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  • 201.
    Brossard, Isabelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Weissmann, Christine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Påverkan av högreflekterande ytor vid användning av Romer Absolute Arm med integrerad skanner2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Laser scanning is known not to give good results with highly reflective surfaces. The issue is particularly visible when scanning with a close-range laser scanner, as the instrument is often used to digitalize objects of polished metal or other highly reflective material. In this case, it causes a significant increase of uncertainties and deviations. In some cases, it is not even possible to get data to work with. It is thus important to know how high reflectivity influences the results of laser scanning. The aim of this work was to investigate how deviations vary when scanning highly reflective surfaces. By knowing more about how influential different sources of uncertainties are on the use of a particular instrument, it is easier to decide on the right instrument and the right method for a particular project.

    The study was conducted by scanning and probing objects of different forms and reflectivities. The handheld line scanner Romer Absolute Arm with integrated scanner was used for scanning and probing. The data analysis was operated in Polyworks, which is the recommended software for the scanner.

    The results from the study show that scanning highly reflective surfaces gives poorer results than scanning surfaces with low reflectivity. However, the results can be improved by learning to use the scanner appropriately, and take into account the surface characteristics and the scanner’s settings. The conclusion is that the handheld scanner is a flexible and user-friendly instrument, but needs training and experience to be used at its full potential.

  • 202.
    Buck, Sine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Determining the best location for a nature-like fishway in Gavle River, Sweden2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of dams and hydro-power stations are some of the most common anthropogenic changes of watercourses and rivers. While being important to humans and society by providing electricity, these obstructions of watercourses can have severe consequences for the aquatic ecosystems. One consequence is that dams often hinder the important movement of migrating fish species between habitats. This can lead to decline and even extinction of important fish populations. To prevent these negative effects, a number of different fish passage systems, including nature-like fishways, have been developed. Nature-like fishways mimic natural streams in order to function as a natural corridor for a wide range of species. Planning and construction of a nature-like fishway is a complex task that often involves many different interests. In the present study a combination of multi-criteria decision analysis and least-cost path analysis is used for determining the best location for a nature-like fishway past Strömdalen dam in Gavleån, Sweden. An anisotropic least-cost path algorithm is applied on a friction-layer and a digital elevation model, and the least-cost path for a nature-like fishway is determined. The results show that the method is useful in areas of varying topography and steep slopes. However, because low slope is a very important factor when constructing a nature-like fishway, slope becomes the dominating factor in this analysis at the expense of e.g. distance to roads. Combining the methods with results from biological studies of fish behavior and detailed hydrological modelling would provide a very strong tool for the planning of nature-like fishways.

  • 203.
    Bujosevic, Daniela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Renman, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Godstransporter längs ostkusten för en hållbar utveckling: En fallstudie på Yilport2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large proportion of climate affecting emissions from Sweden is due to the transportation sector. Railway transportation accounts for less than one percent of the carbon dioxide emissions while road and truck transportation accounts for the largest part. This clearly shows that the choice of transportation has a significant effect in achieving environmental sustainability.

    This thesis is a case study with the aim of identifying barriers against using railways instead of road transportation for freight transport between a small port terminal and a nearby inland terminal. To answer the purpose, observation was conducted on the terminals and semi-structured interviews with three forwarding companies was performed. A theoretical framework was developed through literature studies and the information gathered was then put against the compiled empiricism in an analysis.

    The conclusion of this study implies that freight forwarders cannot influence the choice of transportation due to customer requirements. The customer always demands to have goods delivered at the lowest price possible and by that the environmental factors are not prioritized and that is an obstacle for using railway transport. Beyond the factor mentioned other factors that prevent the use of railways in relatively short distances are related to its lead time, flexibility and frequency.

  • 204.
    Bäck, Elvira
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Pyhälä, Sanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Processkartläggning av servicesystem: För första återkoppling till kund och utformning av en förbättringsmodell2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Strukturering och planering har länge varit känt som viktiga faktorer som påverkar hur en verksamhet ska fungera. Förståelsen för detta har inte alltid varit densamma. Längre tillbaka fanns inte kunskap om vad detta gav. Forskning har under åren genomförts angående planering och strukturering och olika resultat har framkommit. Efter dessa resultat har principer vuxit fram som har haft påverkan på arbetssätten. Längre tillbaka låg fokus på produktivitet medan det idag har flyttats till människan och dess välbefinnande.

     

    Framgångsrika företag har genom åren studerats för att kartlägga deras framgång. Utifrån dessa data har sedan företag försökt att kopiera rakt av till sin egen verksamhet, något som sällan har lyckats. Eftersom det inte finns någon optimal lösning för alla utan varje företag eller organisation behöver se till sina behov och anpassa arbetssätten efter dessa.

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka vilka delar som är viktiga i ett servicesystem för att få en välfungerande verksamhet.

    Vid kontakt med det valda företaget hade de problem med att uppnå en kundåterkoppling inom rimligt antal dagar. Därför är det av intresse att se över vilka delar som är viktiga i ett servicesystem för att genom en förbättring av systemet uppnå en bättre kundåterkoppling.

    Med detta menas att se över processen från det att en motor inkommer eller en kund lägger en beställning till dess att kunden har fått ett svar, en återkoppling, med kostnad och tidsplan. Förbättringsmodellen som tas fram teoretiskt över ett system ska avgränsas till serviceinriktade och bortse från producerande.

    För att göra det möjligt att besvara syftet har observationer, intervjuer och litteraturstudier genomförts. Dessa metoder har på olika sätt bidragit till att framställa en förbättringsmodell för servicessystem, som svarar på syftet. Den slutgiltiga förbättringsmodellen innehåller fyra hörnstenar vilka är: information, logistik, Lean och kvalité. Information och logistik framkom från fallstudien och Lean och kvalité framkom under litteraturstudierna. Alla fyra hörnstenar uppmärksammades i både fallstudien och litteraturstudien, de belystes dock lite olika.  

    Då förbättringsmodellen var framtagen jämfördes den mot ABB i Storvik för att se om den fungerar mot ett verkligt företag och inte bara är teoretisk tillämpbar. Efter denna jämförelse drogs slutsatsen att den är användbar som modell för servicesystem

  • 205.
    Bäckström, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Domanders, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Effektivisering av materialförsörjning inom tillverkande industri: En fallstudie på Företaget2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How companies choose to design their supply chain is important for their competitiveness. Supplier relationships are becoming increasingly important to maintain a market position. A key factor for success is to deliver material in the right quantity, at the right time and to the right place. Other factors that play an important role are quality standards, leadership and above all, customer first. The customer should be placed at the top of the value chain, and be treated with respect. Markets are driven by short lead time and companies cannot rely on brand loyalty.

    The purpose of this study is to develop a general model for analysis and improvement of the supply chain for manufacturing companies, with focus on components from external suppliers. The model is created based on a literature review and to examine this, the model was tested at Företaget. The empirical data is mainly conducted by interviews, complemented by one observation. The analysis model consists of seven areas based on Supply Chain Management, Logistics and Lean. A key factor to analyze these seven areas is to map the current situation. The results have been filtered through the analysis model and have led to suggestions for improvement. These suggestions are only recommendations and the companies choose what to take further into action.

    Företaget is one of Sweden’s leading window manufacturers with two strong brands, Produkt 1 and Produkt 2. Most of the production process is carried out in Edsbyn and the size of the factory is as big as ten football pitches at 65,000 squares meters. Wooden-aluminum windows are an increasing trend and stands for two thirds of the sales. The study is focusing on one selected component which is the flow for aluminum profiles.

    The conclusion shows that supply chain management, logistics and Lean play an important role while building an efficient supply chain. Relationship, communication and information sharing with suppliers are of great importance and needs to be constant developed and improved. Leadership is a key element to get all the areas to work and it is the leaders that characterize the culture of the company. The study has resulted in a number of improvement suggestions for Företaget. One suggestion for improvement is to develop a routine for documentation when a deviation occurs in the final assembly. This will enable the follow-up and help to find the main cause for appearance.

  • 206.
    Böhm, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Svensson, Joanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A MINOR EVALUATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF THE LAND MANAGEMENT AND GEOMATICS PROGRAMMES: At the University of Botswana2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyse the current and future requirements in land administration based on emerging land issues in Botswana. With the information gained from this investigation an evaluation and quality control were conducted to see if the University of Botswana (UB) keep the standard required from the industry and society. Since Botswana is under a major land reform there is a serious need for educated people in Land Management and Geomatics, if they will be able to maintain the new cadastral system. This creates a huge pressure on UB, who is the only one providing this kind of education in Botswana, to provide high quality in their programmes. The methods used are qualitative and quantitative in form of a case study with interviews, questionnaires and observations. A literature review with previous scientific research in these subjects was completed to gain information that was needed to succeed with the project. The results from the literature review and the case study highlights important areas that affect the quality in education such as teachers, motivation, environment and equipment. All target groups (students, academic staff and employers) had similar opinions, which are that the competence seems to be more important than the theoretical knowledge, among the students. These results are supported by previous scientific research presented in the literature review. As we see it, UB has come a long way but there are some important parts that have to be improved e.g. the mind-set of the students, increasing the equipment and the access of teachers to provide the assistance that the students need. A future investigation of the negative and positive aspects of providing great allowances to students can be interesting when this can be one of the main reasons of the poor mind-set among the students.

  • 207.
    Börjesson Angard, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Eriksson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Projektmodell för mindre produktutvecklingsprojekt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How projects are managed can have a big impact on the project`s result. There are different types of frameworks on the market whose purpose is to help project leaders to pursue a successful project. Those frameworks focus on larger product development projects and both the literature and companies have addressed that the frameworks are too comprehensive for smaller product development projects. They have therefore asked for a framework that is more suitable for those smaller projects. To complete a project on time and to the planned cost is important in both larger and smaller product development projects. The purpose of this research is therefore to create a model for how small product development projects should be pursued.

    Various theories about how a project should be managed have been investigated to achieve the purpose of this research. A case study has also been done on a company that conducts small product development projects. Benchmarking has been done within the firm and on a company that has the same organization structure and conduct development projects. The theories that have been used in the study has been collected through well know databases and books in the field for the research.

    The result of the research is a model that will serve as a support for the project leader in small product development projects of existing products. This model processes the phases that a successful project should go through and how the project leader should handle the critical elements in the project.

  • 208.
    Börjesson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Johansson, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Jane's walk som strategi för involvering av allmänheten i planeringsprocessen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 209.
    Çağdaş, Volkan
    et al.
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Stubkjær, Erik
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    de Vries, Walter Timo
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    van der Merwe, Cornelius
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Schwery, Nadja
    University of Freiburg, Switzerland.
    Ploeger, Hendrik
    VUUniversity Amsterdam / Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Işıkdağ, Ümit
    Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey.
    Kara, Abdullah
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Co-ownership shares in condominiums – A comparison across jurisdictions and standards: Long version2018In: 6th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Condominium is one of the prevalent forms of three-dimensional (3D) property rights (Paulsson, 2007, p. 32). The condominium concept common to a number of jurisdictions consists of three elements: (a) individual ownership of an apartment, (b) co-ownership (joint ownership) of the land and the common parts of the building, and (c) membership of an incorporated or unincorporated owners' association (van der Merwe, 2015, p. 5). The ownership shares of condominium unit owners in the common property are here referred to as co-ownership shares; yet, alternative terms include ownership fraction, condominium share, participation quota, share value, and unit entitlement. The co-ownership share determines the proportional contribution to the common expenses and the share of common profits, as well as the voting power of each condominium unit owner in the administration of the condominium. The most common approaches to the determination of the co-ownership shares are based on equality, relative size or relative value of each condominium unit, or a combination of such (van der Merwe, 1994, p. 57-58). The literature presents detailed descriptions and comparative analysis related to condominium systems in different jurisdictions (e.g. van der Merwe, 2016; 2015; Paulsson, 2007; EUI, 2005; UNECE, 2005); however, the technical and procedural aspects related to the allotment of co-ownership shares still need to be further investigated. This paper aims to compare methods and procedures applied for the allotment of co-ownership shares of condominium systems in the following seven jurisdictions; Denmark, Germany, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Turkey. Also, international geographic information standards (i.e. ISO LADM, OGC LandInfra/InfraGML) are analyzed to assess the extent to which they facilitate allocation of co-ownership shares. The main purpose is to clarify the legal provisions and methodologies related to the determination of co-ownership shares in national condominium systems and bring new insights to countries, which are trying to revise their national provisions for fairer implementations.

  • 210.
    Çağdaş, Volkan
    et al.
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Stubkjær, Erik
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    de Vries, Walter
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    van der Merwe, Cornelius
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Schwery, Nadja
    University of Freiburg, Switzerland.
    Ploeger, Hendrik
    VU University Amsterdam/Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Işıkdağ, Ümit
    Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey.
    Kara, Abdullah
    Yıldız Technical University, Turkey.
    Co-ownership shares in condominiums – A comparison across jurisdictions and standards: Short version2018In: 6th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2018, p. 217-242Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Condominium is one of the prevalent forms of three- dimensional (3D) property rights (Paulsson, 2007, p. 32). The condominium concept common to a number of jurisdictions consists of three elements: (a) individual ownership of an apartment, (b) co-ownership (joint ownership) of the land and the common parts of the building, and (c) membership of an incorporated or unincorporated owners' association (van der Merwe, 2015, p. 5). The ownership shares of condominium unit owners in the common property are here referred to as co-ownership shares; yet, alternative terms include ownership fraction, condominium share, participation quota, share value, and unit entitlement. The co-ownership share determines the proportional contribution to the common expenses and the share of common profits, as well as the voting power of each condominium unit owner in the administration of the condominium. The most common approaches to the determination of the co-ownership shares are based on equality, relative size or relative value of each condominium unit, or a combination of such (van der Merwe, 1994, p. 57-58). The literature presents detailed descriptions and comparative analysis related to condominium systems in different jurisdictions (e.g. van der Merwe, 2016; 2015; Paulsson, 2007; EUI, 2005; UNECE, 2005); however, the technical and procedural aspects related to the allotment of co-ownership shares still need to be further investigated. This paper aims to compare methods and procedures applied for the allotment of co-ownership shares of condominium systems in the following seven jurisdictions; Denmark, Germany, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Turkey. Also, international geographic information standards are analyzed to assess the extent to which they facilitate allocation of co-ownership shares. The main purpose is to clarify the legal provisions and methodologies related to the determination of co-ownership shares in national condominium systems and bring new insights to countries, which are trying to revise their national provisions for fairer implementations.

  • 211.
    Cai, Lingxiao
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Jia, Ying
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Transportation management system in China: a study case on UPS and JULC2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the fast changing environment of China’s logistics market and high participative level of foreign logistics enterprises, Chinese logistics players mostly suffer from their low service ability of Third Party Logistics. Big gaps certainly exist between domestic ones and foreign giants.

     

    The thesis aims to compare the TMS of a local logistics company and a large multinational company. Investigating how TMS is applied in China’s logistics market and making comparison of TMS between a multinational company and a Chinese local company is the main contribution of the paper.

     

     

    After conducting cases study and interview on a foreign multinational logistics enterprise United Parcel Service and a Chinese local small logistics Jiangsu Universal Logistics Company, this paper has a relatively high reliability and validity. Relevant knowledge of TMS, mode and carriers, and 3PL is selected to present in the theoretical framework.

     

    In the thesis body, we compared two chosen companies from three logistical levels: strategic, tactical, and operational. In detail, we found a vast of differences lying in nine parts that we selected from the TMS reference functional model and domains. Considering the characteristics and future challenges of China logistics market, we strongly recommend JULC to adapt TMS. However, it is unfeasible for JULC to apply the entire TMS. Therefore, we provide the solutions in three perspectives. First and foremost, apply part of TMS in the relevant field, in terms of network design and capacity management. An equally important solution is adapting cost-saving solution in certain administrative field, namely: planning, vehicle, execution, finance. Last but not least, in order to provide the company more opportunities, a few general approaches will be presented.

     

    After a closer examine of the consequences when the integrated solutions got applied, we surely drew the conclusion that 3PL performance of domestics companies will get enhanced in the near future. 

  • 212.
    Canciger, Izzet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    System Information Model suitable for Application Management Organization2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Delivery Organization Windows Development at Sandvik IT GSS is today responsible for managing over 100 different systems internally and globally, some acquired but most proprietary. The systems have Life Cycle and dependencies of other applications, techniques etc. and Service Level Agreement (SLA) with customers. The details for these systems are now scattered in a variety of locations such as web pages, spreadsheets, word documents, Notes databases and by knowledge of the employees. Today they are unable to get a clear view of the systems; the applications and techniques depend, how long life cycle each have etc. The project consist of creating a database model by gathering information needed, analyze it and develop an information model and if time allows develop a simple application to visualize the concept. With this work, the information will be gathered in one place and the employees will easier get a clear view of the systems and their dependencies, offer a higher level of service and will be more effective in their work.

    Keywords: System Information Model, Systems Design, Information Model, Database Model, Business Analysis, Application Management.

  • 213.
    Cannavá, Catharina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Salvo, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Metodik för analys och förbättring av företags mål2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: For business profitability and competitiveness, the establishment of

    good overall and operational goals is important. However, most companies lack

    important goals in the business and no methodology have been found to analyse

    and improve company's overall and operational goals. The purpose of this study is

    to develop a methodology to analyse and improve the design of company's overall

    and operational goals.

    Methods: A case study with an abductive approach has been applied in the study.

    In order to answer the study's purpose and questions, a literature review and empirical

    collection were performed. The literature review shaped the theoretical

    framework and the empirical data collection charted the current situation of the

    company. The empirical data consisted of 16 semi structured interviews and 5 observations.

    Analysis of theory and empirics underlies the methodology that was

    designed.

    Methodology: The methodology developed consists of three phases: current situation,

    analysis and improvement proposals. First the current situation will be

    gathered. Then, analysis of what can be improved, with regard to significant factors

    such as: if there are multidimensional overall goals, whether there is a connection

    between overall and operational goals, and whether man has been taken

    into account when designing goals and measurements. Finally, improvement suggestions

    will be given to the company based on the analysis performed.

    Conclusion: The theoretical contribution of the study is the developed methodology

    as well as essential aspects within the methodology. The practical contribution

    to the Company AB is a unique report, where concrete improvements are presented

    in an exclusive chapter. In order to evaluate the methodology’s usefulness

    and utility with further methodology studies, the methodology needs to be applied

    to one or more companies.

  • 214.
    Carlson, Adam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A rendering method for simulated emission nebulae2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emission nebulae are some of the most beautiful stellar phenomena. The newly formed hot stars inside the nebulae ionize the surrounding gas making it glow in variety of colors. The focus of this work is to find a method for interactive rendering of simulated emission nebulae. A rendering program has been developed to render and generate nebulae. The emission light color is evaluated as a function of the accumulated density between the gas and the ionizing star. The rendering program can render a large variety of nebulae from any viewpoint with interactive performance on PC hardware. The method proposed in this work is visually accurate to real nebulae.

  • 215.
    Carlsson, Carl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Norén, Carl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Omfattning och differenser av gränshävder kontra registerkartan i Boda, Skellefteå kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The cadastral index map is a great benefit to the surveying and governments. The map's main purpose is to show how the overall cadastral division looks in Sweden. The lack of quality of the cadastral index map dose not allows property-owners to know where to draw the boundary between their and others' property. In order to know where to find the boundaries between two properties, is it up to the property-owners themselves (self or in company by the other property-owner) to construct various usucaption at the boundaries. The main objective of the study is to verify the existence and extent of usucaption on forest properties in Bodan, a village outside Skellefteå. A subsidiary aim of the study was intended to investigate the problems that can occur when measuring with GNSS in a forest environment. Another subsidiary aim were to describe what legal protection the boundary conditions has been and find out how usucaption today is handled by the Cadastral Authority. Measurements of all usucaptions have been performed. This process of measurement was performed with GNSS instruments and network RTK as the measurement method. In order to answer how usucaption is currently handled an interview study was conducted, in which 7 people were interviewed. The results of previous studies resulted in forest density has the greatest impact on GNSS survey in the forest environment. After processing the data, the results concluded that differences in tree height are the most common usucaption in Bodan. Then an estimate of the deviation between all usucaptions and the cadastral index map was made. This resulted in the largest maximum deviation between usucaption and cadastral index map was 11,463 m and the average deviation of all usucaption against the cadastral index map was 2.074 m. The conclusion drawn after the course of the work was that the longer boundary lines, the greater the distance between claimed border and the cadastral index map. By interpreting and describing the text of § 18 JP, 14 Ch. 5 § FBL and immemorial custom has the legal situation of usucaption been answered.  The result was that usucaption today has a relatively weak legal protection, it is only when the boundaries are not legally defined the Cadastral Authority is using a usucaption to determining a boundary. By using laws principles § 18 JP, 14 Ch. 5 § FBL and immemorial custom, a boundary is moved if there is an agreement, however, requires a very high degree of proof for this to be implemented. From the interviews, the result was that usucaptions is not often used to decide a new boundary. The usucaptions is instead used to show the property owners where the approximate boundary is. An agreement between the property-owners is the most common solution on how usucaptions are handled. 

  • 216.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Modeling method to visually reconstruct the historical Vasa ship with the help of a 3D scanned point cloud2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A point cloud derived from scanning the actual Vasa ship is used for an accurate visualisation. Both manual and automatic mesh techniques where utilized in the modelling of the Vasa ship to overcome problems of poor resolution in the point cloud and computing power. A combination of manual and automatic techniques resulted in a 3D model optimized for use within animation software. The method presented in this paper utilized a method that allows the user to keep control over topology.  The polygon count is kept to a minimum and one can still remain certain that the measurements and realism from the point cloud is maintained. 

  • 217.
    Carlsson, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Developing system supplier capability by integrating knowledge with customers2019In: International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, ISSN 1742-7967, E-ISSN 1742-7975, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 91-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As large corporations outsource parts of their manufacturing and services, many small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) suppliers are expected to deepen their capabilities and take on the role of system suppliers. The purpose of this paper is to analyse how knowledge integration with customers may help a SME develop system supplier capabilities. The study is based on a deep longitudinal case study of a SME manufacturer and focuses on continuous development capability as one of the core system supplier capabilities. The results show that knowledge integration (KI) with customers is an effective means to build system capability but that this is a stepwise process. The study identifies three levels of KI with customers: unidirectional knowledge transfer, mutual knowledge exchange and full-range knowledge integration. The analysis further indicates that each level of KI requires specific supplier capabilities.

  • 218.
    Carpenter, Angela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. University of Leeds, School of Earth and Environment, Leeds, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability Ltd., Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Astner, Linda
    Port Authority, Gävle Hamn AB/Port of Gävle AB, Fredriksskans, Gävle, Sweden.
    Securing a port's future through Circular Economy: Experiences from the Port of Gävle in contributing to sustainability2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 128, p. 539-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ports are an important player in the world, due to their role in global production and distributions systems. Theyare major intermodal transport hubs, linking the sea to the land. For all ports, a key requirement for commercialand economic viability is to retain ships using them and to remain accessible to those ships. Ports need to findapproaches to help them remain open. They must ensure their continued economic viability. At the same time,they face increasing pressure to become more environmentally and socially conscious. This paper examines theapproach taken by the Port of Gävle, Sweden, which used contaminated dredged materials to create new landusing principles of Circular Economy. The paper demonstrates that using Circular Economy principles can be aviable way of securing a port's future and contributing to its sustainability, and that of the city/region where itoperates.

  • 219.
    Carpenter, Angela
    et al.
    School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, United Kingdom; Centre for Marine and Coastal Policy Research, Plymouth University, United Kingdom.
    Shellock, Rebecca
    Plymouth Marine Laboratory, United Kingdom; European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter, Truro, United Kingdom.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stephen, Fletcher
    UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre, United Kingdom.
    Glegg, Gillian
    Centre for Marine and Coastal Policy Research, Plymouth University, United Kingdom.
    Public perceptions of management priorities for the English Channel region2018In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 97, p. 294-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The English Channel region is an area of high conservational importance, as well being a contributor to economic prosperity, social well-being and quality of life of the people living around it. There is a need to incorporate societal elements into marine and coastal governance, to improve management of the Channel ecosystem. Public Perception Research (PPR) is a relatively unexplored dimension of marine science, with limited research at the scale of the Channel region. Using an online survey, this study examined the public's use of, and funding priorities for, the Channel's marine and coastal environment. It revealed that there are variations in how the English and French coastlines are used. Environmental issues were generally viewed as being more important than economic ones. Country-level differences were observed for public uses of, and priorities for the Channel region. Cleaner water and beaches, and improved coastal flood defences, were more highly prioritised by English respondents, while offshore renewable energy and sustainability of businesses were more highly prioritised by French respondents. The paper contributes to the debate on the value of PPR by addressing evidence gaps in the English Channel region, and to PPR literature more broadly. It provides baseline data to inform future engagement strategies for the marine and coastal governance of the Channel region specifically. It also identifies how this type of research has implications for the wider marine and coastal environment, including contributing to Sustainable Development Goal 14 on conserving and sustainably using the oceans, seas, and marine resources.

  • 220.
    Carrillo, Emilio
    et al.
    Departament de Geoquímica, Petrologia i Prospecció Geològica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; School of Geological Sciences and Engineering, Yachay Tech University, San Miguel de Urcuquí, Ecuador.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Hans Ramberg Tectonic Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sweden.
    Structural significance of an evaporite formation with lateral stratigraphic heterogeneities (Southeastern Pyrenean Basin, NE Spain)2017In: Marine and Petroleum Geology, ISSN 0264-8172, E-ISSN 1873-4073, Vol. 86, p. 1310-1326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We run a series of analogue models to study the effect of stratigraphic heterogeneities of an evaporite formation on thin-skinned deformation of the Southeastern Pyrenean Basin (SPB; NE Spain). This basin is characterized by the existence of evaporites, deposited during the Early-Middle Eocene with lateral variations in thickness and lithological composition. These evaporites are distributed in three lithostratigraphic units, known as Serrat Evaporites, Vallfogona and Beuda Gypsum formations and acted as décollement levels, during compressional deformation in the Lutetian. In addition to analogue modeling, we have used field data, detailed geological mapping and key cross-sections supported by seismic and well data to build a new structural interpretation for the SPB. In this interpretation, it is recognized that the basal and upper parts of the Serrat Evaporites acted as the main décollement levels of the so-called Cadí thrust sheet and Serrat unit. A balanced restoration of the basin indicates that thrust faults nucleated at the stratigraphic transition of the Serrat Evaporites (zone with lateral variations of thickness and lithological composition), characterized by a wedge of anhydrite and shale. The analogue models were setup based on information extracted from cross-sections, built in two sectors with different lithology and stratigraphy of the evaporites, and the restored section of the SPB. In these models, deformation preferentially concentrated in areas where thickness change, defined by wedges of the ductile materials, was inbuilt. Based on the structural interpretation and model results, a kinematic evolution of the SPB is proposed. The kinematic model is characterized by the generation of out-of-sequence structures developed due to lateral stratigraphic variations of the Serrat Evaporites. The present work shows a good example of the role of stratigraphic heterogeneities of an evaporite formation which acts as décollement level on structural deformation in a fold-thrust belt. The results of this work have implications for hydrocarbon exploration and are relevant for studying structural geometry and mechanics in shortened evaporite basins.

  • 221.
    Carvalho, Leonor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Evaluation of 2D and 3D Map Presentation for Geo-Visualization2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With increasingly available stereoscopic technology and techniques, it is interesting to investigate new ways of representing information using stereoscopy. Within this context a user study was performed to compare if it is worthwhile to use 3D map presentations over 2D, and to identify how much a 3D stereoscopic map can be slanted without losing the perception of information. Two different visual tasks were evaluated, these visual tasks were: 1) identification of the smallest distance between two points; 2) combinational task that included both the identification of the smallest distance between two points, and the comparison of bar heights. The tested visual conditions were a 2D ('2D') visualization, static monoscopic 3D visualization ('W3D'), and a head- tracking stereoscopic visualization ('S3D'). The respective performance was measured in terms of accuracy and time of execution of the stimuli. Results showed no benefit of using 3D map presentation over a 2D map presentation in both visual tasks. Slanting a 3D stereoscopic map, 55 degrees got the best performance. 

  • 222.
    Cavallin, Petter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Samuelsson, Joakim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Geometriska avvikelser på skär, för skärande bearbetning.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of a product is an important factorto establish and preserve a sustainable market- and business position in theglobal business environment. Measuring techniques and quality management has astrong correlation. To ensure the functionality of a product, there are needsto measure the product towards specific limitations. Mathematical modeling is away of visualizing a process capability, and its parameters. Sandvik Coromantin Gimo are producing different types of face milling cutters. The company hasa hypothesis about one of its carbide inserts, and its geometrical specificationlimits. The hypothesis is that different geometrical deviations affect themilling cuts edges in different ways, when it is applied and installed in themilling cutter body. The purpose is to develop a mathematical model, which canshow what changes affects the most, which will lead to less waste in theproduction process, by predicting the actual position of the cut in the millingcutter body. The method is based on relevant literature in the main areas ofmeasuring methods and its techniques and statistics. This theory, incombination with the method, is a profound base in the development of themathematical model, and analysis of the cuts. The geometrical deviations weremeasured by using three different measuring methods. This had to be done in orderto verify the mathematical model and its theoretical output, and then compareit to the actual measured data. The result of the study was the development ofa mathematical model, and the analysis of 4000 individual measurements. Theconclusion of the analysis is that certain geometrical deviations are affectingthe position of the milling cuts edges more than others. By using themathematical model, the simulation output will show a theoretical value of themilling cuts geometry, and make it possible to predict the milling cutsdimensional deviation. The mathematical model is validated, based on three mainfactors. These are Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility, statisticalevaluation, and the development of the mathematical model itself. There are manyparameters affecting the milling cuts geometry, and the mathematical modelshould not be used as the only source of verifying the cut, but rather as acomplementary tool that makes a qualified prediction.

  • 223.
    Cederstrand, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Cykelstad: Vad tycker Gävles befolkning om det befintliga cykelvägnätet och vilka områden vill de se utvecklas?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The transport system is in need of changes. Motorized transportation is widely spread, which has led to negative impact on our environment. To reduce impacts on a local level, the municipality of Gävle has started an aggressive campaign and is now promoting bicycling in the urban area. The municipality of Gävle is located about 200 km north of Stockholm. Its population is growing quickly and will soon pass the 100.000 mark. As the population grows, so does automobile traffic and the impact of the local environment. The municipality believes the bicycle is the transportation mode for providing an alternative to the car and thereby to help Gävle meet its environmental goals.

    Transportation issues affect everyone in a community and to advocate for changes on transportation modes, it is important to design the city so that it meets both environmental needs as well as those of inhabitants. While the municipality of Gävle is quite large, its urban extends less than 5 km from its Centre to the inner suburbs. Short trips within this zone should be made by bicycle rather than car. This study intends to complement the work of the municipality by providing insights in how the population views opportunities to bicycle in the city, and what they must be changed to encourage inhabitants to start bicycling.

    The methods I have used are divided in two main parts. First workers in the central parts of Gävle were asked about their cycling behavior and attitudes by means of a questionnaire. Second, a SWOT analysis was used to identify what high school students see as the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of bicycling in Gävle’s urban centre and suburbs. The surveys were analyzed to result a generalized view of the inhabitants thought and are presented through charts. Together with the results from the SWOT analysis, conducted of opinions a strong connection between the two groups was identified which is the foundation for the conclusion.

    According to the participating workers and students, it isn’t the extent of road that need adjustment. The need lies in three different things: 1) an increased acceptance among other road users towards cyclists; 2) regulations regarding how different transportation systems should interact; and 3) an increase of space in the existing bike paths.

    Keywords: Bicycle, Gävle, sustainable development, SWOT-analysis, travel journal and environmental impact.

  • 224.
    Cederström, Tony
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Lysén, Henrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Undersökning av förhållanden mellan positionsvariationer och säsong respektive montering/placering av monument: i Swepos® B-klassade fasta referensstationer2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En förtätning av Sveriges fasta referensnät SWEPOS® pågår för närvarande. De fasta referensstationerna i SWEPOS-nätet delas in i klass A och B med huvudsaklig skillnad i montering/placering av antenner och fästen. Under installationerna förankras klass Astationerna i berggrund medan klass B-stationerna monteras direkt på allmänna byggnader och anläggningar. Förtätningen sker primärt med B-stationer vilket innebär att SWEPOS-nätet består av dessa till ca 90 %. Förtätningen görs för att minska mätosäkerheten vid relativa mätningsmetoder som exempelvis NRTK (Network Real Time Kinematic). NRTK är den mest efterfrågade metoden idag och det finns ett behov från SWEPOS-användare att minska mätosäkerheten med NRTK. Eftersom förtätningen beräknas vara färdig under 2016 undersöks nu alternativa sätt att minska mätosäkerheten ytterligare med NRTK. Det här examensarbetet fungerar som en del i dessa undersökningar. Av den anledningen har det undersökts om positionsvariationer i B-klassade SWEPOS-stationer går att koppla till säsong (tid på året) eller montering/placering av antenn och fäste (monument). Med Fourier-analys av stationsobservationsdata (tidsserier) identifierades amplitudvärden hos periodiska funktioner som hade ett års våglängd. Värdena omberäknades i Excel vilket gav positionsvariationer i form av radiella amplituder (totala amplituder). Lantmäteriet förväntade att mellan 10-20 % av stationerna skulle ha höga totala amplituder, över 2 σ från stationsmedelvärden, i höjd eller plan. Därmed var en målsättning att undersöka denna förväntning. Ytterligare en målsättning var att undersöka om det fanns en tydlig “vintereffekt” inom SWEPOS.  Det vill säga om perioder med snö påverkar stationernas mätningar negativt eller inte.  Denna målsättning testades genom nollhypotesen: ”Det är högre total amplitud under snöperioden än under den snöfria perioden.”. Den tredje och sista målsättningen var att hitta ett förhållande mellan höga totala amplituder (höjd respektive plan) och monumentets montering/placering. Tidsserieanalys utfördes i programmet Tsview och dagliga koordinatobservationer från 217 B-klassade stationer analyserades. Efter bearbetning i Excel av utdatat från Tsview erhölls resultat. Totalt hade ca 18 % av stationerna höga positionsvariationer, i antingen höjd eller plan, vilket motsvarade förväntningen. Hypotesprövningen visade att det finns en signifikant “vintereffekt” men att den är begränsad till individuella stationer och vanligare i norra Sverige. Gällande positionsvariationer och montering/placering av antenn och fäste var det endast en klass som avvek nämnvärt. Denna var ”Taknock” och innebar att stationer som hade antennen och fästet placerade vid taknocken på en byggnad, hade högre positionsvariation (plan) i form av total amplitud.  

  • 225.
    Celik, Ertugrul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Integrating EMS into SCM: A Case Study of Methods, Benefits and Barriers at Sandvik Tooling2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this research is to explore the benefits and barriers of integrating EMS to SCM in Sandvik Tooling. While exploring that, it is intended to gain insights into the methods employed to integrate the systems and find out the type of integration used in practice.

    Design/methodology/approach – Explorative case study method is employed in this research paper. Primary data is obtained through semi-structured interviews and observations. Triangulation, respondent validation, peer review are the principal strategies employed to ensure validity and reliability of this study.

    Findings – Sandvik Tooling employed a composite view of integration in which verbal and documented forms of information exchanged together with novel solutions to provide integration throughout supply chain on the basis of common goals and vision, shared values and resources. Integration is provided with a balanced mixture of interactions and collaborations. Benefits of integration are categorized as environmental, economic, and organizational benefits. On the other side, barriers are presented as internal and external barriers.

    Practical Implications – This research paper has significant practical contributions to businesses with presenting the ways to integrate and analyze these two systems and demonstrate barriers to overcome and benefits to take advantage of.

    Originality/value – Environmental management systems and supply chain management topics received considerable interest among researchers in recent decades. However there is a lack of research about how these two systems can be integrated and what kind of integration will best define this integration type. Analyzing barriers and benefits of integration process will also advance and contribute our knowledge in this research area.

  • 226.
    Chao, Yang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A comparison of  medical image analysis algorithms for edge detection2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Edge detection is always study focus in the field of medical image processing and analysis. It is an absolutely necessary step in medical image processing. In China medical field, processing of real-time data is constrained by limited resources .Thus, it is important to understand and analysis image analysis algorithms for accuracy, speed and quality. In this paper are analyzed the frequency features of the (Sobel,   Prewitt ,  Robert , Laplacian, Canny operators) from the viewpoint of frequency and speed domain, and it is proposed that the frequency features of the different operators should be considered when different operators are being used or constructed. Because edge detection operators is sensitive to the edge type, the appropriate operator should be adopted should be adopted in different edge type detection. Finally, the importance and necessary of comparing the continuity and speed edge detection operators are validated in the area of MRI image.

  • 227.
    Chaofan, Hao
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Haisheng, Yu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Feature Extraction of Gesture Recognition Based on Image Analysis by Using Matlab2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    This thesis mainly focuses on the research of gesture extraction and finger segmentation in the gesture recognition. In this paper, we used image analysis technologies to create an application by encoding in Matlab program. We used this application to segment and extract the finger from one specific gesture (the gesture "one") and ran successfully. We explored the success rate of extracting the characteristic of the specific gesture "one" in different natural environments. We divided the natural environment into three different conditions which are glare and dark condition, similar object condition and different distances condition, then collected the results to calculate the successful extraction rate. We also evaluated and analyzed the inadequacies and future works of this application.

  • 228.
    Chen, Chao
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Yu, Di
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    The CSR challenges and opportunities in Chinese tobacco industry2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 229.
    Chen, Huiyu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Wang, Weiwei
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Green Supply Chain Management for a Chinese Auto Manufacturer2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 230.
    Chen, Kechen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Yu, Di
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    The Management of the Service Supply Chain2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main topic of this thesis is to study the connection between Service Supply Chain Management (SSCM) and Customer Satisfaction (CS). The study is based on the factors of SSCM for receiving CS and its implementation.One of the major contributions to the connection between SSCM and CS has been the awareness to flexibly and efficiently manage logistics and deliver to the end user in time and at the same to achieve an increased brand image/reputation for the company. SSCM is an essential part of a company's inventory management and it's supply chain. On the other hand, CS is an integral part of a business as making consumers content and meeting their requirements is crucial for a business' survival. SSCM and CS are inextricably linked.In this thesis, Walmart has been used as the case for the authors to carry out the research. Because of the unique feature of the Chinese retail market, the Chinese retail market has been also discussed as the business background of Walmart. The first-hand data has been offered from interview by E-mail and social website to the staff of Walmart and 90 feedbacks of questionnaire. The literature review and qualitative analysis have been used to analyze the case for research. The importance of SSCM in dealing with CS and its implementation has been explored in this thesis.

  • 231.
    Chen, Yanguang
    et al.
    Department of Geography, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hierarchical scaling in systems of natural cities2018In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 20, no 6, article id 432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchies can be modeled by a set of exponential functions, from which we can derive a set of power laws indicative of scaling. The solution to a scaling relation equation is always a power law. The scaling laws are followed by many natural and social phenomena such as cities, earthquakes, and rivers. This paper reveals the power law behaviors in systems of natural cities by reconstructing the urban hierarchy with cascade structure. Cities of the U.S.A., Britain, France, and Germany are taken as examples to perform empirical analyses. The hierarchical scaling relations can be well fitted to the data points within the scaling ranges of the number, size and area of the natural cities. The size-number and area-number scaling exponents are close to 1, and the size-area allometric scaling exponent is slightly less than 1. The results show that natural cities follow hierarchical scaling laws very well. The principle of entropy maximization of urban evolution is then employed to explain the hierarchical scaling laws, and differences entropy maximizing processes are used to interpret the scaling exponents. This study is helpful for scientists to understand the power law behavior in the development of cities and systems of cities. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 232.
    Choi, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Att skapa spelkaraktärer utan att följa den stereotypiska mallen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom spelvärlden finns det många karaktärer med stereotypiska drag, som t.ex. har skurkar ofta spetsigare drag medan de goda har mjukare former. Dessa karaktärer är skapade för att vi snabbt ska kunna identifiera dem, då människor har en tendens att tolka andra utifrån de stereotypa drag som de finner hos personen. Denna studie undersöker om det är möjligt att skapa en viss typ av spelkaraktär utan att följa den stereotypiska mallen men ändå kunna förmedla vad för typ den är. För att ta reda på det har en litteraturstudie och analys av kända spelkaraktärer genomförts. Utifrån resultatet från dessa har framtagning av karaktären skett i två versioner, en stereotypiskt och en neutralt. Sedan utfördes en enkätundersökning för att ta reda på hur respondenterna uppfattade karaktären. Resultatet visade sig att det var svårt att skapa en viss typ av spelkaraktär utan att ge den stereotypiska drag, i alla fall när den porträtterades med ett neutralt ansiktsuttryck och kroppspråk.

  • 233.
    Collin, Linn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Bornegrim, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Administration of Tribal Land in Botswana2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the management and administration of tribal land in Botswana. The administration processes that are practiced today are neither effective nor suitable for present and future needs. Existing problems relates to registration, archiving and order among the ownership rights. A solution to these problems would promote a system that secures the right of each individuals land.

    Our aim is to recognize the processes and work methods that are the reason for the mentioned problems in administration of tribal land. We want to find suggestions for solutions to these problems. To be able to recognize the existing difficulties a thorough literature review has been made as well as interviews with persons with dissimilar positions at three different land boards. Interviews were made at the Mogoditshane Subordinated Land Board, Tlokweng Main Land Board and Mochudi Subordinated Land Board. Questions asked concerned the Tribal Land Act, practice of land allocation and location of plots, appeals, recordkeeping and compensation.

    We have also looked into how a pilot study regarding land adjudication directed by the LAPCAS-project, which is a five year running project in cooperation with Swedish Lantmäteriet and Ministry of Lands and Housing in Botswana, can act as one solution to the many problems that exists.

    Our conclusion is that tribal land tenure in its own meaning is not a problem, the problem concerning tribal land lies in the administration thereof. Some common regulations for all land boards are needed to implement routines and structures that will improve the administration of tribal land. These kinds of routines can be learnt from involvement and close work with the LAPCAS-project.   

  • 234.
    Comendador Maramara, Marlou
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Sandström, Jacob
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Kvalitetskontroll av en fasmätande terrester laserskanner FARO Focus3D2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en ISO-standard (ISO-17123) som anger hur de flesta geodetiska mätinstrument ska kontrolleras. Denna standard omfattar dock inte terrester laserskanners (TLS). Detta trots att sådana instrument har funnits ute på marknaden ett tag. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) i USA har utvecklat en amerikansk standard för detta ändamål. Den är möjlig att använda i väntan på att en ISO-standard för TLS fastställts.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka en fasmätande laserskanner FARO Focus3D, som tillhör avdelningen för mätnings- & kartteknik på Tyréns AB i Stockholm. Närmare bestämt har vi riktat in oss på ”osäkerheten i avståndsmätning, och hur denna påverkas av avstånd och infallsvinkel”. Ett ytterligare syfte är att undersöka huruvida en metod, utvecklad av Fédération Internationale des Géomètres (FIG), för bestämning av nollpunktsfelet för totalstationer kan appliceras på TLS. Undersökningen har ägt rum under våren 2012 i och utanför den ca 50 m långa mäthallen i hus 45 vid Högskolan i Gävle. Avstånden som studerades inomhus var 10 – 40 m med intervall om 10 m, samt med både sfäriska och platta svartvita signaler. De sista med infallsvinkeln 0°, 30° och 45°. Även bestämningen av nollpunktsfelet utfördes inomhus med ett avstånd på 30 m med ett intervall på 10 m. Avstånden som undersöktes utomhus var 20 – 120 m med intervall om 20 m med samma signaler. Avstånden vi bestämde oss för att studera valdes pga. att specifikationerna angav att FARO Focus3D skulle klara av att registrera returer från dessa avstånd, där 120 m var det maximala avståndet som angavs.

    Vid kontroll av avvikelserna mot ett referensavstånd vid avstånden 10 – 40 m inomhus uppfyllde endast mätningarna mot två signaler laserskannerns specifikationer. De två signalerna var sfärerna vid 20- och 40 m avstånd från instrumentet. Vid kontroll av avståndsbruset uppfyllde inga mätningar mot signaler vid något avstånd laserskannerns specifikationer. Dock är avståndsbruset nästan hela tiden ganska lågt, förutom vid 40 m och infallsvinklarna 30° och 45°. Här var ökningen av bruset väldigt kraftig. Vid mätningarna utomhus gick det inte att registrera några signaler. Punkttätheten var för gles och antalet laserreturer alldeles för få.

    Gemensamt för alla mätningar mot svartvita signaler, oberoende av infallsvinkel, är att de har den minsta avvikelsen från referensavståndet vid det längsta testade avståndet, dvs. 40 m från instrumentet. Mätningarna mot sfärerna har vid alla avstånd en lägre avvikelse mot referensavståndet än vad de svartvita signalerna har. Emellertid har skanningarna mot sfärerna en högre standardosäkerhet än mot de svartvita måltavlorna, som endast var högre vid det längsta avståndet, 40 m. Vi anser att metoden för bestämning av nollpunktsfel är lätt och relativt snabb att arbeta enligt, samt att den är användbar för TLS. Vår slutsats är att längre avstånd från instrumentet inte nödvändigtvis behöver ge större avvikelser mot ett referensavstånd. I stället kan det resultera i mindre avvikelser.

  • 235.
    Cooke, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Using remote sensing and aerial archaeology to detect pit house features in Worldview-2 satellite imagery.: A case study for the Bridge River archaeological pit house village in south-central British Columbia, Canada.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that archaeological sites are important sources for understanding past human activity. However, those sites yet to be identified and further investigated are under a great risk of being lost or damaged before their archaeological significance is fully recognized. The aim of this research was to analyze the potential use of remote sensing and aerial archaeology techniques integrated within a geographic information system (GIS) for the purpose of remotely studying pit house archaeology. As pit house archaeological sites in North America have rarely been studied with a focus in remote sensing, this study intended to identify these features by processing very high resolution satellite imagery and assessing how accurately the identified features could be automatically mapped with the use of a GIS. A Worldview-2 satellite image of the Bridge River pit house village in Lillooet, south-central British Columbia, was processed within ArcGIS 10.1 (ESRI), ERDAS Imagine 2011 (Intergraph) and eCognition Developer 8 (Trimble) to identify spatial and spectral queues representing the pit house features. The study outlined three different feature extraction methods (GIS-based, pixel-based and object-based) and evaluated which method presented the best results. Though all three methods produced similar results, the potential for performing object-based feature extraction for research in aerial archaeology proved to be more advantageous than the other two extraction methods tested.

  • 236.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Industrial Economics and Management, KTH, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Trade-offs in Make-Buy Decisions: Exploring Operating Realities of Knowledge Integration and Innovation2011In: Knowledge Integration and Innovation: critical challenges facing international technology-based firms / [ed] Christian Berggren, Anna Bergek, Lars Bengtsson, Michael Hobday, and Jonas Söderlund, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 1, p. 228-245Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores trade-offs particularly relevant for firms that compete on innovation, but which have outsourced manufacturing and therefore need to integrate knowledge by involving their new contract manufacturers in the innovation and development activities of outsourced parts. The empirical analysis is based on survey data from 127 manufacturing firms in Sweden. The analysis shows that trade-offs remain in make-buy decisions, especially between cost and flexibility, and cost and speed. When comparing different groups of firms, the results also show that knowledge integration in terms of collaboration between outsourcing firms and their suppliers reduces some trade-offs but intensifies others. The chapter concludes that technologybased firms that compete on innovation often have to involve their new suppliers in the innovation and development activities of outsourced parts. However, when doing so, they have to consider that they cannot 'have it all' as the existing management literature often claims.

  • 237.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Department of Management and Engeering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sustainable supply management as a purchasing capability: a power and dependence perspective2016In: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 2-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to use the relative power and total interdependence concepts as an intervening theoretical lens to explain why and how sustainable supply management (SSM) initiatives by manufacturing firms differ across the Kraljic matrix according to purchasing capability.

    Design/methodology/approach – Tested hypotheses by subjecting survey data from 338 manufacturers on buyer-supplier relationships in Europe and North America to regression analysis.

    Findings – Shows three situations where relative power and total interdependence determine the effectiveness of purchasing capabilities. First, sustainability programs impact supplier compliance in all Kraljic categories but bottleneck items. Second, there are significant trade-offs between lower cost and higher social and environmental supplier compliance for noncritical components. Third, strategic alignment of sustainability objectives between corporate and supply function levels only leads to improved financial performance for strategic components.

    Research limitations/implications – Further research could take power and dependence into account to explain when and how purchasing capabilities focussed on sustainability can be achieved.

    Practical implications – Shows how supply strategists could devise-tailored approaches for different purchasing categories with respect to power and dependence when pursuing economic, social and environmental objectives in combination – the triple bottom line – along their supply chains.

    Originality/value – Illustrates and provides a theoretical explanation for why SSM is a purchasing capability that must vary across purchasing categories defined by different situations of power and dependence.

  • 238.
    Dahir, Chera
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Zildzic, Abdela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Krav vid val av tredjepartslogistiksaktör: En fallstudie genomförd på AA logistik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation of goods has existed for a long period of time, and in today's society it has become increasingly common to employ a third-party logistics actor (TPL-actor) which manages all or part of a company's distribution.

    The case company in this study is a newly established TPL-actor which has not yet reached as many customers as desired. The case company offers a number of logistics services, such as storage, packing, transport, handling of flight goods and safety consulting.

     

    The purpose of this study is to identify and describe what requirements are important when selecting a TPL actor.

     

    A literature study have been conducted. Existing and potential customers of the case company have been interviewed. The study´is empirical material that consisted of interviews was compared and later, in a analysis, put up against the overall study to draw a conclusion.

     

    As for the findings, it consists existing customers as well as an interview with a potential customer. It appears in the interview that delivery security, price and customer service are the most occurring and crucial requirements when choosing a TPL-actor. Customer A and the potential customer are the only ones that mentions proximity as a significant factor. Information sharing is also another factor which is significant according to the respondents. Costumer A and the potential customer sees flexibility as a crucial requirement when choosing a TPL-actors as well. All existing customers and the potential customer values delivery security highly. Customer C considers that right resources and right attributes is a requirement placed on the TPL-actor which the potential customer agrees upon.

     

    As a conclusion, the main reason to why companies outsource the parts of their logistics management is to save money and focus on the core competence of the business. The most occurring requirements placed on TPL-actors according to the interviewed customers are, good delivery security, good price, good customer service, correct information sharing and good flexibility. Right resources, right attributes as well as high reliability are factors that are specific regarding the selection of TPL-actors, within air goods logistics.

  • 239.
    Dahl, Stellan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av vinkelmätningsosäkerheten hos terrester laserskanner FARO Focus3D2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande studie har en metod för utvärdering av vinkelmätningsosäkerheten hos en terrester laserskanner (TLS) tagits fram. Metoden för mätning och beräkning av vinkelmätningsosäkerheten är till stor del baserad på både ISO:s standard för test av en teodolit och en doktorsavhandling där vinkelmätningen hos en TLS undersöks. FARO Focus3D är en TLS som ägs och brukas av konsultföretaget Tyréns AB. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att utvärdera vinkelmätningsosäkerheten hos Tyréns TLS. Det finns inget skrivet i specifikationerna för FARO Focus3D om vinkelmätningsosäkerheten och eftersom vinkelmätningen har stor påverkan på resultatet så är det viktigt att utvärdera dess osäkerhet. TLS är det enda geodetiska mätinstrument som saknar ISO-standard för kontroll. Vinkelmätningsosäkerheten har analyserats i förhållande till medelvärde och referensvärde. Referensvärdena bestämdes med en totalstation. Två olika mätsituationer med TLS utfördes. I den första skannades fyra koordinatbestämda sfärer som låg på ungefär samma höjd som TLS och placerade jämt spridda runt instrumentet i horisontalled. I den andra situationen skannades fyra svartvita signaler placerade på en vägg med en vertikal spridning på ca 30°. Centrumpunkterna på sfärer och svartvita signaler bestämdes med programvaran Scene och dess koordinater bestämdes i TLS koordinatsystem. Både horisontella riktningar och vertikala vinklar beräknades från koordinaterna, och utifrån dem beräknades vinkelmätningsosäkerheten. Standardosäkerheten för de horisontella riktningarna beräknades till 0.002° och för de vertikala vinklarna 0.001°. I förhållande till referensvärde beräknades osäkerheten i de horisontella riktningarna till 0.015° och i de vertikala vinklarna beräknades osäkerheten till 0.026°. Vid beräkning av osäkerheten i förhållande till referensvärdena så visade det sig att det finns systematiska fel i skannern som antagligen beror på att kompensatorn inte fungerar korrekt. Den metod som använts i studien har visat sig fungera bra för utvärdering av vinkelmätningsosäkerheten hos en TLS, och den är dessutom relativt okomplicerad att utföra. 

  • 240.
    Dahlberg, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Att skapa en hemsida med fokus på målgrupp och uppdateringsmöjligheter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 241.
    Dahlén, Liselotte
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Hur strategiska beslut fattas i Försvarsmakten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen jämförs Försvarsmaktens sätt att fatta strategiska beslut med några av de beslutsmodeller och roller som beskrivs inom beslutsteorin. Syftet med uppsatsen är att utifrån teorier inom beslutsteori och kognitiv psykologi förstå logiken bakom Försvarsmaktens strategiska besluts­processer. Underlaget kommer dels från litteratur inom områdena, från intervjuer samt i viss mån från myndighetsdokument. 

  • 242.
    Dai, Haobing
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Malicious PDF Document Analysis2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of network and information technology, E-mail has became increasingly popular and the society’s indispensable needs. However, virus spreading via the email are also increasing. The Email attachment, such as, PDF documents, EXE programs, can spread viruses from one computer to another computer. PDF documents are one of the widely used reading or sharing documents, and the attackers are using malicious PDF documents increasingly. In this paper, in order to detect the viruses in the PDF document, I have analyzed the file structure, document structure and objects. I select two methods PDF Scrutinizer and MDScan to scan the PDF document viruses. 

  • 243.
    Dais, Sofoklis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Stylianidis, Dimitrios
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Collaborate? Let me check if I need you right now!: Collaboration and openness initiatives and activities in six Greek start-ups2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Start-ups have recently emerged as an operational model for small and newly-founded firms globally. This increasing business acceptance is present within the European markets, as well as within the Greek. Researchers also complied to the ”commands” of the industry and startup research followed the same, to practice, increasing course. Although the increase in both research and practice is visible, and the fact that several start-up related topics are well-documented, the start-up literature still shows certain limitations that need to be answered.

    Theory: This study performs an extensive review of the start-up literature, provides definitions and descriptions of key start-up characteristics, and identifies the main streams, and limitations of start-up research, as long as cases of actual start-ups within the Greek business reality.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide insight on certain literature limitations by examining start-up customs towards collaboration and openness initiatives and activities. More in detail, the study aims to identify whether start-ups are able to collaborate (newness and smallness paradox), what is the extent (breadth and depth, partner variety, and collaboration content) of their collaboration and openness customs with different partners, but also the individual importance of specific partners, and the ways this importance changes through different phases of the start-up growth. Also, documented matters such as the determinants of collaborations and the internal organizational structure of start-ups towards openness and collaborations are also discussed.

    Design/Methodology/Approach: A multiple-case study that follows the replication logic is performed. The study focuses on six Greek online start-ups, and extracts information initially from the websites of the firms, and then by interviewing one key employee in each start-up. The combined information from each case are cross-analysed so as behavioural patterns to emerge and conclusions to be drawn regarding start-up initiatives and activities towards collaboration and openness.

    Findings: Start-ups are indeed able to collaborate and practice openness with external partners from the beginning, while the collaboration and openness is closely related to the desired outcome/collaboration content that fulfils a specific need. This desired outcome is connected to the extent – breadth and depth – of the collaboration, but also to the type of each partner. Thus, startups closely collaborate with few and selected partners of each kind (e.g. universities, supplies etc.), with the exception of customers and users. The collaboration with customers and users is wide and limited on their feedbacks due to their numbers. Customers, users, suppliers, innovation intermediaries, and universities were identified as the most important partners to start-ups. The importance of these partners is connected to the start-up growth lifecycle. Innovation intermediaries are the most important startup partners, while customers, users and suppliers are important from the stabilization phase and during the whole start-up lifecycle. Universities importance were not found to be clearly connected to the startup growth phases, but mostly to the collaboration content. Regarding the importance, some differences might occur amongst start-ups active in different industries. Those differences are industry specific and affect how and when each start-up collaborates with different partners. Finally, this study confirmed the propositions of previous studies regarding the determinants and internal organizational structure towards collaboration and openness with external partners.

    Research limitations and implications: Although the present study shows a set of limitations mostly regarding the number and distribution of the cases, it is the authors’ belief that it also shows a set of theoretical and practical implications. It provides managers and researchers with findings on uncharted territories in start-up literature, it connects its findings to prior start-up research, and provides insight on the almost undeveloped literature on Greek start-ups.

  • 244.
    Dalheimer, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Transformation av geodetiska höjdnät med flygburen laserskanning: En inledande genomförbarhetsstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the requirements on accuracy and precision are high for geodetic measurements you need geodetic reference systems realized with geodetic control networks of high quality. Today, establishment and transformation to higher order reference systems for height usually uses terrestrial methods like levelling. While highly accurate these result in time consuming work. There have been a couple attempts at using other methods for this task, for example GNSS, but another possibility might be usage of point clouds from airborne laser scanning.

    As a starting point for further studies this study attempts to use point clouds to transform a geodetic height network in Sandviken municipality, Sweden. The network consists of around 500 benchmarks and has been transformed to the national reference system for height, RH2000, by the Swedish national geodetic survey (Lantmäteriet) in 2010. The point cloud used is also produced by Lantmäteriet and is said to have a mean error of 0,05 m. This is relatively high since the requirements usually are in the millimeter range when determining transformation parameters, but if the transformation only consist of a single height shift calculated as a mean from several height shifts derived from the point cloud any random errors in the point cloud should be reduced.

    By measuring the height difference between benchmarks and points on the ground, that through different methods are given heights according to the point cloud, heights of the benchmarks have been determined according according to the point cloud. These can be compared to heights in RH2000 according to the transformation performed by Lantmäteriet to see their deviation from the assumed true value. Further comparisons against the older local heights of the benchmarks give a height shift that can be used as a simple transformation. By calculating a mean and uncertainty an estimation of the suitability of the method can be achieved.

    The all height shifts deviated a few millimeters from the result Lantmäteriet got, with uncertainties around 3 mm for the overall best method. Even if the uncertainty of the shift and therefore the transformation ended up somewhat high compared to what Lantmäteriet achieved it is still believed that point clouds may be or become a viable alternative. Especially in more remote regions without good connections to the higher order network. There are many parameters that have not yet been explored though, as well as some potential systematic errors that should be further investigated.

  • 245.
    Danhall, Viktor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Feature Extraction From Images of Buildings Using Edge Orientation and Length2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To extract information from a scene captured in digital images where the information represents some kind of feature is an important process in image analysis. Both the speed and the accuracy for this process is very important since many of the analysis applications either require analysis of very large data sets or requires the data to be extracted in real time. Some of those applications could be 2 dimensional as well as 3 dimensional object recognition or motion detection. What this work will focus on is the extraction of salient features from scenes of buildings, using a joint histogram based both the edge orientation and the edge length to aid in the extraction of the relevant features. The results are promising but will need some more refinement work to be used successfully and is therefore quite a bit of reflected theory.

  • 246.
    Davodi, Rashed
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Högberg, Jonatan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Radiobaserad spårning av rörlig utrustning inomhus2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 247.
    Demirci, Uğraş
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Green Supply Chain Management Case: Turkish Automotive Industry by practices, pressures and performance2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 248.
    DI, ZHAO
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Using GIS-based Multi-criteria Analysis for Optimal Site Selection fora Sewage Treatment Plant2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies and remote sensing (RS) technologies have developed rapidly in recent years, and they have been widely used indaily life of ordinary people. The combination of these two remarkable technologies isuseful for location decision making and has been applied in different kinds of study cases.Guangyuan is one of the fastest developing cities in the southwest of China. Especiallyafter the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the development in economic and urbanreconstruction increased rapidly. Many infrastructure constructions and the reformprojects are in progress. At the same time, China's urban sewage treatment facilities areseriously inadequate. Only a small percentage of sewage has been treated by sewagetreatment plants in China. So the purpose of this study is to select an optimal site for asewage treatment plant in Guangyuan in a scientific way.In this particular study, based on GIS software and GIS-based multi-criteria analysis(MCA), a decision making model has been built for optimal site selection for a sewagetreatment plant. Two types of data were used in this study. Digital elevation model andsatellite image, several factor maps and constraint maps were created for the final analysis.The analytic hierarchy process was used to apply the weights for each factor along withformula method, in order to get the best result and find the optimal site. Finally, a MCAmodel has been made to be an example for future similar studies.In the end, an optimal site has been selected. Although aims are achieved in this study,there are still some limitations in different perspectives of the study. In the future, moreprecise data can be used in MCA studies, data limitations could be reduced with thedevelopment of RS techniques. In the future, more similar studies will be finished, whichmeans more scientific papers can provide reliable references of determining the criteriaand weights.

  • 249.
    Diao, Zhuo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Gao, Yuan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    The feasibility of computer games in learning theory based subjects2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the era of rapid development of science and technology wherethere has been an extensive development of computer games,The scope of this thesis is discussing the research on a computergame called “Treasure Hunt“, and it will establish whether acomputer game is helpful and has any advantage in learning asopposed to other traditional teaching methods. The aim of thisdocument is to let players interested in the history of Chinesecurrency learn more about it, and also to check the memory ofthe players through the real results of the survey we haveconducted. The thesis is also describing how to analyze andevaluate the result by the game and surveys to see if computergames can be considered as a helpful teaching aid. The game is a3D single player game. The main platform of game is creating inUnity3D .According to the survey results, the entertaining andteaching effectiveness of the game education is working verywell. Thus the author can conclude: computer games can bereally helpful in education.

  • 250.
    Didriksson, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Blomkvist, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    En precisionsstudie av förstärkt verklighet som positioneringsverktyg2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates augmented reality using third person perspective and what precision can be achieved by using this method. There have been prior studies in regards to precision using augmented reality, however studies using third person perspective is scarce. This study presents a solution using a static camera capturing the user as well as the plane to augment from behind. This augmented image is then transferred to a handheld device that is held by the user. Using this method the user will be free to manipulate and work with the plane without removing the device that captures the scene, a common problem when using visual reference markers in augmented reality. The study successfully shows that this can be implemented without compromising user experience as well as achieving a precision below 13 millimeters. The AR-tool has been proven to reduce time consumption of the task by up to four times compared to the manual method using a folding ruler.

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