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  • 201. Krat, S.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Beryllium film deposition in cavity samples in remote areas of the JET divertor during the 2011-2012 ITER-like wall campaign2017In: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, p. 548-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beryllium film deposition was studied with cavity samples in remote areas of the inner and outer JET divertor and below divertor tile 5 during the 2011-2012 campaign with the ITER-like wall. Predominantly beryllium films were formed inside the cavities with some additional carbon, the ratio Be/C was > 2. These deposited layers had high D/(Be+C) ratios of about 0.3. The formation of these films is mainly due to sticking of beryllium-containing particles with low sticking coefficients < 0.5. The observed surface loss probabilities depend on the position in the divertor. The particles responsible for film deposition originated from the location of in the divertor strike points. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 202. Krat, S.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Erosion at the inner wall of JET during the discharge campaign 2013-20142017In: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 11, p. 20-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The erosion of Be and W marker layers was investigated using long-term samples containing marker layers during the second ITER-like wall discharge campaign 2013-2014 (ILW-2). The samples were mounted in Be coated Inconel tiles between the inner wall guard limiters (IWGL). They were analyzed using elastic backscattering (EBS) before and after exposure. All samples showed noticeable erosion. The results were compared to the data for Be and W erosion rates for the first 2011-2012 JET ITER-like wall (ILW-1) campaign, and to the data for C erosion during the 2005-2009 campaign when JET was operated with a carbon wall. The mean W erosion rates and the toroidal and poloidal distributions of the W erosion were nearly the same for the ILW-1 and ILW-2 campaigns. The mean erosion rate of Be during the ILW-2 campaign was smaller by a factor of about two compared to the ILW-1 campaign. 

  • 203. Krawczyk, N.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Application of the VUV and the soft x-ray systems on JET for the study of intrinsic impurity behavior in neon seeded hybrid discharges2018In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 89, no 10, article id 10D131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on impurity behavior in a set of hybrid discharges with Ne seeding-one of the techniques considered to reduce the power load on reactor walls. A series of experiments carried out with light gas injection on JET with the ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) suggests increased tungsten release and impurity accumulation [C. Challis et al., Europhysics Conference Abstracts 41F, 2.153 (2017)]. The presented method relies mainly on the measurements collected by vacuum-ultra-violet and soft X-ray (SXR) diagnostics including the "SOXMOS" spectrometer and the SXR camera system. Both diagnostics have some limitations. Consequently, only a combination of measurements from these systems is able to provide comprehensive information about high-Z [e.g., tungsten (W)] and mid-Z [nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)] impurities for their further quantitative diagnosis. Moreover, thanks to the large number of the SXR lines of sight, determination of a 2D radiation profile was also possible. Additionally, the experimental results were compared with numerical modeling based on integrated simulations with COREDIV. Detailed analysis confirmed that during seeding experiments, higher tungsten release is observed, which was also found in the past. Additionally, it was noticed that besides W, the contribution of molybdenum to SXR radiation was greater, which can be explained by the place of its origin.

  • 204. Kresina, Michal
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Preparation for commissioning of materials detritiation facility at Culham Science Centre2018In: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 136, p. 1391-1395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Materials Detritiation Facility has been designed to thermally treat solid non-combustible radioactive waste produced during operations of the Joint European Torus (JET) that is classified as Intermediate Level Waste in the UK due to its tritium inventory (> 12 kBq/g). The waste will be thermally treated in a retort furnace at temperatures up to 1000 degrees C under a flowing air atmosphere to reduce its tritium inventory sufficiently to allow its disposal at a lower waste category via existing disposal routes. The gaseous flow from the furnace will be processed via a bubbler system, where released tritium will be trapped in water. Commissioning of the facility will be divided into two main parts: inactive and active. The main purpose of the inactive commissioning is to verify that all components and safety systems of the facility are installed, tested and operated properly and within their operational limits. Several trials of the furnace with non-radioactive materials will be performed to verify its temperature profile, and to verify operation of the gaseous process line. During the active commissioning, small amounts of tritium-contaminated material will be introduced into the facility and used for active trials. The tritium inventory in this material has been selected based on the As low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) principle, to ensure that the activity levels are sufficient to fully test the control instrumentation and pose minimal risk to operators during commissioning. Overall, four active trials will be performed with carbon-based and Inconel materials with total tritium inventories of 1MBq, 3GBq, 20GBq and 26GBq. Tritium levels in the bubblers as well as in aerial discharge from the facility will be monitored. Furthermore, all materials used in the active trials will be sampled and analyzed to verify the performance of the process and confirm that a major part of tritium inventory can be removed from materials by the process.

  • 205. Krivska, A.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, F.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, N.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, C.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, M.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    RF sheath modeling of experimentally observed plasma surface interactions with the JET ITER-Like Antenna2019In: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 19, p. 324-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waves in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) enhance local Plasma-Surface Interactions (PSI) near the wave launchers and magnetically-connected objects via Radio-Frequency (RF) sheath rectification. ITER will use 20MW of ICRF power over long pulses, questioning the long-term impact of RF-enhanced localized erosion on the lifetime of its Beryllium (Be) wall. Recent dedicated ICRF-heated L-mode discharges documented this process on JET for different types of ICRF antennas. Using visible spectroscopy in JET ICRF-heated L-mode discharges, poloidally-localized regions of enhanced (by similar to 2-4x) Be I and Be II light emission were observed on two outboard limiters magnetically connected to the bottom of the active ITER-Like Antenna (ILA). The observed RF-PSI induced by the ILA was qualitatively comparable to that induced by the JET standard, type-A2 antennas, for similar strap toroidal phasing and connection geometries. The Be II line emission was found more intense when powering the bottom half of the ILA rather than its top half. Conversely, more pronounced SOL density modifications were observed with only top array operation, on field lines connected to the top half of the ILA. So far the near-field modeling of the ILA with antenna code TOPICA (Torino Polytechnic Ion Cyclotron Antenna), using curved antenna model, was partially able to reproduce qualitatively the observed phenomena. A quantitative discrepancy persisted between the observed Be source amplification and the calculated, corresponding increases in E-// field at the magnetically connected locations to the ILA when changing from only top to only bottom half antenna operation. This paper revisits these current drive phased and half-ILA powered cases using for the new simulations flat model of the ILA and more realistic antenna feeding to calculate the E-// field maps with TOPICA code. Further, the Self-consistent Sheaths and Waves for Ion Cyclotron Heating Slow Wave (SSWICH-SW) code, which couples slow wave evanescence with DC Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) biasing, is used to estimate the poloidal distribution of rectified RF-sheath Direct Current (DC) potential V-DC in the private SOL between the ILA poloidal limiters. The approach so far was limited to correlating the observed, enhanced emission regions at the remote limiters to the antenna near-electric fields, as calculated by TOPICA. The present approach includes also a model for the rectification of these near-fields in the private SOL of the ILA. With the improved approach, when comparing only top and only bottom half antenna feeding, we obtained good qualitative correlation between all experimental measurements and the calculated local variations in the E-// field and V-DC potential.

  • 206. Kumar, M.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Identification of BeO and BeOxDy in melted zones of the JET Be limiter tiles: Raman study using comparison with laboratory samples2018In: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 17, p. 295-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beryllium oxide (BeO) and deuteroxide (BeOxDy) have been found on the melted zone of a beryllium tile extracted from the upper dump plate of JET-ILW (2011-2012 campaign). Results have been obtained using Raman microscopy, which is sensitive to both the chemical bond and crystal structure, with a micrometric lateral resolution. BeO is found with a wurtzite crystal structure. BeOxDy is found as three different types which are not the beta-phase but behaves as molecular species like Be(OD)(2), O(Be-D)(2) and DBeOD. The presence of a small amount of trapped D2O is also suspected. Our results therefore strongly suggest that D trapping occurs after melting through the formation of deuteroxides. The temperature increase favors the formation of crystal BeO which favors deuterium trapping through OD bonding.

  • 207. Kwak, Sehyun
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Bayesian electron density inference from JET lithium beam emission spectra using Gaussian processes2017In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, no 3, article id 036017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Bayesian model to infer edge electron density profiles is developed for the JET lithium beam emission spectroscopy (Li-BES) system, measuring Li I (2p-2s) line radiation using 26 channels with similar to 1 cm spatial resolution and 10 similar to 20 ms temporal resolution. The density profile is modelled using a Gaussian process prior, and the uncertainty of the density profile is calculated by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme. From the spectra measured by the transmission grating spectrometer, the Li I line intensities are extracted, and modelled as a function of the plasma density by a multi-state model which describes the relevant processes between neutral lithium beam atoms and plasma particles. The spectral model fully takes into account interference filter and instrument effects, that are separately estimated, again using Gaussian processes. The line intensities are inferred based on a spectral model consistent with the measured spectra within their uncertainties, which includes photon statistics and electronic noise. Our newly developed method to infer JET edge electron density profiles has the following advantages in comparison to the conventional method: (i) providing full posterior distributions of edge density profiles, including their associated uncertainties, (ii) the available radial range for density profiles is increased to the full observation range (similar to 26 cm), (iii) an assumption of monotonic electron density profile is not necessary, (iv) the absolute calibration factor of the diagnostic system is automatically estimated overcoming the limitation of the conventional technique and allowing us to infer the electron density profiles for all pulses without preprocessing the data or an additional boundary condition, and (v) since the full spectrum is modelled, the procedure of modulating the beam to measure the background signal is only necessary for the case of overlapping of the Li I line with impurity lines.

  • 208. Kwak, Sehyun
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Bayesian modelling of the emission spectrum of the Joint European Torus Lithium Beam Emission Spectroscopy system2016In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 87, no 2, article id 023501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Bayesian model of the emission spectrum of the JET lithium beam has been developed to infer the intensity of the Li I (2p-2s) line radiation and associated uncertainties. The detected spectrum for each channel of the lithium beam emission spectroscopy system is here modelled by a single Li line modified by an instrumental function, Bremsstrahlung background, instrumental offset, and interference filter curve. Both the instrumental function and the interference filter curve are modelled with non-parametric Gaussian processes. All free parameters of the model, the intensities of the Li line, Bremsstrahlung background, and instrumental offset, are inferred using Bayesian probability theory with a Gaussian likelihood for photon statistics and electronic background noise. The prior distributions of the free parameters are chosen as Gaussians. Given these assumptions, the intensity of the Li line and corresponding uncertainties are analytically available using a Bayesian linear inversion technique. The proposed approach makes it possible to extract the intensity of Li line without doing a separate background subtraction through modulation of the Li beam.

  • 209. Kwiatkowski, R.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zoletnik, S.
    CeBr3-based detector for gamma-ray spectrometer upgrade at JET2017In: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 123, p. 986-989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the important techniques used at JET for studying fast ions is based on measurements of gamma rays which are produced as a result of nuclear reactions between ions and plasma impurities. The intense neutron and gamma-ray fluxes expected during a DT campaign impose dew requirements on detector characteristics used in such experiments. In addition to good energy resolution, detectors must also be characterized by a high signal-to-noise ratio and allow to perform measurements at high counting rate about 1 Mcps. The scintillators which fulfill these requirements are, among others, LaBr3:Ce, already tested at JET, and CeBr3 with a scintillation decay time of similar to 20 ns. We report on measurements which were performed with a detector module equipped with a 3" x 3" CeBr3 scintillator and with an active voltage divider AVD@NCBJ, designed and constructed at NCBJ. Standard gamma -ray sources, as well as a PuBe source, were used for measurements. The comparison of measured and Monte Carlo simulated spectra is also presented. 

  • 210.
    Köchl, F.
    et al.
    Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, United Kingdom; Fusion@ÖAW, Atominstitut, TU Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Otwock, Poland.
    W transport and accumulation control in the termination phase of JET H-mode discharges and implications for ITER2018In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 60, no 7, article id 074008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tokamak operation with W PFCs is associated with specific challenges for impurity control, which may be particularly demanding in the transition from stationary H-mode to L-mode. To address W control issues in this phase, dedicated experiments have been performed at JET including the variation of the decrease of the power and current, gas fuelling and central ion cyclotron heating (ICRH), and applying active ELM control by vertical kicks. The experimental results obtained demonstrate the key role of maintaining ELM control to control the W concentration in the exit phase of H-modes with slow (ITER-like) ramp-down of the neutral beam injection power in JET. For these experiments, integrated fully predictive core+edge+SOL transport modelling studies applying discrete models for the description of transients such as sawteeth and ELMs have been performed for the first time with the JINTRAC suite of codes for the entire transition from stationary H-mode until the time when the plasma would return to L-mode focusing on the W transport behaviour. Simulations have shown that the existing models can appropriately reproduce the plasma profile evolution in the core, edge and SOL as well as W accumulation trends in the termination phase of JET H-mode discharges as function of the applied ICRH and ELM control schemes, substantiating the ambivalent effect of ELMs on W sputtering on one side and on edge transport affecting core W accumulation on the other side. The sensitivity with respect to NB particle and momentum sources has also been analysed and their impact on neoclassical W transport has been found to be crucial to reproduce the observed W accumulation characteristics in JET discharges. In this paper the results of the JET experiments, the comparison with JINTRAC modelling and the adequacy of the models to reproduce the experimental results are described and conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability of these models for the extrapolation of the applied W accumulation control techniques to ITER.

  • 211. Lagoyannis, A.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Surface composition and structure of divertor tiles following the JET tokamak operation with the ITER-like wall2017In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, no 7, article id 076027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples extracted from several divertor tiles following the 2011-2012 operation of JET with the ITER-Like wall were analyzed using ion beam analysis methods, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis and x-ray diffraction. The emphasis was on the determination of light species and on material mixing including compound formation on the bottom and the outer divertor tiles. Deposition of deuterium, beryllium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, chromium, nickel and molybdenum has been detected on all studied tiles. The thickest deposition, of around 4 mu m, was measured on the bottom of the outer divertor, whereas the other surfaces (inner bottom and vertical outer) the co-deposits were around 1 mu m. x-ray diffraction measurements have revealed the formation of the compound W2C on all specimens.

  • 212. Lahtinen, A.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, N.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Deuterium retention in the divertor tiles of JET ITER-Like wall2017In: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, p. 655-661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Divertor tiles removed after the second JET ITER-Like Wall campaign 2013-2014 (ILW-2) were studied using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Measurements show that the thickest beryllium (Be) dominated deposition layers are located at the upper part of the inner divertor and are up to similar to 40 mu m thick at the lower part of Tile 0 exposed in 2011-2014. The highest deuterium (D) amounts (>8 . 10 18 at./cm(2)), in contrast, were found on the upper part of Tile 1 (2013-2014), where the Be deposits are similar to 10 mu m thick. D was mainly retained in the near-surface layer of the Be deposits but also deeper in tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo) layers of the marker coated tiles, especially at W-Mo layer interfaces. D retention for the ILW-2 divertor tiles is higher than for the first campaign 2011-2012 (ILW-1) and probable reasons for the difference are that SIMS measurements for the ILW-2 samples were done deeper than for the ILW-1 samples, some of the tiles were exposed during both ILW-1 and ILW-2 and therefore had a longer exposure time, and the differences between ILW-1 and ILW-2 campaigns e.g. in strike point distributions and injected powers. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

  • 213. Lanctot, M. J.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Impact of toroidal and poloidal mode spectra on the control of non-axisymmetric fields in tokamaks2017In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 24, no 5, article id 056117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In several tokamaks, non-axisymmetric magnetic field studies show that applied magnetic fields with a toroidal harmonic n = 2 can lead to disruptive n = 1 locked modes. In Ohmic plasmas, n = 2 magnetic reconnection thresholds in otherwise stable discharges are readily accessed at edge safety factors q similar to 3, low density, and low rotation. Similar to previous studies with n = 1 fields, the thresholds are correlated with the "overlap" field computed with the IPEC code. The overlap field quantifies the plasma-mediated coupling of the external field to the resonant field. Remarkably, the "critical overlap fields" at which magnetic islands form are similar for applied n = 1 and 2 fields. The critical overlap field increases with plasma density and edge safety factor but is independent of the toroidal field. Poloidal harmonics m> nq dominate the drive for resonant fields while m < nq harmonics have a negligible impact. This contrasts with previous results in H-mode discharges at high plasma pressure in which the toroidal angular momentum is sensitive to low poloidal harmonics. Together, these results highlight unique requirements for n > 1 field control including the need for multiple rows of coils to control selected plasma parameters for specific functions (e.g., rotation control or ELM suppression). 

  • 214.
    Lasa, A.
    et al.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN USA.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Otwock, Poland.
    ERO modeling and sensitivity analysis of locally enhanced beryllium erosion by magnetically connected antennas2018In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, no 1, article id 016046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments at JET showed locally enhanced, asymmetric beryllium (Be) erosion at outer wall limiters when magnetically connected ICRH antennas were in operation. A first modeling effort using the 3D erosion and scrape-off layer impurity transport modeling code ERO reproduced qualitatively the experimental outcome. However, local plasma parameters-in particular when 3D distributions are of interest-can be difficult to determine from available diagnostics and so erosion / impurity transport modeling input relies on output from other codes and simplified models, increasing uncertainties in the outcome. In the present contribution, we introduce and evaluate the impact of improved models and parameters with largest uncertainties of processes that impact impurity production and transport across the scrape-off layer, when simulated in ERO: (i) the magnetic geometry has been revised, for affecting the separatrix position (located 50-60 mm away from limiter surface) and thus the background plasma profiles; (ii) connection lengths between components, which lead to shadowing of ion fluxes, are also affected by the magnetic configuration; (iii) anomalous transport of ionized impurities, defined by the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, has been revisited; (iv) erosion yields that account for energy and angular distributions of background plasma ions under the present enhanced sheath potential and oblique magnetic field, have been introduced; (v) the effect of additional erosion sources, such as charge-exchange neutral fluxes, which are dominant in recessed areas like antennas, has been evaluated; (vi) chemically assisted release of Be in molecular form has been included. Sensitivity analysis highlights a qualitative effect (i.e. change in emission patterns) of magnetic shadowing, anomalous diffusion, and inclusion of neutral fluxes and molecular release of Be. The separatrix location, and energy and angular distribution of background plasma fluxes impact erosion quantitatively. ERO simulations that include all features described above match experimentally measured Be I (457.3 nm) and Be II (467.4 nm) signals, and erosion increases with varying ICRH antenna's RF power. However, this increase in erosion is only partially captured by ERO's emission measurements, as most contributions from plasma wetted surfaces fall outside the volume observed by sightlines.

  • 215.
    Lawson, K. D.
    et al.
    UKAEA/CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, United Kingdom.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res NCBJ, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland.
    Population modelling of the He II energy levels in tokamak plasmas: I. Collisional excitation model2019In: Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, ISSN 0953-4075, E-ISSN 1361-6455, Vol. 52, no 4, article id 045001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Helium is widely used as a fuel or minority gas in laboratory fusion experiments, and will be present as ash in DT thermonuclear plasmas. It is therefore essential to have a good understanding of its atomic physics. To this end He II population modelling has been undertaken for the spectroscopic levels arising from shells with principal quantum number n = 1-5. This paper focuses on a collisional excitation model; ionisation and recombination will be considered in a subsequent article. Heavy particle collisional excitation rate coefficients have been generated to supplement the currently-available atomic data for He II, and are presented for proton, deuteron, triton and alpha-particle projectiles. The widely-used criterion for levels within an n shell being populated in proportion to their statistical weights is reassessed with the most recent atomic data, and found not to apply to the He II levels at tokamak densities (10(18)-10(21) m(-3)). Consequences of this and other likely sources of errors are quantified, as is the effect of differing electron and ion temperatures. Line intensity ratios, including the so-called 'branching ratios' and the fine-structure beta(1), beta(2), beta(3), and gamma ratios, are discussed, the latter with regard to their possible use as diagnostics.

  • 216. Lennholm, M.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Real time control developments at JET in preparation for deuterium-tritium operation2017In: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 123, p. 535-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robust high performance plasma scenarios are being developed to exploit the unique capability of JET to operate with Tritium and Deuterium. In this context, real time control schemes are used to guide the plasma into the desired state and maintain it there. Other real time schemes detect undesirable behaviour and trigger appropriate actions to assure the best experimental results without unnecessary use of the limited neutron and Tritium budget. This paper discusses continuously active controllers and event/threshold detection algorithms triggering a variety of actions. Recent advances include: (i) Control of the degree of plasma detachment via impurity injection; (ii) ELM frequency control via gas/Pellet injection; (iii) Sawtooth pacing using ICRH modulation, (iv) control of the Hydrogen to Deuterium isotope ratio through gas injection and (v) the determination that a discharge is not evolving as desired, triggering a cascade of actions attempting to stop the plasma rapidly and safely, eventually triggering massive gas injection if a disruption is deemed unavoidable. For high power Deuterium-Tritium operation these control schemes need to be integrated into the plasma scenarios ensuring that they are mutually compatible. 

  • 217. Lennholm, M.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Real-time control of ELM and sawtooth frequencies: similarities and differences2016In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 56, no 1, article id 016008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ELMs and Sawteeth, located in different parts of the plasma, are similar from a control engineering point of view. Both manifest themselves through quiescent periods interrupted by periodic collapses. For both, large collapses, following long quiescent periods, have detrimental effects while short periods are associated with decreased confinement. Following the installation of the all metal 'ITER like wall' on JET, sawteeth and ELMs also play an important role by expelling tungsten from the core and edge of the plasma respectively. Control of tungsten has therefore been added to divertor heat load reduction, NTM avoidance and helium ash removal as reasons for requiring ELM and sawtooth control. It is therefore of interest to implement control systems to maintain the sawtooth and ELM frequencies in the desired ranges. On JET, ELM frequency control uses radial field 'kicks' and pellet and gas injection as actuators, while sawtooth control uses ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). JET experiments have, for the first time, established feedback control of the ELM frequency, via real time variation of the injected gas flow [1]. Using this controller in conjunction with pellet injection allows the ELM frequency to be kept as required despite variations in pellet ELM triggering efficiency. JET Sawtooth control experiments have, for the first time, demonstrated that low field side ICRH, as foreseen for ITER, can shorten sawteeth lengthened by central fast ions [2]. The development of ELM and sawtooth control could be key to achieve stable high performance JET discharges with minimal tungsten content. Integrating such schemes into an overall control strategy will be required in future tokamaks and gaining experience on current tokamaks is essential.

  • 218. Lerche, E.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Sawtooth pacing with on-axis ICRH modulation in JET-ILW2017In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, no 3, article id 036027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel technique for sawteeth control in tokamak plasmas using ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) has been developed in the JET-ILW tokamak. Unlike previous ICRH methods, that explored the destabilization of the internal kink mode when the radio-frequency (RF) wave absorption was placed near the q = 1 surface, the technique presented here consists of stabilizing the sawteeth as fast as possible by applying the ICRH power centrally and subsequently induce a sawtooth crash by switching it off at the appropriate instant. The validation of this method in JET-ILW L-mode discharges, including preliminary tests in H-mode plasmas, is presented.

  • 219. Leyland, M. J.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Edge profile analysis of Joint European Torus (JET) Thomson scattering data: Quantifying the systematic error due to edge localised mode synchronisation2016In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 87, no 1, article id 013507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Joint European Torus (JET) high resolution Thomson scattering (HRTS) system measures radial electron temperature and density profiles. One of the key capabilities of this diagnostic is measuring the steep pressure gradient, termed the pedestal, at the edge of JET plasmas. The pedestal is susceptible to limiting instabilities, such as Edge Localised Modes (ELMs), characterised by a periodic collapse of the steep gradient region. A common method to extract the pedestal width, gradient, and height, used on numerous machines, is by performing a modified hyperbolic tangent (mtanh) fit to overlaid profiles selected from the same region of the ELM cycle. This process of overlaying profiles, termed ELM synchronisation, maximises the number of data points defining the pedestal region for a given phase of the ELM cycle. When fitting to HRTS profiles, it is necessary to incorporate the diagnostic radial instrument function, particularly important when considering the pedestal width. A deconvolved fit is determined by a forward convolution method requiring knowledge of only the instrument function and profiles. The systematic error due to the deconvolution technique incorporated into the JET pedestal fitting tool has been documented by Frassinetti et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013506 (2012)]. This paper seeks to understand and quantify the systematic error introduced to the pedestal width due to ELM synchronisation. Synthetic profiles, generated with error bars and point-to-point variation characteristic of real HRTS profiles, are used to evaluate the deviation from the underlying pedestal width. We find on JET that the ELM synchronisation systematic error is negligible in comparison to the statistical error when assuming ten overlaid profiles (typical for a pre-ELM fit to HRTS profiles). This confirms that fitting a mtanh to ELM synchronised profiles is a robust and practical technique for extracting the pedestal structure.

  • 220. Likonen, J.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Deuterium trapping and release in JET ITER-like wall divertor tiles2016In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T167, article id 014074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A selected set of samples from JET-ILW divertor tiles exposed in 2011-2012 has been analysed using thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). The highest amount of deuterium was found on the regions with the thickest deposited layers, i.e. on the horizontal (apron) part and on the top part of Tile 1, which resides deep in the scrape-off layer. Outer divertor Tiles 6, 7 and 8 had nearly an order of magnitude less deuterium. The co-deposited layers on the JET tiles and the W coatings contain C, O and Ni impurities which may change the desorption properties. The D-2 signals in the TDS spectra were convoluted and the positions of the peaks were compared with the Be and C amounts but no correlations between them were found. The remaining fractions of D in the analysed samples at ITER baking temperature 350 degrees C are rather high implying that co-deposited films may be difficult to be de-tritiated.

  • 221. Likonen, J.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, F.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, N.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, C.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, M.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Investigation of deuterium trapping and release in the JET divertor during the third ILW campaign using TDS2019In: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 19, p. 300-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selected set of samples from JET ITER-Like Wall (JET-ILW) divertor tiles exposed in 2015-2016 has been analysed using Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS). The deuterium (D) amounts obtained with TDS were compared with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). The highest amount of D was found on the top part of inner divertor which has regions with the thickest deposited layers as for divertor tiles removed in 2014. This area resides deep in the scrape-off layer and plasma configurations for the second (ILW-2, 2013-2014) and the third (ILW-3, 2015-2016) JET-ILW campaigns were similar. Agreement between TDS and NRA is good on the apron of Tile 1 and on the upper vertical region whereas on the lower vertical region of Tile 1 the NRA results are clearly smaller than the TDS results. Inner divertor Tile 3 has somewhat less D than Tiles 0 and 1, and the D amount decreases towards the lower part of the tile. The D retention at the divertor inner and outer corner regions is not symmetric as there is more D retention poloidally at the inner than at the outer divertor corner. In most cases the TDS spectra for the ILW-3 samples are different from the corresponding ILW-2 spectra because HD and D-2 release occurs at higher temperatures than from the ILW-2 samples indicating that the low energy traps have been emptied during the plasma operations and that D is either in the energetically deep traps or located deeper in the sample.

  • 222. Likonen, J.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, F.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, N.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, C.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, M.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Investigation of deuterium trapping and release in the JET ITER-like wall divertor using TDS and TMAP2019In: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 19, p. 166-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selected set of samples from JET ITER-Like Wall (JET-ILW) divertor tiles exposed both in 2013-2014 and 2011-2014 has been analysed using Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS). The deuterium (D) amounts obtained with TDS were compared with Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) data. The highest amount of D was found on the top part of inner divertor which has regions with the thickest deposited layers. This area resides deep in the scrape-off layer. Changes in plasma configurations between the first (2011-2012) and the second (2013-2014) JET-ILW campaign altered the material migration towards the inner and the outer divertor corner increasing the amount of deposition in the shadowed areas of the divertor base tiles. D retention on the outer divertor tiles is clearly smaller than on the inner divertor tiles. Experimental TDS spectra for samples from the top part of inner divertor and from the outer strike point region were modelled using TMAP program. Experimental deuterium profiles obtained with SIMS have been used and the detrapping and the activation energies have been adjusted. Analysis of the results of the TMAP simulations enabled to determine the nature of traps in different samples.

  • 223.
    Litaudon, X.
    et al.
    Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Culham OX14 3DB, England..
    Abduallev, S.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Abhangi, M.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Abreu, P.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Afzal, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Aggarwal, K. M.
    Queens Univ, Dept Pure & Appl Phys, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Ahlgren, T.
    Univ Helsinki, POB 43, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Ahn, J. H.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Aho-Mantila, L.
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, POB 1000, FIN-02044 Espoo, Finland..
    Aiba, N.
    Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan..
    Airila, M.
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, POB 1000, FIN-02044 Espoo, Finland..
    Albanese, R.
    Univ Napoli Federico II, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Aldred, V.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Alegre, D.
    Univ Nacl Educ Distancia, Madrid, Spain..
    Alessi, E.
    IFP CNR, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy..
    Aleynikov, P.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Alfier, A.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Alkseev, A.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, 1 Kurchatov Sq, Moscow 123182, Russia..
    Allinson, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Alper, B.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Alves, E.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Ambrosino, G.
    Univ Napoli Federico II, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Ambrosino, R.
    Univ Napoli Parthenope, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Amicucci, L.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Amosov, V.
    Troitsk Inst Innovating & Thermonucl Res TRINITI, Moscow 142190, Russia..
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Angelone, M.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Anghel, M.
    Natl Inst Cryogen & Isotop Technol, Ramnicu Valcea, Romania..
    Angioni, C.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Appel, L.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Appelbee, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Arena, P.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Ingn Elettr Elettron & Informat, I-95125 Catania, Italy..
    Ariola, M.
    Univ Napoli Parthenope, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Arnichand, H.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Arshad, S.
    Fus Energy Joint Undertaking, Josep Pl 2,Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona 08019, Spain..
    Ash, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Ashikawa, N.
    Natl Inst Fus Sci, Toki, Gifu 5095292, Japan..
    Aslanyan, V.
    MIT, Plasma Sci & Fus Ctr, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Asunta, O.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Auriemma, F.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Austin, Y.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Avotina, L.
    Univ Latvia, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia..
    Axton, M. D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Ayres, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bacharis, M.
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Phys, London SW7 2AZ, England..
    Baciero, A.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    Baiao, D.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Bailey, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Baker, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Balboa, I.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Balden, M.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Balshaw, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bament, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Banks, J. W.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Baranov, Y. F.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Barnard, M. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Barnes, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Barnes, M.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Barnsley, R.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Wiechec, A. Baron
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Orte, L. Barrera
    EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Baruzzo, M.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Basiuk, V.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Bassan, M.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Bastow, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Batista, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Batistoni, P.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Baughan, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bauvir, B.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Baylor, L.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    Bazylev, B.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, POB 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Beal, J.
    Univ York, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England..
    Beaumont, P. S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Beckers, M.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Beckett, B.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Becoulet, A.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Bekris, N.
    Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Culham OX14 3DB, England..
    Beldishevski, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bell, K.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Belli, F.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Bellinger, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Belonohy, E.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ben Ayed, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Benterman, N. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bergsaker, H.
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bernardo, J.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Bernert, M.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Berry, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bertalot, L.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Besliu, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Beurskens, M.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Teilinsitut Greifswald, D-17491 Greifswald, Germany..
    Bieg, B.
    Maritime Univ Szczecin, Waly Chrobrego 1-2, PL-70500 Szczecin, Poland..
    Bielecki, J.
    Inst Nucl Phys, Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Biewer, T.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    Bigi, M.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Bilkova, P.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Bisoffi, A.
    Univ Trento, Dipartimento Ingn Ind, Trento, Italy..
    Bizarro, J. P. S.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Bjorkas, C.
    Univ Helsinki, POB 43, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Blackburn, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Blackman, K.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Blackman, T. R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Blanchard, P.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Blatchford, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bobkov, V.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Boboc, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bodnar, G.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary..
    Bogar, O.
    Comenius Univ, Dept Expt Phys, Fac Math Phys & Informat, Mlynska Dolina F2, Bratislava 84248, Slovakia..
    Bolshakova, I.
    Lviv Polytech Natl Univ, Magnet Sensor Lab, Lvov, Ukraine..
    Bolzonella, T.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Bonanomi, N.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Piazza Sci 3, I-20126 Milan, Italy..
    Bonelli, F.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, POB 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Boom, J.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Booth, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Borba, D.
    Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Culham OX14 3DB, England.;Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Borodin, D.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Borodkina, I.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Botrugno, A.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Bottereau, C.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Boulting, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bourdelle, C.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Bowden, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bower, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bowman, C.
    Univ York, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England..
    Boyce, T.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Boyd, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Boyer, H. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bradshaw, J. M. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Braic, V.
    Natl Inst Optoelect, Magurele, Romania..
    Bravanec, R.
    Fourth State Res, 503 Lockhart Dr, Austin, TX USA..
    Breizman, B.
    Univ Texas Austin, Inst Fus Studies, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Bremond, S.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Brennan, P. D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Breton, S.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Brett, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Brezinsek, S.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Bright, M. D. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Brix, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Broeckx, W.
    SCK CEN, Nucl Res Ctr, B-2400 Mol, Belgium..
    Brombin, M.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Broslawski, A.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    Brown, D. P. D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Brown, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bruno, E.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Bucalossi, J.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Buch, J.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Buchanan, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Buckley, M. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Budny, R.
    Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA..
    Bufferand, H.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Bulman, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bulmer, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bunting, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Buratti, P.
    Burckhart, A.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Buscarino, A.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Ingn Elettr Elettron & Informat, I-95125 Catania, Italy..
    Busse, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Butler, N. K.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Bykov, I.
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Byrne, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Cahyna, P.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Calabro, G.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Calvo, I.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    Camenen, Y.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345, F-13013 Marseille, France..
    Camp, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Campling, D. C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Cane, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Cannas, B.
    Univ Cagliari, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Piazza Armi 09123, Cagliari, Italy..
    Capel, A. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Card, P. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Cardinali, A.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Carman, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Carr, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Carralero, D.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Carraro, L.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Carvalho, B. B.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Carvalho, I.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Carvalho, P.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Casson, F. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Castaldo, C.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Catarino, N.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Caumont, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Causa, F.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Cavazzana, R.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Cave-Ayland, K.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Cavinato, M.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ceccuzzi, S.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Cecil, E.
    Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA..
    Cenedese, A.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Cesario, R.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Challis, C. D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Chandler, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Chandra, D.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Chang, C. S.
    Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA..
    Chankin, A.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Chapman, I. T.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Chapman, S. C.
    Univ Warwick, Dept Phys, Coventry CV4 7AL, W Midlands, England..
    Chernyshova, M.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, Hery 23, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Chitarin, G.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Ciraolo, G.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Ciric, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Citrin, J.
    FOM Inst DIFFER, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Clairet, F.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Clark, E.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Clark, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Clarkson, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Clatworthy, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Clements, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Cleverly, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Coad, J. P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Coates, P. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Cobalt, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Coccorese, V.
    Univ Napoli Federico II, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Cocilovo, V.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Coda, S.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Coelho, R.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Coenen, J. W.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Coffey, I.
    Queens Univ, Dept Pure & Appl Phys, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Colas, L.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Collins, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Conka, D.
    Univ Latvia, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia..
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conway, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Coombs, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Cooper, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Cooper, S. R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Corradino, C.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Ingn Elettr Elettron & Informat, I-95125 Catania, Italy..
    Corre, Y.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Corrigan, G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Cortes, S.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Coster, D.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Couchman, A. S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Cox, M. P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Craciunescu, T.
    Natl Inst Laser, Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele, Romania..
    Cramp, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Craven, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Crisanti, F.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Croci, G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Piazza Sci 3, I-20126 Milan, Italy..
    Croft, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Crombe, K.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Appl Phys UG, St Pietersnieuwstr 41, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Crowe, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Cruz, N.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Cseh, G.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary..
    Cufar, A.
    Slovenian Fusion Assoc, Jozef Stefan Inst, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Cullen, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Curuia, M.
    Natl Inst Cryogen & Isotop Technol, Ramnicu Valcea, Romania..
    Czarnecka, A.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, Hery 23, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Dabirikhah, H.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Dalgliesh, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Dalley, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Dankowski, J.
    Inst Nucl Phys, Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Darrow, D.
    Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA..
    Davies, O.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Davis, W.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France.;Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA..
    Day, C.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, POB 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Day, I. E.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    De Bock, M.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    de Castro, A.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    de la Cal, E.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    de la Luna, E.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    De Masi, G.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    de Pablos, J. L.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    De Temmerman, G.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    De Tommasi, G.
    Univ Napoli Federico II, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    de Vries, P.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Deakin, K.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Deane, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Agostini, F. Degli
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Dejarnac, R.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Delabie, E.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    den Harder, N.
    FOM Inst DIFFER, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Dendy, R. O.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Denis, J.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Denner, P.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Devaux, S.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Univ Lorraine, CNRS, UMR7198, YIJL, Nancy, France..
    Devynck, P.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Di Maio, F.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Di Siena, A.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Di Troia, C.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Dinca, P.
    Natl Inst Laser, Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele, Romania..
    D'Inca, R.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ding, B.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Plasma Phys, Hefei 230031, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Dittmar, T.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Doerk, H.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Doerner, R. P.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Ctr Energy Res, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Donne, T.
    EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Dorling, S. E.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Dormido-Canto, S.
    Univ Nacl Educ Distancia, Madrid, Spain..
    Doswon, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Douai, D.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Doyle, P. T.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Drenik, A.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Slovenian Fusion Assoc, Jozef Stefan Inst, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Drewelow, P.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Teilinsitut Greifswald, D-17491 Greifswald, Germany..
    Drews, P.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Duckworth, Ph.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Dumont, R.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Dumortier, P.
    Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Dunai, D.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary..
    Dunne, M.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Duran, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Durodie, F.
    Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Dutta, P.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Duval, B. P.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Dux, R.
    Dylst, K.
    SCK CEN, Nucl Res Ctr, B-2400 Mol, Belgium..
    Dzysiuk, Natalia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Edappala, P. V.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Edmond, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Edwards, A. M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Edwards, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Eich, Th.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ekedahl, A.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    El-Jorf, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Elsmore, C. G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Enachescu, M.
    Horia Hulubei Natl Inst Phys & Nucl Engn, Magurele, Romania..
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, F.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Earth & Space Sci, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, L. G.
    European Commiss, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium..
    Esposito, B.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Esquembri, S.
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Grupo I2A2, Madrid, Spain..
    Esser, H. G.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Esteve, D.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Evans, B.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Evans, G. E.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Evison, G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Ewart, G. D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Fagan, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Faitsch, M.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Falie, D.
    Natl Inst Laser, Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele, Romania..
    Fanni, A.
    Univ Cagliari, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Piazza Armi 09123, Cagliari, Italy..
    Fasoli, A.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Faustin, J. M.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Fawlk, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Fazendeiro, L.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Fedorczak, N.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Felton, R. C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Fenton, K.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Fernades, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Fernandes, H.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Ferreira, J.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Fessey, J. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Fevrier, O.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Ficker, O.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Field, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Fietz, S.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Figueiredo, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Figueiredo, J.
    Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Culham OX14 3DB, England.;Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Fil, A.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Finburg, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Firdaouss, M.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Fischer, U.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, POB 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Fittill, L.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Fitzgerald, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Flammini, D.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Flanagan, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Fleming, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Flinders, K.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Fonnesu, N.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Fontdecaba, J. M.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    Formisano, A.
    Second Univ Napoli, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Forsythe, L.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Fortuna, L.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Ingn Elettr Elettron & Informat, I-95125 Catania, Italy..
    Fortuna-Zalesna, E.
    Warsaw Univ Technol, Dept Mat Sci, PL-01152 Warsaw, Poland..
    Fortune, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Foster, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Franke, T.
    EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Franklin, T.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Frasca, M.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Ingn Elettr Elettron & Informat, I-95125 Catania, Italy..
    Frassinetti, L.
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Freisinger, M.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Fresa, R.
    Univ Basilicata, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Frigione, D.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Fuchs, V.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Fuller, D.
    Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Culham OX14 3DB, England..
    Futatani, S.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Barcelona, Spain..
    Fyvie, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Gal, K.
    EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Galassi, D.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, Ctr Marseille, M2P2 UMR 7340, F-13451 Marseille, France..
    Galazka, K.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, Hery 23, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Galdon-Quiroga, J.
    Univ Seville, Seville, Spain..
    Gallagher, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Gallart, D.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Barcelona, Spain..
    Galvao, R.
    Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis, Rua Xavier Sigaud 160, BR-22290180 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Gao, X.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Plasma Phys, Hefei 230031, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Gao, Y.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Garcia, J.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Garcia-Carrasco, A.
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Garcia-Munoz, M.
    Univ Seville, Seville, Spain..
    Gardarein, J. -L
    Garzotti, L.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Gaudio, P.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy..
    Gauthier, E.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Gear, D. F.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Gee, S. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Geiger, B.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Gelfusa, M.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy..
    Gerasimov, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Gervasini, G.
    IFP CNR, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy..
    Gethins, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Ghani, Z.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Ghate, M.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Gherendi, M.
    Natl Inst Laser, Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele, Romania..
    Giacalone, J. C.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Giacomelli, L.
    IFP CNR, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy..
    Gibson, C. S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Giegerich, T.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, POB 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Gil, C.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Gil, L.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Gilligan, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Gin, D.
    Ioffe Phys Tech Inst, 26 Politekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russia..
    Giovannozzi, E.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Girardo, J. B.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Giroud, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Giruzzi, G.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Gloeggler, S.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Godwin, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Goff, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Gohil, P.
    Gen Atom, POB 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 USA..
    Goloborod'ko, V.
    Univ Innsbruck, Fus Osterreich Akad Wissensch OAW, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Gomes, R.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Goncalves, B.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Goniche, M.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Goodliffe, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Goodyear, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Gorini, G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Piazza Sci 3, I-20126 Milan, Italy..
    Gosk, M.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    Goulding, R.
    Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA..
    Goussarov, A.
    SCK CEN, Nucl Res Ctr, B-2400 Mol, Belgium..
    Gowland, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Graham, B.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Graham, M. E.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Graves, J. P.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Grazier, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Grazier, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Green, N. R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Greuner, H.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Grierson, B.
    Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA..
    Griph, F. S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Grisolia, C.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Grist, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Groth, M.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Grove, R.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    Grundy, C. N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Grzonka, J.
    Warsaw Univ Technol, Dept Mat Sci, PL-01152 Warsaw, Poland..
    Guard, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Guerard, C.
    EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Guillemaut, C.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France.;Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Guirlet, R.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Gurl, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Utoh, H. H.
    Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan..
    Hackett, L. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hacquin, S.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France.;Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Culham OX14 3DB, England..
    Hagar, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hager, R.
    Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA..
    Hakola, A.
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, POB 1000, FIN-02044 Espoo, Finland..
    Halitovs, M.
    Univ Latvia, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia..
    Hall, S. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Cook, S. P. Hallworth
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hamlyn-Harris, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hammond, K.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Harrington, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Harrison, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Harting, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hasenbeck, F.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Hatano, Y.
    Univ Toyama, Toyama 9308555, Japan..
    Hatch, D. R.
    Univ Texas Austin, Inst Fus Studies, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Haupt, T. D. V.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hawes, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hawkes, N. C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hawkins, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hawkins, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Haydon, P. W.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hayter, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hazel, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Heesterman, P. J. L.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Heinola, K.
    Univ Helsinki, POB 43, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellsten, T.
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Helou, W.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Hemming, O. N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hender, T. C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Henderson, M.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Henderson, S. S.
    Univ Strathclyde, Dept Phys & Appl Phys, Glasgow G4 ONG, Lanark, Scotland..
    Henriques, R.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Hepple, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hermon, G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hertout, P.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Hidalgo, C.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    Highcock, E. G.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Hill, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hillairet, J.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Hillesheim, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hillis, D.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    Hizanidis, K.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Iroon Politechniou 9, Athens 15773, Greece..
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hobirk, J.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Hodille, E.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Hogben, C. H. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hogeweij, G. M. D.
    FOM Inst DIFFER, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Hollingsworth, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hollis, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Homfray, D. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Horacek, J.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Hornung, G.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Appl Phys UG, St Pietersnieuwstr 41, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Horton, A. R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Horton, L. D.
    European Commiss, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium..
    Horvath, L.
    Univ York, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England..
    Hotchin, S. P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hough, M. R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Howarth, P. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hubbard, A.
    MIT, Plasma Sci & Fus Ctr, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Huber, A.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Huber, V.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Huddleston, T. M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hughes, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Huijsmans, G. T. A.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Hunter, C. L.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Huynh, P.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Hynes, A. M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Iglesias, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Imazawa, N.
    Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan..
    Imbeaux, F.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Imrisek, M.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Incelli, M.
    Univ Tuscia, DEIM, Via Paradiso 47, I-01100 Viterbo, Italy..
    Innocente, P.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Irishkin, M.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Ivanova-Stanik, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, Hery 23, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Jachmich, S.
    Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Culham OX14 3DB, England.;Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Jacobsen, A. S.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Phys, Bldg 309, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark..
    Jacquet, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Jansons, J.
    Univ Latvia, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia..
    Jardin, A.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Jarvinen, A.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Jaulmes, F.
    FOM Inst DIFFER, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Jednorog, S.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, Hery 23, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Jenkins, I.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Jeong, C.
    Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol, Dept Nucl & Quantum Engn, Daejeon 34141, South Korea..
    Jepu, I.
    Natl Inst Laser, Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele, Romania..
    Joffrin, E.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Johnson, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Johnson, T.
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johnston, Jane
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Joita, L.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Jones, G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Jones, T. T. C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Hoshino, K. K.
    Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan..
    Kallenbach, A.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kamiya, K.
    Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan..
    Kaniewski, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kantor, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kappatou, A.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Karhunen, J.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Karkinsky, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Karnowska, I.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kaufman, M.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    Kaveney, G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kazakov, Y.
    Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Kazantzidis, V.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Iroon Politechniou 9, Athens 15773, Greece..
    Keeling, D. L.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Keenan, T.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Keep, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kempenaars, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kennedy, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kenny, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kent, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kent, O. N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Khilkevich, E.
    Ioffe Phys Tech Inst, 26 Politekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russia..
    Kim, H. T.
    Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Culham OX14 3DB, England..
    Kim, H. S.
    Seoul Natl Univ, Shilim Dong, South Korea..
    Kinch, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    King, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    King, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    King, R. F.
    Kinna, D. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kiptily, V.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kirk, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kirov, K.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kirschner, A.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Kizane, G.
    Univ Latvia, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia..
    Klepper, C.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    Klix, A.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, POB 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Knight, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Knipe, S. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Knott, S.
    Univ Coll Cork, Cork, Ireland..
    Kobuchi, T.
    Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan..
    Koechl, F.
    Vienna Univ Technol, Fusi Osterreich Akad Wissensch OAW, Vienna, Austria..
    Kocsis, G.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary..
    Kodeli, I.
    Slovenian Fusion Assoc, Jozef Stefan Inst, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Kogan, L.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kogut, D.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Koivuranta, S.
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, POB 1000, FIN-02044 Espoo, Finland..
    Kominis, Y.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Iroon Politechniou 9, Athens 15773, Greece..
    Koeppen, M.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Kos, B.
    Slovenian Fusion Assoc, Jozef Stefan Inst, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Koskela, T.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Koslowski, H. R.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Koubiti, M.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345, F-13013 Marseille, France..
    Kovari, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, Hery 23, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Krasilnikov, A.
    Troitsk Inst Innovating & Thermonucl Res TRINITI, Moscow 142190, Russia..
    Krasilnikov, V.
    Troitsk Inst Innovating & Thermonucl Res TRINITI, Moscow 142190, Russia..
    Krawczyk, N.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, Hery 23, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Kresina, M.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Krieger, K.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Krivska, A.
    Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Kruezi, U.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Ksiazek, I.
    Opole Univ, Inst Phys, Oleska 48, PL-45052 Opole, Poland..
    Kukushkin, A.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, 1 Kurchatov Sq, Moscow 123182, Russia..
    Kundu, A.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Kurki-Suonio, T.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Kwak, S.
    Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol, Dept Nucl & Quantum Engn, Daejeon 34141, South Korea..
    Kwiatkowski, R.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    Kwon, O. J.
    Daegu Univ, Gyongsan 712174, Gyeongbuk, South Korea..
    Laguardia, L.
    IFP CNR, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy..
    Lahtinen, A.
    Univ Helsinki, POB 43, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Laing, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Lam, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Lambertz, H. T.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Lane, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Lang, P. T.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Lanthaler, S.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Lapins, J.
    Univ Latvia, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia..
    Lasa, A.
    Univ Helsinki, POB 43, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Last, J. R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Laszynska, E.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, Hery 23, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Lawless, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Lawson, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Lawson, K. D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Lazaros, A.
    Natl Tech Univ Athens, Iroon Politechniou 9, Athens 15773, Greece..
    Lazzaro, E.
    IFP CNR, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy..
    Leddy, J.
    Univ York, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England..
    Lee, S.
    Natl Fusion Res Inst, 169-148 Gwahak Ro, Daejeon 305806, South Korea..
    Lefebvre, X.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Leggate, H. J.
    Dublin City Univ, Dublin, Ireland..
    Lehmann, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Lehnen, M.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Leichtle, D.
    Fus Energy Joint Undertaking, Josep Pl 2,Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona 08019, Spain..
    Leichuer, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Leipold, F.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France.;Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Phys, Bldg 309, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark..
    Lengar, I.
    Slovenian Fusion Assoc, Jozef Stefan Inst, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Lennholm, M.
    European Commiss, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium..
    Lerche, E.
    Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Lescinskis, A.
    Univ Latvia, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia..
    Lesnoj, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Letellier, E.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Leyland, M.
    Univ York, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England..
    Leysen, W.
    SCK CEN, Nucl Res Ctr, B-2400 Mol, Belgium..
    Li, L.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Liang, Y.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Likonen, J.
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, POB 1000, FIN-02044 Espoo, Finland..
    Linke, J.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Linsmeier, Ch.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Lipschultz, B.
    Univ York, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England..
    Liu, G.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Liu, Y.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Plasma Phys, Hefei 230031, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Lo Schiavo, V. P.
    Univ Napoli Federico II, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Loarer, T.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Loarte, A.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Lobel, R. C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Lomanowski, B.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Lomas, P. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Lonnroth, J.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland.;Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Culham OX14 3DB, England..
    Lopez, J. M.
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Grupo I2A2, Madrid, Spain..
    Lopez-Razola, J.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    Lorenzini, R.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Losada, U.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    Lovell, J. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Loving, A. B.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Lowry, C.
    European Commiss, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium..
    Luce, T.
    Gen Atom, POB 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 USA..
    Lucock, R. M. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Lukin, A.
    PELIN LLC, 27a Gzhatskaya Ulitsa, St Petersburg 195220, Russia..
    Luna, C.
    Arizona State Univ, Tempe, AZ USA..
    Lungaroni, M.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy..
    Lungu, C. P.
    Natl Inst Laser, Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele, Romania..
    Lungu, M.
    Natl Inst Laser, Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele, Romania..
    Lunniss, A.
    Univ York, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England..
    Lupelli, I.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Lyssoivan, A.
    Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Macdonald, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Macheta, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Maczewa, K.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Magesh, B.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Maget, P.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Maggi, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Maier, H.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Mailloux, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Makkonen, T.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Makwana, R.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Malaquias, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Malizia, A.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy..
    Manas, P.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345, F-13013 Marseille, France..
    Manning, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Manso, M. E.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Mantica, P.
    IFP CNR, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy..
    Mantsinen, M.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Barcelona, Spain..
    Manzanares, A.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Maquet, Ph.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Marandet, Y.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345, F-13013 Marseille, France..
    Marcenko, N.
    Troitsk Inst Innovating & Thermonucl Res TRINITI, Moscow 142190, Russia..
    Marchetto, C.
    IFP CNR, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy..
    Marchuk, O.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Marinelli, M.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy..
    Marinucci, M.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Markovic, T.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Marocco, D.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Marot, L.
    Univ Basel, Dept Phys, Basel, Switzerland..
    Marren, C. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Marshal, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Martin, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Martin, Y.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Martin de Aguilera, A.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    Martinez, F. J.
    Univ Nacl Educ Distancia, Madrid, Spain..
    Martin-Solis, J. R.
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Dept Fis, Madrid 28911, Spain..
    Martynova, Y.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Maruyama, S.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Masiello, A.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Maslov, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Matejcik, S.
    Comenius Univ, Dept Expt Phys, Fac Math Phys & Informat, Mlynska Dolina F2, Bratislava 84248, Slovakia..
    Mattei, M.
    Second Univ Napoli, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Matthews, G. F.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Maviglia, F.
    Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Mayer, M.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Mayoral, M. L.
    EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    May-Smith, T.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Mazon, D.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Mazzotta, C.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    McAdams, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    McCarthy, P. J.
    Univ Coll Cork, Cork, Ireland..
    McClements, K. G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    McCormack, O.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    McCullen, P. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    McDonald, D.
    EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    McIntosh, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    McKean, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    McKehon, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Meadows, R. C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Meakins, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Medina, F.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    Medland, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Medley, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Meigh, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Meigs, A. G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Meisl, G.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Meitner, S.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    Meneses, L.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Menmuir, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mergia, K.
    NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi 15310, Greece..
    Merrigan, I. R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Mertens, Ph.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Meshchaninov, S.
    Troitsk Inst Innovating & Thermonucl Res TRINITI, Moscow 142190, Russia..
    Messiaen, A.
    Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Meyer, H.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Mianowski, S.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    Michling, R.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Middleton-Gear, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Miettunen, J.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Militello, F.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Militello-Asp, E.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Miloshevsky, G.
    Purdue Univ, 610 Purdue Mall, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA..
    Mink, F.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Minucci, S.
    Univ Napoli Federico II, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Miyoshi, Y.
    Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan..
    Mlynar, J.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Molina, D.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Monakhov, I.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Moneti, M.
    Univ Tuscia, DEIM, Via Paradiso 47, I-01100 Viterbo, Italy..
    Mooney, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Moradi, S.
    ULB, Fluid & Plasma Dynam, Campus Plaine CP 231 Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mordijck, S.
    Gen Atom, POB 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 USA..
    Moreira, L.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Moreno, R.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    Moro, F.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Morris, A. W.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Morris, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Moser, L.
    Univ Basel, Dept Phys, Basel, Switzerland..
    Mosher, S.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    Moulton, D.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland.;CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Murari, A.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy.;Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Culham OX14 3DB, England..
    Muraro, A.
    IFP CNR, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy..
    Murphy, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Asakura, N. N.
    Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan..
    Na, Y. S.
    Seoul Natl Univ, Shilim Dong, South Korea..
    Nabais, F.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Naish, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Nakano, T.
    Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan..
    Nardon, E.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Naulin, V.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Phys, Bldg 309, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark..
    Nave, M. F. F.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Nedzelski, I.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Nemtsev, G.
    Troitsk Inst Innovating & Thermonucl Res TRINITI, Moscow 142190, Russia..
    Nespoli, F.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Neto, A.
    Fus Energy Joint Undertaking, Josep Pl 2,Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona 08019, Spain..
    Neu, R.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Neverov, V. S.
    NRC Kurchatov Inst, 1 Kurchatov Sq, Moscow 123182, Russia..
    Newman, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Nicholls, K. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Nicolas, T.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Nielsen, A. H.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Phys, Bldg 309, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark..
    Nielsen, P.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Nilsson, E.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Nishijima, D.
    Univ Calif, 1111 Franklin St, Oakland, CA 94607 USA..
    Noble, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Nocente, M.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Piazza Sci 3, I-20126 Milan, Italy..
    Nodwell, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Nordlund, K.
    Univ Helsinki, POB 43, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Nordman, H.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Earth & Space Sci, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Nouailletas, R.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Nunes, I.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Oberkofler, M.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Odupitan, T.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Ogawa, M. T.
    Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan..
    O'Gorman, T.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Okabayashi, M.
    Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA..
    Olney, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Omolayo, O.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    O'Mullane, M.
    Univ Strathclyde, Dept Phys & Appl Phys, Glasgow G4 ONG, Lanark, Scotland..
    Ongena, J.
    Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Orsitto, F.
    Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Orszagh, J.
    Comenius Univ, Dept Expt Phys, Fac Math Phys & Informat, Mlynska Dolina F2, Bratislava 84248, Slovakia..
    Oswuigwe, B. I.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Otin, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Owen, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Paccagnella, R.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Pace, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Pacella, D.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Packer, L. W.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Page, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Pajuste, E.
    Univ Latvia, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia..
    Palazzo, S.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Ingn Elettr Elettron & Informat, I-95125 Catania, Italy..
    Pamela, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Panja, S.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Papp, P.
    Comenius Univ, Dept Expt Phys, Fac Math Phys & Informat, Mlynska Dolina F2, Bratislava 84248, Slovakia..
    Paprok, R.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Parail, V.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Park, M.
    Natl Fusion Res Inst, 169-148 Gwahak Ro, Daejeon 305806, South Korea..
    Diaz, F. Parra
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Parsons, M.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    Pasqualotto, R.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Patel, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Pathak, S.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Paton, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Patten, H.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Pau, A.
    Univ Cagliari, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Piazza Armi 09123, Cagliari, Italy..
    Pawelec, E.
    Opole Univ, Inst Phys, Oleska 48, PL-45052 Opole, Poland..
    Soldan, C. Paz
    Gen Atom, POB 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 USA..
    Peackoc, A.
    European Commiss, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium..
    Pearson, I. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Pehkonen, S. -P
    Peluso, E.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy..
    Penot, C.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Pereira, A.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    Pereira, R.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Puglia, P. P. Pereira
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    von Thun, C. Perez
    Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Culham OX14 3DB, England.;Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Peruzzo, S.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Peschanyi, S.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, POB 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Peterka, M.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Petersson, P.
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Petravich, G.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary..
    Petre, A.
    Horia Hulubei Natl Inst Phys & Nucl Engn, Magurele, Romania..
    Petrella, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Petrzilka, V.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Peysson, Y.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Pfefferle, D.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Philipps, V.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Pillon, M.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Pintsuk, G.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Piovesan, P.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Pires dos Reis, A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis, Rua Matao Travessa R 187,Cidade Univ, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Piron, L.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Pironti, A.
    Univ Napoli Federico II, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Pisano, F.
    Univ Cagliari, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Piazza Armi 09123, Cagliari, Italy..
    Pitts, R.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Pizzo, F.
    Second Univ Napoli, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Plyusnin, V.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Pomaro, N.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Pompilian, O. G.
    Natl Inst Laser, Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele, Romania..
    Pool, P. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Popovichev, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Porfiri, M. T.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Porosnicu, C.
    Natl Inst Laser, Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele, Romania..
    Porton, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Potzel, S.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Powell, T.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Pozzi, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Prajapati, V.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Prakash, R.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Prestopino, G.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy..
    Price, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Price, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Price, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Prior, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Proudfoot, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Pucella, G.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Puglia, P.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis, Rua Matao Travessa R 187,Cidade Univ, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Puiatti, M. E.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Pulley, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Purahoo, K.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Puetterich, Th.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Rachlew, E.
    KTH, SCI, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rack, M.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Ragona, R.
    Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Rainford, M. S. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Rakha, A.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Barcelona, Spain..
    Ramogida, G.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Ranjan, S.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Rapson, C. J.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Rasmussen, J. J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Phys, Bldg 309, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark..
    Rathod, K.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Ratta, G.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    Ratynskaia, S.
    KTH, EES, Space & Plasma Phys, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ravera, G.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Rayner, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Rebai, M.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Piazza Sci 3, I-20126 Milan, Italy..
    Reece, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Reed, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Refy, D.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary..
    Regan, B.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Regana, J.
    EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Reich, M.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Reid, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Reimold, F.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Reinhart, M.
    EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Reinke, M.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA.;Univ York, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England..
    Reiser, D.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Rendell, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Reux, C.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Reyes Cortes, S. D. A.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Reynolds, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Riccardo, V.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Richardson, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Riddle, K.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Rigamonti, D.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Piazza Sci 3, I-20126 Milan, Italy..
    Rimini, F. G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Risner, J.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 USA..
    Riva, M.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Roach, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Robins, R. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Robinson, S. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Robinson, T.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Robson, D. W.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Roccella, R.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Rodionov, R.
    Troitsk Inst Innovating & Thermonucl Res TRINITI, Moscow 142190, Russia..
    Rodrigues, P.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Rodriguez, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Rohde, V.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Romanelli, F.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Romanelli, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Romanelli, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Romazanov, J.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Rowe, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Rubel, M.
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rubinacci, G.
    Univ Napoli Federico II, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Rubino, G.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Ruchko, L.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis, Rua Matao Travessa R 187,Cidade Univ, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Ruiz, M.
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Grupo I2A2, Madrid, Spain..
    Ruset, C.
    Natl Inst Laser, Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele, Romania..
    Rzadkiewicz, J.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    Saarelma, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Sabot, R.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Safi, E.
    Univ Helsinki, POB 43, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Sagar, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Saibene, G.
    Fus Energy Joint Undertaking, Josep Pl 2,Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona 08019, Spain..
    Saint-Laurent, F.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Salewski, M.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Phys, Bldg 309, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark..
    Salmi, A.
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, POB 1000, FIN-02044 Espoo, Finland..
    Salmon, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Salzedas, F.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Samaddar, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Samm, U.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Sandiford, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Santa, P.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Santala, M. I. K.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Santos, B.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Santucci, A.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Sartori, F.
    Fus Energy Joint Undertaking, Josep Pl 2,Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona 08019, Spain..
    Sartori, R.
    Fus Energy Joint Undertaking, Josep Pl 2,Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona 08019, Spain..
    Sauter, O.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Scannell, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Schlummer, T.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Schmid, K.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Schmidt, V.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Schmuck, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Schneider, M.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Schoepf, K.
    Univ Innsbruck, Fus Osterreich Akad Wissensch OAW, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Schworer, D.
    Dublin City Univ, Dublin, Ireland..
    Scott, S. D.
    Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA..
    Sergienko, G.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Sertoli, M.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Shabbir, A.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Appl Phys UG, St Pietersnieuwstr 41, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Sharapov, S. E.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Shaw, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Shaw, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Sheikh, H.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Shepherd, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Shevelev, A.
    Ioffe Phys Tech Inst, 26 Politekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russia..
    Shumack, A.
    FOM Inst DIFFER, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Sias, G.
    Univ Cagliari, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Piazza Armi 09123, Cagliari, Italy..
    Sibbald, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Sieglin, B.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Silburn, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Silva, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Silva, C.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Simmons, P. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Simpson, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Simpson-Hutchinson, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Sinha, A.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Sipila, S. K.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Sips, A. C. C.
    European Commiss, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium..
    Siren, P.
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, POB 1000, FIN-02044 Espoo, Finland..
    Sirinelli, A.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skilton, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Slabkowska, K.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, Hery 23, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Slade, B.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Smith, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Smith, P. G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Smith, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Smith, T. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Smithies, M.
    Univ York, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England..
    Snoj, L.
    Slovenian Fusion Assoc, Jozef Stefan Inst, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Soare, S.
    Natl Inst Cryogen & Isotop Technol, Ramnicu Valcea, Romania..
    Solano, E. R.
    Culham Sci Ctr, EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Culham OX14 3DB, England.;CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    Somers, A.
    Dublin City Univ, Dublin, Ireland..
    Sommariva, C.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Sonato, P.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Sopplesa, A.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Sousa, J.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Sozzi, C.
    IFP CNR, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy..
    Spagnolo, S.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Spelzini, T.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Spineanu, F.
    Natl Inst Laser, Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele, Romania..
    Stables, G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Stamatelatos, I.
    NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi 15310, Greece..
    Stamp, M. F.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Staniec, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Stankunas, G.
    Lithuanian Energy Inst, Breslaujos G 3, LT-4403 Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Stan-Sion, C.
    Horia Hulubei Natl Inst Phys & Nucl Engn, Magurele, Romania..
    Stead, M. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Stefanikova, E.
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stepanov, I.
    Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Stephen, A. V.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Stephen, M.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Stevens, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Stevens, B. D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Strachan, J.
    Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA..
    Strand, P.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Earth & Space Sci, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Strauss, H. R.
    HRS Fusion, W Orange, NJ USA..
    Strom, P.
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stubbs, G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Studholme, W.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Subba, F.
    Politecn Torino, Corso Duca Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin, Italy..
    Summers, H. P.
    Univ Strathclyde, Dept Phys & Appl Phys, Glasgow G4 ONG, Lanark, Scotland..
    Svensson, J.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Teilinsitut Greifswald, D-17491 Greifswald, Germany..
    Swiderski, L.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    Szabolics, T.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary..
    Szawlowski, M.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, Hery 23, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Szepesi, G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Suzuki, T. T.
    Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan..
    Tal, B.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary..
    Tala, T.
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, POB 1000, FIN-02044 Espoo, Finland..
    Talbot, A. R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Talebzadeh, S.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy..
    Taliercio, C.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Tamain, P.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Tame, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Tang, W.
    Princeton Plasma Phys Lab, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton, NJ 08543 USA..
    Tardocchi, M.
    IFP CNR, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy..
    Taroni, L.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Taylor, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Taylor, K. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Tegnered, D.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Earth & Space Sci, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Telesca, G.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Appl Phys UG, St Pietersnieuwstr 41, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Teplova, N.
    Ioffe Phys Tech Inst, 26 Politekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russia..
    Terranova, D.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Testa, D.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Tholerus, E.
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thomas, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Thomas, J. D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Thomas, P.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Thompson, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Thompson, C. -A
    Thompson, V. K.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Thorne, L.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Thornton, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Thrysoe, A. S.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Phys, Bldg 309, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark..
    Tigwell, P. A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Tipton, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Tiseanu, I.
    Natl Inst Laser, Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele, Romania..
    Tojo, H.
    Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan..
    Tokitani, M.
    Natl Inst Fus Sci, Toki, Gifu 5095292, Japan..
    Tolias, P.
    KTH, EES, Space & Plasma Phys, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tomes, M.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Tonner, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Towndrow, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Trimble, P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Tripsky, M.
    Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Tsalas, M.
    FOM Inst DIFFER, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Tsavalas, P.
    NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi 15310, Greece..
    Jun, D. Tskhakaya
    Univ Innsbruck, Fus Osterreich Akad Wissensch OAW, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Turner, I.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Turner, M. M.
    Dublin City Univ, Dublin, Ireland..
    Turnyanskiy, M.
    EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Tvalashvili, G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Tyrrell, S. G. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Uccello, A.
    IFP CNR, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy..
    Ul-Abidin, Z.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Uljanovs, J.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Ulyatt, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Urano, H.
    Natl Inst Quantum & Radiol Sci & Technol, Naka, Ibaraki 3110193, Japan..
    Uytdenhouwen, I.
    SCK CEN, Nucl Res Ctr, B-2400 Mol, Belgium..
    Vadgama, A. P.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Valcarcel, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Valentinuzzi, M.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Valisa, M.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Olivares, P. Vallejos
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Valovic, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Van De Mortel, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Van Eester, D.
    Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Van Renterghem, W.
    SCK CEN, Nucl Res Ctr, B-2400 Mol, Belgium..
    van Rooij, G. J.
    FOM Inst DIFFER, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Varje, J.
    Aalto Univ, POB 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Varoutis, S.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, POB 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Vartanian, S.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Vasava, K.
    Inst Plasma Res, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat, India..
    Vasilopoulou, T.
    NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi 15310, Greece..
    Vega, J.
    CIEMAT, Lab Nacl Fus, Madrid, Spain..
    Verdoolaege, G.
    Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Verhoeven, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Verona, C.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy..
    Rinati, G. Verona
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy..
    Veshchev, E.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Vianello, N.
    IFP CNR, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy..
    Vicente, J.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Plasma & Fus Nucl, Inst Super Tecn, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Viezzer, E.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Univ Seville, Seville, Spain..
    Villari, S.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Villone, F.
    Univ Cassino, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Vincenzi, P.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Vinyar, I.
    PELIN LLC, 27a Gzhatskaya Ulitsa, St Petersburg 195220, Russia..
    Viola, B.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Vitins, A.
    Univ Latvia, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia..
    Vizvary, Z.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Vlad, M.
    Natl Inst Laser, Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele, Romania..
    Voitsekhovitch, I.
    EUROfus Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Vondracek, P.
    Inst Plasma Phys AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782-3, Prague 18200 8, Czech Republic..
    Vora, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Vu, T.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Pires de Sa, W. W.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis, Rua Matao Travessa R 187,Cidade Univ, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Wakeling, B.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Waldon, C. W. F.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Walkden, N.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Walker, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Walker, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Walsh, M.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Wang, E.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Wang, N.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Warder, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Warren, R. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Waterhouse, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Watkins, N. W.
    Univ Warwick, Dept Phys, Coventry CV4 7AL, W Midlands, England..
    Watts, C.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Wauters, T.
    Ecole Royale Mil, Lab Plasma Phys, Koninklijke Mil Sch, Renaissancelaan 30 Ave Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Weckmann, A.
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Weiland, J.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Weisen, H.
    Swiss Plasma Ctr, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Wellstood, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    West, A. T.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Wheatley, M. R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Whetham, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Whitehead, A. M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Whitehead, B. D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Widdowson, A. M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Wiesen, S.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Wilkinson, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Williams, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Williams, M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Wilson, A. R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Wilson, D. J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Wilson, H. R.
    Univ York, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England..
    Wilson, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Wischmeier, M.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Withenshaw, G.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Withycombe, A.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Witts, D. M.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Wood, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Wood, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Woodley, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Wray, S.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Wright, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Wright, J. C.
    MIT, Plasma Sci & Fus Ctr, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Wu, J.
    Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Chengdu, Sichuan, Peoples R China..
    Wukitch, S.
    MIT, Plasma Sci & Fus Ctr, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Wynn, A.
    Univ York, York YO10 5DD, N Yorkshire, England..
    Xu, T.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Yadikin, D.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Earth & Space Sci, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Yanling, W.
    Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Yao, L.
    Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Chengdu, Sichuan, Peoples R China..
    Yavorskij, V.
    Univ Innsbruck, Fus Osterreich Akad Wissensch OAW, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Yoo, M. G.
    Seoul Natl Univ, Shilim Dong, South Korea..
    Young, C.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Young, D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Young, I. D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Young, R.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Zacks, J.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Zagorski, R.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, Hery 23, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zaitsev, F. S.
    Comenius Univ, Dept Expt Phys, Fac Math Phys & Informat, Mlynska Dolina F2, Bratislava 84248, Slovakia..
    Zanino, R.
    Politecn Torino, Corso Duca Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin, Italy..
    Zarins, A.
    Univ Latvia, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia..
    Zastrow, K. D.
    CCFE Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England..
    Zerbini, M.
    ENEA C R Frascati, Unit Tecn Fus, Via E Fermi 45, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Zhang, W.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Zhou, Y.
    KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zilli, E.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Zoita, V.
    Natl Inst Laser, Plasma & Radiat Phys, Magurele, Romania..
    Zoletnik, S.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary..
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    Overview of the JET results in support to ITER2017In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, no 10, article id 102001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2014-2016 JET results are reviewed in the light of their significance for optimising the ITER research plan for the active and non-active operation. More than 60 h of plasma operation with ITER first wall materials successfully took place since its installation in 2011. New multi-machine scaling of the type I-ELM divertor energy flux density to ITER is supported by first principle modelling. ITER relevant disruption experiments and first principle modelling are reported with a set of three disruption mitigation valves mimicking the ITER setup. Insights of the L-H power threshold in Deuterium and Hydrogen are given, stressing the importance of the magnetic configurations and the recent measurements of fine-scale structures in the edge radial electric. Dimensionless scans of the core and pedestal confinement provide new information to elucidate the importance of the first wall material on the fusion performance. H-mode plasmas at ITER triangularity (H = 1 at beta(N) similar to 1.8 and n/n(GW) similar to 0.6) have been sustained at 2 MA during 5 s. The ITER neutronics codes have been validated on high performance experiments. Prospects for the coming D-T campaign and 14 MeV neutron calibration strategy are reviewed.

  • 224. Lovell, Jack
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    An FPGA-based bolometer for the MAST-U Super-X divertor2016In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 87, no 11, article id 11E721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new resistive bolometer system has been developed for MAST-Upgrade. It will measure radiated power in the new Super-X divertor, with millisecond time resolution, along 16 vertical and 16 horizontal lines of sight. The system uses a Xilinx Zynq-7000 series Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in the D-TACQ ACQ2106 carrier to perform real time data acquisition and signal processing. The FPGA enables AC-synchronous detection using high performance digital filtering to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio and will be able to output processed data in real time with millisecond latency. The system has been installed on 8 previously unused channels of the JET vertical bolometer system. Initial results suggest good agreement with data from existing vertical channels but with higher bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio.

  • 225.
    Lungaroni, M.
    et al.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dept Ind Engn, Via Politecn 1, Rome, Italy.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Otwock, Poland.
    On the potential of ruled-based machine learning for disruption prediction on JET2018In: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 130, p. 62-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last years, it has become apparent that detecting disruptions with sufficient anticipation time is an essential but not exclusive task of predictors. It is also important that the prediction is accompanied by appropriate qualifications of its reliability and it is formulated in mathematical terms appropriate for the task at hand (mitigation, avoidance, classification etc.). In this paper, a wide series of rule-based predictors, of the Classification and Regression Trees (CART) family, have been compared to assess their relative merits. An original refinement of the training, called noise-based ensembles, has allowed not only to obtain significantly better performance but also to increase the interpretability of the results. The final predictors can indeed be represented by a tree or a series of specific and clear rules. Such performance has been proved by analysing large databases of shots on JET with both the carbon wall and the ITER Like Wall. In terms of performance, the developed tools are therefore very competitive with other machine learning techniques, with the specificity of formulating the final models in terms of trees and simple rules.

  • 226.
    Maggi, C. F.
    et al.
    Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon, Oxon, England.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Otwock, Poland.
    Isotope effects on L-H threshold and confinement in tokamak plasmas2018In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 60, no 1, article id 014045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dependence of plasma transport and confinement on the main hydrogenic ion isotope mass is of fundamental importance for understanding turbulent transport and, therefore, for accurate extrapolations of confinement from present tokamak experiments, which typically use a single hydrogen isotope, to burning plasmas such as ITER, which will operate in deuterium-tritium mixtures. Knowledge of the dependence of plasma properties and edge transport barrier formation on main ion species is critical in view of the initial, low-activation phase of ITER operations in hydrogen or helium and of its implications on the subsequent operation in deuterium-tritium. The favourable scaling of global energy confinement time with isotope mass, which has been observed in many tokamak experiments, remains largely unexplained theoretically. Moreover, the mass scaling observed in experiments varies depending on the plasma edge conditions. In preparation for upcoming deuterium-tritium experiments in the JET tokamak with the ITER-like Be/W Wall (JET-ILW), a thorough experimental investigation of isotope effects in hydrogen, deuterium and tritium plasmas is being carried out, in order to provide stringent tests of plasma energy, particle and momentum transport models. Recent hydrogen and deuterium isotope experiments in JET-ILW on L-H power threshold, L-mode and H-mode confinement are reviewed and discussed in the context of past and more recent isotope experiments in tokamak plasmas, highlighting common elements as well as contrasting observations that have been reported. The experimental findings are discussed in the context of fundamental aspects of plasma transport models.

  • 227. Maggi, C. F.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Isotope identity experiments in JET-ILW with H and D L-mode plasmas2019In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 7, article id 076028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NBI-heated L-mode plasmas have been obtained in JET with the Be/W ITER-like wall (JET-ILW) in H and D, with matched profiles of the dimensionless plasma parameters, rho*, nu*, beta and q in the plasma core confinement region and same T-i/T-e and Z(eff). The achieved isotope identity indicates that the confinement scale invariance principle is satisfied in the core confinement region of these plasmas, where the dominant instabilities are Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) modes. The dimensionless thermal energy confinement time, Omega(i) tau(E,th), and the scaled core plasma heat diffusivity, A chi(eff)/B-T, are identical in H and D within error bars, indicating lack of isotope mass dependence of the dimensionless L-mode thermal energy confinement time in JET-ILW. Predictive flux driven simulations with JETTO-TGLF of the H and D identity pair is in very good agreement with experiment for both isotopes: the stiff core heat transport, typical of JET-ILW NBI heated L-modes, overcomes the local gyro-Bohm scaling of gradient-driven TGLF, explaining the lack of isotope mass dependence in the confinement region of these plasmas. The effect of E x B shearing on the predicted heat and particle transport channels is found to be negligible for these low beta and low momentum input plasmas.

  • 228. Maggi, C. F.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Studies of the pedestal structure and inter-ELM pedestal evolution in JET with the ITER-like wall2017In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, no 11, article id 116012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pedestal structure of type I ELMy H-modes has been analysed for JET with the ITER-like Wall (JET-ILW). The electron pressure pedestal width is independent of rho* and increases proportionally to root beta(pol,PED). Additional broadening of the width is observed, at constant beta(pol, PED), with increasing nu* and/ or neutral gas injection and the contribution of atomic physics effects in setting the pedestal width cannot as yet be ruled out. Neutral penetration alone does not determine the shape of the edge density profile in JET-ILW. The ratio of electron density to electron temperature scale lengths in the edge transport barrier region, eta(e), is of order 2-3 within experimental uncertainties. Existing understanding, represented in the stationary linear peeling-ballooning mode stability and the EPED pedestal structure models, is extended to the dynamic evolution between ELM crashes in JET-ILW, in order to test the assumptions underlying these two models. The inter-ELM temporal evolution of the pedestal structure in JET-ILW is not unique, but depends on discharge conditions, such as heating power and gas injection levels. The strong reduction in (pe,PED) with increasing D-2 gas injection at high power is primarily due to clamping of del T-e half way through the ELM cycle and is suggestive of turbulence limiting the T-e pedestal growth. The inter-ELM pedestal pressure evolution in JET-ILW is consistent with the EPED model assumptions at low gas rates and only at low beta at high gas rates. At higher beta and high gas rate the inter-ELM pedestal pressure evolution is qualitatively consistent with the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) constraint but the peeling-ballooning (P-B) constraint is not satisfied and the ELM trigger mechanism remains as yet unexplained.

  • 229. Makepeace, C.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, F.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, N.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, C.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, M.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    The effect of beryllium oxide on retention in JET ITER-like wall tiles2019In: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 19, p. 346-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preliminary results investigating the microstructure, bonding and effect of beryllium oxide formation on retention in the JET ITER-like wall beryllium tiles, are presented. The tiles have been investigated by several techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with EDX and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS), Raman Spectroscopy and Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS). This paper focuses on results from melted materials of the dump plate tiles in JET. From our results and the literature, it is concluded, beryllium can form micron deep oxide islands contrary to the nanometric oxides predicted under vacuum conditions. The deepest oxides analyzed were up to 2-micron thicknesses. The beryllium Deuteroxide (BeOxDy) bond was found with Raman Spectroscopy. Application of EELS confirmed the oxide presence and stoichiometry. Literature suggests these oxides form at temperatures greater than 700 degrees C where self-diffusion of beryllium ions through the surface oxide layer can occur. Further oxidation is made possible between oxygen plasma impurities and the beryllium ions now present at the wall surface. Under Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) nanometric Beryllium oxide layers are formed and passivate at room temperature. After continual cyclic heating (to the point of melt formation) in the presence of oxygen impurities from the plasma, oxide growth to the levels seen experimentally (approximately two microns) is proposed. This retention mechanism is not considered to contribute dramatically to overall retention in JET, due to low levels of melt formation. However, this mechanism, thought the result of operation environment and melt formation, could be of wider concern to ITER, dependent on wall temperatures.

  • 230. Manas, P.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Gyrokinetic modeling of impurity peaking in JET H-mode plasmas2017In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 24, no 6, article id 062511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative comparisons are presented between gyrokinetic simulations and experimental values of the carbon impurity peaking factor in a database of JET H-modes during the carbon wall era. These plasmas feature strong NBI heating and hence high values of toroidal rotation and corresponding gradient. Furthermore, the carbon profiles present particularly interesting shapes for fusion devices, i.e., hollow in the core and peaked near the edge. Dependencies of the experimental carbon peaking factor (R/L-nC) on plasma parameters are investigated via multilinear regressions. A marked correlation between R/L-nC and the normalised toroidal rotation gradient is observed in the core, which suggests an important role of the rotation in establishing hollow carbon profiles. The carbon peaking factor is then computed with the gyrokinetic code GKW, using a quasi-linear approach, supported by a few non-linear simulations. The comparison of the quasi-linear predictions to the experimental values at mid-radius reveals two main regimes. At low normalised collisionality, nu*, and T-e/T-i < 1, the gyrokinetic simulations quantitatively recover experimental carbon density profiles, provided that rotodiffusion is taken into account. In contrast, at higher nu* and T-e/T-i > 1, the very hollow experimental carbon density profiles are never predicted by the simulations and the carbon density peaking is systematically over estimated. This points to a possible missing ingredient in this regime.

  • 231.
    Marcinkevicius, Benjaminas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    A Thin-foil Proton Recoil spectrometer for DT neutrons using annular silicon detectors2019In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, article id P03007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Thin-foil Proton Recoil (TPR) spectrometers to measure neutrons from Deuterium-Tritium (DT) fusion plasma has been studied previously and is a well established technique for neutron spectrometry. The study presented here focuses on the optimisation of the TPR spectrometer configurations consisting of Delta E and E silicon detectors. In addition an investigation of the spectrometer's ability to determine fuel ion temperature and fuel ion density ratio in ITER like DT plasmas has been performed. A Python code was developed for the purpose of calculating detection efficiency and energy resolution as a function of several spectrometer geometrical parameters. An optimisation of detection efficiency for selected values of resolution was performed regarding the geometrical spectrometer parameters using a multi-objective optimisation, a.k.a. Pareto plot analysis. Moreover, the influence of detector segmentation on spectrometer energy resolution and efficiency was investigated. The code also produced response functions for the two selected spectrometer configurations. The SPEC code was used to simulate the spectrometer's performance in determining the fuel ion temperature and fuel ion density ratio n(t)/n(d). The results presented include the selected spectrometer configuration with calculated energy resolution and efficiency. For a selected spectrometer resolution of 5% a maximum efficiency of around 0.003% was achieved. Moreover, the detector segmentation allows for a 20% increase in spectrometer efficiency for an energy resolution of 4.3%. The ITER requirements for a 20% accuracy on the n(t)/n(d) ratio determination and 10% on the temperature determination within a 100 ms sampling window can be achieved using a combination of several TPR's of same type, in order to boost efficiency.

  • 232.
    Marcinkevicius, Benjaminas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Estimates of TPR spectrometer instrumental signal-to-background ratios and count rate limits for ITER like plasmas2019In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, article id C09008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented is a realistic simulation of the response function for a detection efficiency optimized Thin-foil proton recoil (TPR) neutron spectrometer. The TPR spectrometer consists of a thin foil acting as neutron-to-proton converter followed by Delta E-E detectors operating in coincidence mode. In this work, two different spectrometer designs were considered using segmented silicon detectors. Design 1 has slightly better resolution while design 2 is more compact and has higher efficiency. The TPR spectrometer response functions were simulated in the energy range 8-18 MeV in steps of 40 keV for the two designs using the dedicated Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The resulting simulated response functions were broadened using experimentally determined energy resolutions of the detectors, in order to produce more realistic response functions. Using these broadened response functions together with an ITER like neutron spectrum and neutron induced background simulations Delta E/E energy deposition plots were created. The energy-cuts, for 14 MeV neutron signal identification, were applied to the Delta E-E plots leading to an estimate of the expected signal-to-background ratio. In addition, pile-up fraction and maximum expected count rates were estimated. Results show that the Delta E-E energy cuts show a great prospect of increasing the signal-to background ratio for the TPR spectrometer. In addition the TPR spectrometer has energy resolution (FWHM/E) of around 5% for 14 MeV neutrons for both investigated designs. The spectrometer can cope with maximum count rate expected and have a sufficient signal-to-background ratio in the neutron energy range of interest to perform fuel ion ratio measurements. However an increase of acquisition channels would be beneficial to limit the pile-up rate.

  • 233.
    Marcinkevicius, Benjaminas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Thin foil proton recoil spectrometer performance study for application in DT plasma measurements2018In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 89, no 10, article id 10I107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Thin foil Proton Recoil (TPR) technique has previously been used for deuterium-tritium fusion neutron diagnostics [N. P. Hawkes et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1134 (1999)] and is one of the candidates put forward for use in ITER as part of the high resolution neutron spectrometer (HRNS) system [E. A. Sundden et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 701, 62 (2013)]. For ITER, the neutron spectrometer's main purposes are to determine the fuel ion density ratio as well as the ion temperature in DT plasma. This work focuses on testing the capability of a proton telescope detector intended for use as part of the TPR spectrometer. The proton telescope has been tested using proton energies in the range of 3-8 MeV. The experimental results cover energy calibration, resolution estimation, and testing the spectrometer's capability to perform background separation using Delta E - E energy cuts. In addition, spectrometer performance in terms of signal to background ratios for ITER-like DT plasma conditions is estimated using Monte-Carlo simulations. Results show that the TPR-spectrometer geometry dominates in determining the energy resolution and the Delta E - E energy cuts will significantly reduce the background. In addition, the estimated spectrometer count rates in ITER-like conditions fall below 20 kHz per detector segment. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 234.
    Maslov, M.
    et al.
    United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Otwock, Poland.
    Observation of enhanced ion particle transport in mixed H/D isotope plasmas on JET2018In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, no 7, article id 076022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle transport in tokamak plasmas has been intensively studied in the past, particularly in relation to density peaking and the presence of anomalous inward particle convection in L-and H-modes. While in the L-mode case the presence of the anomalous inward pinch has previously been unambiguously demonstrated, particle transport in the H-mode was unclear. The main difficulty of such studies is that particle diffusion and convection could not be measured independently in steady-state conditions in the presence of a core particle flux. Therefore, it is usually not possible to separate the transport effect(inward convection), from the source effect (slow diffusion of particles introduced to the plasma core by neutral beam injection heating). In this work we describe experiments done on JET with mixtures of two hydrogenic isotopes: H and D. It is demonstrated that in the case of several ion species, convection and diffusion can be separated in a steady plasma without implementation of perturbative techniques such as gas puff modulation. Previous H-mode density peaking studies suggested that for this relatively high electron collisionality plasma scenario, the observed density gradient is mostly driven by particle source and low particle diffusivity D < 0.5 * chi(eff). Transport coefficients derived from observation of the isotope profiles in the new experiments far exceed that value-ion particle diffusion is found to be as high as D >= 2 * chi(eff), combined with a strong inward convection. Apparent disagreement with previous findings was explained by significantly faster transport of ion components with respect to the electrons, which could not be observed in a single main ion species plasma. This conclusion is confirmed by quasilinear gyrokinetic simulations.

  • 235. Masuzakil, S.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Analyses of microstructure, composition and retention of hydrogen isotopes in divertor tiles of JET with the ITER-like wall2017In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T170, article id 014031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of the comprehensive surface analyses of divertor tiles and dusts retrieved from JET after the first ITER-like wall campaign (2011-2012) are presented. The samples cored from the divertor tiles were analyzed. Numerous nano-size bubble-like structures were observed in the deposition layer on the apron of the inner divertor tile, and a beryllium dust with the same structures were found in the matter collected from the inner divertor after the campaign. This suggests that the nano-size bubble-like structures can make the deposition layer to become brittle and may lead to cracking followed by dust generation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of chemical states of species in the deposition layers identified the formation of beryllium-tungsten intermetallic compounds on an inner vertical tile. Different tritium retention profiles along the divertor tiles were observed at the top surfaces and at deeper regions of the tiles by using the imaging plate technique.

  • 236. Matos, Francisco A.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Deep learning for plasma tomography using the bolometer system at JET2017In: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 114, p. 18-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep learning is having a profound impact in many fields, especially those that involve some form of image processing. Deep neural networks excel in turning an input image into a set of high-level features. On the other hand, tomography deals with the inverse problem of recreating an image from a number of projections. In plasma diagnostics, tomography aims at reconstructing the cross-section of the plasma from radiation measurements. This reconstruction can be computed with neural networks. However, previous attempts have focused on learning a parametric model of the plasma profile. In this work, we use a deep neural network to produce a full, pixel-by-pixel reconstruction of the plasma profile. For this purpose, we use the overview bolometer system at JET, and we introduce an up-convolutional network that has been trained and tested on a large set of sample tomograms. We show that this network is able to reproduce existing reconstructions with a high level of accuracy, as measured by several metrics.

  • 237. Matthews, G. F.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Energy balance in JET2017In: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss results from the study of the energy balance in JET based on calculated heating energies, radiated energy from bolometry and tile calorimetry. Recent data enables us to be more confident in the numbers used and to exclude certain possibilities but the overall energy imbalance which typically amounts to 25% of total input remains unexplained. This shows that caution is required in interpreting fractional radiated powers which are commonly used to measure the effectiveness of impurity seeded scenarios at reducing divertor heat load. 

  • 238. Matthews, G. F.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Melt damage to the JET ITER-like Wall and divertor2016In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T167, article id 014070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2014, JET completed a scoping study involving high power scenario development in preparation for DT along with other experiments critical for ITER. These experiments have involved intentional and unintentional melt damage both to bulk beryllium main chamber tiles and to divertor tiles. This paper provides an overview of the findings of concern for machine protection in JET and ITER, illustrating each case with high resolution images taken by remote handling or after removal from the machine. The bulk beryllium upper dump plate tiles and some other protection tiles have been repeatedly flash melted by what we believe to be mainly fast unmitigated disruptions. The flash melting produced in this way is seen at all toroidal locations and the melt layer is driven by j x B forces radially outward and upwards against gravity. In contrast, the melt pools caused while attempting to use MGI to mitigate deliberately generated runaway electron beams are localized to several limiters and the ejected material appears less influenced by j. x. B forces and shows signs of boiling. In the divertor, transient melting of bulk tungsten by ELMs was studied in support of the ITER divertor material decision using a specially prepared divertor module containing an exposed edge. Removal of the module from the machine in 2015 has provided improved imaging of the melt and this confirms that the melt layers are driven by ELMs. No other melt damage to the other 9215 bulk tungsten lamellas has yet been observed.

  • 239. Matthews, G. F.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Dynamic power balance analysis in JET2017In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T170, article id 014035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The full scale realisation of nuclear fusion as an energy source requires a detailed understanding of power and energy balance in current experimental devices. In this we explore whether a global power balance model in which some of the calibration factors applied to the source or sink terms are fitted to the data can provide insight into possible causes of any discrepancies in power and energy balance seen in the JET tokamak. We show that the dynamics in the power balance can only be properly reproduced by including the changes in the thermal stored energy which therefore provides an additional opportunity to cross calibrate other terms in the power balance equation. Although the results are inconclusive with respect to the original goal of identifying the source of the discrepancies in the energy balance, we do find that with optimised parameters an extremely good prediction of the total power measured at the outer divertor target can be obtained over a wide range of pulses with time resolution up to similar to 25 ms.

  • 240. Mayer, M.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Erosion and deposition in the JET divertor during the first ILW campaign2016In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T167, article id 014051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Erosion and deposition were studied in the JET divertor during the first JET ITER-like wall campaign 2011 to 2012 using marker tiles. An almost complete poloidal section consisting of tiles 0, 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 was studied. The data from divertor tile surfaces were completed by the analysis of samples from remote divertor areas and from the inner wall cladding. The total mass of material deposited in the divertor decreased by a factor of 4-9 compared to the deposition of carbon during all-carbon JET operation before 2010. Deposits in 2011 to 2012 consist mainly of beryllium with 5-20 at.% of carbon and oxygen, respectively, and small amounts of Ni, Cr, Fe and W. This decrease of material deposition in the divertor is accompanied by a decrease of total deuterium retention inside the JET vessel by a factor of 10 to 20. The detailed erosion/deposition pattern in the divertor with the ITER-like wall configuration shows rigorous changes compared to the pattern with the all-carbon JET configuration.

  • 241. Mayer, M.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Erosion and deposition in the JET divertor during the second ITER-like wall campaign2017In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T170, article id 014058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Erosion of plasma-facing materials and successive transport and redeposition of eroded material are crucial processes determining the lifetime of plasma-facing components and the trapped tritium inventory in redeposited material layers. Erosion and deposition in the JET divertor were studied during the second JET ITER-like wall campaign ILW-2 in 2013-2014 by using a poloidal row of specially prepared divertor marker tiles including the tungsten bulk tile 5. The marker tiles were analyzed using elastic backscattering with 3-4.5 MeV incident protons and nuclear reaction analysis using 0.8-4.5 MeV He-3 ions before and after the campaign. The erosion/deposition pattern observed during ILW-2 is qualitatively comparable to the first campaign ILW-1 in 2011-2012: deposits consist mainly of beryllium with 5-20 at.% of carbon and oxygen and small amounts of Ni and W. The highest deposition with deposited layer thicknesses up to 30 mu m per campaign is still observed on the upper and horizontal parts of the inner divertor. Outer divertor tiles 5, 6, 7 and 8 are net W erosion areas. The observed D inventory is roughly comparable to the inventory observed during ILW-1. The results obtained during ILW-2 therefore confirm the positive results observed in ILW-1 with respect to reduced material deposition and hydrogen isotopes retention in the divertor.

  • 242. McClements, K. G.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, F.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, N.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, C.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, M.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Observations and modelling of ion cyclotron emission observed in JET plasmas using a sub-harmonic arc detection system during ion cyclotron resonance heating2018In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, no 9, article id 096020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements are reported of electromagnetic emission close to the cyclotron frequency of energetic ions in JET plasmas heated by waves in the ion cylotron range of frequencies (ICRF). Hydrogen was the majority ion species in all of these plasmas. The measurements were obtained using a sub-harmonic arc detection system in the transmission lines of one of the ICRF antennas. The measured ion cyclotron emission spectra were strongly filtered by the antenna system, and typically contained sub-structure, consisting of sets of peaks with a separation of a few kHz, suggesting the excitation of compressional Alfven eigenmodes closely spaced in frequency. In most cases the energetic ions can be clearly identified as ICRF wave-accelerated He-3 minority ions, although in two pulses the emission may have been produced by energetic He-4 ions, originating from third harmonic ICRF wave acceleration. It is proposed that the emission close to the He-3 cyclotron frequency was produced by energetic ions of this species undergoing drift orbit excursions to the outer midplane plasma edge. Particle-in-cell and hybrid (kinetic ion, fluid electron) simulations using plasma parameters corresponding to edge plasma conditions in these JET pulses, and energetic particle parameters inferred from the cyclotron resonance location, indicate strong excitation of waves at multiple He-3 cyclotron harmonics, including the fundamental, which is identified with the observed emission. These results underline the potential importance of ICE measurements as a method of studying confined fast particles that are strongly suprathermal but have insufficient energies or are not present in sufficient numbers to excite detectable levels of gamma-ray emission or other collective instabilities.

  • 243. Mlynar, Jan
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Current Research into Applications of Tomography for Fusion Diagnostics2019In: Journal of fusion energy, ISSN 0164-0313, E-ISSN 1572-9591, Vol. 38, no 3-4, p. 458-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrieving spatial distribution of plasma emissivity from line integrated measurements on tokamaks presents a challenging task due to ill-posedness of the tomography problem and limited number of the lines of sight. Modern methods of plasma tomography therefore implement a-priori information as well as constraints, in particular some form of penalisation of complexity. In this contribution, the current tomography methods under development (Tikhonov regularisation, Bayesian methods and neural networks) are briefly explained taking into account their potential for integration into the fusion reactor diagnostics. In particular, current development of the Minimum Fisher Regularisation method is exemplified with respect to real-time reconstruction capability, combination with spectral unfolding and other prospective tasks.

  • 244.
    Monakhov, I.
    et al.
    Culham Sci Ctr, CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Otwock, Poland.
    ICRH antenna &ITS&IT-matrix measurements and plasma coupling characterisation at JET2018In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, no 4, article id 046012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is dedicated to the characterisation of multi-strap ICRH antenna coupling to plasma. Relevance of traditional concept of coupling resistance to antennas with mutually coupled straps is revised and the importance of antenna port excitation consistency for application of the concept is highlighted. A method of antenna S-matrix measurement in presence of plasma is discussed allowing deeper insight into the problem of antenna-plasma coupling. The method is based entirely on the RF plant hardware and control facilities available at JET and it involves application of variable phasing between the antenna straps during the RF plant operations at >100 kW. Unlike traditional techniques relying on low-power (similar to 10 mW) network analysers, the applied antenna voltage amplitudes are relevant to practical conditions of ICRH operations; crucially, they are high enough to minimise possible effects of antenna loading non-linearity due to the RF sheath effects and other phenomena which could affect low-power measurements. The method has been successfully applied at JET to conventional 4-port ICRH antennas energised at frequencies of 33 MHz, 42 MHz and 51 MHz during L.-mode plasma discharges while different gas injection modules (GIMs) were used to maintain comparable plasma densities during the pulses. The S-matrix assessment and its subsequent processing yielding 'global' antenna coupling resistances in conditions of equalised port maximum voltages allowed consistent description of antenna coupling to plasma at different strap phasing, operational frequencies and applied GIMs. Comprehensive experimental characterisation of mutually coupled antenna straps in presence of plasma also provided a unique opportunity for in-depth verification of TOPICA computer simulations.

  • 245. Moon, Sunwoo
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    First mirror test in JET for ITER: Complete overview after three ILW campaigns2019In: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 19, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The First Mirror Test for ITER has been carried out in JET with mirrors exposed during: (i) the third ILW campaign (ILW-3, 2015-2016, 23.33 h plasma) and (ii) all three campaigns, i.e. ILW-1 to ILW-3: 2011-2016, 63,52 h in total. All mirrors from main chamber wall show no significant changes of the total reflectivity from the initial value and the diffuse reflectivity does not exceed 3% in the spectral range above 500 nm. The modified layer on surface has very small amount of impurities such as D, Be, C, N, O and Ni. All mirrors from the divertor (inner, outer, base under the bulk W tile) lost reflectivity by 20-80% due to the beryllium-rich deposition also containing D, C, N, O, Ni and W. In the inner divertor N reaches 5 x 10(17) cm(-2), W is up to 4.3 x 10(17) cm(-2), while the content of Ni is the greatest in the outer divertor: 3.8 x 10(17) cm(-2). Oxygen-18 used as the tracer in experiments at the end of ILW-3 has been detected at the level of 1.1 x 10(16) cm(-2). The thickness of deposited layer is in the range of 90 nm to 900 nm. The layer growth rate in the base (2.7 pm s(-1)) and inner divertor is proportional to the exposure time when a single campaign and all three are compared. In a few cases, on mirrors located at the cassette mouth, flaking of deposits and erosion occurred.

  • 246. Moro, F.
    et al.
    Esposito, B.
    Marocco, D.
    Villari, R.
    Petrizzi, L.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Gatu Johnson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dapena, M.
    Neutronic calculations in support of the design of the ITER High Resolution Neutron Spectrometer2011In: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 86, no 6-8, p. 1277-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of neutronic calculations performed to address important issues related to the optimization of the ITER HRNS (High resolution Neutron Spectrometer) design, in particular concerning the definition of the collimator and the choice of the detector system. The calculations have been carried out using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code in a full 3-D geometry. The HRNS collimation system has been included in the latest MCNP ITER 40 model (Alite-4). The ITER scenario 2 reference DT plasma fusion neutron source peaked at 14.1 MeV with Gaussian energy distribution has been used. Neutron fluxes and energy spectra (>1 MeV) have been evaluated at different positions along the HRNS collimator and at the detector location. The noise-to-signal ratio (i.e. the ratio of collided to uncoilided neutrons), the breakdown of the collided spectrum into its components, the dependency on the first wall aperture and the gamma-ray spectra at the detector position have also been analyzed. The impact of the results on the design of the HRNS diagnostic system is discussed.

  • 247. Moser, L.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, N.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Investigation and plasma cleaning of first mirrors coated with relevant ITER contaminants: beryllium and tungsten2017In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, no 8, article id 086019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to extend the investigation of the plasma cleaning of ITER first mirrors, a set of molybdenum mirrors was coated in a laboratory with ITER-relevant contaminants, namely beryllium and tungsten. Different coating techniques as well as several contaminant compositions were used to ensure a large variety of films to clean, completing a previous study conducted on mirrors exposed in the JET ITER-like wall (tokamak deposits) [ 1]. Due to the toxicity of beryllium, the samples were treated in a vacuum chamber specially built for this purpose. The cleaning was performed using capacitively coupled RF plasma and evaluated by performing reflectivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis. The removal of all types of contaminants was achieved by using different plasma compositions (argon, helium and mixtures of the two) with various ion energies (from 200-600 eV) and in some cases the mirror's reflectivity was restored towards initial values. Pure helium discharges were capable of removing mixed beryllium/tungsten layers and oxidized molybdenum. In addition, no significant increase in the diffuse reflectivity of the mirrors was observed for the helium cleaning, though this was the case for some samples cleaned with argon. Helium is therefore appropriate for cleaning all mirrors in ITER leading to a possible cleaning regime where the entire vessel is filled with He and all mirrors are cleaned simultaneously without damaging their surfaces.

  • 248. Moulton, D.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, F.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, N.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, C.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, M.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Neutral pathways and heat flux widths in vertical- and horizontal-target EDGE2D-EIRENE simulations of JET2018In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, no 9, article id 096029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper further analyses the EDGE2D-EIRENE simulations presented by Chankin et al (2017 Nucl. Mater. Energy 12 273), of L-mode JET plasmas in vertical-vertical (VV) and Vertical-horizontal (VH) divertor configurations. As expected, the simulated outer divertor ionisation source peaks near the separatrix in VV and radially further out in VH. We identify the reflections of recycled neutrals from lower divertor tiles as the primary mechanism by which ionisation is concentrated on the outer divertor separatrix in the VV configuration. These lower tile reflection pathways (of neutrals from the outer divertor, and to an even greater extent from the inner divertor) dominate the outer divertor separatrix ionisation. In contrast, the lower-tile-reflection pathways are much weaker in the VII simulation and its outer divertor ionisation is dominated by neutrals which do not reflect from any surfaces. Interestingly, these differences in neutral pathways give rise to strong differences in the heat flux density width lambda(q) at the outer divertor entrance: lambda(q) = 3.2 mm in VH compared to lambda(q) = 11.8 mm in VV. In VH, a narrow channel exists in the near scrape-off-layer (SOL) where the convected heat flux, driven by strong E-r x B flow and thermoelectric current, dominates over the conducted heat flux. The width of this channel sets lambda(q) and is determined by the radial distance between the separatrix and the ionisation peak in the outer divertor.

  • 249. Murari, A.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Application of transfer entropy to causality detection and synchronization experiments in tokamaks2016In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 56, no 2, article id 026006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of causal-effect relationships can be a difficult task even in the analysis of time series. This is particularly true in the case of complex, nonlinear systems affected by significant levels of noise. Causality can be modelled as a flow of information between systems, allowing to better predict the behaviour of a phenomenon on the basis of the knowledge of the one causing it. Therefore, information theoretic tools, such as the transfer entropy, have been used in various disciplines to quantify the causal relationship between events. In this paper, Transfer Entropy is applied to determining the information relationship between various phenomena in Tokamaks. The proposed approach provides unique insight about information causality in difficult situations, such as the link between sawteeth and ELMs and ELM pacing experiments. The application to the determination of disruption causes, and therefore to the classification of disruption types, looks also very promising. The obtained results indicate that the proposed method can provide a quantitative and statistically sound criterion to address the causal-effect relationships in various difficult and ambiguous situations if the data is of sufficient quality.

  • 250. Murari, A.
    et al.
    Andersson Sundén, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Asp, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Binda, Federico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Conroy, Sean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Dzysiuk, Nataliia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sjöstrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Skiba, Mateusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Determining the prediction limits of models and classifiers with applications for disruption prediction in JET2017In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 57, no 1, article id 016024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the many aspects of tokamak physics requires the development of quite sophisticated models. Moreover, in the operation of the devices, prediction of the future evolution of discharges can be of crucial importance, particularly in the case of the prediction of disruptions, which can cause serious damage to various parts of the machine. The determination of the limits of predictability is therefore an important issue for modelling, classifying and forecasting. In all these cases, once a certain level of performance has been reached, the question typically arises as to whether all the information available in the data has been exploited, or whether there are still margins for improvement of the tools being developed. In this paper, a theoretical information approach is proposed to address this issue. The excellent properties of the developed indicator, called the prediction factor (PF), have been proved with the help of a series of numerical tests. Its application to some typical behaviour relating to macroscopic instabilities in tokamaks has shown very positive results. The prediction factor has also been used to assess the performance of disruption predictors running in real time in the JET system, including the one systematically deployed in the feedback loop for mitigation purposes. The main conclusion is that the most advanced predictors basically exploit all the information contained in the locked mode signal on which they are based. Therefore, qualitative improvements in disruption prediction performance in JET would need the processing of additional signals, probably profiles.

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