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  • 201.
    Chronholm Wilander, Christin
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    "Hon är ju inte klok!": en essä om skitsnack på arbetsplatser2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about gossip (the swedish word ”skitsnack” hasn´t an english word that means the same thing. ”Skitsnack” means everything from smalltalk, to gossip, to slander. I use gossip because it is quite near) and social interaction in the workplace, seen from different perspectives. Starting with two scenarios taken from my professional life in pre-school, I discuss based on theories in order to understand why I acted and communicated as I did in those events and what influences an individual's actions. My stories describe an event where I have opinions about what one colleague says about our manager, and another event where my colleagues are upset about how our manager expresses herself in a letter. The research questions are about what gossip is, why it occurs and continues, and what can influence how people interact and communicate with their colleagues. I try in this essay to interpret how I communicate in the described situations and what lies behind my behavior. I give an explanation of how to identify what gossip is and how to interpret the social interaction between colleagues through three ethical perspectives - professional ethics, deontology and discourse ethics. Through theories of group dynamics and power I interpret the situations and my actions. I conclude that gossip can be seen to range from small talk to slander. I describe that there is much that lies behind an individual's way of communicating in the workplace, for example the culture within an organization as well as the ethical thoughts of the individual and the group. Uncertainty and lack of clarity is one factor that emerges and this may affect the way we talk to, or about, each other within a group. Beyond that, I concluded that a pre-school can be an indistinct organization since working in teams may clash with a hierarchical model that is described in the curriculum.

  • 202.
    Chunhua Hu, Dorrie
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Konflikthantering i förskolan: En intervjustudie kring sex förskollärares syn på konflikter och konflikthantering inom förskoleverksamheten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The impetus for this study came from my own experiences at the pre-schools. I noticed that in the pre-school there are different types of conflicts that need to be resolved or managed every day. How conflicts are handled by pre-school teachers seems to be dependent on how each pre-school teacher responds to the conflict. In connection with this, the aim of this study is to examine pre-school teachers' perceptions of the interpersonal conflict between children and how these conflicts are handled. Three research questions were formulated to attain this aim: a) how do pre-school teachers perceive the interpersonal conflict between children at pre-school? b) how are children's interpersonal conflict managed according to pre-school teachers? c) what role do pre-school teachers consider themselves to have during the children's interpersonal conflict management?

    The theoretical framework in this study is based on Richard Cohen's The ideal system of conflict resolution, that describes four different levels of conflict strategies and how they work systematically. The study employs qualitative method and semi-structured interview as a tool to acquire information to be analyzed. The semi-structured interview conducted with six pre-school teachers. Interview and the conversations were audio-recorded and transcribed. The study employed thematic analysis and generated the following themes: a) view on peers’ conflict, b) conflict management and c) pre-schools teacher’s role during conflict management.

    The findings and the conclusions drawn are that awareness of causes of children’s interpersonal conflicts give the pre-school teacher confidence and they can see that the children develop social skills through the conflicts. The study emphasises the importance of preventive work before conflict happens, such as to work to instil basic values and good friendship with the pre-schoolers. In addition, the study emphasises the importance communication during conflict management, and the role of the pre-school teacher as a mediator, facilitator and guide.

  • 203.
    Ciliz, Alexandra Izla
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Kodväxlingens roll: en studie om hur nyanlända elever använder sig av kodväxling i samarbete med varandra i svenskämnet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim is to study how two newly-arrived pupils in the subject of Swedish cooperate with each other through code-switching.

    The study is based on a qualitative method with three observations during classes in the subject of Swedish. The study showed me that newly arrived pupils use a lot of codeswitching when they are paired up with each other. In particular, this study found that they used code-switching when their vocabulary in Swedish did not suffice, as well as when they had problems with interpreting certain words.

    In most cases, the subjects show a preference for intrasentiell code-switching (switching within the sentence for a few words) over the intersentiell variety, although both occur.

  • 204.
    Claesson, Ulrica
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Tid för demokrati?: En vetenskaplig essä om delaktighet, ansvar och val i förskolan varje ny dag, år efter år2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här essän handlar om hur jag under min erfarenhetsbaserade förskollärarutbildning blivit alltmer tvivlande och kritisk till hur jag och mina kollegor konkretiserar demokratiuppdraget i förskolans läroplan. Essäns kärna finns i relationen mellan barns tankar och idéer här och nu och pedagogers fasta och styrande ram för hur dagarna ska se ut. Syftet med denna essä är att nyansera fler sätt att se på situationer där vuxna ser det som självklart att barn äger delaktighet och inflytande för att relativisera vår kunskap kring begreppens innehåll. Jag undersöker vilken kunskap pedagoger behöver utveckla för att ge både barnen och sig själva makt att arbeta mer demokratiskt. Essän bygger på en berättelse med två situationer från min förskolas verksamhet. Den första delen gestaltar mitt agerande i mötet med barns frågor om tid i relation till en förändrad dagsstruktur. Den andra delen gestaltar min upplevelse av att jag och en kollega har olika syn på barns delaktighet i en valsituation. Utifrån berättelsen försöker jag att svara på frågor som, hur uppfattar och lär sig barn tid? Förmår förskolebarn ta rationella beslut? Kan demokrati i förskolan handla om mer än att barnen ska få välja? Jag har använt mig av skrivande och reflektion som metod. Ihop med studentkamrater och handledare har jag reflekterat utåt genom dialog. Jag har även haft en inre dialog med mig själv och reflekterat i tankarna. I min essä utgår jag från teorier som fenomenologi och hermeneutik vilka utgår från erfarenheten och bygger på upplevelser, tolkningar och förståelse av fenomen som uppstår i människans medvetande. Reflektionen och dialogen med människor och texter har varit viktig i min process för att synliggöra mina tankegångar och för att kunna inta olika perspektiv och kritiskt granska mig själv. Ett av de huvudsakliga resultaten är att demokrati i förskolan förutsätter pedagoger som vågar stanna kvar i tvivlen och de kritiska tankarna, som vrider och vänder på de egna föreställningarna om delaktighet, inflytande, tid, barn, vuxna och kunskap. Demokrati kan inte läras ut till barn utan det är en process som ständigt pågår och levs i vardagen. Resultaten kan inte generaliseras till alla pedagogers arbete utan det är mina egna tankar och kunskaper som har blivit fördjupade.

  • 205.
    Clive, Dean
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    MIK, what are the boundaries?: A study of media and Information literacy in relation to youth culture and the extended school environment.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to observe how, and if, the concept of Media and Information Literacy (Medie-och informationskunnighet in Swedish) was used in the extended school environment. In Swedish primary schools, 21stcentury skills, such as critical thinking, are beginning to be implemented, butis that also the case with the fritidshem? In this study, I have used fiveobservations to examine the situation at a specific school that has a vision ofsustainability and focus of extensively working with information andcommunication technologies. Would this school break down the boundaries, andstatus divide, that often exist between school and fritidshem?

  • 206.
    Cordova Almonacid, Jennifer
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    ”Som jag gör nu får man inte göra.”: En kvalitativ undersökning om hur pedagoger i förskolan utövar sin makt över barn i konfliktsituationer2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine how pedagogues practice their authority over children in conflict situations at preschools. How are children treated based solely on them being children? And how do preschool teachers validate children’s experiences of conflicts? To get answers I proceeded by using a qualitative data collection method and a hermeneutical analysis. I collected the material for the study by observing and interviewing pedagogues to both get an idea of ​​how they act in practice and how they reason about conflict situations in the preschool. The essay is based on a childhood sociological theoretical perspective that recognizes the importance of social and cultural context. The study’s results show that pedagogues practice their authority over children in conflict situations, but that it is done in different ways. How they practice authority, treat and validate children’s experiences depend on the pedagogues’ child perspective. Even though all the pedagogues in the study want what’s best for the children, the various conflict situations have completely different outcomes, since the pedagogues interpret children and their actions in very different ways, resulting in different responses and attitudes towards the children. The consequences of these different ways to respond need to be questioned and reflected upon. It’s time that the way pedagogues practice their authority and the way they see children is brought up for discussions within the world of preschool education.

  • 207.
    Cordy, Erica
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    I linje med läroplanen?: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av det engelska läromedlet Magic! 1-32019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to answer whether the teaching material Magic! 1 – 3 can be used without complementary material to convey the subject content and the didactic elements presented as central in the curriculum. The questions the study aims to answer are how well Magic! 1 – 3 is in line with the curriculum's central content and whether it can be used in teaching without complementary teaching material.

    This study is carried out through a qualitative content analysis of the English teaching material Magic! intended for grades 1, 2 and 3. The teaching material Magic! includes a printed and a digital copy where the content is analyzed qualitatively. Each task is quantified as possible elements for the student to practice a skill and can be categorized several times.  

    The theoretical starting points of the thesis are based on curriculum theory with a focus on the formulation arena and the transformation arena. The curriculum is a result of the decisions that have been made within the formulation arena and, based on that, the textbook authors are a part of the transformation arena, i.e. those who transform the content of the curriculum. By using the theory of constructive alignment, the questions of the study can be answered.   

    The tasks in Magic! 1–3 conveys all the points that are written out as central content in the curriculum, but there are some instances where the teacher needs to actively decide whether it is enough for his/her classroom.

  • 208.
    Da Campo, Adeile
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    De hundra aspekterna av lyssnandet i en förskola i Reggio Emilia: Hur lyssnandet upplevs och utförs i praktiken - en fenomenologisk studie2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to investigate how “listening” takes placein apreschool in Reggio Emilia, a city in northern Italy. This is a phenomenological study that investigates “listening” as a phenomenon based on children ́sand pedagogues ́ experiences. Three pedagogues and eleven children was interviewed in order to get knowledge about three main aspects: how “listening” is interpreted by pedagogues and children and put in practice in a Reggio Emilia pedagogy-also known as “the pedagogy of listening”; if children experience that they are being listened to and whether they have an influence in the preschool ́s activities; and whether the Reggio Emilia pedagogy affects the relationship between pedagogues and children. The findings show that “listening” is a complex concept that includes a variety of meanings that result in many different interpretations on how to put it in to practice. As described in other studies there is a risk of making children objects of adult research, thus affecting a genuine relationship between pedagogues and children. In these studies, the Reggio Emilia pedagogy is described as a method with fixed and rigid techniques of listening. According to the results in this study this seems to be avoidable by considering the Reggio Emilia pedagogy as an approach that is adaptable to different children groups, as well asactively involving children in their own documentation process. The results also demonstrate that children donot feel that they area part of the decision making when it comes to the preschool ́s activities. This is due to the fact that children’s interests are subject to interpretation by the pedagogues, who then often redirect them towards more desirable contents according to their own intentions. Also, the preschool environment is seen as a “third pedagogue” as it communicates to the children which activities and interactions are considered possible in a certain space.

  • 209.
    Dahlby, Jack
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Läroplanens dramatiska kurva: En dramapedagogisk läsning av Lgr 112016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates what value educational drama is given in the current national curricula for the compulsory school in Sweden, Lgr 11 and how that relates to a similar study of the four previous curricula. The background to the study presents Mia Marie F. Sternudds disseratiton Dramapedagogik som demokratisk fostran? and uses the four perspectives on educational drama and the analysis of four earlier national curricula, Lgr 62, Lgr 69, Lgr 80 and Lpo 94. The four perspectives are presented along with other definitions of educational drama in Sweden to form the base of analysis in this study; the drama-imperative. The background also presents different epistemological views as a way to show how educational drama relates to a more progressive view on knowledge than traditional education in school. Ivan Illich’s Deschooling Society serves as a counter-weight to traditional education in the background. The results show that all four perspectives of educational drama can be found in Lgr 11, but in varying strength, the discussion suggests that it means that Lgr 11 is open for educational drama but does not explicitly suggest so. This also relates to Sternudds findings which show a movement towards a more progressive epistemological view in the curricula but without necessarily relating this to educational drama.

  • 210.
    Dahlgren-Syrén, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Axemar, Josefin
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    "Sätt dig ner på rumpan": En kvalitativ studie om förskolans samling ur ett makt- och motståndsperspektiv.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to discover how preschool teachers use their power toward children in circle time, and the different types of strategies of resistance children express as a response to the teacher's power performance. The analys is based on Michel Foucault's theory on power. This study focus on circle time in preschool, which plays a central role in daily activities where norms and rules create expectations for children about how they should behave. According to Foucault ́s theory the power exist where there is resistance. Norms is often used as a power implement in these contexts. We have used a qualitative method for this study, and observations have been made to collect data. The observations take place in two different departments in a preschool in Stockholm. This study shows that circle time still has the same structure today as it did when it originated in the 1800s. This structure includes the children being placed in a circle and that an adult who oversees leading the activity, which is a group adapted activity. The results also show a distinct power structure at circle time in preschools and that it affects children's choice to resist. Which indicates childrens impact and participation in preschool. The results of this study show that preschool teachers also have different personal approaches and rules during circle time. Which means that children will not adapt to the general rules in preschool as much as they adapt the leading teachers approach in circle time.

  • 211.
    Dahlin, Alexandra
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Barn i behov av särskilt stöd: Vad avgör?2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to examine preschool-teachers perception of how “special support” differs from support to try to define the educator’s perception of the term special support. My research questions are: how differs special support from support? What does it take for a child to get special support for its needs? How does the assessment work? How interprets the respondent the mission in the curriculum and quote from Skolverkets general advice?

    I have made a qualitative survey with interviews as my data collection method. The theory which I have used are social constructive theory which permeate my analysis. I have also used two special educational perspectives, individual perspective and relational perspective, in the analysis to make visible how educators and the assessment liable consider children’s difficulties.

    The result shows that the preschool-teachers interpret the term “special support” differently. What they commonly define as a child in need of special support is that the child needs guidance/ support by a grown up in all situations most part, or all parts of the day. There are varying views of whether there are any differences between special support and support. The preschool-teachers interpret the quotes from the curriculum and Skolverkets general advice a bit differently, where one half felt that Skolverkets formulation more clearly highlighted children’s rights and the other half didn’t think that there was any difference. The result also shows that the educators feel that the economy doesn’t allow that the children to get the support that they need.

  • 212.
    Danielsson, Frida
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Spring för livet: En studie om barns fysiska aktivitet på rasten i förskoleklass2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka barns fysiska aktivitet i den fria leken i en förskoleklass. I denna fältstudie används observationer under tider då barn leker fritt. Studien kompletterats även med intervjuer. Avsikten med studien är att skapa en förståelse för vad barn väljer att leka och aktivera sig med på en tid som är fri och inte styrd av pedagog, men också om hur pedagoger och miljön är påverkande för barns val av lek. Studien grundar sig på en sociokulturell teori. Forskning visar på att barn idag är inaktiva och det har många negativa påföljder.

    De slutsatser som studien visar är att de barn som ingår i studien är samtliga fysiskt aktiva i den fria leken, men att pojkar och flickors lekar ser delvis olika ut. Det framkommer i studien att miljö och pedagoger är viktiga komponenter för barns fysiska aktivitet.

  • 213.
    David, Sara
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Barsom, Jasmin
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Pedagogisk dokumentation i förskolan: Barns delaktighet och integritet i samband med pedagogisk dokumentation2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how preschool teachers document children and what is documented.The questions that we want answered are:

    What affect do the power of preschool teachers have in the relationship between the preschool teachers and the children during the documentation process?

    In what way are children involved in the documentation process in preschool?

    How do the preschool teachers protect the children's integrity when they work with educational documentation?

    In our theory we have chosen to use Michel Foucault's theory on the concept of power, but we will also use the theories of Åberg & Lenz Taguchi, Lindgren & Sparrman and Juul & Jens who all explain the meaning of integrity and participation while working with the educational documentation in preschool. As method we chose to interview and observe six preschool teachers that work in two different preschools. The preschools are located in two different municipalities in Stockholm.The result of our study showed that educational documentation is a useful tool in preschool, because it provides the opportunity to improve and develop preschool activities. It also provides the opportunity to follow up children’s learning and development. The children should be involved in the educational documentation in preschool and the preschool teachers should always consider the children’s integrity while working with educational documentation. Preschool teachers may however find it difficult to protect the integrity of the children while working with educational documentation.

  • 214.
    Deb Roy, Abir
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Ud-Din, Thomas
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Positionering bland fritidspersonal i skolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to highlight and analyze the interaction between recreation instructors and class teachers during ordinary school time. The study is based on a qualitative method in form of semi-structured interviews and observations in three different schools. We have used the positioning theory and complemented it with Goffman´s theory and professionalization theory for analysis of interviews.

    One of the conclusions of the study was that the recreation instructor often ends up in a subordinate position towards the class teacher. However, there was a difference regarding the professional role of the experienced towards unexperienced recreation instructor. This happened both intentionally and unconsciously from roles that can be difficult to break out from.

  • 215.
    Deiters, Jenny
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    "Sluta! Du får inte vara med!": En normkritisk essä om pedagogens inflytande på barns fria lek i förskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: "Stop! You can't play with me!" A norm-critical essay on how the teacher influences children's free play at preschool

    Abstract

    This essay is based on two cases describing two children in a few different situations at preschool. These cases form the basis of a dilemma, discussing how involved the teacher should be in children's free play. The dilemma poses questions regarding the teacher’s actions when a child does not want to play with other children, as well as a child that seems incapable of playing with other children. The cases help highlight the implicit idea that children should play with other children. My purpose is to investigate what implicit normative ideas exists about children playing at preschool and to what extent they form my own notion about the necessity for children to be able to play.

    The method used in this paper is a reflective essay. This enables it possible for me to reflect on my role as a teacher and how I act in the different cases.

    The reflective part of the essay focuses on answering posed questions, with the basis of discussion being the Swedish curriculum for preschool and its influences. Further, the essay discusses the origin of my own ideas about how children should play originate from. The focus then moves to a sociocultural perspective, specially how children learn and develop when they interact with each other. This section of the essay also discusses norms at preschool, developed from an interpretation of the curriculum, as well as existing ideas about children playing and children as competent learners. Finally, the essay also discusses current research on children and how they play, as well as current research on the importance of involved teachers, put in relation to the two children portrayed in the presented cases.

    My conclusion is that the teacher is subject to the curriculum, and needs to act according to its content. A significant part of the work is creating a safe environment for the children. The curriculum of the Swedish preschool, and the implicit theories that help shape it, act as a guide to the teacher’s actions. It states that children should explore the world around them; hence there are norms about how a child should play.

    Keywords: preschool, free play, social interaction, norms, involved teachers, curriculum 

  • 216.
    Delic, Gordana
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Matematik i förskolan: Förskollärares förhållningssätt till matematik2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences and preferences of preschool teachers in Mathematics, and analyze how they apply their visualization of Mathematics in preschool. The study aims to examine how the teachers' own perceptions form their mathematical subjectivity and mathematical skills.

    Data collection was done through interviews. Six preschool teachers from two different preschools participated in the survey. The teachers spoke about their own mathematical experiences in school and talked about their experiences in working with preschool children.

    The results show that the participants have a positive attitude towards preschool mathematics. It also shows how their mathematical subjectivity changed over time due to increased knowledge and experiences that they create through working with children. Before the curriculum was introduced in 1998, the preschool teachers' understanding of mathematics comprise only of children learning to count. With the new curriculum, the preschool teachers were able to have the opportunity to develop their understanding about preschool mathematics. The participants in this study did. All six preschool teachers in this study showed that they have a mathematical awareness with a varying degree in competence development depending on the individual's interests, commitment and experiences.

  • 217.
    Diaz, Hilda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Taube-Sandelin, Maria
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    “Vi är olika med lika värde”: Etniskt mångfald i förskolan: En kvalitativ studie om hur förskollärare hanterar och talar om barns etniska olikheter under samlingen i förskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to gain knowledge about how preschool teachers talk about the handling of children's ethnic differences circle time. In order to collect data, qualitative interviews with preschool teachers at five different pre-schools in the Stockholm area have been selected. In the result analyzed with discourse analysis as applied and through Laclau and Mouffe's discourse theory, eight different concepts (characters) emerged which preschool teachers use when talking about children's ethnic differences. The result shows which discourses are actualized when preschool teachers talk about children's ethnic differences. Within the various discourses it emerges that preschool teachers talk about differences by using the concepts of differences, language, culture, ethnicity, interculturalism, justice, identity and equal value. Some of the preschool teachers talk about the concept of ethnic differences as a possible exclusion of children's equal value, which means that they instead want to talk about similarities. What has emerged from the study is that the concept of ethnic differences can be replaced by ethnic diversity in order to enable another meaning which also covers everyone's equal value.

  • 218.
    Dijana, Matic
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Pamela, Acevedo
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Det ska vara roligt på förskolan!: En kvalitativ studie om fyra förskollärares tankar och förhållningssätt kring barns inflytande2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how preschool teachers are working together with the children, and how much the children actually influence the work. In order to examine this, a qualitative study has been made, examining four preschool teachers thought and attitudes towards children's influence in some of the most important parts of their daily work. The study examines how preschool teachers are working with the children's influence in early childhood education. This is also the main purpose of the study.

    The questions made in the study to answer the main purpose are:

    • What does the preschool teacher think of the term democracy in general?
    • What do preschool teachers think about children's influence and how do they work practically with this in their daily work?
    • How does the preschool curriculum define children's influence?
    • To what extent does children's influence get limited in the daily work?

    The study has used previous research about children's influence in preschool andalso uses the preschool curriculum and the CRC. It shows that the participating preschool teachers working with children's influence within the various parts of preschool activities do so by taking advantage of the children's interests and opinions. At the same time, there may be situations where the children are not given as much influence. The study also shows that teachers assume the perspective of children and child perspective.

  • 219.
    Dincer, Cafer
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Programmering in på schemat i ny skolstrategi: En kvalitativ studie om programmering inom teknikundervisningen på mellanstadiet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the survey is to find out what material for programming as a teacher uses in technology education in grades 4-6. Another aim is to investigate how the problem solving ability are trained in these teachers' teachings, and why the teachers use these materials. In order to answer the purpose and the questions, interviews and observations were used as methods. In this study, I came from the theories of computational thinking, constructivism and constructionism that the theorists believe are important mindset and skills for success in programming. The result shows that teachers use varied materials in the teaching and it turned out that the students practiced problem solving regardless of material. However, the teacher's didactic choice decides if and how much it will do it.

  • 220.
    Djedovic, Irma
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Analys av ämnesspecifika begrepp i kraft: En jämförelse mellan två läroböcker i fysik för årskurs 4-62016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to compare the subject-specific concepts and their use in two chapters dealing with the subject force in two different physics textbooks for grades 4-6. To achieve the aim, the following questions have been formulated:

    • What subject-specific concepts are used and how often?
    • What representations are used to clarify the subject-specific concepts?

    To achieve the purpose and the issues raised in the paper, the chapter will be analysed with two different content analysis. The material will then be analysed based on Vygotsky's theory of the development of scientific concepts.

    The results show that both chapters have about as many subject-specific concepts in comparison to the rest of the words in the chapters. One of the chapters show greater variety of representations with different contexts than the second chapter. Both chapters have used everyday contexts when the subject-specific concepts were explained, but one of the chapters show that different contexts were used depending on the subject-specific concepts.

  • 221.
    Djedovivc, Irma
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Ämnesinnehållet i läroböcker: En undersökning av de ämnesspecifika begreppen i kemi2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of subject-specific concepts in chemistry books within a chosen topic. The following questions have been formulated:

    • What subject-specific concepts are present and with what frequency?
    • In what way, do they clarify the subject-specific concepts?

    To achieve the purpose and the issues raised in the paper, the chapter will be analysed with two different content analysis. The material will then be analysed based on Vygotsky's theory of the development of scientific concepts.The results show that the chapters use different subject-specific concept.

    In addition, the amount also varied significantly. The frequency of the subject-specific concepts was low in all three chapters. The chapter had a large variety of representations, but the chapters showed no resemblance to how they were clarified. The study can be interpreted as demonstrating that the textbooks have very different subject content, which in turn, given the role of the textbook in the study, can influence the subject knowledge acquired as a student.

  • 222.
    Djeordjic, Tijana
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    "Jag har bara sagt det så, för att andra inte ska skratta åt mig": En kvalitativ ämnesdidaktisk studie om traditionella könsroller ur ett elevperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [no]

    The purpose of this study is to find out from a didactic perspective, how traditional gender roles emerge in the classroom and the conceptions of traditional gender roles. This is explored from a student’s perspective. The theoretical frame of this study is gender system, which consists of the principles of separation and hierarchy. The survey is conducted in two classes in third grade. This study answers following questions:

    • How do traditional gender roles appear in the classroom from a student´s perspective?
    • Which conception exist about traditional gender roles from a student's perspective?

    The study is based on observations and interviews, which is analysed of the gender system theory and the theoretical concept traditional gender roles. The results of this study show that the students' behavior in the classroom and their thinking are mostly based on the traditional gender roles, which is characterized mostly by the principles of separation and hierarchy.  However, some situations and statements show a change, in which the principles of separation and hierarchy are questioned. The individual situations reflect that the transfer of the gender contract is minimized from one generation to another.

  • 223.
    Djeordjic, Tijana
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Jämställt eller inte?: En undersökning av läroböcker i ämnet engelska för årskurs tre utifrån ett genusperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out whether and to what extent there has been a change in how boys/men and girls/women are represented in textbooks which are used for teaching English in the third grade of primary school. The study compares six textbooks published between the years 2002 and 2017 to investigate the purpose of this study. The theoretical framework of the study is Hirdman’s (1988) two gender principles (separation and hierarchy) and terms such as equality, male and female. The study uses a quantitative research method to analyze texts and images in the textbooks. To fulfill the purpose of this study, the following questions are investigated: - Are girls/women and boys/men represented to the same extent in the texts and images in the textbooks used for teaching English in the third grade? Has this changed over time? - What characteristics are associated with girls/women and boys/men in the texts and images in the textbooks used for teaching English in the third grade? Has this changed over time? The results of the study show that men are represented more often in text and images overall, especially in the books that are published in 2017. However, in one of the books, which was published in 2003, men and women are represented equally frequently (50% men and 50% women) in the images. For the categories active and passive, men are more often portrayed as active and women are more often as passive both in the text and in the images. However, in the books from 2002 and 2003, men and women are portrayed as active almost equally often in the text and the images. Furthermore, while the frequencies are relatively low, the results show that men are often portrayed as being strong. Nevertheless, in three of the six analyzed books, the same number of men and women are portrayed as being strong. For the category beautiful, only men are portrayed as beautiful and no woman is portrayed as beautiful in the six analyzed books. The last category that is analyzed is sport. The results show that the number of men shown to be doing some sport activity is higher than for women. One general conclusion that can be drawn regarding whether the representation of men and women has changed over time is that the most recent books show gender inequality when subjected to closer scrutiny.

  • 224.
    Duvner, Kajsa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Ring, Karin
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Förskolegårdens miljö: Föreställningar och förväntningar omförskolegårdens olika platser och material2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to gain deeper knowledge in how the outdoor environment and materials in the preschool yard affect children in their play and what thoughts the preschool teachers have about it. In order to achieve this, we researched which environment in the preschool yard is the most popular among the children and why. In addition, we investigated if there are any differences between boys’ and girls’ choice of place.The methods used are quantitative observations, using an observation schedule, as well as qualitative interviews with preschool teachers. The study was conducted from a sociocultural perspective and with relational and relative understanding of space. This means that what occurs in the preschool yard is not only based on the physical but also on social relationships and beliefs. The expectations that exists about play areas and materials in the preschool yard are the main focus of this study. Where the location itself is not necessarily what determines where the children play and what they are playing with.In this study, it appears that even though it initially seemed as if children's play determined where they chose to play in the yard, it is the expectations and beliefs about the different places that affect the children’s choice of place. Even though the children themselves choose which games they want to play, the expectations and rules that exists will steer where the children's plays are performed. Moreover, it is also proven that there were no significant differences between girls' and boys' choices of place in the preschool outdoor environment and neither in expectations based on the children’s gender.

  • 225.
    Dymock, Yosabeth
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Vi behandlar andra så som vi själva vill bli behandlade: En studie om att undersöka och problematisera regler inom fritidshemmet utifrån generationsmaktordningen2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to explore and problematize how rules affect the superiority educators have in relation to pupils, based on the generation power structure. As a basis for the result are qualitative observations from three recreation centers and qualitative interviews with four educators from these. The empirical material is analyzed with the help of social constructivism and a childish perspective. These theories are based on the assumption that we socially construct our reality as well as to see injustices and subordination based on an age and power perspective. The results show that the recreation centre is a complex arena where pupils are expected to navigate between rules that are visible, invisible, changeable and difficult to interpret. It also shows that rules are made visible through reprimands that take place in different situations and in different ways. During the interviews, pupils resistance to rules is described, but is not entirely unproblematic because of the way educators interpret the resistance and value it. One conclusion is that rules, how they are created and how they are maintained reinforce the superiority educators have in a partially unjustified manner. But that this is something that can be challenged and renegotiated.

  • 226.
    Dökümcü, Songül
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Partiklars rörelser i fast form, flytande form och gasform: En multimodal analys av tre läroböcker inom naturorienterande ämnen för årskurserna 4-62017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work is to study, from a multimodal perspective, how the particle theory of matter is portrayed by different representational modes (text, pictures, etc.) in science textbooks for Swedish compulsory school grades 4–6.

    This study aims to answer the following questions:

    •       How are representational modes used in the presenting of the particle movements in science textbooks?

    •       How does representational modes interact in the presenting of the particle movements in science textbooks?

    This study is based on a qualitative multimodal text analysis of selected textbooks using a model that takes into consideration the use of and interplay between text, illustrations, pictures and other forms of presentation.

    Results show that the particle theory is presented in similar way in each of the texts. Particle theory of matter is presented mainly by means of illustrations supplemented and reinforced with text. Motion of the particles are indicated using different representations and the particles themselves described as diversely as candies or butter. Textbooks use the reader’s general knowledge as a base and to connect with the specific subject content. The interplay between modes can be contradictory such as in the case where text describes molecular concepts and the illustrations focus on particles.

  • 227.
    Ebersköld, Emelie
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Besitter du några kommunikativa kompetenser?: En studie om hur elever i årskurs 5 upplever muntlig kommunikativ kompetens i svenskundervisningen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 228.
    Ebersköld, Emelie
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Formativ bedömning i skolan: En studie om hur elever i årskurs 5 och i årskurs 6 uppfattar formativ bedömning i svenskundervisningen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore students perception of parts of formative assessment which involve the subject of Swedish writing. The study include students from grade 5 to grade 6, and the study has the following questions:

    • How do students perceive the third key strategy in formative assessment which includes using feedback in new learning situations in narrative text?
    • How do students perceive the forth key strategy in formative assessment which includes activating the students as learning resources for each other in narrative text in the Swedish subject?
    • How do students perceive the fifth key strategy which includes taking responsibility for their own learning in narrative text in the Swedish subject?

    The study has a student perspective of the formative assessment by letting the students answer a survey. The theoretical framework consist of the framework for formative assessment and the sociocultural perspective of learning, proximal development zone. The result shows that students perception of feedback from the teacher is positive, and the students view of the peer assessment has both positive and negative elements. The positive is that a classmate has done the task and more often than not has the same perspective of things. The majority of students in grade 6 thought that they learned to write their texts better after a peer assessment which students in grade 5 didn’t think. If students perception of key strategies became visible in teaching it could lead to more students taking benefits in their learning process. The study shows that some students are afraid of receiving peer assessment because they have contained bad comments, and it’s difficult to give peer assessment. Many of the students think that it´s much better to receive feedback from the teacher, rather than a peer. As a Swedish teacher or as a future Swedish teacher to be, it´s important to make these key strategies visible and turn the negative into positive so the students can take benefit from them.

  • 229.
    Eddestål, Mathilda
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Samverkan med vårdnadshavare på mångkulturella förskolor: En kvalitativ studie om fyra pedagogers tankar kring kulturell mångfald och dess inverkan på samverkan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation with guardians in multicultural preschools - A qualitative study of four educators’ ideas about cultural diversity and its impact on cooperation Author: Mathilda Eddestål Mentor: Åsa Arketeg Term: Fall 2016 Abstract: The purpose of this study is to research educator’s communication strategies in multicultural schools, based on whether the educator’s weights in the multicultural background of the child’s guardian(s) in the cooperation process. My research questions are: - What communication strategies have educators to achieve cooperation with the guardians? - In what way is the cultural background of the guardian being considered by the guardians in cooperation? To answer these questions, I have made a qualitative study with semi-structural interviews as a method, which are completed with educators working in multicultural pre-schools. A conclusive finding of this study shows that there is no clear assertive view about whether the educator should or should not take heed of a guardian’s multicultural background. Taking the full span of this study into consideration, I would argue that educators puts great effort to emphasize the structural boundaries of their institution and trying to communicate this to the child’s guardians. However, time and resource constraints limits this effort to a formal directive, rather than a pragmatic execution. The end results gathered from this study is that this specific area should get a lot more attention from managers to give educators the chance to reach the goal marker considering their mission to cooperate with the child’s guardians in an intercultural way.

  • 230.
    Edqvist, Linnea
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Johnsén, Greta
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Var är hon?: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys och semiotisk bildanalys ur genusperspektiv av läroböcker i historia för årskurs 4-62017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study contains an analysis of images through a gender perspective of three history text books for middle schools.

    The aim of this study is to clarify if the images reflect a gender power structure where men are superior women. The answered questions were: do women and men appear as often in the pictures of the books? How are women and men portrayed from a gender perspective in the pictures? What possible consequences could the portrayal of men and women cause the education and pupils?

    Our theoretical perspective is Yvonne Hirdman’s gender theory, Vivien Burr’s social constructionism and Ferdinand de Saussure’s and Roland Barthes’s theory about semiotics.

    Our methods were a quantitative content analysis combined with a qualitative semiotic analysis of images.

    The quantitative content analysis showed that there is an overrepresentation of men in the pictures of the books. The qualitative semiotic analysis showed that men are portrayed as main characters in the pictures. This by given more space by positions, accessories and activities. Women on the other hand is portrayed as passive and to some extent as accessories to the men. The women seem to rule in the sphere of children and home, while men seem to be absent in these same areas. Women and men are also physically separated on the images which makes the gender power structure even more clear. 

  • 231.
    Ehn, Terése
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Karlsson Quintana, Carolina
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Samverkan för en bättre förskola, hur gör vi?: En vetenskaplig essä om vikten av en god relation mellan föräldrar och förskola2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to explore how to achieve a good interaction between parents and preschool, based on our own experiences. This to be able to support the children in the best possible way. We have written about two events that shows different forms of proceeding in the cooperation between parents and the preschool teachers. The essay is based on two stories from our daily activities including our reflections to visualize what we experience as a difficulty in the cooperation between parents and preschool. Sometimes we feel, based on our stories, that both parties have difficulties to understand each other and that the communication has not been clear enough. Through the reflection we notice and visualize further alternative proceedings that we can bring in our future professional lives. We have used a hermeneutical perspective as we use our own experiences and observe them from ourselves, but we have also tried to take the parents perspective to broaden our views.

    We have used the following questions in our essay:

     How can we, as pedagogues, work to improve the cooperation between preschool

    and parents, so that it benefits both the children's development and the educational work?

     What skills do we need as pedagogues in preschool activities, in order to create a good cooperation about the child with the parents? 

  • 232.
    Ekberg, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    NO-undervisning i olika lärandemiljöer: En jämförande studie med F-3 lärare från kommunal respektive Ur och Skur-regi2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine how teachers in grades F-3, in public schools and I Ur och Skur schools interpret the curriculum text regarding range of animals and plants in the environment in science instruction, and how they describe their work with this. The study will also study if the work in the field of animals and plants in the local environment differs between these types of school. The study is based on the following questions:

    1. What factors determine whether the teachers engage in teaching indoors or outside in the field of animals and plants?
    2. How do the teachers interpret the curriculum text that concerns the area of ​​animals and plants in the environment?
    3. What are the learning opportunities that these teachers consider regarding the outdoor learning?
    4. What difficulties are the teachers reporting regarding the students learning?
    5. Are there differences between responding the teachers’ descriptions regarding the area of animals and plants in the environment than public schools and I Ur and Skur schools? If so, how?

    In this study, O'Brien and Murray's theoretical model has been used as a tool for the analysis. The method has a quantitative methodology, questionnaires, and a qualitative approach, interview. This is chosen to be used to find out how teachers in different school forms describe their work with animals and plants in the immediate environment. The result shows that the majority of teachers in both types of schools describe the use of the outdoor environment in connection with the training module. Teachers described the opportunities in all six categories from O'Brien and Murray's theoretical model (ref. O'Brien & Murray 2007, p. 255). The main difference between the different schools are the time devoted to teaching this module, were public teachers on average spend 10,5 hours/term while I Ur och Skur teachers on average spend 25 hours/term.

  • 233.
    Ekberg, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Öppna boken och läs högt för eleverna: En studie om högläsning i undervisningen inom årskurs 1-32015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine how teachers in grades 1 respective 3 describes and justifies the work with reading comprehension and language development along with reading aloud. The study is based on the following questions:

    • How do the teachers describe and motivate their work with reading aloud?

    • What approach are they using to enhance the reading aloud effect on pupils' language?

    • How do teachers work in order that students' reading comprehension will benefit from the teacher reading aloud?

    •  Does the active work with reading aloud differ between grade 1 and grade 3 in these particular schools? If so, how?

    This study was made by using a questionnaire to 50 teachers and interviews with five teachers working in grade 1 and grade 3. The study is based on four theoretical extensions and these are Lev Vygotskijs theory of Socio-cultural perspective, Vygotskijs theory  ”Zone of proximal development”, Aidan Chambers theory of discussions of literature and Barbro Westlunds theory of reading strategies. The result of the study shows that teachers describe reading aloud as a positive approach that develops students' language skills and reading comprehension. The three most common ways of working to strengthen reading aloud effect on pupils' language development are reading strategies, discussions of literature and "En läsande klass". The main difference between the different grades is the actual time devoted to reading aloud. On average, teachers read aloud to students weekly for 1 hour and 59 minutes in grade 1 and for 1 hour and 22 minutes in grade 3.

  • 234.
    Eklund, Caroline
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    "En modern pedagog lägger inte svaren i munnen på barnen": En studie om den medforskande pedagogen i förskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate two Reggio Emilia-inspired preschools. The study intends to investigate how a pronounced co-researching pedagogue role affects preschool teachers’ didactic approach, planning and implementation. Three preschool teachers were interviewed in order to make visible their way of perceiving and defining the co-researching pedagogue role. Activities within the field of science were also  observed in order to examine the practical application of this teacher role. Science as a subject has been chosen based on previous research and to create a mutual and solid base for the study. The research questions are formulated as:

    • What defines a co-researching pedagogue according to the preschool teachers?
    • How do preschool teachers describe their co-researching attitude in relation to children’s learning in science activities?
    • How do preschool teachers interact with children, materials and the environment during the implementation of these activities?

    The essay uses a triangulation of two qualitative methods – interviews and observations. The results, which derives from a phenomenographical analysis as well as an analysis on concepts of developing pedagogy, shows that children’s interests plays an important part in teachers planning and implementation. The results also show that this specific teacher role is based on a pluralistic view on knowledge. One of the conclusions is that the teachers' attitudes create favourable conditions for children's learning in general, even though the opportunities to teach children subject-specific knowledge are not always administered.

  • 235.
    Ekstrand, Martina
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Representationer i den sörmländska utställningen ”Historien i Sörmland”: En undersökning av kvinnor och mäns representation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Museums have a task to present history in a way that's meaningful for the visitors. Museums also have a responsibility to represent everyone in the society, not exclude groups and at the same time make other groups more highlighted. This paper is about how the exhibition ”Historien i Sörmland” represents gender differences and how women and men are portrayed in different ways. Women are often under-represented in exhibitions around the world, leaving the men as a benchmark. The results show that women are under-represented in the exhibition ”Historien i Sörmland” and that the men and women who are portrayed contribute to the stereotype images of masculinity and femininity.

  • 236.
    Elamrani, Amal
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Dubbla yrkesroller: vara lojal eller ifrågasätta?2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 237.
    Elander, Viktor
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Vit är människa, svart är svart: En postkolonial analys av synen på ”den andre” i Joseph Conrads Mörkrets hjärta2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to examine how ”the other” is portrayed in Joseph Conrad’s novel Heart of darkness from a postcolonial perspective. Thru this analysis determine if and in what way the novel may be beneficial to education surrounding postcolonial perspectives in the subject Swedish at upper secondary school. Thru close reading of the text focusing on the novels portrayal of “the other”, the analysis concludes that the novel gives a stereotypical and dichotomous picture rooted in the novels contemporary science and culture of the western world. The way “the other” is portrayed in Joseph Conrad´s Heart of darkness does not consist with the fundamental values of the Swedish upper secondary school. The analysis has concluded that the novels potential as an educational tool in the education surrounding postcolonial perspectives is limited due to it´s lack of non-European perspectives.

  • 238.
    Ellerstad, Ellerstad
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Barns leksvårigheter: En essä om barns lek, samspel och om reflektionens möjligheter2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen handlar om barns lek och samspel, samt pedagogernas roll i barns lekutveckling. Den handlar även om reflektionens betydelse på förskolan. Syftet med den här erfarenhetsbaserade essän är att skapa en förståelse för barn som har svårt med att leka med andra barn. Jag vill ta reda på hur jag, som förskolepedagog, ska förhålla mig till barn som har svårt med samspel. Syftet är även att få en fördjupad förståelse för vad reflektion innebär, samt vad det kan tillföra verksamheten för både barn och vuxna.

    I den här essän diskuteras litteratur som kopplas till berättelsen för att få en ökad förståelse för mitt dilemma. Jag reflekterar kring om det är viktigt för barn att leka, samt vilka kunskaper ett barn måste ha för att uppnå ett bra samspel i leken. I reflektionen har jag använt mig av bland annat lekforskarna Knutsdotter Olofsson och Lillemyr. När det kommer till pedagogens roll för barnens sampel reflekterar jag kring bland andra Papes, Vedelers, samt Folkmans och Svedins tankar. Deweys och Vygotskijs tankar om vad reflektion innebär har jag använt mig av i mina diskussioner om reflektionens betydelse för pedagogerna och verksamheten.

    Essän börjar med ett dilemma där jag beskriver en självupplevd situation på förskolan. I situationen är det barn som har svårt att samspela med varandra, speciellt ett barn som jag uppmärksammar. Jag ställs inför olika utmaningar där jag som pedagog inte vet hur jag ska agera. Finns det sätt att stötta och hjälpa barn som har svårt att leka med andra barn? I min text funderar jag över vad barnen behöver lära sig för att ha ett bra samspel. Många barn behöver stöd av oss vuxna för att lära sig leka med andra. Det innebär att vi ibland måste lära barnen grunderna till lek. För att vi pedagoger ska kunna ta bra beslut behöver vi reflektera med varandra. Därför funderar jag över hur pedagoger kan använda reflektionen på bästa sätt.

  • 239.
    Embler, Ylva
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Det får inte bli skola!: En kvalitativ studie om begreppet undervisning i förskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study examines how eight preschool teachers at four schools in four different municipalities relate to and make use of the concept of teaching in the course of their work. In recent years there have been major changes in the Swedish preschool system. From being an operation that focused on care it is now the first stage of a child’s regular education and life-long learning. The preschool curriculum was revised in 2010, which meant that the preschool teacher’s responsibility for teaching was described in greater detail. The goals to strive for regarding mathematics, science and technology as well as language and communication are now clearly specified. At the same time, the Educare model, i.e. the reciprocity between care and pedagogy as the Swedish preschool system is known for, shall be retained. This study is therefore trying to find out how preschool teachers relate to care, upbringing and learning in relation to the concept of teaching. The work carried out in Swedish preschools has long been organised in work teams. The preschool teacher and the child carer have divided their work assignments among themselves on the basis of a fairness perspective rather than on the basis of competence. Whether the organisational changes have also brought about changes in work assignments in relation to the various occupational categories is also being examined.

    The results showed that opposition to the concept of teaching as well as the difference in the traditions established in schools and preschools remain. Preschool teachers do not associate the word teaching, which in current legislation describes their work, as their work with a child’s learning. This means that they do not regard the curriculum and the Education Act as a whole in preschool practice even though they use the curriculum in their daily work. Nor do they speak of the preschool as a type of school, which means that the perception of the preschool as part of the school system is lost. The study also points out that the old work structures still exist. At the same time as preschool teachers are aware of the increased responsibility which the revised curriculum has brought about and that their workload has substantially increased, the traditional division of labour between the child carer and the preschool teacher remains. The results also showed that preschool teachers’ knowledge and skills therefore are at risk being eroded away, which can have negative consequences on quality. 

  • 240.
    Engelstoft, Elinor
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Condori, Therese
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Lustfyllda vägar till skriftspråket: En kvalitativ studie om arbetet med skriftspråk utifrån barnens intresse i förskolan: En jämförelse mellan sex förskollärares erfarenheter av arbete med skriftspråk baserad på tre olika pedagogiska inriktningar.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how teachers in Waldorf, Reggio Emilia and traditional pedagogy work with literacy in preschools in Sweden. We also wanted to see the similarities and differences between the pedagogical approaches in the work regarding literacy and what the teachers think about the age of children when they learn to read and write. To get answers to our questions, we used a qualitative method where we interviewed six preschool teachers in six different preschools in Stockholm County with the 3 different pedagogies. Our theory is connected to Vygotski´s four processes that are important for children in learning, which is the socio-cultural, the mediated, the situated and the creative. We have also used John Dewey´s theory, who also speaks of children's learning with respect to social relations and artistic processes. The result of the interviews showed that it is very individual when children begin to learn literacy and the teachers say that we should not stop them if they have the interest but it must come from the children's own initiative and be based on their own interests. The environment was also something that was important to the child's learning of literacy and that the teachers used activities where the children could use all their senses in various esthetics expressions.

  • 241.
    Engman, Åsa
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Hur undervisningen i matematik avspeglas i elevers förståelse av subtraktionsbegreppet2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the teaching of mathematics is reflected in the students' understanding of the concept of the subtraction. The empirical data is based on observations in the classroom and student interviews. The understanding of the concept of the subtraction is shown through vocabulary and choice of examples and representations. The study used both qualitative methods and quantitative reports. The data is represented by one school and one classroom in grade three.  The theoretical framework is based on Liping Mas Subject Matter Knowledge and the variation theory of Marton and Booth and the relationship between these frameworks and concepts of variation, concretization, aids, subtraction and types of subtraction.  The results show that the impact of education is that subtraction is understood as the invers of addition. Complement and add to, is the type of strategy most frequently used, followed closely by the strategy remove and count down. The strategy compare is the least used. The observations in the classrooms shows several aspects and variations of the concept of the subtraction. Although the number line, and various forms of representation used in teaching has shown small effects of these aids in the students' own counting. The conclusions that can be drawn is that more and other metaphors and tools are needed in education to deepen students' understanding of the concept of the subtraction. They also need to be connected in the teaching. The language and the mathematical ideas discussed plays a critical role in the pupils’ acquisition of understanding.   

  • 242.
    Engstrand, Christine
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Har ni löst det?: En uppsats om hur pedagogers stress och kortsiktiga lösningar påverkar barnen och förskolans verksamhet.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about how educators´ stress and short-term solutions affect the children and the preschool activities. By using a hermeneutic research approach, I have tried to get a new understanding based on the pre-understanding I already have. Most importantly, I have used Hans-Georg Gadamer's hermeneutic. The purpose of the paper is to show how preschool teachers´ stress affects the children in preschool and the function of preschool, by showing how to create an understanding of how to work differently. What do you need, as a preschool teacher, to bring into the preschool?

                          My story is about three different situations where short-term solutions and stress are factors. One situation is a meeting, the other is a regular day at preschool and the third is about communication between colleagues and communication between coworkers and boss.

                          My questions are: 

    • How do the educator´s stress and short-term solutions affect the preschool's activities?
    • In what way are the children in the preschool affected by the educator´s stress and short-term solutions?

                          As people react differently to stress and stressors, there is no miracle "cure" of the situations. In my essay, I have therefore discussed the rights of employees as well as the duties of the employer. 

                          What I have concluded is that preschool teachers´ stress and short-term solutions affect children and the preschool indirectly. Because other factors, such as meetings and staff shortages, hinder the activities, the children are indirectly affected. This is because the pedagogue is less present and more easily irritated due to social and organizational factors. This, in turn, affects the children indirectly by preventing the pedagogue from doing a satisfactory job.

  • 243.
    Engström, Malin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Larsson, Anton
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Positionering bland pedagoger och barn: En fallstudie om makt och relationer på fritidshemmet2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study to analyze interaction between educators and children at an after- school programme, focusing on power relations. To create the empirical data for this Bachelor's thesis we have performed observations at one after- school programme. The theoretical framework we used for the analysis is a combination of positioning theory and intersectional theory.Among our results we find that different educators position themselves and the children in different ways. We present and discuss four main pedagogical positions for educators that we identified in our field work. These are: an authoritarian educator position, a communicative educator position, an intimacy creating educator position and a fostering educator position. The study showed that the educators recurringly challenge superior, equal and subordinate positions among the children. We choose to call this phenomena pedagogic repositioning. It is understandable as an intent to remediate unequal relationships between children. In the study patterns emerge of how categories such as gender, age and ethnicity has importance for a person's available positions and repertoire of actions. Another result is that cultural stories called storylines often limits the actions and interpretations of the studies’ participants.

  • 244.
    Engström, Pauline
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Toddlare och demokratiarbete: om inflytande och delaktighet hos förskolans yngsta2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to find out how young children are allowed to influence and affect their daily lives in preschools, as well as teachers’ views on the latter. My interest in this topic is born out of my experience of working with both younger and older preschool children. My view is that democratic work with older children is largely based on direct verbal communication while with toddlers it is based on an adult’s interpretation of a child’s often non-verbal expressions. Thus, I believe that young children’s opportunities to influence to a greater extent than older children are dependent on having teachers with a conscious child’s perspective. Based on the above-stated purpose I have found it particularly interesting to explore a specific teachers’ approach, that takes advantage of the youngest children’s competencies, but also to identify dilemmas related to this. For that reason, the research questions have partially been formulated in order to discover whether conflicts exist between a young child’s right to influence and their need for care.

    The study begins with a general historical survey followed by presentations of curriculum history with a focus on children's influence, selected developmental theories and definitions of concepts essential for this study. Developmental theories have been selected for their relevance to the study and focus on Daniel Stern's intersubjectivity theory, its conceptual determination and usefulness in studies such as this. Furthermore, the results of the survey’s qualitative empirical observational studies and interviews based on phenomenological grounds are presented.

    Its main results argue that young children have the opportunity to influence when teachers allow the child´s perspective to dominate over the adult perspective. In doing this, teachers often show an intuitive awareness of young children's competencies and therefore take a flexible and playful approach in their work. Conflicts between younger children's right to influence and their need for care can be largely avoided using this outlook on democratic work in preschool. Moreover, cultural differences between a teacher´s and toddler’s expressions can be overcome by an intercultural approach where both parties are seen as equal.

  • 245.
    Erdal, Sumeyra
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Skönlitterära texters påverkan på andraspråkselevers ordförståelse: En kvalitativ studie om svensklärarnas resonemang och arbete med skönlitterära texter i en flerspråklig klass2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the working methods and teaching methods used by Swedish teachers in grade 5 at two different schools in Västerort, and how these six swedish teachers argue about fiction and their influence on the development of word understanding by second language speakers. During this study, qualitative methods are used, in the form of observations and interviews.

     To fulfill the purpose of my survey, I have formulated the following two questions:

    1.      How do the six different Swedish teachers work in the classroom to promote the wording of second language speakers in reading fictional texts?

    2.      How do the six Swedish teachers reason about their work on the understanding of words and fiction, as well as the connection between them?

    The result of the study shows that the six participating Swedish teachers in two different schools mention and use different successful teaching methods and practices that promote the development of word understanding by second language speakers. The survey also shows that fictional texts are used with the purpose of developing the vocabulary of second language speakers, word learning and word understanding. The study shows that all participating Swedish teachers argue, and work based on a multimodal approach, where images, own experiences, student prerequisites and illustrations are used as teaching methods. Furthermore, the study shows that all teachers agree on what they regard as successful working methods. Explicit and implicit teaching, reading, discussion, conversation, full-class work, small groups and in pairs are what the teachers mention and choose to work with in conjunction with fictional texts. Conversation and discussion about the reading fiction and the unknown word together make it possible for interaction and support.

  • 246.
    Erdal, Sumeyra
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Språkutvecklande samhällskunskapsundervisning: En studie om hur lärarna i årskurs 4 arbetar i sin samhällskunskapsundervisning för att det ska bli språkutvecklande2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate what adaptations grade 4 teachers four make to language-develop in the social science classroom. This includes the challenges that may arise and support teachers they need in order to achieve anguage development goals. Using qualitative methods, in the form on interview and observation. Questions that will try to be answered are;

    1. How the teachers take into account students language development in the teaching of fourth grade social sciences?

    2. What are the difficulties with developing language in social science?

    3.What support does the teachers consider necessary for conducting a language-developing social science education?

    Research has shown that language development education is contextual and is rich with opportunities for interaction. The teacher plays an important role in creatinga context that benefits students, knowledge, linguistic and personal development. However, research has also shown that many teachers lack the skills necessaryto work with language and knowledge developmentin their lessons. In this study, teachers take into account the parents' pre-knowledge and linguistic background while working with different methods based on interaction to develop the student's subject and language ability. The adaptation of different abilities was the biggest difficulty reported by most teachers. Interviewed teachers have also recognized the difficulty of developing students' school languages. According to teachers, collegial learning, language teaching and language development tools, the best basis for language education is education.

  • 247.
    Ericsson, Lina
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    En studie av barns lekval på förskolegården som kultursociologisk arena: Med utgångspunkt i Bordieus teorier om Habitus, Kapital och Fält2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses what children choose to play with in the preschool yard without active involvement on the part of the preschool teacher. With Bourdieus' concepts of habitus, capital, and fields as theoretical frameworks, the following questions are examined: 1) How does the habitus reflect in a child's choice of play? 2) How can a child's choice of what to play be understood from the perspective of their preschool's culture?

    The empirical data consists of observations of the child at play, the pedagogical material they use, the place in which they choose to play, the placement of the teachers, and the range of the pedagogical material made available to the child in the preschool yard.

    This study argues that the choices a child makes, in terms of what to play, is influenced by the culture of the preschool. This is strengthened based on the survey of comparing two different preschools with two different cultures. By discovering patterns in a child's choice of what to play and comparing the results with each other, it becomes possible to analyze how the differences and similarities between playtime at two different preschools can be linked to habitus, capital and fields.

    This study shows that there are differences about what the children chose to play, how many they play together and how much they talk and move around.

  • 248.
    Eriksson, Carola
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Lärande enligt Montessori och Reggio Emilia: "Skillnader och likheter i syn på lärandet"2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this graduate essay is to elucidate and compare the approach to learning that emerges in texts about the two educational practices Montessori and Reggio Emilia.

    • The guiding research questions in this study are:
    • What do Montessori and Reggio Emilia that learning is about?
    • The mean Montessori and Reggio Emilia that learning goes to?
    • How do you describe the Montessori and Reggio Emilia justification why it is important to learn?

     Through a poststructural theoretical framework and text analysis the study focused on what has been written about learning in the traditions of Montessori and Reggio Emilia.

    The results of the study indicate that both Montessori and Reggio Emilia look at the child in a similar way in which the child have the desire to explore and learn. Both pedagogy traditions think that the child will develop into independent people who can change society in the future for the better and with a democratic basis.

    The study also reveals how the Swedish curriculum (Skolverket, 98/10) is inspired both by the Reggio Emilia and Montessori traditions through describing how preschool should stimulate and challenge the child's development and learning, utilize and strengthen the interests of children to learn to conquer new experiences, knowledge and skills.

  • 249.
    Eriksson, Damaris
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    En kvalitativ studie av fysisk beröring och dess betydelse för pedagoger och barn på förskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate physical touch and how it effects educators and children at preschool. This is done by answering the questions, “How does educators in preschool use physical touch?” and “What are the educators purpose regarding physical touch? “

    The empirical material is collected through qualitative interviews with five different educators. 

    The empirical evidence showed that the educators see physical touch as an important part of their and the children's everyday at preschool. Touch is used by the educators with the purpose to among others create safety, calm, better relationships and confirm the children. The touch used depends on the situation and is given on the children's terms. The result also shows that many of the educators who have worked with planned contact, such as massage, does not do it at all or to a very small extent at the present time. In the analysis, I have chosen to look at the material from an intercultural and socio-cultural perspective.

  • 250.
    Eriksson, Dennis
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Study of Religions. Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    70 år av judefientlighet i Palestina: En studie av antisemitismen i Hamas politik och ideologi i Israel- Palestinakonflikten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Konflikten mellan Israel och Palestina har funnits närvarande sedan en lång tid tillbaka i vår historia, närmare bestämt från 1920-talet fram till idag. 1948 utropades den judiska staten Israel vilket utlöste en rad våldsamma konflikter med andra länder i Mellanösternregionen, det har också utlöst en antisemitism som fått fäste hos extremistgrupper. En sådan grupp är den islamitiska gruppen Hamas som bildades 1987 som ett resultat av de aktioner som Israel gjort kring Gaza och Västbanken, och har gjort väpnat motstånd emot Israel med sin underjordiska armé av islamister. 

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur antisemitismen framträder i gruppen Hamas stadgar, som är en form av politiskt och ideologiskt manifest, samt hur gruppen legitimerar sin antisemitism gentemot både judar som folkgrupp men också sin politik gentemot staten Israel.

    Källmaterialet som jag har valt att utgå ifrån är Hamas politiska och ideologiska manifest kallat Hamas stadgar som utkom 1988. Stadgarna innehåller Hamas ideologiska och politiska ståndpunkter. Genom att använda mig av både en innehållsanalys och diskursanalys i undersökandet och granskandet av Hamas stadgar hoppas jag kunna se hur och på vilket sätt antisemitismen framträder hos Hamas samt hur de legitimerar sin antisemitism mot judar och Israel.

    De resultat som har erhållits påvisar flera olika aspekter som först påvisar hur antisemitismen framträder i Hamas stadgar samt hur de sedan väljer att legitimera sin antisemitism gentemot judar och Israel utefter ett flertal anledningar och aspekter som kommer att delges i senare delar av uppsatsen. 

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