a mixture of clayey soil and coarse material compacted in air-dry form or suitably wetted. In the present study, two smectitic soils from Iraq, termed Green and Red clays, were investigated for potential use in CCLs. The shear strength, swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity and creep properties were determined and used for preliminary design of top and bottom liners. The engineering properties were determined for various dry densities and water contents ranging from air-dry to fully saturated conditions. The results showed that mixtures of sand and 30-50% Green clay, and mixtures of sand and 40-60% Red clay are suitable for constructing top liners with a hydraulic conductivity between 1×10-10 - 1×10-9 m/s. For bottom liners, mixtures of sand and 70% Green clay and mixtures of sand and 80% Red clay can be considered. They were found to have a hydraulic conductivity of 1×10-11 m/s for a density at saturation of 2.1 g/cm3 (dry density 1.7 g/cm3). As to the slope stability of top liners, the shear strength for different clay percentages was found to guarantee slope stability for 18o inclination under both air-dry and water saturated conditions.

  • 206.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite clays from Iraq with special respect to landfills of DU-contaminated waste2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills of material contaminated by depleted uranium and other low-level radioactive waste must be isolated from the biosphere for a sufficiently long time. This can be effectively made in desert climate by collecting contaminated waste in suitable areas confined by tight embankments and covering them with very tight clay liners protected from desiccation and erosion by suitably composed filters and coarse rock fill. Examples of design principles and construction are described in the paper. The clay liners are made of air-dry expanding clay that can be found in sufficient quantities in Iraq and that provide very good tightness at low cost. The construction technique is well known from various projects.

  • 207.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite clays from Iraq with special respect to landfills of DU-contaminated waste2013In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 109-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills of material contaminated by depleted uranium and other low-level radioactive waste must be isolated from the biosphere for a sufficiently long time. This can be effectively made in desert climate by collecting contaminated waste in suitable areas confined by tight embankments and covering them with very tight clay liners protected from desiccation and erosion by suitably composed filters and coarse rock fill. Examples of design principles and construction are described in the paper. The clay liners are made of air-dry expanding clay that can be found in sufficient quantities in Iraq and that provide very good tightness at low cost. The construction technique is well known from various projects.

  • 208.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite rich clay controlled by hydraulic gradients and filter types2014In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 87, p. 73-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The common practice in geotechnical laboratories is to apply high hydraulic gradients for getting results in reasonable time but this can jeopardize the accuracy. In this paper, the hydraulic conductivity of a smectite rich clay from Iraq was determined under different hydraulic gradients (5 to 10000 m/m) using several densities and two permeants. Also, two types of filters were used, ordinary stainless steel sintered filter and sand/silt filter, in order to examine the possible effect of clogging by dragged clay gel particles. It was concluded that the outflow filter can affect the evaluated conductivity especially when applying high hydraulic gradients. For sintered filters the hydraulic conductivity was reduced as the gradient increased, while the conductivity increased as the hydraulic gradient increased when using sand/silt filters. For salt water the impact of the gradient was less obvious than for distilled water. A theoretical model was derived for selecting safe hydraulic gradients as a function of dry density, hydraulic gradient, swelling pressure and permeant type. A major conclusion was that the gradient in laboratory testing should not exceed 100 m/m.

  • 209.
    Alzeyadi, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    A Novel Coating Method for Create Filter Media Capable to Remove Phosphate from Wastewater Effectively2019In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 443-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filtration materials coating with metallic oxides represented a good method for phosphate sorption. However, most of the researchers utilize chemicals as a source of metallic oxides and heating process to set the chemicals over the filtration materials. This study is aimed to introduce the furnace bottom ash FBA as a source of metallic oxides; it is available free because it is dumped as a waste material from power generation plants. The method of creating new filter media involves coating the limestone and sand by FBA, and the ordinary Portland cement OPC utilized as binder to binding the mixture materials. The water is the factor which is responsible for activating the OPC. All factors such as mixed materials ratio, water content and age of reaction have subjected to optimization process. The results revealed that the optimal mixture for phosphate removal consists of 40% FBA, 5% OPC from dry weight of supporting material, 35% water ratio from the total weight of FBA and OPC, and 14 days are enough to complete the materials reaction. Limestone-furnace bottom ash LFBA indicated high capacity for phosphate sorption and possibility  of  efficiency  regenerate.  This  study  demonstrates  a  new  method  for coating the filtration materials more convenient with sustainability approach.

  • 210.
    Al-Zubaidi, Ibrahim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Numerisk simulering av sättningar och portryck för en provbank på sulfidjord2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den finkorniga sulfidjorden som finns längs Norrlandskusten är känd för sin stora sättningsbenägenhet och utgör en potentiell miljörisk genom försurning och urlakning av metaller om den inte hanteras rätt. För att förebygga miljörisker och utveckla jordförstärknings- och grundläggningsmetoder måste en ökad kunskap om sulfidjordar tas fram. I ett pågående forskningsprojekt vid Statens Geotekniska Institut studeras sulfidjords kompressionsegenskaper och rekommendationer ska tas fram avseende underlag för sättningsberäkningar. I projektet omfattas ett antal provbankar där ett av dessa områden, Lampen ligger i Kalix i norra Sverige. I detta examensarbete har det utförts numeriska analyser i finita elementprogrammet PLAXIS 2D av sättningar och portryck under en av provbankarna i Lampen och jämförelser görs med tidigare rapporterade fältmätningar.

    Tre olika delar analyseras i FE-programmet PLAXIS 2D. I den första delen, som är huvuddelen, utvärderas materialmodellernas, Soft Soil (SS) respektive Soft Soil Creep (SSC), förmåga att simulera de uppmätta sättningarna och porövertrycken för en period av cirka ett års belastning av provbank. Den andra delen består av en analys av de två deformationstillstånden, axialsymmetriskt och plant. De två deformationstillståden jämförs med hänsyn till sättningar och portryck. I den tredje delen utvärderas påverkan på simulerade resultat av olika nivåer på grundvattenytan, en variation som har observerats i provområdet i Lampen.

    Vid en jämförelse av de konstitutiva modellerna noteras som förväntat större sättningar vid användning av SSC-modellen i jämförelse med SS-modellen. SSC-modellen visar även ett högre porövertryck. Vid jämförelse med i fält uppmätta värden noteras att de mest överensstämmande sättningarna erhålls från SS-modellen medan portrycksutvecklingen simuleras bättre, men ändå långt från bra, med SSC-modellen (för simulering med dubbelsidig dränering).

    Vid analys av deformationstillstånd (axialsymmetriskt kontra plant) noteras en jämnare fördelning av deformationer längs banken vid användandet av axialsymmetriskt tillstånd. Den potentiella brottrörelsen som uppvisas vid släntkrön vid tillämpning av plant deformationstillstånd är inte lika tydlig vid axialsymmetriskt tillstånd. Det axialsymmetriska tillståndet visar även ett lägre porövertryck.

    Numeriska simuleringar av den varierande nivån på grundvattenytan som observerats i fältmätningar visar vid fallet en lägre antagen grundvattennivå en marginellt mindre sättning.  Potentiella brottrörelser blir inte lika tydliga då den lägre nivån på grundvattenytan simuleras.

  • 211.
    Al-Zubaydi, Jaffar
    et al.
    Applied Geology Department, College of Science, University of Babylon.
    Alabidi, Abdulkadhim
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Janabi, Ali
    Applied Geology Department, College of Science, University of Babylon.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Engineering and Tectonic Study of Rocks Discontinuities in the Proposed Abo-Hederya Quarry Site, Missan SE Iraq2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 525-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed field survey of discontinuity (fractures) was carried out in the proposed Abo-Hederya Quarry Site, 70 km east Missan city, south-east of Iraq, where Al-Mukdadiya Formation (Upper Miocene-Pliocene) is exposed. The discontinuity survey was carried out in 10 stations covering the study area. At each station notes were collected about beds (lithology, thickness and orientation) and discontinuities (orientation, density, spacing, persistence and aperture). The slope stability analysis suggests that there is no real hazard area that could affect the quarry in future. Tectonic analysis demonstrates that tension fractures are common in the study area, while shear fractures (okl, hko, hol and hkl) are the less. The maximum principal stress direction in the study area is N (15 - 40) E, which is compatible with the regional tectonic stress in the area.

  • 212.
    Al-Zuheri, Atiya
    et al.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Rashad, Haider
    Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Maliki, Ali A.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Hussain, Hassain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Determination of the chemical Structure of the Iraqi Oil Shale and its hydrocarbon Forms2018In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 7-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global impact of shale oil has revolutionized the world’s energy markets, resulting in significantly lower oil prices, higher global gross domestic product, changing geopolitics and shifted business models for oil and gas companies. Further and developed research initiative is required to fill critical gaps in knowledge at the interface of shale oil development along with environmental protection, so countries can prepare better for its energy future. This paper explores the characterization of Iraqi originated oil shale using various analytical techniques, such as mass spectrometry (MS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrography (GC/MS). Based upon analytical results, it is found that the majority of chemical structure is in aliphatic hydrocarbon forms.

  • 213. Alén, C
    et al.
    Bengtsson, PE
    Berggren, B
    Johansson, L
    Johansson, Å
    Skredriskanalys i Göta älvdalen - Metodbeskrivning2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En utförlig introduktion till den statistiska/sannolikhetsbaserade metod för skredriskanalys som använts i två utredningar längs Göta älvdalen. I arbetet redovisas den skredriskanalys som genomförts i två etapper längs två sträckningar av Göta älvdalen, södra resp. nordöstra älvdalen. Totalt har ett tjugotal sektioner analyserats för varje delsträcka. Avståndet mellan de analyserade sektionerna kan ibland vara några kilometer. Därav följer att summariska antaganden har varit nödvändiga för mellanliggande områden. Den utförda utredningen betraktas därför som översiktlig. Mer detaljerade analyser måste genomföras i ett senare skede av projekteringsprocessen för de då aktuella sträckorna längs älvdalen. Utgångspunkten har varit en traditionell stabilitetsanalys med en beräknad säkerhetsfaktor mot brott. Denna traditionella stabilitetsanalys har kompletterats med en sannolikhetsbaserad analys i ett antal typsektioner. Denna senare analys har skilt sig något åt för de bägge etapperna (älvsträckorna), beroende på olika geotekniska förutsättningar. Tre olika metoder för att beskriva skredsannolikheten har utvecklats.

  • 214.
    Alén, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Olsson, Mats
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Utbyggnad av E45 - Norge / Vänerbanan. Erfarenheter från flytande kalk-cement pelare2009In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, no 1, p. 26-28Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utbyggnaden av E45 och Norge / Vänerbanan pågår för fullt. Mellan Göteborg och Trollhättan byggs ca 75 km motorväg och en ny hög hastighetsjärnväg på mycket lös, högplastisk, lera. För att reducera sättningarna och förbättra stabiliteten av bankarna installeras kalkcement (KC) pelare i stor omfattning, ca 9 miljoner löpmeter.

  • 215.
    Ameen, Ameen Mohammed Salih
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Ibrahim, Zainah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Othman, Faridah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Minimizing the Principle Stresses of Powerhoused Rock-Fill Dams Using Control Turbine Running Units: Application of Finite Element Method2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on improving the safety of embankment dams by considering theeffects of vibration due to powerhouse operation on the dam body. The study contains two ainparts. In the first part, ANSYS-CFX is used to create the three-dimensional (3D) Finite Volume (FV)model of one vertical Francis turbine unit. The 3D model is run by considering various reservoirconditions and the dimensions of units. The Re-Normalization Group (RNG) k-𝜀𝜀 turbulence modelis employed, and the physical properties of water and the flow haracteristics are defined in theturbine model. In the second phases, a 3D finite element (FE) numerical model for a rock-fill dam iscreated by using ANSYS®, considering the dam connection with its powerhouse represented by fourvertical Francis turbines, foundation, and the upstream reservoir. Changing the upstream watertable minimum and maximum water levels, standers earth gravity, fluid-solid interface, hydrostaticpressure, and the soil properties are onsidered. The dam model runs to cover all possibilities forturbines operating in accordance with the reservoir discharge ranges. In order to minimize stressesin the dam body and increase dam safety, this study optimizes the turbine operating system byintegrating turbine and dam models.

  • 216. Amofah, Lea Rastas
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    The influence of temperature, pH/molarity and extractant on the removal of arsenic, chromium and zinc from contaminated soil2011In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 1334-1344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Normal soil washing leave high residual pollutant content in soil. The remediation could be improved by targeting the extraction to coarser fractions. Further, a low/high extraction pH and higher temperature enhance the pollutant removal, but these measures are costly. In this study, the utility of NaOH, oxalate-citrate (OC) and dithionite-citrate-oxalate (DCO) solutions for extracting of arsenic, chromium and zinc from contaminated soil were assessed and compared. In addition the effects of NaOH concentration and temperature on NaOH extractions, and those of temperature and pH on OC and DCO extractions, were evaluated. Materials and methods A two-level, full-factorial design with a centre point was implemented. Two factors, concentration and temperature,were evaluated in NaOH extractions, and pH and temperature for OC and DCO solutions. In all cases, the extraction temperature was 20A degrees C, 30A degrees C and 40A degrees C. The studied NaOH concentrations were 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 M. The pH in OC solutions was 3, 5 and 7, and in DCO solutions, 4.7, 6.3 and 6.7. Water-washed and medium coarse soil fraction of arsenic, chromium and zinc contaminated soil was agitated for 15 min with the extraction solution. Results and discussion In NaOH extractions, the temperature and (less strongly) NaOH concentration significantly affected As and Cr mobilisation, but only the latter affected Zn mobilisation. Both pH and temperature significantly (and similarly) influenced As and Cr mobilisation in OC extractions, while only the pH influenced Zn mobilisation. In contrast, the extraction temperature (but not pH) influenced As, Cr and Zn mobilisation in DCO extractions. Conclusions For all extractants, mobilisation was most efficient at elevated temperature (40A degrees C). None of the extractants reduced the soil's As content to below the Swedish EPA's guideline value. Use of DCO is not recommended because dithionite has a short lifetime and residual arsenic contents in DCO-extracted soil are relatively high. Instead, sequential extraction with NaOH followed by OC solutions (affording significant reductions in As, Cr and Zn levels in the soil with short extraction times) at 40A degrees C is recommended.

  • 217.
    Andersson, Amanda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Utvärdering av prediktion och utfall av inläckage i bergtunnel: Fallstudie E4 Förbifart Stockholm2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater inflow to a rock tunnel is inevitable, but nonetheless important to limit. Otherwise both the surroundings and the tunnel itself risk becoming subject to damage. To prevent this, legal limitations are set for the inflow. Measurements are then made to ensure that the inflow does not exceed these limitations. When constructing a tunnel in hard rock, the limit objectives are hopefully met through the filling of rock fractures through grouting. Inflow predictions are made at an early stage of a tunnel project, both in order to establish the legal requirements but also as basis for grouting design. The aim of the work reported is to understand why these predictions in some cases deviate from the measured inflow. To accomplish this, a case study on two road tunnels in one of Sweden's most comprehensive infrastructure projects of all time, the construction of a motorway bypass around the capital Stockholm, is presented and assessed. Several causes of deviations between inflow predictions and observations in these two tunnels are suggested, most of them related to the hydraulic conductivity of the rock. Overall the rock quality seems to be worse than predicted. In one tunnel segment in particular, one cause of major deviations from inflow predictions is due to a fracture zone which has not been accounted for. These identified causes of increased inflow could have been foreseen in an early stage of the project, either through more extensive investigations or different interpretations of existing data. New inflow predictions have been made based on the suggested corrections. The result is consistently higher than the predictions made earlier and mostly less deviant from observations. This indicates that the real inflow is probably higher than initially predicted.

  • 218.
    Andersson, Christer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Pelarförsök vid Äspö2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 219. Andersson, H
    Sättningsuppföljning vid funktionsanpassad design. E6 Stenungssund - Uddevalla1999Report (Other academic)
  • 220. Andersson, H
    et al.
    Bengtsson, PE
    Berglund, C
    Larsson, R
    Sällfors, G
    Öberg-Högsta, AL
    Skredet i Vagnhärad. Teknisk/vetenskaplig utredning om skredets orsaker1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 23 maj 1997 inträffade ett större skred i en bebyggd lerslänt i Ödesby, Vagnhärad. Skredet kom att omfatta en ca 200 m lång sträcka längs Trosaån och sträckte sig ca 60 m upp i slänten. Vid skredet totalförstördes eller underminerades sju villor, en gång- och cykelväg med tillhörande bro över ån och åfaran försköts ca 15 meter. Det större skredet hade föregåtts av ett mindre skred inom ett begränsat område vid släntfoten.

  • 221. Andersson, H
    et al.
    Bergdahl, U
    Jonforsen, H
    Ottosson, E
    Konsekvensanalys NR - SBN 80. Tekniska konsekvenser av övergång till Nybyggnadsregler för Geokonstruktioner (NR)1990Report (Other academic)
  • 222. Andersson, H
    et al.
    Ottosson, E
    Horisontalrörelser och portryck i en lerslänt vid olika säkerhetsnivåer. Karls Grav, Vänersborg1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    (1) Utförda undersökningar; (2) Jord- och grundvattenförhållanden; (3) Utförda mätningar; (4) Stabilitetsberäkningar; (5) Beräkning av förskjutningar; (6) Jämförelser

  • 223. Andersson, H
    et al.
    Ottosson, E
    Sällfors, G
    Skredet i Ballabo, Västerlanda1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten redovisar den teknisk/vetenskapliga utredning som gjordes av det skred som inträffade den 16 april 1996 längs Göta älv, i Ballabo, Västerlanda, söder om Göta samhälle. Skredet utgjordes av åkermark och inga byggnader eller anläggningar berördes eller hotades av följdskred. Syftet med utredningen har varit att klarlägga förhållandena vid skredtillfället och att analysera skredorsak och skredförlopp. Erfarenhet från inträffade jordskred är av stort värde vid framtida tekniska värderingar och riskbedömningar i liknande områden.

  • 224.
    Andersson, Jimmie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Sannolikhetsbaseraddimensionering av geotekniskbärförmåga för pålar i grupp: En jämförelse mellan gällande normer och ensannolikhetsbaserad metod2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 225.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Hedlund, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Undersökning om handhållna laserskannrar vid detaljmätning: En jämförelse mellan multistationen Leica Nova MS50 och den handhållna laserskannern FARO Freestyle X2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have been common in geodetic measurements for over 10 years. The technology is developing rapidly and specialized instruments are launched constantly. One type of these specialized TLS instruments are hand-held laser scanners. They are designed primarily to generate point clouds of spaces and small objects where the traditional tripod mounted laser scanner has difficulties to scan. When the hand-held laser scanners are relatively new, the research on the instruments is limited, and the lack of standardized control methods. With that in mind it is important to study the instruments. In this thesis the hand-held laser scanner FARO Freestyle X was investigated on how well the handheld laser scanning technology really is and what limitations the instruments have. This was done by comparing point clouds from FARO Freestyle X with reference point cloud generated by Leica's multi-station MS50. To study the instrument a number of parameters was investigated such as scanning distance, ease of use, time and performance. These parameters were considered to be sufficient basis for conclusions about the instrument's advantages/disadvantages and limitations.

    The result of the point cloud comparison from the short distance showed deviations around 10 mm and then increase to few centimeters at longer distances. Volume limitation control showed no differences compared to the scanning from short distance. This means that moving the instrument does not affect the results significantly. The instrument's Achilles' heel is the noise that occurs when scanning from longer distances, about 30 mm deviations. Even the type of object affects the noise. The noise on the wall showed the greatest deviation while the noise on the table indicated the lowest results. The repeatability showed good results visually and had similar deviations. The instrument has a good ability to recreate objects when the resolution test demonstrates good performance. Main advantage of the instrument is its effective documentation of smaller objects, but also some larger areas where the uncertainty of centimeter-level is required. The ease of use can be described as good and the colored point clouds takes visualization to a new level. The results of the study show that the hand-held laser scanners can, potentially, challenge the traditional laser scanner.

  • 226. Andersson, M
    et al.
    Andersson, JV
    Hallingberg, A
    Lind, B
    Löfroth, H
    Förbättrade kontrollsystem för uppföljning av sättningar2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid byggande av vägar och järnvägar utförs mätning och uppföljning av sättningar både på anläggningsobjekten och i omgivningen. Det finns en lång rad olika kontrollsystem för uppföljning av sättningar som kan vara användbara i olika situationer. Det handlar om att mäta sättningsförloppen både hos markytan och ytliga objekt och sättningens fördelning ner genom markprofilen. Inom detta projekt har tillgängliga metoder inventerats och en analys har gjorts av användningsområden samt möjligheter och begränsningar hos metoderna. Metoderna har delats in i tre olika typer: (I) Fasta geotekniska system som bygger på installerade mätkroppar i eller på marken; (II) Geodetisk mätning/ Terrestra metoder som i huvudsak bygger på mätning från marken; (III) Geodetisk mätning/ Luftburna/ Fjärranalys som avser analys av större ytor med fjärrtekniker (från flygplan eller satellit).

  • 227. Andersson, M
    et al.
    Lundström, K
    Rankka, W
    Rydell, B
    Erosion och sedimenttransport i vattendrag2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    (1) Geomorfologi och vattendrag; (2) Hydrologi; (3) Hydraulik för vattendrag, kanalströmningslära; (4) Erosion; (5) Sedimenttransport; (6) Sedimentation

  • 228. Andersson, M
    et al.
    Rogbeck, Y
    Westerberg, B
    Djupstabilisering i sulfidjord - laboratorie- och fältstudie. Botniabanan delen Stöcke - centrala Umeå2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    (1) Provlokal; (2) Laboratorieförsök; (3) Fältförsök; Bilagor: (1) Installationsplan för djupstabilisering; (2-11) Pelarsonderingar; (12) Spetstrycksmätning med CPT i naturlig jord; (13) Pelarsondering i naturlig jord; (14) Resultat av CPT-sonderingar i naturlig jord; (15) Kemiska undersökningar

  • 229.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Kompressionsegenskaper hos sulfidjordar: En fält- och laboratoriestudie av provbankar2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this licentiate thesis is presented the work and the results of the construction of two testembankments on sulphide soils at the test field in Lampen outside the city of Kalix next to thenew rail road Haparandabanan.The main purpose of the licentiate thesis work was to improve the knowledge of compressionproperties of sulphide soils, with focus on the creep properties. Another aim was to establish atest field with extensive instrumented test embankments where settlements and pore pressurescan be measured during many decades.The work with the test embankments has included instrumentation and construction as well asmeasurements of deformations, pore water pressures and soil temperatures. Fieldinvestigations of the properties of the sulphide soil have been performed mainly by CPTsounding,field vane test and Swedish piston sampling. An extensive program of laboratorytests, mainly through oedometer tests, both incremental loading and constant rate of strain,permeability tests and undrained direct simple shear tests, was conducted for thedetermination of compression and strength properties. In this work a literature review wasperformed with the subject sulphide soils and focusing on compression properties. A firstsimple one-dimensional calculation of the total settlements of the test embankments wascarried out regarding the magnitude and the time dependency.The instrumentation and the construction of the test embankments have been carefullyplanned and were carried out as planned. The different measuring equipment as settlementhoses, bellow hoses, settlement gauges and inclinometers, which are installed in theembankments and the underlying sulphide soil to measure deformations in the soil, overallhas given the expected values and the behaviour can be explained by theories of soilmechanics. The pore pressure responses in the underlying sulphide soil are related to theapplied load caused by the mass of the embankments and the effective stresses in the soil. Theresults of the pore pressure measurements are comparable with previous experiences of thebehaviour of load testing on fine-grained soils.Many oedometer tests, incremental loading and constant rate of strain (CRS), have beenperformed to study the compression properties of the sulphide soil and to evaluate differentparameters. It has been possible to identify and evaluate the preconsolidation pressure fromall the CRS oedometer tests, which indicates a good quality of the soil samples, .i.e. a wellperformed piston sampling and following handling of the soil samples. In comparisonbetween the two different oedometer tests, incremental loading and constant rate of strain, thefirst one gave a slightly higher value of evaluated preconsolidation pressure.From the incremental loading tests the creep parameters, , and , were evaluated andthey indicate that the values of these parameters in the sulphide soil from Lampen are slightlyhigher than the previous experiences of sulphide soils have shown. This implies that it can berelatively large differences in creep properties between different sites with sulphide soils andthat incremental loading tests should be performed in the cases when creep settlements are ofinterestThe total calculated settlements of the two embankments in Lampen after 50 years arebetween 1.12 and 1.35 m, with the heights 1.5 m and 2.0 m respectively of the embankments The performed measurements of the settlements showed at the time for the latestmeasurements, i.e. 420 days after the start of the construction of the embankments, that thelargest measured settlements of the ground surface were between 0.34 and 0.38 m. Incomparison with the calculated results, these values were slightly higher, since thecalculations for the same time give settlements in the order of 0.26 to 0.30 m.In this work an extensive experimental basis for the future has been created for compressionproperties including creep properties of the investigated types of sulphide soils, withapplications to settlement calculations of embankments.

  • 230.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Rogbeck, Yvonne
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Westerberg, Bo
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Deep stabilisation in sulphide soil for embankments in Sweden - laboratory and field studies2015In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Deep Mixing 2015, San Francisco, USA, June 2-5, 2015 / [ed] Sehn, A, Large, ME, Marzano, IP, Takahashi, H, Hawthorne, New Jersey: Deep Foundations Institute, DFI , 2015, p. 965-974Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep stabilisation has been used in Sweden for decades. The method has been improved to allow it to be used in different types of soils and with new binders. One challenging soil type in Sweden is so- called sulphide soil, a fine-grained soil which contains organic material and iron sulphides. There have been some cases in Sweden of problems when using deep stabilisation in this type of soil, and in one case a slope failure occurred. This paper shows that it is possible to achieve good results with deep stabilisation in sulphide soils. Laboratory and field studies from a test site along the Botniabanan railway line in Sweden are presented. Geotechnical and chemical properties of the natural soil were investigated in the laboratory and one or more of these properties may explain the differences in the stabilising effect of sulphide soils. The strength of the laboratory samples and the columns in the field were tested and compared. It is shown that a satisfactory stabilization effect can be achieved with the proper choice of binder, amount of binder added, curing time and mixing energy. In sulphide soils, more binder additive is needed than in "ordinary" inorganic clays.

  • 231.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Rogbeck, Yvonne
    SGI.
    Westerberg, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Djupstabilisering i sulfidjord längs Botniabanan2009In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, no 4, p. 48-52Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 232.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Rogbeck, Yvonne
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Westerberg, Bo
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Djupstabilisering i sulfidjord längs Botniabanan2009In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, no 4, p. 48-52Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggande i sulfidjord har ökat de senaste åren, exempelvis i projekt som Botniabanan, Ådalsbanan, Haparandabanan och olika ombyggnationer av E4:an. Skärpta miljökrav har lett till att tidigare vanligen använda metoder som till exempel urgrävning kan bli jämförelsevis kostsamma beroende på merarbete avseende hantering och omhändertagande av sulfidjordsmassor.

  • 233.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Westerberg, Bo
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Etablering av provbankar på sulfidjord. Provfält - en investering för framtiden2013In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. 105, no 1, p. 50-52, 54 - 55Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    (1) Problemställning - sättningar i sulfidjord; (2) Fält- och laboratorieundersökningar; (3) Byggande av provbankar, instrumentering och mätningar; (4) Sättningsprognostisering.

  • 234. Andersson, O
    et al.
    Bergdahl, U
    Ottosson, E
    Palmgren, C
    Rydell, B
    Mät- och undersökningsmetoder vid tillämpad markvärmeteknik – en studie av förekommande metoder. Etapp I och II1984Report (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Andersson, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Bergstrand, Ann-Charlott
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Höjdbestämningsmetoder vid upprättande av nybyggnadskartor: Jämförelse mellan nätverks-RTK och trigonometrisk höjdmätning2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Levelling and trigonometric height measurements are the methods that are mostly used today for height determination, as the standard error with these methods is in the magnitude of millimeters, as long as the view length is less than 50 m.

    When creating a new construction map the requirement on standard error differ from 1 (Fredriksson, 2011) to 10 cm (www.arvidsjaur.se) depending on which municipality it concerns.

    When using network RTK for measuring, the accuracy in height can fall below 3 cm when the conditions are optimal. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if network RTK can be used as an alternative to determinate height when accuracy under 10 cm is requested.

    Five points at locations with different conditions for accuracy got their height determined with the three methods mentioned above. Positional accuracy was formed for each point and method. The result from levelling was used as reference for the calculations. To compare the result with the requirements extended standard uncertainty, 2covering 95 %, was used. The result from trigonometric height measurement shows a position accuracy of 4 mm. From the network RTK, the points that were positioned without interference got a positional accuracy of 3.3 to 5.5 cm, while the points that were influenced by their environment, multipath interference and obstructions, got a positional accuracy of 123.3 cm and 234.4 cm. Positional accuracy of this method became 127.4 cm.

    The result from the height determination with network RTK shows big difference in accuracy for the different points. The conclusion is that network RTK measurement would not be a sufficiently accurate height determination method for preparation of a new construction map in an area similar to the one used for this test. Conversely, a construction map drawn up in an open area free from interference obstacles the results show that the network RTK is an approved method for determining height, depending on the requirements of the municipality.

  • 236. Andersson, R
    et al.
    Ask, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Force to restore the shape of an asymmetric extracorporeal tube as the basis for non-invasive pressure measurements.2002In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 281-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A zero-balance principle is described where intraluminal pressure is estimated from the counter force needed to restore the tube shape of an elastic extra corporeal tube. The aim was to optimise cross-sectional tube geometry for tube expansion due to pressure and to reduce the sensitivity to variation in mechanical tube characteristics using an experimental statistical and factorial design. The main application is pressure monitoring in blood and dialysate tubes during hemodialysis. Improving the monitoring of the dialysis process will reduce complications, such as sudden decreases in systemic blood pressure or occlusion at the artero-venous fistula. The factorial design indicated strong influence from the geometrical characteristics of the tube as well from the geometrical design parameters of the pressure transducer. We found a consistent relationship between the intraluminal pressure and the applied force needed to restore the tube shape. The modified cross-sectional tube geometry enhances measurement sensitivity and facilitates the desired behavior of tubes during pressure applications.

  • 237. Andersson, Robert
    Back, Pär-Erik
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Rosén, Lars
    What's the point? The contribution of a sustainability view in contaminated site remediation2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 630, p. 103-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision support tools (DST) are often used in remediation projects to aid in the complex decision on how best to remediate a contaminated site. In recent years, the sustainable remediation concept has brought increased attention to the often-overlooked contradictory effects of site remediation, with a number of sustainability assessment tools now available. The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to demonstrate how and when different assessment views affect the decision support outcome on remediation alternatives in a DST, and (2) to demonstrate the contribution of a full sustainability assessment. The SCORE tool was used in the analysis; it is based on a holistic multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach, assessing sustainability in three dimensions: environmental, social, and economic. Four assessment scenarios, compared to a full sustainability assessment, were considered to reflect different possible assessment views; considering public and private problem owner perspectives, as well as green and traditional assessment scopes. Four real case study sites in Sweden were analyzed. The results show that the decision support outcome from a full sustainability assessment most often differs to that of other assessment views, and results in remediation alternatives which balance trade-offs in most of the scenarios. In relation to the public perspective and traditional scope, which is seen to lead to the most extensive and expensive remediation alternatives, the trade-off is related to less contaminant removal in favour of reduced negative secondary effects such as emissions and waste disposal. Compared to the private perspective, associated with the lowest cost alternatives, the trade-off is higher costs, but more positive environmental and social effects. Generally, both the green and traditional assessment scopes miss out on relevant social and local environmental secondary effects which may ultimately be very important for the actual decision in a remediation project.

  • 238. Andersson-Sköld, Y
    Collocation of experiences with SGI Matrix based decision support tool (MDST) within SAWA2012Report (Other academic)
  • 239. Andersson-Sköld, Y
    et al.
    Bergman, R
    Energieffektiv vägkonstruktion - Pilotstudie Väg 1612012Report (Other academic)
  • 240. Andersson-Sköld, Y
    et al.
    Bergman, R
    Nyberg, L
    Johansson, M
    Persson, E
    Effekter av samhällets säkerhetsåtgärder (ESS). En kartering av arbetet idag med fokus på översvämningar, ras och skred2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    (1) Stabilitetskarteringar och utredningar; (2) Resultat från tidigare studier om nyttjande av karteringar; (3) Riskanalyser och förebyggande arbete; (4) Lärande från tidigare händelser; (5) Intervjuer; (6) Resultat av intervjuer; Bilagor: (1) Frågor till användare av skrednett.no; (2) Intervjufrågeunderlag för kommuner

  • 241. Andersson-Sköld, Y
    et al.
    Enell, A
    Blom, S
    Rihm, T
    Angelbratt, A
    Haglund, K
    Wik, O
    Bardos, P
    Track, T
    Keuning, S
    Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    (1) Marginal land in Sweden; (2) Phytoremediation - remediation, control or increased natural attenuation; (3) Bioenergy; (4) Available additional resources - recycled manure, compost and municipal waste; (5) Bioenergy from contaminated land; (6) Environmental impacts; (7) Social and economical aspects; (8) Opportunities and barriers in Sweden; Appendices: (1) Arable area of potential contaminated sites in Sweden; (2) Phyto remediation measures, advantages and disadvantages; (3) Brief summary of biofuel methods/techniques and the level of development, advantages and disadvantages; (4) Examples of ongoing activities and reseach promoting bioenergy and other alternatives to fossil fuel

  • 242. Andersson-Sköld, Y
    et al.
    Göransson, G
    Enell, A
    Larsson, L
    Kreosotimpregnerade sliprars inverkan på spridning av kreosot i mark - Litteraturstudie2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    (1) Kreosot; (2) Kreosot i mark vid banverksområden; (3) Nedbrytning och omvandling av kreosotkomponenter; (4) Utlakning av kreosot från impregnerat trä

  • 243. Andersson-Sköld, Y
    et al.
    Helgesson, H
    Enell, A
    Suer, P
    Bergman, R
    Matrisbaserat beslutsstödsverktyg för bedömning av miljö- och samhällsaspekter vid markanvändning2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    (1) Matrisverktyget; (2) Arbetsprocessen; (3) Arbetet med matrisverktyget; (4) Råd och tips vid tillämpning; (5) Utveckling av resultat och process; Bilagor: (1) Grundmatriser: Matris 1 - Matris 4 http://www.swedgeo.se/upload/publikationer/Varia/pdf/SGI-V612.xls (2) Ett exempel på hur det matrisbaserade beslutsverktyget kan användas

  • 244. Andersson-Sköld, Y
    et al.
    Helgesson, H
    Enell, A
    Suer, P
    Bergman, R
    Matrix decision support tool for evaluation of environmental, social and economic aspects of land use2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    (1) The Matrix Decision Support Tool; (2) The Work Process; (3) Preparation; (4) The work with the MDST; (5) Further application advices; Appendix: (1) The Matrix Decision Support Tool: Matrix 1 - Matrix 4 http://www.swedgeo.se/upload/publikationer/Varia/pdf/SGI-V613.xls

  • 245. Andersson-Sköld, Y
    et al.
    Nyberg, H
    Göransson, G
    Lindström, Å
    Nordbäck, J
    Gustafsson, M
    Föroreningsspridning vid översvämningar - Etapp II2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    (1) Spridning i mark och vatten; (2) Kort summering av inverkan av förändrat klimat på föroreningsspridningen; (3) Förutsättningar för beräkning av potentiell föroreningsspridning vid översvämning; (4) Beräkningar av potentiell föroreningsspridning vid översvämning; (5) Utsläpp av olja och diesel i samband med olycka eller annat större spill; (6) Gruvor och gruvavfall; (7) Förändrad föroreningsbelastning vid ändrad nederbörd - Göta älv ett exempel; (8) GIS-analyser och kartbearbetning; Bilagor: (1) Underlagsdata för fallstudieberäkningar; (2) Hälso- och miljöeffekter av beaktade föroreningar

  • 246. Andersson-Sköld, Y
    et al.
    Nyberg, H
    Nilsson, G
    Föroreningsspridning vid översvämningar - Etapp I2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    (1) Genomgång av erfarenheter av föroreningsspridning vid översvämningar, höga kraftiga flöden samt skyfall nationellt och relevanta fall internationellt; (2) Känslighet för översvämningar i olika verksamheter; (3) GIS-analyser och kartbearbetning

  • 247. Andersson-Sköld, Y
    et al.
    Toomväli, C
    Larsson, L
    Nilsson, P
    Hemström, K
    Enell, A
    Kreosotimpregnerade sliprars inverkan på spridning av kreosot i mark - Ytutlakning av PAH från kreosotimpregnerade sliprar2008Report (Other academic)
  • 248. Andersson-Sköld, Y
    et al.
    Toomväli, C
    Larsson, L
    Nilsson, P
    Hemström, K
    Enell, A
    Kreosotimpregnerade sliprars inverkan på spridning av kreosot i mark - Ytutlakning av PAH från kreosotimpregnerade sliprar. Bilaga2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bilagor: (1) Analysprotokoll från SGI:s miljölab.; (2) Analysprotokoll från Analytica, ALS Laboratory Group

  • 249.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Falemo, Stefan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Suer, Pascal
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Grahn, Tone
    Landslide risk and climate change - economic assessment of consequenses in the Göta river valley2011In: Geotechnics of Hard Soils - Weak Rocks: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Athens, 12-15 September, 2011 / [ed] Anagnostopoulos, A, Pachakis, M, Tsatsanifos, C, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2011, Vol. 3, p. 1313-1318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to climate change scenarios, Swedish summers will be drier, but in large parts of Sweden there will also be increased annual precipitation, more intensive precipitation and periods with increased water flows. In many areas the risk for landslides is expected to increase accordingly. In response to this the Swedish Geotechnical Institute on the commission of the Swedish Environmental ministry has started a risk analysis for the Göta river valley. The results of the risk analysis will be used in the surveillance of the safety along the Göta river valley. The results can also serve as basis for land use planning of municipalities in the valley. The Göta river valley is one of the most frequent landslide valleys in Sweden. The area has a long history of anthropogenic activities such as settlements, shipping, harbours, industry, contaminated soil and infrastructure including large roads and railroads. A number of landslides occur every year. In general they are fairly small, shallow and caused by erosion. Larger landslides have also occurred in the river valley, with one or more mortalities. The landslide risk analysis of Göta river valley is performed by traditional technical risk analysis, i.e. the risk is a product of hazard probability and the consequences of the hazard. One part of the risk analysis of the Göta river valley is to achieve an increased knowledge of the coupling of climate change and the probability and potential extension of a landslide event. In parallel to hazard assessments the project takes on the challenge to identify, map and when possible assess consequences of potential landslides throughout the studied area. Elements at risk in the valley include human life, transport (shipping, road and rail road) and other infrastructure, residential and other properties, industrial activities, contaminated land, agriculture and forestry, and intangibles such as biodiversity. Exposure, vulnerability and the monetary value related to the landslide are used to estimate the consequence of the landslide. This paper shows the process and structure of this consequence analysis for natural hazards by presenting suggestions on how to describe, quantify, value and visualise these widely different consequences. The consequence analysis methodology can be applied generic both nationally and internationally and for several types of natural hazards such as landslides and flooding.

  • 250.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Falemo, Stefan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Tremblay, Marius
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Development of methodology for quantitative landslide risk assessment - Example Göta river valley2014In: Natural Science, ISSN 2150-4091, E-ISSN 2150-4105, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 130-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective landslide risk management requires knowledge of the landslide risks. This paper presents a risk assessment methodology for semi-regional scale. The landslide probability is assessed taking into account expected climate change in the case study area (the Göta river valley). Climate change is expected to result in increased erosion and water fluctuations. There are large areas with marine clays, often quick clay, in the area and the landslide process can be rapid with extensive damages and casualties. The consequence methodology includes a wide range of consequences assessed by monetary valuation. The consequences and the landslide probability are combined as pairs of values in a risk matrix and the risk is also presented on a map. The map has been used as discussion and decision bases in the municipalities in the Göta river valley, in the county administration and on governmental level to estimate the needs of risk mitigation and to make priorities.

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