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  • 201.
    Boberg-Fazlic, Nina
    et al.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Germany.
    Sandholt Jensen, Peter
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Lampe, Markus
    Vienna Univ Econ & Business, Austria.
    Sharp, Paul
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Skovsgaard, Christian Volmar
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    'Getting to Denmark': the role of agricultural elites for development2023In: Journal of economic growth (Boston), ISSN 1381-4338, E-ISSN 1573-7020, Vol. 28, p. 525-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the role of elites for development and the spread of industrialized dairying in Denmark in the 1880s. We demonstrate that the location of early proto-modern dairies, introduced by landowning elites from northern Germany in the eighteenth century, explains the location of industrialized dairying in 1890: an increase of one standard deviation in elite influence increases industrialized dairying by 56 percent of the mean exposure in one specification. We interpret this as evidence for a spread of ideas from the elites to the peasantry, which we capture through measures of specialization in dairying and demand for education and identify a causal relationship using an instrument based on distance to the influential first mover. Finally, we demonstrate that areas with cooperatives enjoyed greater wealth by the twentieth century, and that they are today associated with other Danish cultural attributes: a belief in democracy and individualism.

  • 202.
    Boinet, Alice
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Lyulieta, Shabani
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Gender Earnings Gap at Career Entry: Is there an earnings gap between men and women at labor market entry, for similarly highly educated individuals?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the gender earnings gap in Sweden at career entry, for individuals with comparable educational profile. There are many studies on this topic. Usually, researchers are focusing their attention on the evolution of this gap through individuals’ career. Our paper concentrates only on individual’s career entry, to exclude work experience as an explanatory factor. By studying six different educational fields we can have a precise image of the use of human ressources in the economy.An empirical analysis has been conducted using the method of OLS on a restricted data sample concerning graduates, having accomplished at least two years of university education. The result showed that, even at career entry, the raw gender earnings gap is of 20,2%. After controlling for fields of studies and occupations, the gap is reduced to 15,4%. This gap fluctuates among different fields of education, depending on the society’s perception of these fields. We distinguish male-dominated (i.e. Engineering and manufacturing), female-dominated (i.e. Teaching methods and teacher education) and gender-neutral (i.e. Social sciences, law, commerce and administration) educational fields. Our results depict some large gender earnings gap within male-dominated fields of study – women earn on average 20% less than their male counterparts when studying Engineering and manufacturing – and rather small ones within female-dominated and gender-neutral fields of study but due to statistical insignificance of the gender dummy coefficients we cannot make a conclusion concerning these fields.

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  • 203.
    Böckerman, Petri
    et al.
    Turku School of Economics, Finland;Labour Institute for Economic Research, Finland;IZA, Germany.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Uusitalo, Roope
    Jyväskylä University, Finland.
    Seniority rules, worker mobility and wages: evidence from multi-country linked employer-employee data2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct a multi-country employer-employee data to examine the consequences of employment protection. We identify the effects by comparing worker exit rates between units of the same firm that operate in two countries that have different seniority rules. The results show that last-in-first-out rules reduce dismissals of older, more senior workers, especially in shrinking multinational firms, and increase their bargaining power, resulting in a steeper seniority-wage profile.

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  • 204.
    Böckerman, Petri
    et al.
    Turku School of Economics, Finland;Labour Institute for Economic Research, Finland;IZA, Germany.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Uusitalo, Roope
    Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, Finland.
    Seniority rules, worker mobility and wages: evidence from multi-country linked employer-employee data2018In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 51, p. 48-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct multi-country employer-employee data to examine the consequences of last-in, first-out rules. We identify the effects by comparing worker exit rates between different units of the same firms operating in Sweden and Finland, two countries that have different seniority rules. We observe a relatively lower exit rate for more senior workers in Sweden in the shrinking firms and among the low-wage workers. These empirical patterns are consistent with last-in, first-out rules in Sweden providing protection from dismissals for the more senior workers among the worker groups to whom the rules are most relevant. Similarly, we observe a steeper seniority-wage profile in Sweden, suggesting that last-in, first-out rules may also be beneficial for more senior workers in terms of compensation.

  • 205.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Danielsson, Petter
    Ek, Simon
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Kolm, Ann-Sofie
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pekkarinen, Tuomas
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Hur ska fler komma in på arbetsmarknaden?2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det största problemet på den svenska arbetsmarknaden är hur lågutbildade, och då särskilt lågutbildade utrikes födda, ska komma i sysselsättning. Problemet har ställts på sin spets av den stora flyktinginvandringen. Centrala frågor för politiken är:

    • Vad kan skola och vuxenutbildning göra?
    • Vilken roll bör subventionerade anställningar spela?
    • Är visstidsanställningar en väg in på arbetsmarknaden eller en återvändsgränd?
    • Behövs nya typer av enkla, men också lägre betalda, jobb?

    Denna bok, skriven av sex arbetsmarknadsekonomer, analyserar frågorna och försöker utifrån forskningen ge svar på vilken politik som är lämpligast.

  • 206.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Ek, Simon
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Kolm, Ann-Sofie
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Pekkarinen, Tuomas
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Arbetsmarknadsekonomisk rapport: hur fungerar kollektivavtalen?2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur fungerar kollektivavtalen? från i februari i år inriktades på kollektivavtalens funktionssätt. Analysen fokuserade på hur avtalssystemet kan komma att påverkas av en minskad facklig organisationsgrad och studerade särskilt företagens inställning till kollektivavtalen. Med svagare fack blir det viktigare för kollektivavtalens fortlevnad att dessa upplevs som positiva av företagen.

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  • 207.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Ek, Simon
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Kolm, Ann-Sofie
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Pekkarinen, Tuomas
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Arbetsmarknadsekonomisk rapport: olika vägar till jobb2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den avslutande rapporten från rådet tar upp tre huvudfrågor: Håller traditionella heltidsanställningar som omfattas av kollektivavtal på att ersättas av mer ”flexibla” atypiska anställningar, vilket ofta hävdas i den allmänna debatten? Vad säger tidigare erfarenheter om i vilken utsträckning lågkvalificerade (”enkla”) jobb kan fungera som språngbrädor till mer kvalificerade och bättre betalda arbeten för dem som har svårt att ta sig in på arbetsmarknaden? Hur väl fungerar vuxenutbildning av olika slag för att förbättra arbetsmarknadsutfallen för utsatta grupper?

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  • 208.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Ek, Simon
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kolm, Ann-Sofie
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Kollektivavtal och lönebildning i en ny tid2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska arbetsmarknadsmodellen, med kollektivavtal mellan starka partsorganisationer på arbetsmarknaden, brukar ses en central förklaring till att Sverige kunnat kombinera hög levnadsstandard med jämn inkomstfördelning. Här analyserar fyra nationalekonomer hur väl den traditionella modellen förmår hantera de nya utmaningar den står inför. En minskande facklig organisationsgrad, särskilt på arbetarsidan, innebär att kollektivavtalen allt mer bärs upp av arbetsgivarorganisationerna. Även om de flesta företag har en positiv inställning till kollektivavtalen, verkar de inte se några stora fördelar med dem. Det innebär att kollektivavtalen står på en skakig grund om den fackliga organisationsgraden skulle fortsätta att minska. En annan utmaning är att anpassa kollektivavtalen till en ekonomi som blir mer uppdragsbaserad. Industriavtalet från 1997 etablerade principen att industrins villkor ska bestämma löneökningarna i hela ekonomin. Industrinormeringen bidrog till att bryta det tidigare mönstret med alldeles för höga löneökningar. Men idag är problemet snarare att löneökningarna är för låga. Lönenormeringen gör det också svårare att höja relativlönerna på områden med stor och växande arbetskraftsbrist, främst inom skola, vård och omsorg.

    Boken analyserar olika sätt att göra lönebildningen mer flexibel. Det kan betyda mer av sifferlösa avtal (som innebär att lönerna bestäms helt lokalt). Lönenormeringen kan också behöva ta större hänsyn också till andra delar av ekonomin än industrin och tillåta större möjligheter att avtala om relativlöneförändringar. Analysen utmanar den etablerade synen inom partsorganisationerna på hur lönebildningen bör fungera.

  • 209.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish Labour Policy Council (AER), Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden;Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kolm, Ann-Sofie
    Swedish Labour Policy Council (AER), Sweden;Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pekkarinen, Tuomas
    Swedish Labour Policy Council (AER), Sweden;VATT Institute for Economic Research, Finland;Aalto University School of Business, Finland.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Swedish Labour Policy Council (AER), Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Danielsson, Petter
    Swedish Labour Policy Council (AER), Sweden.
    ”Zettergrens analys är undermålig”2016In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-04-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    SLUTREPLIK. TCO:s chefsekonom Göran Zettergren ifrågasätter slutsatserna i vår rapport om den tyska arbetsmarknadsutvecklingen (DN Debatt 21/4). Han bygger sin argumentation på en egen rapport, men det är uppenbart att analysen i den inte håller, skriver Arbetsmarknadsekonomiska rådet.

  • 210.
    Calmfors, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish Labour Policy Council (AER), Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden;Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kolm, Ann-Sofie
    Swedish Labour Policy Council (AER), Sweden;Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pekkarinen, Tuomas
    Swedish Labour Policy Council (AER), Sweden;VATT Institute for Economic Research, Finland;Aalto University School of Business, Finland.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Swedish Labour Policy Council (AER), Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Danielsson, Petter
    Swedish Labour Policy Council (AER), Sweden.
    ”Ökad lönespridning sänkte den tyska arbetslösheten”2016In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-04-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ny utvärdering. Den tyska utvecklingen sedan millennieskiftet ger stöd för att lägre ingångslöner för nyinträdande på den svenska arbetsmarknaden bör leda till högre och jämnare fördelning av sysselsättningen. Men det kräver en vilja till radikalt omtänkande på den fackliga sidan, skriver Arbetsmarknadsekonomiska rådet.

  • 211.
    Carleklev, Stephanie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Design.
    Älvgren, Johan
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration.
    Idlinge, Björn
    Växjö Municipality, Sweden.
    Tomsmark, Lars
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Fem år med kursen Lärande för hållbar utveckling: erfarenheter och lärdomar2020In: Högre Utbildning, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 13-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kursen Lärande för hållbar utveckling som vi presenterar i denna artikel är en fortbildningskurs som vänder sig till högskole- och universitetslärare som vill integrera hållbar utveckling i sin undervisning. Målet med kursen är att stärka kompetenser för att undervisa om/i hållbar utveckling utan att vända sig till en specifik disciplin eller ämne. Istället ligger fokus på möten och samtal kring de globala hållbarhetsutmaningarna som i sig själva skär tvärs över ämnesgränser.

    Genom åren har kursen fått uppmärksamhet från olika håll och sedan den första kursomgången 2014 har ett flertal liknande kurser startats vid olika lärosäten i landet, inte sällan på initiativ av tidigare kursdeltagare. Totalt har mer än 50 deltagare genomgått kursen. Bland dem finns alla ämnen representerade och projektarbetena som genomförts på kursen visat på de omfattande och komplexa utmaningar vi står inför och vilka mångfacetterade insatser som behövs. Men det vi har upplevt som det viktigaste med kursen är att den ges till lärare inom alla ämnen och därmed möjliggör möten, kunskaps- och erfarenhetsutbyten över disciplingränserna, något som oftast är väldigt begränsat.

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  • 212.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Dahl, Gordon B.
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Backlash in attitudes after the election of extreme political parties2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Far-right and far-left parties by definition occupy the fringes of politics, with policy proposals outside the mainstream. This paper asks how public attitudes about such policies respond once an extreme party increases their political representation at the local level. We study attitudes towards the signature policies of two radical populist parties in Sweden, one from the right and one from the left, using panel data from 290 municipal election districts. To identify causal effects, we take advantage of large nonlinearities in the function which assigns council seats, comparing otherwise similar elections where a party either barely wins or loses an additional seat. We estimate that a one seat increase for the far-right, anti-immigration party decreases negative attitudes towards immigration by 4.1 percentage points, in opposition to the party’s policy position. Likewise, when a far-left, anti-capitalist party politician gets elected, support for a six hour workday falls by 2.7 percentage points. Mirroring these attitudinal changes, the far-right and far-left parties have no incumbency advantage in the next election. Exploring possible mechanisms, we find evidence that when the anti-immigrant party wins a marginal seat, they experience higher levels of politician turnover before the next election and receive negative coverage in local newspapers. These findings demonstrate that political representation can cause an attitudinal backlash as fringe parties and their ideas are placed under closer scrutiny.

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  • 213.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Dahl, Gordon B.
    University of California San Diego, USA;Norwegian School of Economics, Norway;NBER, USA;CESifo, Germany;CEPR, UK;IZA, Germany.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    IZA, Germany;Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Backlash in policy attitudes after the election of an extreme political party2021In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 204, article id 104533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how public attitudes towards reduced immigration, the signature policy of the far right Sweden Democrats, respond once the party increases their political representation at the local level. To identify causal effects, we use panel data from 290 municipal election districts and compare otherwise similar elections where the Sweden Democrats either barely win or lose an additional seat. We estimate that a one seat increase for this far-right, anti-immigration party decreases negative attitudes towards immigration by 1.8 or 4.1 percentage points (depending on which national survey we use), contrary to the party's policy position. Consistent with these attitudinal changes, we find suggestive evidence the Sweden Democrats lose the incumbency advantage experienced by other small parties in Sweden. Exploring possible mechanisms, we find evidence for higher politician turnover and a rise in negative newspaper coverage. These findings demonstrate that political representation can cause an attitudinal backlash as a fringe party and their ideas are placed under closer scrutiny.

  • 214.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Dahl, Gordon B.
    UC San Diego, USA.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Do politicians change public attitudes?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large theoretical and empirical literature explores whether politicians and political parties change their policy positions in response to voters’ preferences. This paper asks the opposite question: do political parties affect public attitudes on important policy issues? Problems of reverse causality and omitted variable bias make this a difficult question to answer empirically. We study attitudes towards nuclear energy and immigration in Sweden using panel data from 290 municipal election areas. To identify causal effects, we take advantage of large nonlinearities in the function which assigns council seats, comparing otherwise similar elections where one party either barely wins or loses an additional seat. We estimate that a one seat increase for the anti-nuclear party reduces support for nuclear energy in that municipality by 18%. In contrast, when an anti-immigration politician gets elected, negative attitudes towards immigration decrease by 7%, which is opposite the party’s policy position. Consistent with the estimated changes in attitudes, the anti-nuclear party receives more votes in the next election after gaining a seat, while the anti-immigrant party experiences no such incumbency advantage. The rise of the anti-immigration party is recent enough to permit an exploration of possible mechanisms using several ancillary data sources. We find causal evidence that gaining an extra seat draws in lower quality politicians, reduces negotiated refugee quotas, and increases negative newspaper coverage of the anti-immigrant party at the local level. Our finding that politicians can shape public attitudes has important implications for the theory and estimation of how voter preferences enter into electoral and political economy models. 

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  • 215.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Dahl, Gordon
    University of California at San Diego, USA.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Effect of Schooling on Cognitive Skills2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How schooling affects cognitive skills is a fundamental question forstudies of human capital and labor markets. While scores on cognitive ability testsare positively associated with schooling, it has proven difficult to ascertain whetherthis relationship is causal. Moreover, the effect of schooling is difficult to separate from the confounding factors of age at test date, relative age within a classroom, season of birth, and cohort effects. In this paper, we use a fundamentally different identification approach compared to the previous literature. We exploit conditionally random variation in the assigned test date for a battery of cognitive tests which almost all 18 year-old males were required to take in preparation for military servicein Sweden. Both age at test date and number of days spent in school vary randomly across individuals after flexibly controlling for date of birth, parish, and expected graduation date (the three variables the military conditioned on when assigningtest date). We find an extra 10 days of school instruction raises cognitive scoreson crystallized intelligence tests (synonym and technical comprehension tests) by approximately one percent of a standard deviation, whereas extra nonschool dayshave almost no effect. The benefit of additional school days is homogeneous, with similar effect sizes based on past grades in school, parental education, and father’s earnings. In contrast, test scores on fluid intelligence tests (spatial and logic tests) do not increase with additional days of schooling, but do increase modestly with age. We discuss the importance of these findings for questions about the malleability of cognitive skills in young adults, schooling models of signaling versus human capital ,the interpretation of test scores in wage regressions, and policies related to the length of the school year

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  • 216.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Dahl, Gordon
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Öckert, Björn
    Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Effect of Schooling on Cognitive Skills2015In: Review of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0034-6535, E-ISSN 1530-9142, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 533-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the causal effect of schooling on cognitive skills, we exploit conditionally random variation in the date Swedish males take a battery of cognitive tests in preparation for military service. We find an extra 10 days of school instruction raises scores on crystallized intelligence tests (synonym and technical comprehension tests) by approximately one percent of a standard deviation, whereas extra nonschool days have almost no effect. In contrast, test scores on fluid intelligence tests (spatial and logic tests) do not increase with additional days of schooling, but do increase modestly with age.

  • 217.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Age Discrimination in Hiring Decisions: Evidence from a Field Experiment in the Labor Market2019In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 59, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows the results of a field experiment in which over 6,000 fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about age (35-70 years) were sent to Swedish employers with vacancies in low- and medium-skilled occupations. We find that the callback rate begins to fall substantially for workers in their early 40s and becomes very low for workers close to the retirement age. The decline in callback rate by age is steeper for women than for men. Employer stereotypes about the ability to learn new tasks, flexibility, and ambition seem to be an important explanation for age discrimination.

  • 218.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Discrimination in the rental housing market for apartments2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrimination in the housing market may create large inefficiencies, but is difficult to measure. To circumvent the problems with unobserved heterogeneity, most recent studies use the correspondence testing approach (i.e. sending fictitious applications to landlords). In this study, we extend the existing methodology by (i) randomly assigning all relevant applicant characteristics to the applications, and (ii) carefully taking into account the interactions between applicant, landlord, apartment and regional characteristics. Then, we demonstrate how this approach can be implemented by considering how an applicant’s gender, ethnicity, age and employment status affect the probability of being invited to an apartment viewing in the Swedish housing market. Our results confirm the existence of widespread discrimination, but also show that the degree of this discrimination varies substantially with applicant, landlord, apartment and regional characteristics. This heterogeneity highlights the importance of using of using a broad approach when conducting correspondence studies.

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  • 219.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Discrimination in the rental market for apartments2014In: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 23, p. 41-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrimination in the housing market may create large economic inefficiencies and unfair individual outcomes, but is very difficult to measure. To circumvent the problems with unobserved heterogeneity, most recent studies use the correspondence testing approach (i.e. sending fictitious inquiries to landlords). In this study, we generalize the existing methodology in order to facilitate a test of to what extent the measured degree of discrimination depends on applicant, landlord/apartment, and regional characteristics. To show how this more general methodology can be implemented, we investigate the effects of gender, ethnicity, age, and employment status in the Swedish rental market for apartments. Our results confirm the existence of widespread discrimination against some of the groups, but also show that the degree of discrimination varies substantially with landlord, apartment, and regional characteristics. This heterogeneity highlights the importance of using a broad approach when conducting correspondence studies. Our results also allow us to interpret the nature of discrimination and how it relates to segregation and geographical sorting. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 220.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Do attitudes expressed in surveys predict ethnic discrimination?2017In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 1739-1757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Survey data on people’s reported attitudes towards ethnic minorities are sometimes used as a proxy for ethnic discrimination. However, there is weak empirical evidence of a link between reported attitudes and discrimination. In this article, we use survey data on people’s attitudes towards ethnic minorities combined with a direct measure of ethnic discrimination from a field experiment in the Swedish housing market to re-examine this policy-relevant issue. We find clear evidence of a link between reported attitudes towards ethnic minorities and the extent of ethnic discrimination: in regions where attitudes are more negative, there is more discrimination, and vice versa. Thus, in contrast to most prior studies, our results suggest that reported attitudes may be a useful predictor of ethnic discrimination.

  • 221.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Do employers avoid hiring workers from poor neighborhoods?: Experimental evidence from the real labor market2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 125, no 2, p. 376-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate if employers avoid hiring workers living in neighborhoods with low socioeconomic status and/or with long commuting times. In a large-scale field experiment in the Swedish labor market, we sent more than 4,000 fictitious resumes, with randomly assigned information about the applicants’ residential locations, to firms with advertised vacancies. Our findings show that commuting time has a negative effect on the likelihood of being contacted by an employer, while the socioeconomic status of a neighborhood does not appear to be important. These results offer guidance for policymakers responsible for reversing segregation patterns.

  • 222.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in the London market for shared accommodation2013In: 28th annual congress of the European Economic Association, Gothenburg, August 26-30, 2013, European Economic Association & Econometric , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding housing in London is a major challenge for most people. Therefore, it has become increasingly common to share an apartment or a house with others. For people with limited financial resources, such as students and even young professionals, this is often one of the few viable types of housing available. Shared accommodation clearly has the potential to mitigate some of the negative consequences that the housing shortage has created. However, studies of housing markets in other countries suggest that ethnic discrimination is common and, thus, a policy-relevant question for London is if shared accommodation is equally available to everyone. In this paper, we study discrimination in the market for shared accommodation against four of the most important ethnic minorities in London: People with Eastern European, Indian, Black African and Arabic backgrounds. To this end, we conducted a field experiment where we e-mailed applications, with a randomly assigned name signalling ethnicity, to more than 5,000 people advertising shared accommodations all over London. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread against all the ethnic minorities that we consider: The situation is worst for applicants with an Arabic or Black African background, while applicants with an Eastern European background are least affected and applicants with an Indian background are found somewhere inbetween. Moreover, our results suggest that ethnic discrimination may reinforce the ethnic concentration in London, where ethnic minorities tend to live in certain areas and often separated from the ethnic majority. Finally, our results indicate that – at least a portion of – the discrimination that we find is statistical discrimination. 

  • 223.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in the London market for shared housing2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding housing in London is a major challenge for many people. Therefore, it has become increasingly common to share an apartment or a house with others. Shared accommodation clearly has the potential to mitigate some of the negative consequences that the housing shortage has created. However, studies of housing markets in other countries suggest that ethnic discrimination is common and, thus, a policy-relevant question is if shared accommodation is equally available to everyone. In this paper, we study discrimination in the market for shared accommodation against four of the most important ethnic minorities in London: people with Eastern European, Indian, Black African and Arabic backgrounds. To this end, we conducted a field experiment where we e-mailed applications, with a randomly assigned name signalling ethnicity, to more than 5,000 room advertisers. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread against all the ethnic minorities that we consider: The situation is worst for applicants with an Arabic background, while applicants with an Eastern European background are least affected and applicants with a Black African or Indian background are found somewhere in-between. Moreover, our results suggest that ethnic discrimination may reinforce the ethnic concentration in London, where ethnic minorities tend to live in certain areas and often separated from the ethnic majority. Finally, our results indicate that – at least a portion of – the discrimination that we find is statistical discrimination.

  • 224.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in the London market for shared housing2015In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1276-1301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-documented that there exists ethnic discrimination in the regular housing market in European and US cities. However, the existing literature has so far neglected the informal market for shared housing. We use a field experiment to investigate ethnic discrimination in this market. We sent fictitious inquiries with a randomly assigned name signaling a British, Eastern-European, Indian, African, or Arabic/Muslim background to more than 5,000 room advertisers in the Greater London Area. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread. We also find that the degree of discrimination depends on the applicant’s occupation and the ethnic residential concentration.

  • 225.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic Discrimination in the Market for Shared Housing2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In major international cities, the difficulty of finding affordable housing has often resulted in an increased demand for shared housing, i.e. sharing an apartment/house with others. However, a policy-relevant question is if this very informal market is equally available to everyone regardless of ethnic background. To investigate this, we conduct a field experiment in the London market for shared housing. In the experiment, we send fictitious applications, with a randomly assigned name signalling a British, Eastern-European, Indian, African or Arabic background, to more than 5,000 room advertisers. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread. The situation is worst for applicants with an Arabic name, while applicants with an Eastern-European name are least affected and applicants with an African or Indian name are found somewhere in-between. Moreover, the results indicate that a substantial fraction of these differences reflects statistical discrimination. Finally, we find that the degree of discrimination varies with the ethnic residential concentration. This suggests that discrimination contributes to maintaining the current situation in London, where ethnic minorities tend to live in certain areas and often separated from the ethnic majority.

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  • 226.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    In-group gender bias in hiring: real-world evidence2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate in-group gender bias in real-world hiring decisions by combining administrative data with data from a large-scale field experiment on hiring in which fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about gender were sent to Swedish employers. Our results suggest that women (female recruiters or firms with a high share of female employees) favor women in the recruitment process. In contrast, we do not find much evidence that men (male recruiters or firms with a high share of male employees) favor men.

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  • 227.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    In-group gender bias in hiring: real-world evidence2019In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 185, p. 1-3, article id 108686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate in-group gender bias in real-world hiring decisions by combining administrative data with data from a large-scale field experiment on hiring in which fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about gender were sent to Swedish employers. Our results suggest that women (female recruiters or firms with a high share of female employees) favor women in the recruitment process. In contrast, we do not find much evidence that men (male recruiters or firms with a high share of male employees) favor men.

  • 228.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The effect of age and gender on labor demand: evidence from a field experiment2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In most countries, there are systematic age and gender differences in labor market outcomes. Older workers and women often have lower employment rates, and the duration of unemployment increases with age. These patterns may reflect age and gender differences in either labor demand (i.e. discrimination) or labor supply. In this study, we investigate the importance of demand effects by analyzing whether employers use information about a job applicant’s age and gender in their hiring decisions. To do this, we conducted a field experiment, where over 6,000 fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about age (in the interval 35-70) and gender were sent to employers with a vacancy and the employers’ responses (callbacks) were recorded. We find that the callback rate starts to fall substantially early in the age interval we consider. This decline is steeper for women than for men. The negative age effect prevails in all seven occupations we include. These results indicate that age discrimination is a widespread phenomenon affecting workers already in their early 40s. Ageism and occupational skill loss due to aging are unlikely explanations of these effects. Instead, our employer survey suggests that employer stereotypes about other worker characteristics – ability to learn new tasks, flexibility/adaptability, and ambition – are important. We find no evidence of gender discrimination against women on average, but the gender effect is heterogeneous across occupations and firms. Women have a higher callback rate in female-dominated occupations and firms, and when the recruiter is a woman. These results suggest that an in-group bias affects hiring patterns, which may reinforce the existing gender segregation in the labor market.

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  • 229.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Job search methods and wages: are natives and immigrants different?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences in job search behaviour and access to high quality informal networks may be an important reason why immigrants fare worse than natives in many European labour markets. In this study, we design and conduct a survey of newly hired workers in the Swedish labour market to analyse if there are ethnic differences in the choice of search intensity/methods and in the successful search method for finding the job. We also investigate if the wage and other characteristics of the new job differ depending on the search method resulting in a job. Our data includes very detailed information about the workers’ job search, their informal networks, and the characteristics of their new jobs.We find that immigrants use all search methods more than natives, but that they inparticular rely more on informal search. Moreover, we show that, for immigrants, the search method resulting in a job is more likely to be informal search through their relatives and friends. However, we also find that jobs obtained through this search channel are associated with lower wages.

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  • 230.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Job search methods and wages: are natives and immigrants different?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many European labour markets, workers born outside Europe are less successful than natives. A potential explanation for these differences is ethnic differences in job search behaviour and access to high-quality informal networks, but a lack of appropriate data makes it difficult to investigate the importance of this explanation. In this study, we use data from a survey conducted in the Swedish labour market to analyze if there are ethnic differences in the choice of search intensity/methods and in the search method that resulted in a job (the successful search method). Moreover, we investigate if the wage and other characteristics of the new job differ depending on the successful search method. Our data includes detailed information about the workers’ job search and the characteristics of the new job. We find that immigrants use all search methods more intensely than natives, but that they in particular rely more on informal search methods. Moreover, we find that, for immigrants, the successful search method is more likely to be informal search through relatives and friends. However, we also find that jobs found through this search channel are associated with lower wages. One interpretation of these results is that that immigrants perceive their chance of finding a job as so low that they are willing to accept low-paying jobs obtained through their family and friends.

  • 231.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Language Proficiency and Hiring of Immigrants: Evidence from a New Field Experimental Approach2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Labor markets in advanced economies have undergone substantial change in recentdecades due to globalization, technological improvements, and organizational changes. Due tothese developments, oral and written language skills have become increasingly important evenin less skilled jobs. Immigrants – who often have limited skills in the host country languageupon arrival – are likely to be particularly affected by the increase in language requirements.Despite this increase in literacy requirements, little is known about how immigrants’ languageproficiency is rewarded in the labor market. However, estimating the causal effect ofimmigrants’ language skills on hiring is challenging due to potential biases caused by omittedvariables, reverse causality, and measurement error.To address identification problems, we conduct a large-scale field experiment, where wesend thousands of fictitious resumes to employers with a job opening. With the help of aprofessional linguist, we manipulate the cover letters by introducing common second-languagefeatures, which makes the resumes reflect variation in the language skills of real-worldmigrants. Our findings show that better language proficiency in the cover letter has a strongpositive effect on the callback rate for a job interview: moving from the lowest level of languageproficiency to a level similar to natives almost doubles the callback rate. Consistent with therecent development that language proficiency is also important for many low- and mediumskilledjobs, the effect of better language skills does not vary across the vastly different typesof occupations we study. Finally, the results from employer surveys suggest that it is improvedlanguage skills per se that is the dominant explanation behind the language proficiency effect,rather than language skills acting as a proxy for other unobserved abilities or characteristics.

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  • 232.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Finseraas, Henning
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Midtbøen, Arnfinn H.
    Institute for Social Research, Norway.
    Rafnsdóttir, Guðbjörg Linda
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Gender Bias in Academic Recruitment?: Evidence from a Survey Experiment in the Nordic Region2021In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 399-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender disparities in top-level academic positions are persistent. However, whether bias in recruitment plays a role in producing these disparities remains unclear. This study examines the role of biasin academic recruitment by conducting a large-scale survey experiment among faculty in Economics,Law, Physics, Political Science, Psychology, and Sociology from universities in Iceland, Norway, andSweden. The faculty respondents rated CVs of hypothetical candidates—who were randomlyassigned either a male or a female name—for a permanent position as an Associate Professor in theirdiscipline. The results show that, despite the underrepresentation of women in all fields, the femalecandidates were viewed as both more competent and more hireable compared to their malecounterparts. Having children or a stronger CV do not change the overall result. Consequently, biasedevaluations of equally qualified candidates to Associate Professor positions do not seem to be the keyexplanation of the persistent gender gap in academia in the Nordic region.

  • 233.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Finseraas, Henning
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Midtbøen, Arnfinn Haagensen
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Are Politicians Biased Against Ethnic Minority Candidates?: Experimental Evidence from Norway2024In: Journal of Politics, ISSN 0022-3816, E-ISSN 1468-2508, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 126-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent is the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in politics due to ethnic bias? While this question has interested researchers for a long time, direct evidence of ethnic bias in party-controlled nomination processes is scarce. We conducted survey experiments with politicians and voters in Norway, where parties control the nomination process, to examine bias against ethnic minority candidates. The politicians evaluated candidate profiles with randomly assigned information about the candidates’ ethnic backgrounds. Contrary to our expectations, we find that ethnic minority candidates receive higher quality scores and better rankings than ethnic majority candidates. However, the results of a list experiment with voters show that a substantial share of right-wing voters has reservations against voting for a party list with many ethnic minority candidates. Consequently, our study suggests that while the political elite wants ethnically diverse party lists, for some parties, such lists might have an electoral cost.

  • 234.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Artifactual evidence of discrimination in correspondence studies?: A replication of the Neumark method2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The advocates of correspondence testing (CT) argue that it provide the most clear and convincing evidence of discrimination. The common view is that the standard CT can identify what is typically defined as discrimination in a legal sense – what we label total discrimination in the current study –, although it cannot separate between preferences and statistical discrimination. However, Heckman and Siegelman (1993) convincingly show that audit and correspondence studies can obtain biased estimates of total discrimination – in any direction – if employers evaluate applications according to some threshold level of productivity. This issue has essentially been ignored in the empirical literature on CT experiments until the appearance of the methodology proposed by Neumark (2012). He shows that with the right data and an identifying assumption, with testable predictions, this method can identify total discrimination. In the current paper we use this new method to reexamine a number of already published correspondence studies to investigate if their estimate of total discrimination is affected by group differences in variances of unobservable characteristics. We also aim at improving the general understanding of to what extent the standardization level of job applications is an issue in empirical work. We find that the standardization level of the job applications being set by the experimenter appear to be a general issue in correspondence studies which must be taken seriously

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  • 235.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Does labor market tightness affect ethnic discrimination in hiring?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate whether ethnic discrimination depends on labor market tightness. While ranking models predict a negative relationship, the prediction of screening models is ambiguous about the direction of the relationship. Thus, the direction of the relationship is purely an empirical issue. We utilize three (but combine into two) correspondence studies of the Swedish labor market and two distinctly different measures of labor market tightness. These different measures produce very similar results, showing that a one percent increase in labor market tightness increases ethnic discrimination in hiring by 0.5- 0.7 percent, which is consistent with a screening model. This result stands in sharp contrast to the only previous study on this matter, Baert et al. (forthcoming), which finds evidence that supports a ranking model.

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  • 236.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). IZA.
    Does the design of correspondence studies influence the measurement of discrimination?2014In: IZA Journal of Migration, E-ISSN 2193-9039, Vol. 3, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correspondence studies can identify the extent of discrimination in hiring as typically defined by the law, which includes discrimination against ethnic minorities and females. However, as Heckman and Siegelman (1993) show, if employers act upon a group difference in the variance of unobserved variables, this measure of discrimination may not be very informative. This issue has essentially been ignored in the empirical literature until the recent methodological development by Neumark (2012). We apply Neumark’s method to a number of already published correspondence studies. We find the Heckman and Siegelman critique relevant for empirical work and give suggestions on how future correspondence studies may address this critique.

  • 237.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ethnic discrimination in hiring, labour market tightness and the business cycle: evidence from field experiments2018In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 50, no 24, p. 2652-2663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies using observational data suggest that ethnic discrimination increases in downturns of the economy. We investigate whether ethnic discrimination depends on labour market tightness using data from correspondence studies. We utilize three correspondence studies of the Swedish labour market and two different measures of labour market tightness. These two measures produce qualitatively similar results, and, opposite to the observational studies, suggest that ethnic discrimination in hiring decreases in downturns of the economy.

  • 238.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz Abrar
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Sweden.
    Coworker Peer Effects on Parental Leave Take-up2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 930-957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates coworker peer effects in parental leave usage in Sweden. Weuse an instrumental variable approach labeled peers of peers in which parental leave usage byfamily peers (siblings and cousins) of coworkers is used as an instrument for coworkers’parental leave usage. For fathers, we find that a 10-day increase in average parental leave usageamong coworkers increases usage by approximately one and a half days, while for mothers,the increase is approximately one day. The results are robust to alternative model specifications.We explore possible mechanisms and discuss policy implications.

  • 239.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. IZA;CReAM.
    Explaining the gender wage gap among recent college graduates: pre-labour market factors or empolyer discrimination?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the gender wage gap upon labor market entry among recent college graduates in Sweden and find a raw male-female wage gap of 12 percent. After adding controls for pre-labor market factors, only a gap of approximately 2.9 percent remains. Hence, pre-labor market factors, and especially the type of college major, explain the bulk of the initial gender wage gap, and there is little that can be attributed to employer discrimination. However, given the high minimum wages in the Swedish labor market discrimination may not be apparent in wages. Instead, employers may discriminate against women in hiring. Using data from a hiring experiment, we do not find any evidence of this. On the contrary, female job applicants tend to be preferred over male job applicants.

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  • 240.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: evidence from a field experiment2018In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 534-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    We investigate whether there is unequal treatment in hiring depending on whether a job applicant signals living in a bad (deprived) neighborhood or in a good (affluent) neighborhood.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We conducted a field experiment where fictitious job applications were sent to employers with an advertised vacancy. Each job application was randomly assigned a residential address in either a bad or a good neighborhood. The measured outcome is the fraction of invitations for a job interview (the callback rate).

    Findings

    We find no evidence of general neighborhood signaling effects. However, job applicants with a foreign background have callback rates that are 42 percent lower if they signal living in a bad neighborhood rather than in a good neighborhood. In addition, we find that applicants with commuting times longer than 90 minutes have lower callback rates, and this is unrelated to the neighborhood signaling effect.

    Originality/value

    Empirical evidence of causal neighborhood effects on labor market outcomes is scant, and causal evidence on the mechanisms involved is even more scant. We provide such evidence.

  • 241.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: evidence from a field experiment2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of whether and how living in a deprived neighborhood affects the labormarket outcomes of its residents has been a subject of great interest for both policy makers andresearchers. Despite this interest, empirical evidence of causal neighborhood effects on labormarket outcomes is scant, and causal evidence on the mechanisms involved is even more scant.The mechanism that this study investigates is neighborhood signaling effects. Specifically, weask whether there is unequal treatment in hiring depending on whether a job applicant signalsliving in a bad (deprived) neighborhood or in a good (affluent) neighborhood. To this end, weconducted a field experiment where fictitious job applications were sent to employers with anadvertised vacancy. Each job application was randomly assigned a residential address in either abad or a good neighborhood. The measured outcome is the fraction of invitations for a jobinterview (the callback rate). We find no evidence of general neighborhood signaling effects.However, job applicants with a foreign background have callback rates that are 42 percent lowerif they signal living in a bad neighborhood rather than in a good neighborhood. In addition, wefind that applicants with commuting times longer than 90 minutes have lower callback rates, andthis is unrelated to the neighborhood signaling effect. Apparently, employers view informationabout residential addresses as important for employment decisions.

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  • 242.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Employer Attitudes, the Marginal Employer, and the Ethnic Wage Gap2016In: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 227-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most EU countries, ethnic minorities have lower wages than does the ethnic majority. To what extent these wage gaps are the result of prejudice toward ethnic minority workers is virtually unknown. The authors examine the role that prejudice plays in the creation of the ethnic wage gap in one of Europe’s most egalitarian countries, Sweden. The analysis takes into account the important distinction between average employer attitudes and the attitude of the marginal employer (the attitude of the most prejudiced employer hiring the ethnic minority). Results confirm that the attitudes of the marginal employer—but not those of the average employer—are important for explaining the ethnic wage gap.

  • 243.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. IZA;CReAM.
    What can we learn from correspondence testing studies?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Antidiscrimination policies play an important role in public discussions. However, identifying discriminatory practices in the labor market is not an easy task. Correspondence testing provides a credible way to reveal discrimination in hiring and provide hard facts for policies. What is this instrument? What does it show and how reliable is it? Should it be widely used for policymaking? Answers to these questions are provided

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  • 244.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Stefan, Eriksson
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Job search methods and wages: are natives and immigrants different?2018In: Manchester School, ISSN 1463-6786, E-ISSN 1467-9957, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 219-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conduct a survey of newly hired workers in the Swedish labour market to analyse if there are differences between natives and immigrants in the choice of search intensity/methods and in the search method getting the job. We further investigate if the wage and other characteristics of the new job differ depending on the successful search method. We find that immigrants use all search methods more than natives, but they especially rely on informal search. Immigrants are more likely than natives to find a job using informal search through friends and relatives, and these jobs are associated with lower wages.

  • 245.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Backlash and hiring: A field experiment on agency, communion, and gender2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender stereotypes describe women as communal and men asagentic. Laboratory based research (Rudman & Glick 1999; 2001)suggests that trying to disconfirm such descriptive genderstereotypes (e.g., women self-promoting their agency), entails therisk of hiring discrimination due to violation of prescriptive genderstereotypes: a backlash. To examine whether backlash occurs whenapplying for real jobs, we conducted a field experiment. Gender,agency and communion were manipulated in the personal profile of5,562 applications sent to 3,342 job openings on the Swedish labormarket. The dependent variable was whether the applicationresulted in an invitation to a job interview or not. The results do notoffer any support for the backlash hypothesis at this stage in therecruitment process.

  • 246.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Testing for Backlash in Hiring: A Field Experiment on Agency, Communion, and Gender2014In: Journal of Personnel Psychology, ISSN 1866-5888, E-ISSN 2190-5150, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 204-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender stereotypes describe women as communal and men as agentic. Laboratory based research (Rudman & Glick 1999; 2001) suggests that trying to disconfirm such descriptive gender stereotypes (e.g., women self-promoting their agency), entails the risk of hiring discrimination due to violation of prescriptive gender stereotypes: a backlash. To examine whether backlash occurs when applying for real jobs, we conducted a field experiment. Gender, agency and communion were manipulated in the personal profile of 5,562 applications sent to 3,342 job openings on the Swedish labor market. The dependent variable was whether the application resulted in an invitation to a job interview or not. The results do not offer any support for the backlash hypothesis at this stage in the recruitment process.

  • 247.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Testing for backlash in hiring: A field experiment on agency, communion,and gender2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that women (men) who appear agentic (communal) when applying for jobs suffer a backlash in the form of reduced chances of being hired. However, the evidence of backlash is mainly restricted to simulated hiring decisions with undergraduates as participants. To examine whether backlash occurs when men and women apply for real jobs in the labor market, we conducted a field experiment. Gender, agentic and communal traits were manipulated in the applications. Whether or not the applications resulted in a job interview invitation constituted the dependent variable. We find no evidence of backlash, suggesting that women are not punished for presenting themselves as agentic in their job applications, nor are men punished for appearing communal.

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    fulltext
  • 248.
    Chantrel, Pauline
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Fourcade, Agathe
    Is there a difference between the Olympic Games and the Paralympic Games in their impact on inbound tourism?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the difference in number of tourist arrivals between the Olympic games and the Paralympic games in the hosting countries. Using the difference-in-differences method, results show that there is a difference in the number of tourist arrivals between the summer games and winter games, and that hosting the games have a bigger impact on smaller city than on bigger one. They also show that since Vancouver 2010 the Olympic games always attracted more tourists than the Paralympic games. The main conclusion of this paper is that there is definitely a difference in the tourist inflow between the Olympic games and Paralympic games and that the Olympic games attract more tourists than the Paralympic games.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 249.
    Chaudry, Komal
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    The Role of Social Entrepreneurship in Promoting Sustainable Development and Addressing Environmental Challenges2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research focuses on how social entrepreneurs may help solve environmental problems and further sustainable development. It uses a quantitative method of analysis through a survey given to business majors in higher education. This study delves into the connection between social entrepreneurship and sustainable development by examining descriptive statistics like mean and standard deviation and using a t-test to determine statistical significance. Climate change, environmental deterioration, and resource depletion are just a few worldwide problems recognized as critical in this study. The concept of "social entrepreneurship," which merges business practices with an emphasis on doing good for society and the environment, has received much attention as a possible solution to these problems. Learning how social entrepreneurship may help with environmental issues and further sustainable development is important. This survey aims to learn how college business majors feel about the importance of social entrepreneurship to environmental protection and sustainability. Descriptive statistics will be used to analyze the survey results and learn about the median and range of replies. In addition, a t-test will be run to determine whether or not there are statistically significant differences between the groups of participants, expanding our knowledge of the elements that contribute to the success of socially entrepreneurial initiatives in resolving environmental issues.

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    fulltext
  • 250.
    Check, Tifuh Regine
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Globaliation and Female Labor Force Participation: The case of Sub-Saharan Africa2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Female labor force participation is an essential factor for the economic andsocio-economic development of nations. Closing gender gaps on the Africanlabor market is thus not just a fairness issue, it is good economics. This thesisuses panel data of 35 Sub-Saharan Africa countries over the period 1995-to2019, to analyse the nexus between globalization and female labor forceparticipation (FLFP). The investigation is done at the level of the economy asa whole, and then across three economic sectors; agriculture, manufacturingand service. To depart from existing literature, FLFP is operationalized in thisstudy as relative (to males) labor force participation and relative employmentacross sectors. The empirical evidence provided is based on fixed effectregressions, which provide close to zero effects systematically. These resultsprove a weak relationship suggesting a weak correlation between allglobalization dynamics and FLFP in Sub-Saharan Africa. These findings arebroadly consistent with the minority strand of the literature supporting theinsignificance and/or negative insignificance of globalization on FLFP andrelative employment outcomes. It thus brings a new perspective to theliterature, wherein positive effects have been found on the relationshipbetween globalization and FLFP..

    I try to argue the possible reasons for these findings. Policy implications arediscussed with an emphasis on how to promote women’s participation on thelabor market. Particularly, feasible policies which could absorb women intothe formal economic sectors. 

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    fulltext
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