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  • 201.
    Berglund, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Åldersdiskriminering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 202.
    Bergman, Ingela
    et al.
    Silvermuseet Arjeplog.
    Ramqvist, Per H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Hunters of forests and waters: Late Iron Age and Medieval subsistence and social processes in coastal northern Sweden2018In: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the course of the 14th century the Swedish Crown and the Catholic Church made robust attempts to include the areas beside the Bothnian bay within their central fiscal and clerical organization. Salmon fishing in the productive river rapids became major targets for external commercial interests. Written records inform us about the situation from the perspective of the exploiters. However, there is a story running in parallel – that of the local population already occupying the lands and the fishing grounds. The study aims to analyse the significance of hunting and fishing to the overall subsistence of coastal communities in northern Sweden during the period AD 500–1600. The social context is of particular interest, specifically in relation to the successive conformation by the local communities to the Swedish fiscal system. The study draws on archaeological records and on historical records from the 14th to the 17th century, in addition to ethnographic accounts for hunting and fishing. We conclude that the legal cultures embraced by the indigenous population and that of the Swedish central powers were in essence incompatible. The acquisition of land and fishing rights was never settled between two equal parties, but one-sidedly enforced by the party holding the pen.

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  • 203.
    Bergman, Karl Gustav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Box 627, Uppsala, Sweden; Universitat de Barcelona, Montalegre 6, Barcelona, Spain.
    Franzén, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The force of fictional discourse2022In: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 200, no 6, article id 474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consider the opening sentence of Tolkien's The Hobbit: (1) In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit. By writing this sentence, Tolkien is making a fictional statement. There are two influential views of the nature of such statements. On the pretense view, fictional discourse amounts to pretend assertions. Since the author is not really asserting, but merely pretending, a statement such as Tolkien's is devoid of illocutionary force altogether. By contrast, on the alternative make-believe view, fictional discourse prescribes that the reader make-believe the content of the statement. In this paper, we argue that neither of these views is satisfactory. They both fail to distinguish the linguistic act of creating the fiction, for instance Tolkien writing the sentence above, from the linguistic act of reciting it, such as reading The Hobbit out loud for your children. As an alternative to these views, we propose that the essential feature of the author's speech act is its productive character, that it makes some state of affairs obtain in the fiction. Tolkien's statement, we argue, has the illocutionary force of a declaration.

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  • 204.
    Bergman, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Constructing communities: The establishment and demographic development of sawmill communities in the Sundsvall district, 1850-18902010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation studies the establishment and demographic development of the sawmill communities that emerged in the Sundsvall district during the latter half of the 19th century.  The intention is to highlight the importance of the sawmill communities and their resident populations by discussing community construction from a demographic perspective as well as socially and symbolically. Based on church registers, this is a longitudinal study that includes information from 31 individual sawmill communities.

    This study has shown that the establishment and demographic development of the sawmill communities was not an instant process that necessarily followed the construction of the sawmill industries. The prerequisites of the geographical locations and year of establishment influenced population development, but the speed and size of the settlements were individual to each mill site. More prosperous times for the industry during the 1870s resulted in that migration increased consequently leading to quickly populated communities and larger registered core populations in residence.

    Migration to the sawmill communities from within the parishes was infrequent and the geographical backgrounds revealed that an extremely small proportion of the populations had been born within the district, implying a migratory hesitation among locally born. The sawmill populations were male-dominated due to the large groups of temporary workers inhabiting the communities, although, adult males barely made up one-third of the registered populations. The largest demographic group was children aged 0-14 years. The strong presence of children and high proportions of married individuals suggests that the sawmill communities were family oriented communities, more so than non-sawmill areas. Long-time settled families had usually formed kinship networks with other residents.

    This dissertation concludes that while time was important for the development of the sawmill communities, so were the registered populations residing in these communities. Residency would have been key in claiming belonging to the sawmill communities and to be considered as a real sawmill worker. Residency, family and kin therefore contributed to the construction of community structures, geographically, socially and symbolically.

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  • 205.
    Bergman Viklund, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Beställ nu, innan det blir förbjudet!: En beskrivande idéanalys av Samtidsmagasinet Salt2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 206.
    Bergner, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Med historien som motståndare: SKP/VPK/V och det kommunistiska arvet 1956-20062013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation concerns Sveriges Kommunistiska Parti (SKP) [the Swedish Communist Party] – in 1967 renamed Vänsterpartiet kommunisterna (VPK) [the Left Party – the Communists] and in 1990 renamed Vänsterpartiet (V) [the Left Party] – and the Party's process of coming to terms with history and its communist legacy. The aim of the study is to describe and analyse the SKP/VPK/V's process of coming to terms with history for the period 1956-2006, and to set out and problematise the driving forces and constraining mechanisms of this process. The theoretical framework of the study consists of Gunnar Sjöblom’s theory about party strategies of political parties in multi-party systems and Michael Freeden’s conceptual approach to ideology analysis.

         During the period of study the SKP/VPK/V has, like no other political party in Sweden, been ascribed historical guilt regarding its own party history but also regarding the effects of world communism. The Party has thus found itself in a situation where it has had history as an adversary. The process of coming to terms with history has mainly revolved around three issues: independence (1956-1977), international ties (1977-1989) and a broadening beyond the communist tradition (1986-2006). The internal debate within the Party has linked these issues to calls for change aimed at ridding the party of what is considered undesirable elements of the Communist legacy. By analysing the arguments pursued in favour of these calls, it is possible to pick out a number of the driving forces behind the Party's process of coming to terms with history, namely an ambition to obtain vote maximisation, programme realisation and maximisation of parliamentary influence. The urge to distance the Party from certain aspects of its communist past has thus been related to fundamental goals that political parties in multi-party systems seek to obtain.

         The results of the dissertation show that it is possible to pick out five main constraining mechanisms in the Party's process of coming to terms with history. 1) The safeguarding of Party cohesion. 2) The safeguarding of the distinctive character of the Party.  3) The need to resist external pressure. 4) The desire to avoid unfair apportioning of blame. 5) The safeguarding of the right to define the substance of one's own ideology. The existence of these constraining mechanisms help to explain why the process of coming to terms with history lingered on for several decades, and also why it seems to have been a process of such complexity for the Swedish Communist and Post-Communist Party.  

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  • 207.
    Bergner, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Recension av Rysk spegel: svenska berättelser om Sovjetunionen - och om Sverige2009In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 104-106Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Petrusenko, Nadezda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Creating value out of waste: the transformation of the Swedish waste and recycling sector, 1970s-2010s2023In: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 3-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the growth of the waste and recycling sector in Sweden since the 1970s and seeks to identify the conditions for market growth and underlying business dynamics. The article identifies a slow growth pattern at aggregate level in the 1970s, while a major shift toward higher growth rates took place only in the mid-1990s. Resembling the findings of existing studies of German and US industry counterparts, Swedish recycling companies grew larger in the 1970s and more knowledge-intensive from the 1980s. Our study concludes that the growth of the Swedish recycling industry has been driven not only by government policies addressing household waste but even more so by large manufacturing firms that have increasingly demanded more complex recycling services over time.

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  • 209.
    Bergqvist Karlsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Om fenomenell kunskap och Förmågehypotesen: Information eller förmåga – vad lär vi oss när vi får en ny upplevelse?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Physicalism concerning the phenomenal consciousness; the view that it is entirely physical,stands in contrast with various versions of dualism, which claims that consciousness isirreducibly non-physical.Frank Jackson has presented the so-called knowledge argument against physicalism. Becausewe do learn something new upon having a new experience, and because this something cannotbe learned any other way than to have the experience, the knowledge argument concludes thatthere are non-physical facts about the world. Hence, physicalism is false.The Ability Hypothesis is a response to the knowledge argument presented by David Lewis andLaurence Nemirow. They argue that what we learn upon having a new experience is nothingbut a set of abilities. Hence, the conclusion of the knowledge argument that there are nonphysicalfacts about the world, is false.The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the Ability Hypothesis constitutes a viabledefense for physicalism against the knowledge argument. To accomplish this, I evaluate fiveobjections that have been raised against the Ability Hypothesis and the answers to thesepresented by Nemirow. I will argue that two of these objections point to problems with theAbility Hypothesis which cannot be solved, and I therefore conclude that the Ability Hypothesisis unable to defend physicalism against Jacksons knowledge argument

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  • 210.
    Bergqvist, Madelene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Arkeologisk Textil: Om Norra Sveriges Textilier under Järnålder och Medeltid2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to get a wider perspective on the early production and usage of textiles in Northern Sweden during the Iron Age and Middle Ages (up until the 17th century). The work consists of collecting digital data of finds, their location and approximate date, and then place them in l'chaîne opératiore, and group the finds accordingly. The groups of the production chain is presented on distribution maps. The lack of finds in large areas shows that, from this study, everyone using textiles were not necessarily creating them from their own raw material.

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  • 211.
    Bergström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    ”Gud, ge mig sinnesro att acceptera det jag inte kan förändra”: En komparativ teologisk studie av sinnesrogudstjänster i Svenska kyrkan2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 212.
    Bergström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    ”Jag bekänner inför dig, helige Gud”: En komparativ teologisk analys av Tolvstegsprogrammet Anonyma alkoholisters rit och högmässans rit2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 213.
    Bergström, Arvid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vem kan tvätta händerna?: Sociala skillnader i dödlighet i Östersunds församling 1915–19222020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 214.
    Bergström, Elina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bakom Kulisserna: En begreppshistorisk analys av begreppen ras och kultur i Vägen Framåt, 1946 – 19492019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 215.
    Bergström, Jimmy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ämneslärarstudenters tolkning av värdegrundsuppdraget: I övrensstämmelse med den etik som förvaltas av kristen tradition2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Läroplanen kan realiseras i klassrummet på olika sätt eftersom lärarens kunskap och värderingar påverkar tolkningen. Detta innebär att skrivningar i läroplanen kommer tolkas olika av olika lärare. Syftet med denna studie är att skapa en förståelse för hur ämneslärarstudenter tolkar värdegrundsuppdraget med avgränsar till formuleringen ”i överensstämmelse med den etik som är förvaltad av kristen tradition” (lgr 22). Studien är en kvalitativ studie där sju ämneslärarstudenter har intervjuats. Resultatet analyseras utifrån läroplansteori samt sekulariseringsteori. Resultatet visar att skrivningen i läroplanen tolkas olika baserat på olika faktorer inom både läroplansteori och sekulariseringsteori.

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  • 216.
    Bergström, Jonathan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Group Belief and Justification: Analyzing Collective knowledge2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 217.
    Bergström, Kai
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Barns arv och försörjning i de svenska medeltida landskapslagarna.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 218. Berntson, Martin
    et al.
    Borgehammar, Stephan
    Girmalm, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Halldorf, Joel
    Lejon, Kjell O.
    Wejryd, Cecilia
    Gör om prästers utbildning!2019In: Kyrkans tidning, ISSN 1651-405X, no 19, p. 29-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 219. Berntson, Martin
    et al.
    Hägerland, Tobias
    Andersson, Daniel
    Girmalm, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Lejon, Kjell O.
    Löfstedt, Torsten
    Maurits, Alexander
    Wassén, Cecilia
    Wejryd, Cecilia
    Skolverket bör backa om religionskunskap2019In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 220.
    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Södertörn university, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lill
    Södertörn university, Sweden.
    Österborg Wiklund, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nygren, Anna
    Åbo Akademi, Finland; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Storm, Palle
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Greta
    Södertörn University, Sweden.
    ADHD in higher education and academia2023In: Canadian Journal on Disability Studies, ISSN 1929-9192, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore our own experiences of barriers to learning and academic knowledge production in academia and higher education. Our analyses are based on our collective autoethnographical accounts from our own experiences of ADHD and higher education, with a particular focus on post graduate education and our experiences of ADHD peer support in academic knowledge production. In our analysis, we have distinguished between three different dimensions of academia for ADHD graduate students and faculty: as a place of structural violence and vulnerability; as enabling or disabling, and as a place for neurodivergent community formation. There are few ADHD-centered traditions of learning within education. By ADHD-centered we refer to perspectives within education and support informed by an ADHD insider-perspective. We therefore stress the possibilities of ADHD learning informed by the emerging field of critical ADHD studies.  

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  • 221.
    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    School of Social Science, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lill
    School of Social Science, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Österborg Wiklund, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nygren, Anna
    HDK-Valand-Academy of Art and Design, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Storm, Palle
    Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Greta
    School of Social Science, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Intensity and variable attention: counter narrating ADHD, from ADHD deficits to ADHD difference2023In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 3647-3664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has historically come from a cognitive deficit approach and lacked community authorship. In contrast, this article utilises a neurodiversity framework to explore ADHD as a cognitive difference through ADHDers' experiences. Specifically, here we analyse collective autoethnographic writings from neurodivergent academic researchers writing to one other about their experiences of intensity and variable attention or interest-based attention. Through the process of collective writing, we started to rename and restory our experiences, which has enabled us to understand intensity and variable attention as a valuable facet of human diversity, with both strengths and challenges. This project offers an example of how community-based research can elucidate individual experiences as ADHD/AuDHD researchers, facilitate exploration of varied experiences with intensity and attention and increase self-awareness and ability to give and receive neuroaffirmative support.

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  • 222.
    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    School of Social Science, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lill
    School of Social Science, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Österborg Wiklund, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nygren, Anna
    HDK-Valand–Academy of Art and Design, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Storm, Palle
    Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Greta
    School of Social Science, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Naming ourselves, becoming neurodivergent scholars2023In: Disability & Society, ISSN 0968-7599, E-ISSN 1360-0508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we seek to restory what has been storied as “the problem of ADHD”. Informed by calls for a critical ADHD studies, we explore the possibilities of ADHD collective autoethnographic storytelling. Together we (en)counter narratives of ADHD. Within our collective writing space, from our ADHD/AuDHD bodyminds, we seek to re-story our ADHD/AuDHD. We map a field of critical ADHD research within social sciences and point out problems of outsider perspectives, stressing a need for insider perspectives. Our data consist of collective authoethnographic writings about ADHD. From the data we have explored our experiences of (En)Countering ADHD narratives, and a transition process which we refer to as from ”broken NT-scholars” to neurodivergent scholars, stressing the importance of ADHD:ers as independent as well as collective agents, and ADHD as epistemological standpoint within research.

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  • 223.
    Bjernefors, Sophia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kungamakt och kloster: Relationen mellan kungamakten och cisterciensiska kloster under svensk högmedeltid 1143-13502022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 224.
    Bjurestam, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Framgångsrik undervisning – praktik och teori: En kvalitativ studie om historielärares egen syn kring framgångsrik undervisning-2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What are successful teaching-situations, and how do teachers in history perform them? These questions are examined by semi-structurally interviewing history teachers about their definitions of said situations and practical execution to reach such a performance. The empirical material is transcribed and categorized with aid of the phenomenographic method. The study is limited to a region in the middle parts of Norrland, although the results are still of importance in its purpose to exemplify what successful teaching-situations are and how to reach them. The general opinion of the informants seems to be that historical consciousness and learning goals are of importance, yet so too are the social and democratic fostering process if the purpouse are to become a good teacher who offer students successful teaching-situations.

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  • 225.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Social values of forests and production of new goods and services: the views of Swedish family forest owners2018In: Small-scale Forestry, ISSN 1873-7617, E-ISSN 1873-7854, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 125-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are considered crucial assets for sustainable rural development, and contemporary forestry is an industry where production, environmental and social goals can – and should – be handled simultaneously. Swedish family forest owners (FFOs) are expected to both manage and conserve their forests for the benefit of the whole country, but there are contradictions between development and conservation and between traditional and alternative forms of utilization, representing dilemmas in rural areas. Tensions between urban and rural areas, between demands on what to produce and protect, are often linked to the FFOs’ views on opportunities for forest management. The aim of this study is to identify and analyse the extent to which FFOs perceive that social values have the ability to generate “new” goods and services as a supplement or alternative to traditional forestry, and to suggest how the forests might be managed to render high social values. Fifty-seven interviews were conducted with FFOs (both resident and non-resident). The results indicate that regardless of where they reside, FFOs have a multifunctional view of their forests and forest management, that the social values attached to forests can play an important role in the development of local recreation- and forest-based tourism activities, and in this respect they can enhance sustainable rural development. It is, however, not obvious who might start and develop these businesses, since there seems to be a lack of interest among the FFOs themselves.

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  • 226.
    Björklund, Hampus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Liberalism, Radical Feminism and Prostitution:: A Reassessment of Two Perspectives on Prostitution2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current philosophical debate about prostitution is mainly concerned with two different points of view: (a) the permissibility of prostitution and if paternalistic interference on behalf of prostitutes is legitimate in a liberal democracy, and (b) feminist objections claiming that it is the unjust structures of the patriarchy that enables and affirms the institution of female bodies being sold on an open market for the sexual desires of males. The aim of this paper is to investigate if both of these perspectives take on too narrow a view when trying to address the phenomenon of prostitution. If so, the conclusions drawn may lead to unwanted consequences making it necessary for a more context-sensitive approach and/or a broader theoretical foundation.

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  • 227.
    Björklund, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Omsorgsetiken som moralteori: En feministisk teori om omsorg2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay I will defend Nel Noddings care ethics by arguing against Michael Slotes critique of it, while also presenting critique of Slotes virtue ethical version of care ethics. The essential difference between the theories is in my opinion that Noddings theory gives relations so-called ontological priority. I will be arguing that the relational ontology vies better guidance in care situations, but it is also preferrable as an metaethical fundament. I will do this by presenting a situation where Slotes virtue ethics judges an act as caring, even though that’s not necessarily the case. I will then argue that Noddings care ethics demands a more amplie picture of the situation and therefore also gives better guidance, which I argue is valid generally in moral practice. In this essay I will also present arguments against Slote by bringing to light how the feasability of his arguments and theory presupposes a so-called individualistic ontologi (unlike Noddings relational ontology). A relational ontology presupposes a relation between two (or more) individuals in a situation, while the individualistic doesn’t consider that fact. The relational ontology is important for most of care ethics advocates, which is why I contend that Noddings theory is to prefer ahead of Slotes theory. Therefore I argue for using the relational ontology also as a metaethical foundation.

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  • 228.
    Björn, Norlin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sjögren, David
    Uppsala universitet.
    Educational history in the age of apology: The Church of Sweden's "White book" on historical relations to the Sami, the significance of education and scientific complexities in reconciling the past2019In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, E-ISSN 2004-5190, no 1, p. 69-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconciliation processes – wherein governments and other organizations examine their past institutional practices to understand contemporary problems in relation to minorities or indigenous groups – have become a widespread international phenomenon in recent decades. In Sweden, such an ongoing process is the reconciliation work between the Church of Sweden and the Sami. In this process, which recently resulted in the publication of a scholarly anthology (or a “white book”), educational history has come to play a vital part. The present article uses the Church of Sweden’s White Book as an empirical object of study to examine in more detail the role and significance of knowledge of educational history for this specific reconciliation process. By focusing on various scientific complexities and epistemological tensions that tend to arise in these kinds of undertakings, this paper also aims to problematize the white book genre itself as a path to historical knowledge. By doing this, this article’s overall ambition is to contribute to future scholarly work in reconciliation activities, white papers and truth commissions. This study applies a qualitative content analysis and connects theoretically to the growing field of transitional justice research.

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  • 229.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. University of Gothenburg.
    Contextualism in Ethics2013In: The International Encyclopedia of Ethics / [ed] H. LaFolette, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell , 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are various ways in which context matters in ethics. Most clearly, the context in which an action is performed might determine whether the action is morally right: though it is often wrong not to keep a promise, it might be permissible in certain contexts. More radically, proponents of moral particularism (see particularism) have argued that a reason for an action in one context is not guaranteed to be a reason in a different context: whether it is a reason against an act that it breaks a promise or inflicts pain might depend on the particulars of the situation. In moral epistemology, Timmons (1999: Ch. 5) argues that whether a moral judgment is epistemically responsible depends both on the basic moral outlook of the moral judge and on whether the context of judgment is one of engaged moral thinking, or one of distanced, skeptical reflection. In the former, the judge’s basic moral outlook can serve to justify the judgment; not so in the latter (see epistemology, moral).

    Our focus here, however, will be on forms of metaethical, and more precisely semantic, contextualism in moral discourse and moral thinking. According to these forms of contextualism (henceforth “metaethical contextualism,” or just “contextu- alism”), the meaning or truth-conditions of a moral judgment depend not only on the properties of the act it concerns, but also on features of the context in which the judgment is made, such as the standards endorsed by the moral judge or the parties of the conversation. If metaethical contextualism is correct, it might be that when two persons judge that abortions must be banned, one person’s judgment might be true whereas the other person’s is false, because they accept different fundamental norms. This would undermine the idea that there are objectively correct answers to moral questions.

    Metaethical contextualism is supported from three directions. First, what is expressed by terms such as “good” and “ought” seems to be context-dependent when used outside ethics, being dependent on a variety of interests and concerns. One might therefore expect similar context dependence when these terms are used to express moral judgments, assuming a corresponding variety of interests and concerns in moral contexts. Second, many have thought that deep moral disagree- ments suggest that the interests and concerns behind moral judgments do vary in this way. Finally, contextualism promises to make sense of what seems to be an intrinsic yet defeasible connection between moral judgments and moral motivation, by tying the meaning or truth-conditions of moral judgments closely to interests and concerns of moral judges. At the same time, contextualism faces two broad kinds of problems: to make sense of the seemingly categorical or objective preten- sions of moral claims, and to explain why the parties to deep moral disagreement often behave as if they were disagreeing about substantive issues rather than talking past each other. In the sections that follow, we look closer at both sources of support and problems for contextualism.

  • 230.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Diagreement, correctness, and the evidence for metaethical absolutism2015In: Oxford Studies in Metaethics / [ed] Russ Shafer-Landau, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metaethical absolutism is the view that moral concepts have non-relative satisfaction conditions that are constant across judges and their particular beliefs, attitudes, and cultural embedding. Two related premises underpin the argument for absolutism: (1) that moral thinking and discourse display a number of features that are characteristically found in paradigmatically absolutist domains, and only partly in uncontroversially non-absolutist domains; and (2) that the best way of making sense of these features is to assume that absolutism is correct. This chapter defends the prospect of a non-absolutist explanation of these “absolutist” features, thus calling into question the second premise. The chapter proposes independently motivated general accounts of attributions of agreement, disagreement, correctness, and incorrectness that can explain both why absolutist domains display all “absolutist” features and why these non-absolutist domains display some, and thus provides preliminary reasons to think that these features of moral discourse can be given a non-absolutist explanation.

  • 231.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Do ‘objectivist’ features of moral discourse and thinking support moral objectivism?2012In: Journal of Ethics, ISSN 1382-4554, E-ISSN 1572-8609, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 367-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many philosophers think that moral objectivism is supported by stable features of moral discourse and thinking. When engaged in moral reasoning and discourse, people behave ‘as if’ objectivism were correct, and the seemingly most straightforward way of making sense of this is to assume that objectivism is correct; this is how we think that such behavior is explained in paradigmatically objectivist domains. By comparison, relativist, error-theoretic or non-cognitivist accounts of this behavior seem contrived and ad hoc. After explaining why this argument should be taken seriously (recent arguments notwithstanding), I argue that it is nevertheless undermined by considerations of moral disagreement. Even if the metaphysical, epistemic and semantic commitments of objectivism provide little or no evidence against it, and even if the alternative explanations of ‘objectivist’ traits of moral discourse and thinking are speculative or contrived, objectivism is itself incapable of making straightforward sense of these traits. Deep and widespread moral disagreement or, rather, the mere appearance of such disagreement, strongly suggests that the explanations operative in paradigmatically objective discourse fail to carry over to the moral case. Since objectivism, no less than relativism, non-cognitivism and error-theories, needs non-trivial explanations of why we behave ‘as if’ objec- tivism were correct, such behavior does not presently provide reason to accept objectivism.

  • 232.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Essentially shared obligations2014In: Midwest studies in philosophy, ISSN 0363-6550, E-ISSN 1475-4975, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 103-120Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 233.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Explaining (Away) the Epistemic Condition on Moral Responsibility2017In: Responsibility: The Epistemic Condition / [ed] Philip Robichaud, Jan Willem Wieland, Oxford University Press, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter combines the familiar Strawsonian idea that moral blame and credit depend on the agent’s quality of will with an independently motivated account of responsibility as grounded in a normal explanatory relation between agential qualities and objects of responsibility. The resulting ‘explanatory quality of will condition’ on moral responsibility is then further motivated by being shown to account for the effects on moral blame and credit of justifications, excuses, and undermined control in cases where agents are fully aware of what they are doing. Having been independently motivated, the explanatory quality of will condition is then applied to cases involving lack of awareness. Though this condition involves no explicit epistemic condition on responsibility, it is shown how it accounts for the degrees to which lack of awareness can excuse.

  • 234.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Incompatibilism and ‘Bypassed’ Agency2014In: Surrounding Free Will: Philosophy, Psychology, Neuroscience / [ed] Alfred R. Mele, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 95-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent papers, Eddy Nahmias and Dylan Murray have proposed an error theory for intuitions supporting incompatibilism. They suggest that when people take responsibility to be undermined by determinism, they do so because they take determinism to imply that agents’ beliefs, desires, and decisions are bypassed, having no effect on their actions. This chapter first presents results from experiments designed to exclude certain sources of error in Nahmias and Murray’s studies, showing that their data, however puzzling, are robust with respect to minor variations in questionnaires. Second, it presents results from studies designed to provide more direct tests of the bypass hypothesis, results strongly suggesting that in spite of these data, the hypothesis is false. Third, it argues that, initial appearances notwithstanding, the explanation hypothesis can straightforwardly explain Nahmias and Murray’s data.

  • 235.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Moralisk oenighet utan metaetisk absolutism2015In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 3-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 236.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Outsourcing the deep self: Deep self discordance does not explain away intuitions in manipulation arguments2016In: Philosophical Psychology, ISSN 0951-5089, E-ISSN 1465-394X, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 637-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to manipulation arguments for incompatibilism, manipulation might undermine an agent's responsibility even when the agent satisfies plausible compatibilist conditions on responsibility. According to Sripada (2012), however, empirical data suggest that people take manipulation to undermine responsibility largely because they think that the manipulated act is in discord with the agent's “deep self”, thus violating the plausible compatibilist condition of deep self concordance. This paper defends Sripada's methodological approach but presents data from an experiment that corrects for crucial weaknesses in his study. These data strongly suggest that, contrary to Sripada’s contention, most of the effect of manipulation on attributions of moral responsibility is unmediated by worries about inadequate information or deep self discordance. Instead, it depends largely on worries that the action is ultimately explained by factors outside the agent’s control, just as proponents of manipulation arguments have proposed. More generally, data suggest that judgments of deep self discordance are themselves explained by worries about responsibility, and that the everyday notion of what an agent wants or is “deep down” is sensitive not only to the agent’s internal psychological structure, but also its source. This casts doubt on recent claims about the explanatory role of deep self judgments.

  • 237.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Quasi-Realism, Absolutism, and Judgment-Internal Correctness Conditions2013In: Johanssonian Investigations: Essays in Honour of Ingvar Johansson on His Seventieth Birthday / [ed] Christer Svennerlind, Jan Almäng, Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson, Heusenstamm: Ontos Verlag, 2013, p. 96-119Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional metaethical distinction between cognitivist absolutism, on the one hand, and speaker relativism or noncognitivism, on the other, seemed both clear and important. On the former view, moral judgments would be true or false independently on whose judgments they were, and moral disagreement might be settled by the facts. Not so on the latter views. But noncognitivists and relativists, following what Simon Blackburn has called a “quasi-realist” strategy, have come a long way in making sense of talk about truth of moral judgments and its in- dependence of moral judges and their attitudes or standards. The success of this strategy would undermine the traditional way of understanding the distinction, and it is not obvious how it can be reformulated. In this paper, I outline the difficulty posed by quasi-realism, raise problems for some prior attempts to overcome it, and present my own suggestion, focusing on correctness conditions that are internal to the act of moral judgment.

  • 238.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Eriksson, John
    Francén Olinder, Ragnar
    Strandberg, Caj
    Recent Work on Motivational Internalism2012In: Analysis, ISSN 0003-2638, E-ISSN 1467-8284, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 124-137Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reviews recent work on motivational internalism

  • 239.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Brülde, Bengt
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Normative responsibilities: structure and sources2017In: Parental responsibility in the context of neuroscience and genetics / [ed] Kristien Hens, Daniela Cutas, Dorothee Horstkötter, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 13-33Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Normative responsibilities have a central role in everyday moral thinking, largely because they are taken to ground requirements to act and react in certain ways. If parents are responsible for the wellbeing of their children, for example, this might mean that they are morally required to feed them, attend to their emotional needs, or make sure that someone else does. But normative responsibilities are not well understood as lists of requirements to act or react, for such requirements will depend on what options and information the agent has available. In the first part of the paper, we instead propose to understand normative responsibilities as requirements to care about what one is responsible for: about the wellbeing of one’s child, about performing a certain action, or about playing the sort of role that one’s profession requires. Such requirements, we argue, are just the sort of things that will give rise to requirements to act and react given the right context. In the second part, we survey and discuss a variety of considerations that might give rise to normative responsibilities: capacities and costs; retrospective and causal responsibility; benefits; promises, contracts and agreements; laws and norms; and roles and special relationships.

  • 240.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Francén Olinder, Ragnar
    Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Enoch's defense of robust meta-ethical realism2016In: Journal of Moral Philosophy, ISSN 1740-4681, E-ISSN 1745-5243, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking Morality Seriously is David Enoch's book-length defense of meta-ethical and meta-normative non-naturalist realism. After describing Enoch's position and outlining the argumentative strategy of the book, we engage in a critical discussion of what we take to be particularly problematic central passages. We focus on Enoch's two original positive arguments for non-naturalist realism, one argument building on first order moral implications of different meta-ethical positions, the other attending to the rational commitment to normative facts inherent in practical deliberation. We also pay special attention to Enoch's handling of two types of objections to non-naturalist realism, objections having to do with the possibility of moral knowledge and with moral disagreement.

  • 241.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Francén Olinder, Ragnar
    Internalists Beware – We Might all be Amoralists!2013In: Australasian Journal of Philosophy, ISSN 0004-8402, E-ISSN 1471-6828, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard motivational internalism is the claim that by a priori or conceptual necessity, a psychological state is a moral opinion only if it is suitably related to moral motivation. Many philosophers, the authors of this paper included, have assumed that this claim is supported by intuitions to the effect that amoralists—people not suitably related to such motivation—lack moral opinions proper. In this paper we argue that this assumption is mistaken, seeming plausible only because defenders of standard internalism have failed to consider the possibility that our own actual moral practice as a whole is one where moral opinions fail to motivate in the relevant way. To show this, we present a cynical hypothesis according to which the tendency for people to act in accordance with their moral opinions ultimately stems from a desire to appear moral. This hypothesis is most likely false, but we argue, on both intuitive and methodological grounds, that it is conceptually possible that it correctly describes our actual moral opinions. If correct, this refutes standard motivational internalism. Further, we propose an explanation of why many have seemingly internalist intuitions. Such intuitions, we argue, stem from the fact that standard amoralist cases allow (or even suggest) that we apprehend the putative moral opinions of amoralists as radically different from how we understand actual paradigmatic moral opinions. Given this, it is reasonable to understand them as not being moral opinions proper. However, since these intuitions rest on substantial a posteriori assumptions about actual moral opinions, they provide no substantial a priori constraints on theories of moral judgment.

  • 242.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. University of Gothenburg.
    Hess, Kendy
    Corporate Crocodile Tears?: On the Reactive Attitudes of Corporations2017In: Philosophy and phenomenological research, ISSN 0031-8205, E-ISSN 1933-1592, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 273-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a number of people have argued that certain entities embodied by groups of agents themselves qualify as agents, with their own (analogs of) beliefs, desires, and intentions; even, some claim, as moral agents. However, others have independently argued that fully-fledged moral agency involves a capacity for reactive attitudes such as guilt and indignation, and these capacities might seem beyond the ken of “collective” or “corporate” agents. Individuals embodying such agents can of course be ashamed, proud, or indignant about what the agent has done. But just as an entity needs to have its own beliefs, desires, and intentions to qualify as a bona fide agent, the required capacity for reactive attitudes is a capacity to have one’s own reactive attitudes. If fully-fledged moral agency requires reactive attitudes, the corporate agent must itself be capable of (analogs of) guilt and indignation. In this paper, we argue that at least certain corporate agents are. Or, more precisely, we argue that if there are bona fide corporate agents, these agents can have the capacities that are both associated with guilt and indignation and plausibly required for moral agency; in particular certain epistemic and motivational capacities.

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  • 243.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Göteborgs universitet.
    John, Eriksson
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Strandberg, Caj
    Universitetet i Oslo.
    Francén Olinder, Ragnar
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Motivational internalism and folk intuitions2015In: Philosophical Psychology, ISSN 0951-5089, E-ISSN 1465-394X, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 715-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational internalism postulates a necessary connection between moral judgments and motivation. In arguing for and against internalism, metaethicists traditionally appeal to intuitions about cases, but crucial cases often yield conflicting intuitions. One way to try to make progress, possibly uncovering theoretical bias and revealing whether people have conceptions of moral judgments required for noncognitivist accounts of moral thinking, is to investigate non-philosophers' willingness to attribute moral judgments. A pioneering study by Shaun Nichols seemed to undermine internalism, as a large majority of subjects were willing to attribute moral understanding to an agent lacking moral motivation. However, our attempts to replicate this study yielded quite different results, and we identified a number of problems with Nichols' experimental paradigm. The results from a series of surveys designed to rule out these problems (a) show that people are more willing to attribute moral understanding than moral belief to agents lacking moral motivation, (b) suggest that a majority of subjects operate with some internalist conceptions of moral belief, and (c) are compatible with the hypothesis that an overwhelming majority of subjects do this. The results also seem to suggest that if metaethicists’ intuitions are theoretically biased, this bias is more prominent among externalists.

  • 244.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Göteborgs universitet.
    McPherson, Tristram
    Moral Attitudes for Non-Cognitivists: Solving the specification problem2014In: Mind (Print), ISSN 0026-4423, E-ISSN 1460-2113, Vol. 123, no 489, p. 1-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moral non-cognitivists hope to explain the nature of moral agreement and disagreement as agreement and disagreement in non-cognitive attitudes. In doing so, they take on the task of identifying the relevant attitudes, distinguishing the non-cognitive attitudes corresponding to judgements of moral wrongness, for example, from attitudes involved in aesthetic disapproval or the sports fan’s disapproval of her team’s performance. We begin this paper by showing that there is a simple recipe for generating apparent counterexamples to any informative specification of the moral attitudes. This may appear to be a lethal objection to non-cognitivism, but a similar recipe challenges attempts by non-cognitivism’s competitors to specify the conditions underwriting the contrast between genuine and merely apparent moral disagreement. Because of its generality, this specification problem requires a systematic response, which, we argue, is most easily available for the non-cognitivist. Building on premisses congenial to the non-cognitivist tradition, we make the following claims: (1) In paradigmatic cases, wrongness-judgements constitute a certain complex but functionally unified state, and paradigmatic wrongness-judgements form a functional kind, preserved by homeostatic mechanisms. (2) Because of the practical function of such judgements, we should expect judges’ intuitive understanding of agreement and disagreement to be accommodating, treating states departing from the paradigm in various ways as wrongness-judgements. (3) This explains the intuitive judgements required by the counterexample-generating recipe, and more generally why various kinds of amoralists are seen as making genuine wrongness-judgements.

  • 245.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Pereboom, Derk
    Free Will Skepticism and Bypassing2014In: Moral Psychology, vol 4: Free Will and Moral Responsibility / [ed] Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, MIT Press, 2014, p. 27-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 246.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Pereboom, Derk
    Traditional and experimental approaches to free will and moral responsibility2016In: A companion to experimental philosophy / [ed] Justin Sytsma; Wesley Buckwalter, Wiley-Blackwell, 2016, p. 158-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 247.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Persson, Karl
    University of Gothenburg.
    A unified empirical account of responsibility judgments2013In: Philosophy and phenomenological research, ISSN 0031-8205, E-ISSN 1933-1592, Vol. 87, no 3, p. 611-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeptical worries about moral responsibility seem to be widely appreciated and deeply felt. To address these worries—if nothing else to show that they are mistaken—theories of moral responsibility need to relate to whatever concept of responsibility underlies the worries. Unfortunately, the nature of that concept has proved hard to pin down. Not only do philosophers have conflicting intuitions; numerous recent empirical studies have suggested that both prosaic responsibility judgments and incompatibilist intuitions among the folk are influenced by a number of surprising factors, sometimes prompting apparently contradictory judgments. In this paper, we show how an independently motivated hypothesis about responsibility judgments provides a unified explanation of the more important results from these studies. According to this ‘Explanation Hypothesis’, to take an agent to be morally responsible for an event is to take a relevant motivational structure of the agent to be part of a significant explanation of the event. We argue that because of how explanatory interests and perspectives affect what we take as significant explanations, this analysis accounts for the puzzling variety of empirical results. If this is correct, the Explanation Hypothesis also provides a new way of understanding debates about moral responsibility.

  • 248.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Persson, Karl
    The explanatory component of moral responsibility2012In: Noûs, ISSN 0029-4624, E-ISSN 1468-0068, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 326-354Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 249.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Shanklin, Robert
    ‘Must’, ‘Ought’ and the Structure of Standards2014In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, no 8554, p. 33-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns the semantic difference between strong and weak necessity modals. First we identify a number of explananda: their well-known intuitive difference in strength between ‘must’ and ‘ought’ as well as differences in connections to probabilistic considerations and acts of requir- ing and recommending. Here we argue that important extant analyses of the semantic differences, though tailored to account for some of these aspects, fail to account for all. We proceed to suggest that the difference between ’ought’ and ’must’ lies in how they relate to scalar and binary standards. Briefly put, must(φ) says that among the relevant alternatives, φ is selected by the relevant binary standard, whereas ought(φ) says that among the relevant alternatives, φ is selected by the relevant scale. Given independently plausible assumptions about how standards are provided by context, this explains the relevant differ- ences discussed.

  • 250.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Strandberg, CajFrancén Olinder, RagnarEriksson, JohnBjörklund, Fredrik
    Motivational Internalism2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational internalism—the thesis that there is an intrinsic or necessary connection between moral judgment and moral motivation—is a central thesis in a number of metaethical debates. In conjunction with a Humean picture of motivation, it has provided a challenge for cognitivist theories that take moral judgments to concern objective aspects of reality, and versions of internalism have been seen as having implications for moral absolutism, realism, non-naturalism, and rationalism. Being a constraint on theories of moral motivation and moral judgment, it is also directly relevant to wider issues in moral psychology. But internalism is a controversial thesis, and the apparent possibility of amoralists and the rejection of strong forms of internalism have also been seen as a problem for non-cognitivists. This volume is meant to help people appreciate the state of the art of research on internalism, to see connections between various aspects of the debate, and to deepen the discussion of a number of central aspects. The introductory chapter provides a structured overview of the debate with a focus on the last two decades or so, distinguishing several important threads and trends in recent developments. The 13 chapters of original research are divided into three parts. The essays in the first part focus on what evidence there is for or against various versions of internalism, those in the second on the relevance of versions of internalism for wider metaethical issues, and those in the third develop different ways of accommodating both internalist and externalist aspects of moral practice.

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