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  • 201.
    Andersson, Victor
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    ATT ARBETA FRÄMJANDE MED PSYKISK HÄLSA INOM SKOLAN: En kvalitativ studie om hur elevhälsoteamet på en gymnasieskola inom Västmanlands Län arbetar för att främja elevernas psykiska hälsa2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the school health unit at a high school in Vastmanlands County is working to promote mental health among the students. To enable the study a qualitative method was applied in order to understand how the health unit works around the subject. Semistructured interviews was carried out with a number of persons who were identified through a targeted selection. Where all were working as a part of the school health unit at a high school in Vastmanlands County. With a manifest content analysis the collected material could show a result from those interviewed. 

    The result demonstrated that there was a connection between how the mental health was affected by the physical health. In order to achieve a stable and positive health condition it required a person to be satisfied with oneself. The practical work lacked a plan of action or guidelines although personel were working actively to promote the mental health among the students. It was underlined that there was a lack of attention specifically regarding the mental health and the health promotion. The results of the health promotion work were estimated mainly via grades, students school development and changes in attending school, commitment and mood. There are development possibilities in which implementation of a plan of action or a working model could improve the health promotion work in high school. Finally this study suggests applying SESAME as a working model in the health promotion work for the health school unit in order to promote the mental health among the students. 

  • 202.
    Andersson, Viktoria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sju ungdomars syn på narkotika & livssituationens betydelse för narkotikabruk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 203.
    Andersson-Westny, Jill
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Bergvall, Hanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Andra i ljuset av sig själv: Relationen mellan sinnesstämning och empati2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Empati är en grundförutsättning för människors interaktion, kommunikation och förståelse för varandra. Forskning har visat att individer med depression och olika personlighetsstörningar har en tendens till nedsatt empati. I en enkätstudie med 205 deltagare, varav 162 kvinnor, undersöktes om sinnesstämning har ett samband med empati. Deltagarna försattes i en sinnesstämning, de fick tänka på positiva eller negativa händelse. Sedan läsa en negativt riktad vinjett om en gripande händelse. Sinnesstämning mättes med The Brief Mood Introspection Scale (BMIS) och empati med hjälp av Batsons empatiskala. Studien avser att fylla luckan som finns om sinnesstämning och empati hos människor i allmänhet. Manipulationen gav inget signifikant resultat. Resultatet visar dock ett positivt samband mellan sinnesstämning och empati från självskattningsskalorna. Deltagarna med positiv sinnesstämning rapporterade mer empati. Kvinnor kände mer empati är män och de äldre mer än yngre. Studien relaterar till att högre välmående hos individer kan skapa mer empati i samhället.

  • 204.
    Andreae, Christina
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att vara passiv på en aktiv avdelning: - En innehållsanalys om hjärtpatientens dokumenterade delaktighet i omvårdnadsjournalen2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Inom hälso- och sjukvården finns två viktiga budskap för en god och säker vård, det ena är att vård och behandling ska ske i samverkan mellan vårdare och patient och det andra är att sjuksköterskan ska utforma individuella vårdplaner. Studier visar att individuella vårdplaner i hälso- och sjukvård i princip är obefintliga och att sjuksköterskor istället utformar standardvårdplaner. Problem: Risken att arbeta med standardvårdplaner är att patienternas delaktighet i vården förbises eftersom standardvårdplaner utformas i förväg genom förväntade omvårdnadsproblem, till skillnad från individuella vårdplaner som utarbetas i samverkan med patienten. Syfte: Examensarbetets syfte var att beskriva på vilket vis patientens delaktighet framkom i omvårdnadsjournalen vid användning av standardvårdplaner, vid vård av patienter med instabil kranskärlssjukdom. Metod: En kvalitativ, beskrivande forskningsmetod användes för att undersöka sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsdokumentation av tretton omvårdnadsjournaler. Text som innehöll någon form av dokumenterad delaktighet i sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsdokumentation analyserades utifrån manifest innehållsanalys som till slut även analyserades genom latent innehållsanalys. Resultat: I omvårdnadsjournalerna, vid användning av standardvårdplaner framkommer patienternas delaktighet genom kategorier sjukdomsberättelsen, kroppsfunktion, självuppfattade problem, utanförskap och självbestämmande. Kategorierna visade mönster som urskilde tema passivt och aktivt deltagande där det passiva deltagandet i omvårdnadsjournalerna framträdde som starkast.

  • 205.
    Andreae, Christina
    et al.
    Research and Development Center/Center for Clinical Research, Sörmland County Council,.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    Department of Health Care Sciences, Ersta Sköndal University,.
    Snellman, Ingrid
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Patients’ Participation as It Appears in the Nursing Documentation,When Care Is Ruled by Standardized Care Plans2011In: ISRN Nursing, ISSN 2090-5483, Vol. 2011, no Article ID 707601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to describe inpatients with myocardial infarction and their participation in care as documented in the nursing

    records when standardized care plans are used in care. The use of standardized care plans not only has increased the quality of

    medical treatment but has also overlooked patients’ opportunities to participate in their own care. There is a lack of knowledge

    about how standardized care plans influence patients’ participation in nursing care. Data were collected from thirteen patients’

    records with diagnoses of myocardial infarction. Participation in the decision-making process and participation associated with

    “sharing with others” were searched for in the analysis. The analytical process was guided by content analysis. The findings were

    grouped into two categories: patients’ intermediary participation and patients’ active participation. The main results indicated that

    patients’ intermediary participation depended on healthcare professionals’ power to rule the nursing care situation.

  • 206.
    Andreas, Rödlund
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    STRESS OCH SOCIALA MEDIER: En kvantitativ studie om sociala medievanor och stress bland ungdomar i Västmanland.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In recent years, the mental health has decreased among adolescents. They experience stress, and this is especially most evident amongst girls in school age. The usage of internet and social media has increased since the beginning of the twenty-first century. There are previous studies proving that social media have a profound impact on individuals. Research shows that social media creates an unhealthy comparison between individuals resulting in skewed norms and the phenomena of cyberbullying is increasing. Other studies indicate that people experience it as stressful to constantly be connected. However, research has also showed that social media increases globalization as well as access to a new social context for individuals.

    Aim: To investigate the occurrence and correlation between social media use and stress, the occurrence and connection of violations on social media and stress and whether there are differences in gender in social media habits and stress among adolescents in Västmanland.

    Method: Quantitative method with cross-sectional design was used to analyze the occurrence and correlation between adolescent’s social media habits and stress. This study is based on data from the Survey of “Adolescent Life in Västmanland - 2017” which included 3951 students from the 9th grade of primary school and 2nd in high school.

    Results: The results of this study show there is stress among adolescents, use of social medias and cyberbullying occur. There is a correlation between social media use and stress. Adolescents who use social media one or more times an hour are also “quite” or “very “stressed. Adolescents who experienced cyberbullying are more likely to be “quite” or “very” stressed. There occurs a difference in gender between adolescents that use social medias one or more times an hour. Girls use social media more frequently than boys. There are also difference in gender regarding stress, girls are more likely to be “quite” or “very” stressed.

    Conclusions: A correlation can be found between high-frequency social media use and adolescents who are quite or very stressed. There is also a correlation between adolescents who experience cyberbullying and adolescents who are quite or very stressed. There different reasons for that, but subjective standards that require constant connection, an unhealthy comparison between individuals and different ruling techniques online are factors that influence.

  • 207.
    Andreasson, Mikaela
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Wallin, Sandra
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Individens beslutsfattande: Att ångra eller inte ångra sina beslut2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag ställs individer inför många olika val. Individer skiljer sig åt då de fattar beslut och forskning tyder på att individer har en beslutsfattarstil. Denna studie åsyftade att studera sambandet mellan beslutsfattarstil och ånger samt om maximerare har större benägenhet att ångra sig. Dessutom undersöktes korrelationen mellan ånger och beslutsångest. 149 deltagare besvarade tre självskattningsformulär bestående av General decision making style, Regret scale, Maximization scale samt fyra tillagda påståenden. Dessa användes till olika analyser. Först studerades beslutsfattarstil och ånger. Resultatet visade att det var svårt att urskilja en specifik beslutsfattarstil. Ändock visade tre beslutsfattarstilar en positiv korrelation med ånger. Detta tolkades i linje med tidigare studier, att individen kombinerar beslutsfattarstilar, dock behövs mer forskning om beslutsfattarstilar. Därefter studerades maximeringsstil och ånger samt beslutsångest. Resultatet visade att maximerare har större benägenhet till ånger vilket är i linje med tidigare forskning, detta kan bero på att maximerare eftersträvar perfektion.

  • 208.
    Andreasson, Robin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Blomqvist, Sanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Schymans feminister: En kritisk diskursanalys i hur media framställer Feministiskt initiativ2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Feministiskt initiativ är ett nytt parti som liksom mycket annat har skildrats av media. Syftet med den här kvalitativa studien är att studera vad media har berättat om Fi, utifrån en kritisk diskursanalys och socialkonstruktionistisk grund vill vi studera vilka diskurser som media, i vårt fall tidningsartiklar från de stora rikstidningarna, förmedlar om partiet Feministiskt initiativ. De tidningar som vi hämtat artiklar ifrån har varit Aftonbladet, Svenska Dagbladet, Dagens Nyheter, Metro och Expressen och utgjort grund för empirin. Igenom vår analys hittar vi olika mönster och teman, däribland tre framstående diskurser: kampdiskursen, ledardiskursen samt jämställdhetsdiskursen. Dessa går in och fogas på olika sätt för Fis framträdande i medias texter. Kampdiskursen fokuserar på kampen för partiet att ta sig in i Riksdagen, Ledardiskursen fokuserar på ledaren som leder partiet framåt och jämställdhetsdiskursen pekar på den drivkraft som partiet avbildas med som sägs understödja kampen och legitimerar partiet i våra ögon. Vi fann att kampdiskursen står som en dominerande diskurs till de andra. Dessa diskurser framträder i de artiklar vi låtit studera och bygger likt en grund för en bild som media återger om partiet för oss medborgare som läser tidningarna. Studiens betydelse är av den nivå att medias framställning har intryck på oss varpå en framställning av ett parti måste studeras för demokratins säkerhet och framväxt.

  • 209.
    Angantyr, Malin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Hansen, Eric M.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Eklund, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Malm, K.
    Skara, Sweden.
    Reducing Sex Differences in Children’s Empathy for Animals Through a Training Intervention2016In: Journal of Research in Childhood Education, ISSN 0256-8543, E-ISSN 2150-2641, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 273-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: Humane education programs designed to increase children’s empathy for animals are becoming more common. A quasi-experiment tested the effectiveness of one such program by comparing 80 children who had completed the program with a control group of 57 children who had not. The children read a story involving an injured dog and rated the degree of empathic concern they felt for him. The results showed that girls tended to express more empathy for a dog than did boys, but this difference was not significant for children who underwent an animal empathy training program. This suggests that humane education programs can reduce sex differences by increasing boys’ empathy. 

  • 210.
    Angbah, Josephine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Jamal Aman, Khadra
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Var är alla platsannonser?: Upplevelsen att söka arbete via sociala medier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sociala medier har utvecklats till den moderna tidens platsbank och har skapat en spridning av annonseringsplatser. I två studier undersöktes arbetssökandes upplevelse av denna utveckling. Studie 1 bestod av 30 kvalitativa enkäter som resulterade i följande teman: (1) relationer, (2) ovetande och (3) lättillgänglighet. Studie 2 bestod av 11 djupintervjuer som resulterade i de tre ovannämnda tema samt (4) aktivering, (5) sociala medier speglar personlighet och (6) marknadsföring. Båda studierna visade att individen upplever att denna förändring har skapat nya möjligheter och påfrestningar för den arbetssökande. Resultatet i de två studierna beskriver sociala mediers påverkan på hur och var individer söker arbeten, samt känslan av att deras privatliv och personliga egenskaper har en större inverkan på individens anställningsbarhet. Resultaten kan ligga till grund för vidare studier om arbetssökande och sociala medier.

  • 211.
    Angbah, Josephine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Jamal Aman, Khadra
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Var är alla platsannonser?: Upplevelsen att söka arbete via sociala medier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sociala medier har utvecklats till den moderna tidens platsbank ochhar skapat en spridning av annonseringsplatser. I två studierundersöktes arbetssökandes upplevelse av denna utveckling. Studie 1bestod av 30 kvalitativa enkäter som resulterade i följande teman: (1)relationer, (2) ovetande och (3) lättillgänglighet. Studie 2 bestod av 11djupintervjuer som resulterade i de tre ovannämnda tema samt (4)aktivering, (5) sociala medier speglar personlighet och (6)marknadsföring. Båda studierna visade att individen upplever attdenna förändring har skapat nya möjligheter och påfrestningar för denarbetssökande. Resultatet i de två studierna beskriver sociala medierspåverkan på hur och var individer söker arbeten, samt känslan av attderas privatliv och personliga egenskaper har en större inverkan påindividens anställningsbarhet. Resultaten kan ligga till grund förvidare studier om arbetssökande och sociala medier.

  • 212.
    Angberg, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Rydén, Malin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att vårdas vaken i ventilator: En litteraturstudie om patienters upplevelser2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 213.
    Antonsson, Karolina
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Självskadebeteende i relation till andra riskbeteenden: Enkätstudie bland flickor i årskurs 9 och år 2 på gymnasiet i Sörmlands län2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unhealthiness among youths in Sweden includes several kinds of public health problems where mental illness is increasing and affecting more and more people, resulting in, for example, deliberate self-harm. This thesis discusses the relations between self-harm and other dangerous behaviors based on the data set from Liv & Hälsa ung in Sörmland. It is a recurring total population survey about lifestyle, dangerous behaviors and health among pupils in year 7, 9 and second year at high school. The survey was answered by 2750 pupils in year 9 and 2770 pupils in year 2 at high school. Only girls in year 9 (n=1313) and year 2 (n=1384) at high school is included in this thesis. A quantitative method was used to investigate occurrence and differences among the population.

    The empowerment theory is discussed, which is considered to be an important tool in order for the society to help individuals strengthen their self confidence and in that way increase the health level among youths.

    The results show that it is more common that self-harming individuals are also engaged in other dangerous behaviors, such as daily smoking and shoplifting, in comparison to the control group. This could serve as an indicator that the area requires more research in order to develop future preventive measures to reduce the number of girls harming themselves.

  • 214.
    Aparicio, Ciro
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Aytar, Osman
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Jonsson, Bosse
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Moberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Nordh, Lillemor
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Studenter som kunskapsbärare: En förstudie om studenter som kunskapsbärare mellan verksamhetsförlagd och högskoleförlagd utbildning i Fysioterapeutprogrammet, Sjuksköterskeprogrammet och Socionomprogrammet2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 215.
    Apel, Jessica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Tielinen, Linnéa
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    ”Jag fick Googla min dödsdom”: Cancerpatienters upplevelser av sina cancerbesked2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots forskning kring hur ett cancerbesked bör lämnas förekommer det idag oetiska tillvägagångssätt. Det existerar få studier om cancerpatienters upplevelser av cancerbeskedet, vilket behöver undersökas då cancerbeskedet kan innebära att cancerpatientens mentala hälsa och framtidssyn drastiskt försämras. Studiens syfte var att undersöka cancerpatienters upplevelser av cancerbeskedet i samband med att beskedet gavs. Deltagarna handplockades och bestod av tio kvinnor respektive sju män som var geografiskt utspridda i Sverige med diverse cancerdiagnoser. Deltagarna skulle mottagit sitt cancerbesked 10 månader till 15 år före deltagandet. Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes som transkriberades och tematiserades via hermeneutisk och huvudsakligen induktiv ansats. Resultatet innehöll fyra centrala teman (1) tid, plats och rum, (2) chock och krisreaktioner, (3) kommunikation, (4) socialt sammanhang. Resultatet öppnar dörren för framtida forskning att finna verktyg för att kunna ge cancerbesked på bästa sätt samt belysa faktorer som bör undvikas. Detta kan minska cancerpatienters mentala lidande och hjälpa vårdgivare i det svåra cancerbeskedsamtalet.

  • 216.
    Appelgren Engstrom, Heléne
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala universitet.
    Borneskog-Sinclair, Catrin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Mothers in Same-Sex Relationships Describe the Process of Forming a Family as a Stressful Journey in a Heteronormative World: A Swedish Grounded Theory Study.2018In: Maternal and Child Health Journal, ISSN 1092-7875, E-ISSN 1573-6628, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 1444-1450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this study was to gain insight into how women in same-sex relationships experience the process of forming a family through the use of assisted reproduction technique (ART), from planning the pregnancy to parenthood, and their experience of parental support from healthcare professionals. Methods The participants were 20 women in a same-sex relationship who had conceived through ART at a Swedish clinic. Semi-structured interviews including open questions about pregnancy, parenthood and support from healthcare professionals were conducted. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed according to grounded theory. Results The core category, A stressful journey through a heteronormative world, emerged from the analysis, as did three subcategories: A journey fraught with difficulties and decisions; The nuclear family as the norm; and A need for psychological support. Same-sex parents expressed a need for more information about how to access ART in Sweden. Both the healthcare organization and treatment were perceived as heteronormative. In particular, these women lacked psychological support during the demanding process of utilizing a sperm donor to conceive. Conclusions for Practice Professionals in antenatal care should undergo mandatory cultural competency training to ensure cultural sensitivity and the provision of updated information, tailored brochures and early parental support for families with same-sex parents. All parents need guidance and support from competent, caring personnel throughout the entire process of forming a family.

  • 217.
    Appelgren Engström, Heléne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    SUPPORTING PARENTHOOD IN FAMILIES WITH TWO MOTHERS2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of planned two-mother families are growing as legislation about assisted reproduction technique (ART) changes. Since 2005 two-mother families are offered ART within the Swedish National Health Care (SOSFS 2005:17), and about 120 female couples underwent ART with donated sperm during the first years after this legislation. Although there is an increasing amount of research on planned two-mother families, there is still limited knowledge of what early parental support these mothers may need.

    Aim: The aim was to study same-sex mother’s experiences and perceptions of family forming and early parental support.

    Methods: Participants was recruited by nurses at child health care centers and via Internet. The sampling method was both purposeful and theoretical. Twenty mothers (birth-mothers & non-birth mothers) in a same-sex relationship, who conceived through ART at Swedish clinics participated and semi-structured interviews were performed. Open questions about parenthood, parental support from health care professionals and parental leave were posed. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data collection and data analysis were performed in parallel. The analyze strategy was constant comparative analysis in tree steps, open-, axial and selective coding.

    Results: The result describe mother in same-sex relationships experiences of forming a family through assisted reproductions techniques at Swedish clinics.  Their path to parenthood, how the mothers faced different decisions, and their experiences of early parental support from health care professionals in antenatal and child health care is described. Moreover the mothers’ perception of parenting and their thoughts about gender equality and parental leave is described.

     

    Keywords: two-mother families, assisted reproduction technique, experiences, antenatal and child health care, parenthood, parental support

  • 218.
    Appelgren Engström, Heléne
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Borneskog, Catrin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Linköpings universitet.
    Almqvist, Anna-Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Mothers in same‐sex relationships—Striving for equal parenthood:: A grounded theory study2019In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, ISSN 0962-1067, Vol. 28, no 19-20, p. 3700-3709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To get a deeper understanding of how mothers in same-sex relationships think and reason about their parenthood in terms of gender equality, and how they experience early parental support from child healthcare professionals. Background: There is an increasing amount of research on how women in same-sex relationships experience healthcare services when forming a family. Yet there is limited knowledge of what kind of early parental support these women may request. Design: Grounded theory. Follows guidelines for qualitative research (COREQ). Method: Twenty women ranging from 25 to 42 years of age participated in semi-structured interviews. Data collection and analysis took place in parallel, as recommended in grounded theory methodology. Results: The results are described by the core category Same-sex mothers request professional support to achieve equal parenthood, which includes five categories: (a) equality in everyday life, (b) diversity in mother and child attachment, (c) justification of the family structure, (d) ambivalent thoughts about their child's future and (e) a special need for networking and request for professional support. These findings provide a deeper understanding of how same-sex mothers experience their parenthood and the parental support that is offered. Conclusion: Child healthcare professionals need to be sensitive and recognise both mothers as equal parents and offer early parenting groups where two-mother families feel included and supported. Relevance to clinical practice: Healthcare professionals need to be aware of diverse family formations and meet each parent as a unique individual without heteronormative assumptions. Same-sex mothers must be treated as equal parents and acknowledged as mothers. Healthcare professionals should offer inclusive and supportive parental groups to same-sex families. They should also inform and support nonbirth mothers about the possibility to breastfeed.

  • 219.
    Aqaian, Linda
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Skolhälsopersonalens upplevelser av att främja sunda levnadsvanor hos elever: En kvalitativ studie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unhealthy lifestyles are increasing among children and this has been identified as a public health problem. School is a key setting for promoting healthy lifestyles. The school health services have an ambition to promote healthy lifestyles among pupils. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of school healthcare staff of promoting healthy lifestyles among school children 6-10 years old at the municipal primary schools in the city of Västerås. A qualitative study design was chosen and data collection took place through six individual semi-structured interviews with school healthcare staff. A content analysis was applied to analyze the collected data. The study showed that collaboration between various stakeholders towards a common goal as well as a person-centered approach were considered as main facilitators for the school healthcare staff to promote healthy lifestyles. Unequal distribution of resources, lack of knowledge and skills among school nurses and lack of practical evidence-based working strategies were considered as challenges for the school healthcare staff to promote healthy lifestyles. This study proved to be a guiding as well as a supporting role for the school healthcare staff in health behaviour changes in pupils and their families. This study, however, showed that these roles needed to be strengthened. More research is required to improve evidence-based knowledge and to develop an evidence-based framework to address the perceived challenges in school healthcare efforts towards promoting healthy lifestyles among pupils.

  • 220.
    Aref, Natalie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Ekholm, Ida
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    DELAKTIGT BARN ELLER BESKYDDAT BARN?: Socialsekreterares uppfattningar om barns delaktighet i våldsärenden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies show that children's participation in social services inquiries are flawed (Inspektionen för vård och omsorg, 2014). Children's views are described as a low priority compared to adults (Östberg, 2010). The aim of this study was therefore to examine how social workers perceive children's participation in inquiries where children are suspected of being victims of domestic violence. The study has been conducted with a qualitative approach in the form of focus group interviews with social workers. Participation models and theory of professions based on the concepts of jurisdiction and discretion has been applied in the analysis of empirical data. The result shows that there is a consistency in how the informants define children's participation but that it has a complex meaning in practice. The informants describe that methods can facilitate children's participation. However, it also appears that there are obstacles such as the children’s age, parent’s involvement, high workload and lack of time. Furthermore, the study shows that social workers perceive children as active participants in inquiries. However, the protection aspect is emphasized as a main factor for children's participation. This study thus highlights that there are both obstacles and opportunities in the practical work regarding children's participation.

  • 221.
    Aremyr, Ann
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hjärtström, Carina
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sjukgymnastik efter cancerbehandling: Utvärdering av behandling för att minska biverkningar2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hand-foot syndrome is a form of perifier sensory neuropathy caused by chemotherapy. The syndrome can cause side effects such as pain, discomfort, numbness, swelling and impaired balance. Evaluated treatment is lacking.

    Purpose: Examine how twelve week physiotherapy treatment short-wave diathermy, interference and balance training affects side effects of the foot/lower leg caused by chemotherapy in seven patients with hand-foot syndrome.

    Method: Study group, quasi-experimental outcome study. Seven patients participated. Variables measured were, pain, discomfort, numbness, and balance. Three measurements were carried out, before, after, and eight weeks after the intervention. Self-reported estimates and the physical measurement were used.

    Results: The group's pain, discomfort and numbness decreased in all measurements. For pain measurement after the intervention and eight weeks after showed significance (p = 0,027),(p = 0,042). Discomfort showed significance after the intervention (p = 0,018). Numbness showed no significance. Balance showed significance in: Sharpened Romberg, left, eyes closed, eight weeks after intervention (p = 0,043). Sharpened Romberg, left, eyes closed, after the intervention (p = 0,027), eight weeks after intervention (p = 0,028). Standing on one leg, the right, eyes closed, after the intervention (p = 0,042), eight weeks after intervention(p = 0,027). No measurements showed deterioration.

    Conclusion: The results showed that treatment with short-wave diathermy, interference and balance training reduced pain, discomfort, numbness and partial improvements in balance in hand-foot syndrome. However, it is not possible to demonstrate which treatment component that affected the most. Further studies are needed to produce results more valid.

  • 222.
    Arkkukangas, Marina
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Evaluation of the Otago Exercise Programme with or without motivational interviewing: Feasibility, experiences, effects and adherence among older community-dwelling people2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Falls and injuries related to falls are one of the most common health problems among older people and are becoming increasingly more frequent. Regular exercise has been identified as one of the most effective fall-prevention activities for older people; however, awareness of the impact of exercise programmes and adherence to recommended exercise among the elderly population is generally low. Research examining how an exercise programme is administered to and experienced by elderly community-dwelling people is needed.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the feasibility, experiences and effects of and adherence to the fall-preventive Otago Exercise Programme (OEP) with or without motivational interviewing (MI) among community-dwelling people aged 75 years or older.

    Four studies were performed from October 2012 to May 2016 in a sample of 175 people. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. The methods included the feasibility for conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (I), individual face-to-face interviews (II), an RCT (III) and a prospective cohort study (IV). The intervention was given to two groups. The participants who received OEP with or without MI were compared with a control group that received standard care.

    The feasibility of performing an exercise intervention with or without MI was acceptable from the perspective of the participating physiotherapists. From the perspective of the older participants performing the exercise with behavioural change support, the inclusion of monitored exercises in everyday life and daily routines was important. The participants also expressed experiencing more strength, improved physical functioning and greater hope for an extended active life during old age.

    From the short-term perspective, there were significant improvements within the OEP combined with MI group in terms of physical performance, fall self-efficacy, activity level, and handgrip strength. Improved physical performance and fall self-efficacy were also found within the control group; however, corresponding differences did not occur in the OEP group without MI. There were no significant differences between the study groups after 12 weeks of regular exercise. Adherence to the exercises in the pooled exercise group was 81% at the 12-week follow-up.

    At the 52-week follow-up, the behavioural factors being physically active and obtaining behavioural support in terms of MI had a significant association with adherence to the exercise programme.

    These studies provide some support for the combination of OEP with MI as the addition of MI was valuable for achieving adherence to the exercise programme over time in older community-dwelling people.

     

  • 223.
    Arkkukangas, Marina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Johnson, S. T.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hellström, K.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Eriksson, S.
    Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ann-Christin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    A feasibility study of a randomised controlled trial comparing fall prevention using exercise with or without the support of motivational interviewing2015In: Preventive Medicine Reports, ISSN 2211-3355, Vol. 2, p. 134-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this investigation was to study the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) based on a multicentre fall prevention intervention including exercise with or without motivational interviewing compared to standard care in community-living people 75. years and older. Method: The feasibility of a three-armed, randomised controlled trial was evaluated according to the following: process, resources, management by questionnaire, and treatment outcomes. The outcome measures were fall frequency, physical performance and falls self-efficacy evaluated after three months. Twelve physiotherapists conducted the measurements and treatments and responded to the questionnaire. The first 45 participants recruited to the ongoing RCT were included: 16 individuals in the Otago Exercise Program group (OEP), 16 individuals in the OEP combined with motivational interviewing group (MI), and 13 individuals in the control group. The study was conducted from November 2012 to December 2013. Results: The feasibility of the study process, resources and management reached the set goals in most aspects; however, the set goal regarding the MI guide and planned exercise for the participating older people was not completely reached. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding the outcome measures. Conclusion: This study confirmed the acceptable feasibility for the study protocol in the ongoing RCT.

  • 224.
    Arkkukangas, Marina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Sundler, Annelie
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Eriksson, Staffan
    Johansson, Ann Christin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Older persons’ experiences of a home-based exercise programme with behavioural change support2017In: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, ISSN 0959-3985, E-ISSN 1532-5040, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 905-913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is a challenge to promote exercise among older persons. Knowledge is needed regarding the maintenance of exercise aiming at preventing falls and promoting health and wellbeing in older persons.

    Purpose: This descriptive study used a qualitative inductive approach to describe older persons’ experiences of a fall-preventive, home-based exercise programme with support for behavioural change.

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve older persons aged 75 years or older, and a qualitative content analysis was performed.

    Results: Four categories emerged: facilitators of performing exercise in everyday life, the importance of support, perceived gains from exercise, and the existential aspects of exercise.

    Conclusion: With support from physiotherapists, home-based exercise can be adapted to individual circumstances in a meaningful way. By including exercises in everyday life and daily routines could support the experience of being stronger, result in better physical functioning and give hope for an extended active life in old age.

  • 225.
    Arkkukangas, Marina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Eriksson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ann-Christin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Centrum för klinisk forskning LTV.
    Fall Preventive Exercise with or without behavior change support for community-dwelling older adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial With Short-Term Follow-up.2019In: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, ISSN 1539-8412, E-ISSN 2152-0895, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 226.
    Arkkukangas, Marina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Eriksson, Staffan
    Johansson, Ann-Christin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    One- year adherence to the Otago Exercise Programme with or without motivational interviewing in older peopleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 227.
    Arkkukangas, Marina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Eriksson, Steffan
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ann-Christin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Uppsala Univ, Ctr Clin Res, Vasteras, Sweden..
    One-Year Adherence to the Otago Exercise Program With or Without Motivational Interviewing in Community-Dwelling Older Adults2018In: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, ISSN 1063-8652, E-ISSN 1543-267X, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 390-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated if behavioral factors, treatment with behavioral support, readiness to change, fall self-efficacy, and activity habits could predict long-term adherence to an exercise program. Included in this study were 114 community-dwelling older adults who had participated in one of two home-based exercise interventions. Behavioral factors associated with adherence to the exercise program over 52 weeks were analyzed. The behavioral factors, specifically activity habits at baseline, significantly predicted adherence to the exercise program, with an odds ratio = 3.39, 95% confidence interval [1.38, 8.32], for exercise and an odds ratio = 6.11, 95% confidence interval [2.34, 15.94], for walks. Being allocated to a specific treatment including motivational interviewing was also significantly predictive: odds ratio = 2.47, 95% confidence interval [1.11, 5.49] for exercise adherence. In conclusion, activity habits and exercise in combination with motivational interviewing had a significant association with adherence to the exercise program at a 1-year follow-up.

  • 228.
    Arleide, Pereira Da Silva Nyberg
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att leva med stomi: En kvalitattiv litteraturstudie ur patienters perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lack of information and education from nurses, affect patients’ adaptation to and acceptance of their new life with ostomy, which also affects the families’ ability to care for and support their relatives with ostomy. Aim: To describe patients’ experiences of living with the ostomy. Method: The data materials consist of 12 qualitative articles that are analyzed by a systematic literature study with descriptive synthesis. Results: The result is presented in three themes: Impact in self-image; A changed life situation and Support in the treatment. Conclusion: Living with the stoma is perceived as a limitation of physical activity and awakens negative reactions, related to the changed body. Despite that, patients consider that life is less difficult than before and with good information and education, nurses can help patients to believe in themselves, and be more independent in managing the ostomy. Knowledge of everyday life, physical but also sexual activities, is something that nurses need to collect and share with the patients. The patients need to know this, to feel safe with themselves and don’t look upon themselves as limited. This helps to perform better care based on patients’ needs, which relieves suffering and improves life quality for the patients.

  • 229.
    Arman, M.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ranheim, Albertine
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Rydenlund, K.
    Forensic Psychiatric Regional Clinic, Vadstena, Sweden.
    Rytterström, P.
    Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Rehnsfeldt, A.
    Stord/Haugesund University College, Stord, Norway.
    The Nordic Tradition of Caring Science: The Works of Three Theorists2015In: Nursing Science Quarterly, ISSN 0894-3184, E-ISSN 1552-7409, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 288-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic tradition of caring science has had a significant influence on healthcare research, healthcare education and clinical development in the Nordic countries from 1990 to the present. Theoretical contributions from the professors and scientists Katie Eriksson, Kari Martinsen and Karin Dahlberg form the basis for this paper. The tradition has established a paradigm of ethics, ontology and epistemology for the caring science domain. Short introductions present the scientific background of Eriksson, Martinsen, and Dahlberg, and show how interpretive teamwork has led to the formation of an intertwining of the essential qualities of the theories. The synthesis emphasizes caring science as a human science, and views caring as a natural phenomenon where the patient’s world, vulnerability, health, and suffering are primary. In the art and act of caring, relationships and dialogue are essential; they provide parameters where caring becomes visible in its absence.

  • 230.
    Arman, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Alvenäng, Annika
    Alanus University, Stuttgart, Sweden.
    El Madani, Nadia
    Vidarkliniken, Sweden.
    Hammarqvist, Ann- Sofie
    Vidarkliniken, Sweden.
    Ranheim, Albertine
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Caregiving for existential wellbeing: existential literacy. A clinical study in an anthroposophic healthcare context2013In: IPDJ International Practice Development Journal, ISSN 2046-9292, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and context: The occurrence of existential caregiving as a natural element of healthcare is the focus of this research. According to the literature, there is a lack of understanding of this issue, from a theoretical as well as a clinical point of view. In this design ‘existential’ and ‘spiritual’ are seen as synonymous and without religious association. Existential questions are regarded as questions about life, death, meaning, love, vulnerability, responsibility and dependence. The context for the project is an integrated anthroposophic hospital that offers rehabilitation for patients with cancer.

    Aims and objectives

    : With the support of an anthroposophic and caring scientific view of human beings, and by using concrete examples, the aim is to develop and deepen an understanding of existential care for patients in life-decisive phases in the care and rehabilitation of cancer. Clinical application research was used in cooperation with academic researchers and clinically active colleagues. Eleven clinicians from varying professions and two researchers collaborated over the course of two years. The data used came from 65 case reports of significant care situations experienced by the team members. A joint interpretive qualitative analysis led to the formulation of the findings.

    Conclusions

    : Existential caregiving in practice requires an ‘existential literacy’, using the metaphor of human life as a text or a book whose contents are legible only for the one versed in the language. In order to gain a complete understanding of caregiving, an ability to read a suffering human’s language and decipher its meaning is essential. The patient’s narrative might open up a caregiver’s awareness in a single illuminating moment. An authentic and listening attitude together with an active restriction of one’s own suppositions increase the possibility of providing existential care. Compassion and professional judgement function as the caregiving compass and ‘lexica’ for existential care.

    Implications for practice:

    1. An understanding of existential caregiving moments implies a developed insight into and sensitivity for the patient’s signs and needs
    2. Existential caring moments have countless variations, while bodily and intimate situations are sometimes found to be an opening to spontaneous, trustful interactions. Such moments could be learning moments if reflected and shared
    3. For training in the ability to ‘read the patient’, clinical reflections in groups where existential literacy is collectively sought are an option
    4. Clinical application research can allow caring scientific theory and healthcare research to be implemented in practice immediately, which may enhance quality of care and ultimately benefit the patient
  • 231.
    Armini, Antonia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Camilla, Söderlind
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    EN förändrad KROPP, ETT förändrat LIV: Patienters upplevelser av att leva med stomi2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When patients suffer from sicknesses such as rectal cancer, Chrons disease and ulcerative colitis, then ostomies can be a course of treatment. Earlier research show that nurses lack knowledge to be able to care for patients with ostomies while expected to have an important role in the patients’ well-being.  Problem: Lack of knowledge from the general nurse about ostomy care impacts patients since their lives are affected by living with a stoma.  Aim: To describe patient´s experiences of living with a stoma. Method: A literature review based on ten qualitative scientific articles with descriptive synthesis. Results: Experiences shown in the results were divided into three themes: “Emotionell influence”, “Changes in everyday life” and “Acceptance of living with a stoma”.  Out of these themes came six subthemes: “To feel worry”, “To feel frustration”, “To feel shame”, “To live with a changed body”, “To be limited physically in one´s life”, “To lose control”.  Conclusion: Life with a stoma brings daily changes and influences the patients emotional state in relation to their body and their new situation. These experiences can in their turn evolve and patients can come to accept the stoma over time. Patients experiences a lack of information concerning ostomy care and support in living with a stoma. The results show that patients due to their ostomy experience suffering related to illness, to care, and to life.

  • 232.
    Arnell, Ida
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Wedin, Michaela
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Varje moln har en silverkant: Kvinnor mer empatiska trots stress2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje moln har en silverkant

    Kvinnor mer empatiska trots stress

     

    Ida Arnell och Michaela Wedin

     

     

    Empati är grundläggande för sociala relationer och kommunikation medan stress är en av de främsta anledningarna till ohälsa hos vuxna. Tidigare forskning angående sambandet mellan empati och stress samt köns- och åldersskillnader har delvis varit motsägelsefullt. Studiens syfte var att undersöka om det finns samband mellan stress och empati. Deltagarna var 215 från Sverige, 18-79 år, varav 171 kvinnor. Frågorna var från Perceived stress scale och Emotional response scale. Resultatet visade inte något samband mellan stress och empati, dock var kvinnor både mer empatiska och stressade än män, samt att äldre var mer empatiska än yngre. Det kan ha att göra med att stress och empati påverkas av flera olika faktorer. Resultatet kunde motsäga tidigare forskning angående sambandet mellan stress och empati och det vara intressant att se hur könsroller kan spela in då denna studie fokuserade på juridiskt kön.

  • 233.
    Arogén, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Skolkuratorernas hälsofrämjande arbete: En kvalitativ studie om skolkuratorernas hälsofrämjande arbete i Eskilstuna2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolans miljö en är avgörande faktor för folkhälsoarbete, därför är hälsofrämjande arbete i skolan viktigt att belysa. Eleverna drabbas av stress, depressioner och ökade kunskapskrav. Bestämningsfaktorer som livsstil, trygga miljöer samt sociala nätverk påverkar en individs psykiska hälsa. Skolkuratorerna ansvarar mest av all personal på skolan för det hälsofrämjande arbetet. För att främja hälsan i skolarbetet är det av betydelse att identifiera hur skolkuratorerna arbetar.Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur skolkuratorer i Eskilstuna Kommun arbetar med att främja psykisk hälsa för barn i årskurs 7-9. En kvalitativ studiedesign och en manifest innehållsanalys har använts för att uppnå syftet med studien. Skolkuratorerna i Eskilstuna kommun har intervjuats med hjälp av en semistrukturerad intervjuguide.Kuratorernas arbete styrs utifrån styrdokumentet Elevhälsan. Samarbete tillsammans med personal som skolsköterskor anses viktigt. Kuratorernas arbete med eleverna styrs kring helheten. Trivsamma miljöer, aktiviteter samt att umgås tillsammans med eleverna är något som är av betydelse. Akutsamtalen tar upp för mycket tid i det dagliga arbetet, vilket även tidigare studier belyser. Studiens slutsats visar att Elevhälsans alla resurser behöver vara mer tillgängliga på skolorna än de är i dagsläget. Den stora kuratorsträffen som sker månadsvis behöver också en samordnare för att ge den respons som behövs.

  • 234.
    Aronson, Kajsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    ”...DU SKA BLI SNITTAD SNART,OKEJ? SEN GICK DE…”: Intervjustudie om kvinnors erfarenheter av barnmorskors informationsgivning inför akut kejsarsnitt2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 235.
    Aronson, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Actor observer bias: Påverkar könet hur vi attribuerar?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Actor-observer bias är benägenheten för människor att attribuera sitt eget beteende utifrån omständigheter och andras beteende utifrån deras person. Vi tenderar dessutom att favorisera och vara mer förlåtande i attributionerna till de som tillhör vår ingrupp. Studiens syfte var att undersöka huruvida graden av tillhörighet till ingruppen, kön, påverkar hur vi attribuerar. Studien genomfördes med 102 deltagare, 51 kvinnor och 51 män. En konfliktsituation mellan ett par presenterades för deltagarna där den ena parten i förhållandet (X) beter sig illa mot den andra. Enkäten förekom i tre versioner med X som kvinna, man eller deltagaren själv. Det predicerades bl a att deltagare som upplever hög identifiering med sin ingrupp kommer attribuera övervägande externt då X hör till dennes ingrupp. Resultatet visade inget signifikant stöd för denna hypotes. Tendenser för att kvinnans beteende bedömdes hårdare kunde dock urskiljas. Betydelsen av detta, den eventuella inverkan av könsroller samt framtida forskning diskuteras. 

  • 236.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Astvik, Wanja
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Work Conditions, Recovery and Health: A Study among Workers within Pre-School, Home Care and Social Work2014In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1654-1672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated the working conditions associated with the accumulation of stress and lack of recovery and how recovery is related to health. The study group was employed in pre-school, home care and social work (n = 193). Recovery was assumed to be an explanatory variable for the relations between work and health. The response rate on a survey was 79 per cent. Cluster analysis identified three groups: the 'Recovered' (36 per cent of the total group) and 'Not Recovered' (25 per cent) and the 'In-between' (39 per cent). The Not Recovered displayed the whole chain of risk factors, involving difficult working conditions to which they responded with increased compensatory strategies. Despite this group having significantly greater reports of ill health, work absenteeism was not greater, which is likely related to their substituting sickness absence with sickness presence. As many as 43 per cent of the social workers were found to belong to the Not Recovered group. Multiple regression analyses controlling for background variables revealed that the Not Recovered group had a significantly higher relative risk for poor self-rated health than those in the Recovered group. Even sharper increases in relative risk existed for the other five symptoms that were analysed. Practical implications and new research questions are discussed.

  • 237.
    Aronsson, Vanda
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Stockholm Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Can a poor psychosocial work environment and insufficient organizational resources explain the higher risk of ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations?: Evidence from a Swedish national cohort2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 310-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in burnout, self-rated health (SRH) and sickness absence between human service occupations (HSOs) and other occupations, and whether they can be attributed to differences in psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. Methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population (n = 4408). Employment in HSOs, psychosocial work environment and organizational resources in 2012 predicted relative risks of sickness absence, burnout and suboptimal SRH in 2014 using modified Poisson regressions. The psychosocial work factors' and organizational resource variables' relative importance were estimated by adding them to the models one by one, and with population attributable fractions (PAFs). Results: Employment in HSOs was associated with a higher risk of sickness absence and the risk was explained by psychosocial and organizational factors, particularly high emotional demands, low work-time control and exposure to workplace violence. Employment in HSOs was not associated with burnout after sociodemographic factors were adjusted for, and furthermore not with SRH. A lower risk of suboptimal SRH was found in HSOs than in other occupations with equivalent psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. PAFs indicated that psychosocial work environment and organizational resource improvements could lead to morbidity reductions for all outcomes; emotional demands were more important in HSOs. Conclusions: HSOs had higher risks of sickness absence and burnout than other occupations. The most important work factors to address were high emotional demands, low work-time control, and exposure to workplace violence.

  • 238.
    Arvidsson, Alexander
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    "DET ÖMSINTA ANSANDET" SJUKSKÖTERSKORS UPPLEVELSE AV VAD SOM ÄR VÅRDANDE INOM RÄTTSPSYKIATRIN2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Forensic psychiatric care is a complex business. Patients who are cared for in forensic psychiatry are usually in need of care for a long time. The forensic care is a major intrusion into a person's life and the nurses and caregivers are the people who spend the most time with patients. They have a difficult mission providing a good and personalized care while patients are deprived of their liberty. Previous research demonstrates that patients experience forensic care as uncertain, insecure and punitive but that there are also glimpses of "good care". Caring is described as unreflective and that nurses are left for themselves to use their "common sense". This study's aim is to highlight nurses' experiences of what is caring in forensic nursing. The study has a qualitative design and a theoretical framework that is based on caring idea and ethos according to the description of Eriksson (2002). A total of six nurses at a forensic care clinic were interviewed. The interviews were then analyzed through a phenomenological hermeneutic method. Caring in forensic psychiatry was perceived to be associated with both closeness and distance, as well as to create balance. The comprehensive understanding of nurses' experiences showed that that caring is a balancing act between getting close to the patient while creating a functioning structure in the care which is interpreted as a "tender purging".

  • 239.
    Arvidsson, Emelie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Gravem, Linda
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    "...man kan ju inte vara delaktig i alla beslut, men i så mycket som möjligt vara delaktig.": Delaktighet vid omvårdnadsplanering inom rättspsykiatrisk vård2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 240.
    Arvidsson, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Gemensam syn på socialt ansvar - en faktor att beakta vid rekrytering: En diskursanalys om Corporate Social Responsibility2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föetagens sociala ansvar är en fråga som har blivit allt mer aktuell. Det blir allt viktigare att företag är medvetna om den påverkan de har på samhället. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) och hållbarhet används när det talas om företagens ansvarstagande och sociala ansvar. Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur företag förhåller sig till CSR och hållbarhet. Jag använder mig av fyra svenska företag Hennes & Maurits, IKEA, Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget och Ångpanneföreningen, för att studera information på deras hemsidor. Jag väljer därför att göra en Foucauldiansk diskursanalys och tittar på hemsidor och rapporter för att se vad företagen skriver om CSR och hållbarhet. Resultaten visade att delade värderingar och synpunkter om CSR och hållbarhet med anställda och medarbetare är önskvärt för att kunna driva en verksamhet med ett trovärdigt varumärke och en välutvecklad CSR och hållbarhets filosofi. Jag resonerar kring hur företagens CSR och hållbarhets tänk kan kopplas till förtagens mål, individernas/medarbetarnas mål, värderingar och identitet. En ledande fråga och tema blir om företagens ansvarstagande gentemot sociala, lokala och globala frågor blir en del av föetagens identitet och rykte som därmed påverkar företagets position som arbetsgivare på arbetsmarknaden. I och med detta går det även att resonera kring medarbetarnas roll i företagets perspektiv på CSR och hållbarhet och hur viktig blir det för företaget att anställa personer med samma CSR-värderingar.

  • 241.
    Arvidsson, Malin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Jakobsson, Tobias
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Patientens upplevelser av intensivvårdsdelirium: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 242.
    Arwand, William
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Lindberg, Artin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Fyra väggar och ett tak: En allmän litteraturöversikt om isoleringsvård ur ett patientperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 243.
    Arwidson, Helena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Självständighet i dagliga aktiviteter: Äldres upplevelser av möjligheter och hinder2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The world's population is aging faster than ever and the number of elderly people over the age of 80 will triple in Europe over the next 50 years, while the proportion of people working in healthcare will decrease. Reablement is an interprofessional rehabilitation that aims to support the elderly for a more active everyday life. It is important to create conditions for the older person to continue to be as independent as possible. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe how older people experience opportunities and barriers to independence in activities of daily living. Method: The study was designed as a descriptive qualitative interview study. Analysis has been carried out with content analysis. Result: The elderly feel that their ability to be independent in activities of daily living is determined by psychological characteristics, physical discomfort, the influence of the environment and coping of the situation. All in all, it appears that society contains challenges for the elderly with disabilities, that lost independence is a long-term process and that it is important to have control over their own existence. Conclusions: The opportunities for older people to experience independence in activities of daily living are influenced by many factors. In order to provide good opportunities for the elderly to regain or maintain independence in activities of daily living, the healthcare needs to adopt a biopsychosocial perspective.

  • 244.
    Asenlof, Pemilla
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Igelstrom, Helena
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sandborgh, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Fritz, Johanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    INTEGRATION OF PHYSIOTHERAPY IN BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE INTERVENTION RESEARCH2018In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 25, no Suppl 1:1, p. S3-S3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 245. Asenlof, Pernilla
    et al.
    Denison, Eva
    Lindberg, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Long-term follow-up of tailored behavioural treatment and exercise based physical therapy in persistent musculoskeletal pain: A randomized controlled trial in primary care2009In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 1080-1088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined long-term effects of a tailored behavioural treatment protocol (TBT), as compared with an exercise based physical therapy protocol (EBT). One-hundred and twenty-two patients who, due to persistent musculoskeletal pain, consulted physical therapists in primary care were originally randomized to either of the two conditions. Follow-up assessments two-year post-treatment were completed by 65 participants. According to per-protocol analyses, short-term effects were maintained in both groups for the primary outcome, pain-related disability. The TBT-group reported lower disability levels compared with the EBT-group. Intention-to-treat analyses (ITT) conveyed similar results. Secondary outcomes of pain intensity, pain control, and functional self-efficacy were maintained over the 2-year post-treatment, but previous group differences were levelled out according to the most conservative method of ITT. Fear of movement/(re)injury increased in the EBT-group, and EBT participants reported higher fear of movement/(re)injury two years post-treatment compared to TBT. The study supports tailoring of treatments in concordance with patients' needs and preferences of activity goals and functional behavioural analyses including predictors of pain-related disability, for successful immediate outcomes and their maintenance in the long run. Exercise-based treatments resulted in somewhat smaller immediate treatment effects but had similar maintenance of effects over the 2-year follow-up period.

  • 246.
    Asenlöf, Pernilla
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Denison, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Lindberg, Per
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Individually tailored treatment targeting activity, motor behavior, and cognition reduces pain-related disability: a randomized controlled trial in patients with musculoskeletal pain.2005In: Journal of Pain, ISSN 1526-5900, E-ISSN 1528-8447, Vol. 6, no 9, p. 588-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the outcomes of an individually tailored behavioral medicine intervention (experimental) with physical exercise therapy (control). The experimental intervention was systematically individualized according to each participant's behavioral treatment goals and functional behavioral analyses. One hundred twenty-two patients seeking care at 3 primary health care clinics because of musculoskeletal pain were randomized. Ninety-seven completed the trial. Data were collected at baseline, immediately after treatment, and at a 3-month follow-up. Analyses of data from completers, as well as intention-to-treat analyses, showed that the experimental group experienced lower levels of disability (P = .01), lower maximum pain intensity (P = .02), higher levels of pain control (P = .001), and lower fear of movement (P = .022) as a result of treatment condition. Self-efficacy (P = .0001) and physical performance (P = .0001) increased over time for both groups. Participants in the experimental group generally reported more positive effects after treatment. Treatment fidelity was maintained during the course of the study. Activity can be resumed and pain might be managed by the patients themselves if treatment incorporates the biopsychosocial explanatory model of pain and strategies are tailored according to individual's priorities of everyday life activities and empirically derived determinants of pain-related disability. PERSPECTIVE: This study shows that the biomedical and the psychosocial perspectives of the experiences and consequences of pain complement rather than contradict each other. Primary health care patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain benefit more from a systematic tailoring of treatments according to biopsychosocial factors than from a physically based exercise intervention.

  • 247.
    Ask, Lina Schollin
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hjern, Anders
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindstrand, Ann
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olen, Ola
    Sjögren, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Blennow, Margareta
    Sachs Children & Youth Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ortqvist, Ake
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Receiving early information and trusting Swedish child health centre nurses increased parents' willingness to vaccinate against rotavirus infections2017In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, no 8, p. 1309-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Rotavirus vaccines are effective against severe infections, but have a modest impact on mortality in high-income countries. Parental knowledge and attitudes towards vaccines are crucial for high vaccination coverage. This study aimed to identify why parents refused to let their infant have the vaccination or were unsure. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on 1,063 questionnaires completed by the parents of newborn children in 2014. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify the main predictors. Results: Most (81%) parents intended to vaccinate their child against the rotavirus, while 19% were unwilling or uncertain. Parents with less education and children up to five weeks of age were more likely to be unwilling or uncertain about vaccinating their child. Factors associated with a refusal or uncertainty about vaccinating were not having enough information about the vaccine, no intention of accepting other vaccines, paying little heed to the child health nurses' recommendations, thinking that the rotavirus was not a serious illness and not believing that the vaccine provided protection against serious forms of gastroenteritis. Conclusion: Early information, extra information for parents with less education and close positive relationships between parents and child health nurses were important factors in high rotavirus vaccination rates.

  • 248.
    Askerlund, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Ikonen, Catrina
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Komplexa vårdsituationer på vårdcentral: Att balansera mellan det oförutsägbara och det förutsägbara2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Primary Healthcare Centers [PHC] represent the first healthcare contact that patients have, unless they are critically ill or their state is life-threathening. Distric nurse´s work in PHC requires preparedness to meet people in different ages and varying cultural and ethnical backgrounds. This preparedness includes an independent and person-centred workway. The study´s theoretical framework therefore proceeds from person-centred care. Challenging encounters occur in district nurse´s meetings with patients. The concept complex healthcare encounters exists in the competence description of the district nurses and in educational regulatory contexts. Despite of this, there is no general definition of the concept and what it is characterized by.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to describe district nurse´s experiences of complex healthcare encounters.

    Method: A qualitative, descriptive, inductive content analysis is used as the analysis method. Six focusgroup-interviews were contucted with nurses and districs nurses working in PHC.

    Results: District nurse´s experiences of complex healthcare encounters contains to balance unpredictable encounters with predictable organizational terms. This is described as: To meet people with varying lifesituations and To care professionally within organizational conditions.

    Conclusion: District nurses experience complex healthcare encounters characterized by the coexistence of unpredictable meetings with people and predictable organizational terms. By developing the knowledge about complex healthcare encounters, district nurses can streamline the care simultaneously as the mission of the district nurse can be explicated.

  • 249.
    Aslan, Nermin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hosseini, Farzaneh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    BARNMORSKANS ERFARENHET AV ATT BISTÅ NYANLÄNDA KVINNOR UNDER FÖRLOSSNINGEN: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 250.
    Asp, Angelica
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    De professionella själavårdarna: En kvalitativ studie av yrkesfunktion och psykiatriska yrkesstrategier inom sluten psykiatrisk tvångsvård2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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