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  • 201.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Cabrera, D.
    Davis, P.
    Self-to-other ratios measured in an opera chorus in performance2005In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 3903-3911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four volunteer members of the chorus of Opera Australia, representing four different voice categories, wore binaural pairs of wireless microphones during a penultimate dress rehearsal on the Opera Theater stage of the Sydney Opera House. From the recordings, data were obtained oil sound levels and on the self-to-other ratios (SORs). The sound levels were comparable to those found in loud music in chamber choir performance. The average SOR ranged from +10 to +15 dB. Compared to chamber choirs in other types of room, the SOR values were high. On a separate occasion, the stage support parameters ST1 (early reflections) and ST2 (late reflections) were measured over the whole stage area. STI was about -16 dB, which is typical for opera stages, and -20 dB for ST2, which is unusually low. It is concluded that the SOR in the opera chorus depends mostly on choir formation, which is highly variable, and that an opera chorus artist generally can hear his or her own voice very well, but little of the others and of the orchestra. This was confirmed by informal listening to the recordings.

  • 202.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Intonation precision of choir singers1988In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 203. Titze, Ingo R.
    et al.
    Baken, Ronald J.
    Bozeman, Kenneth W.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Basic science.
    Henrich, Nathalie
    Herbst, Christian T.
    Howard, David M.
    Hunter, Eric J.
    Kaelin, Dean
    Kent, Raymond D.
    Kreiman, Jody
    Kob, Malte
    Loefqvist, Anders
    McCoy, Scott
    Miller, Donald G.
    Noe, Hubert
    Scherer, Ronald C.
    Smith, John R.
    Story, Brad H.
    Svec, Jan G.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Wolfe, Joe
    Toward a consensus on symbolic notation of harmonics, resonances, and formants in vocalization2015In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 137, no 5, p. 3005-3007Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Tove, PA
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Ejdesjö, Lars
    Svärdström, Anders
    Frequency and time analysis of polyphonic music1967In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 249-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Tove, PA
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Norman, Bjarne
    Isaksson, L
    Czekajewski, J
    Direct-recording frequency and amplitude meter for analysis of musical and other sonic waveforms1966In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 362-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Analytical expressions for the tonotopic sensory scale1990In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 97-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accuracy and simplicity of analytical expressions for the relations between frequency and critical bandwidth as well as critical-band rate (in Bark) are assessed for the purpose of applications in speech perception research and in speech technology. The equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB) is seen as a measure of frequency resolution, while the classical critical-band rate is considered a measure of tonotopic position. For the conversion of frequency to critical-band rate, and vice versa, the inversible formula z=[26.81/(1+1960/f )]–0.53 is proposed. Within the frequency range of the perceptually essential vowel formants (0.2–6.7 kHz), it agrees to within ±0.05 Bark with the Bark scale, originally published in the form of a table.

  • 207.
    Van der Kelen, Christophe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Numerical acoustics.
    Identification of the full anisotropic flow resistivity tensor for multiple glass wool and melamine foam samples2013In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 134, no 6, p. 4659-4669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow resistivity tensor, which is the inverse of the viscous permeability tensor, is one of the most important material properties for the acoustic performance of porous materials used in acoustic treatments. Due to the manufacturing processes involved, these porous materials are most often geometrically anisotropic on a microscopic scale, and for demanding applications, there is a need for improved characterization methods. This paper discusses recent refinements of a method for the identification of the anisotropic flow resistivity tensor. The inverse estimation is verified for three fictitious materials with different degrees of anisotropy. Measurements are performed on nine glass wool samples and seven melamine foam samples, and the anisotropic flow resistivity tensors obtained are validated by comparison to measurements performed on uni-directional cylindrical samples, extracted from the same, previously measured cubic samples. The variability of flow resistivity in the batch of material from which the glass wool is extracted is discussed. The results for the melamine foam suggest that there is a relation between the direction of highest flow resistivity, and the rise direction of the material.

  • 208. van Kempen, Elise E.M.M.
    et al.
    Van Kamp, Irene
    Stellato, Rebecca K.
    Lopez-Barrio, Isabel
    Haines, Mary M.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Clark, Charlotte
    Houthuijs, Danny
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Berglund, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stansfeld, Stephen A.
    Children's annoyance reactions to aircraft and road traffic noise2009In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 125, no 2, p. 895-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since annoyance reactions of children to environmental noise have rarely been investigated, no source specific exposure-response relations are available. The aim of this paper is to investigate children’s reactions to aircraft and road traffic noise and to derive exposure-response relations. To this end, children’s annoyance reactions to aircraft and road traffic noise in both the home and the school setting were investigated using the data gathered in a cross-sectional multicenter study, carried out among 2844 children age 9–11 years attending 89 primary schools around three European airports. An exposure-response relation was demonstrated between exposure to aircraft noise at school LAeq, 7–23 h and severe annoyance in children: after adjustment for confounders, the percentage severely annoyed children was predicted to increase from about 5.1% at 50 dB to about 12.1% at 60 dB. The findings were consistent across the three samples. Aircraft noise at home LAeq,7–23 h demonstrated a similar relation with severe annoyance. Children attending schools with higher road traffic noise LAeq,7–23 h were more annoyed. Although children were less annoyed at levels above 55 dB, the shapes of the exposure-response relations found among children were comparable to those found in their parents.

  • 209. van Kempen, Elise
    et al.
    van Kamp, Irene
    Nilsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lammers, Jan
    Emmen, Harry
    Clark, Charlotte
    Stansfeld, Stephen A.
    The role of annoyance in the relation between transportation noise and children's health and cognition2010In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 128, no 5, p. 2817-2828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Onthe basis of this study it cannot be ruled outthat the appraisal of the noise affects the association betweenair and road traffic noise exposure and children's health andcognition. However, the conclusion is limited due to the relativelysmall group of annoyed children, which may have influenced ourgroup comparisons. Furthermore, the observed relation between annoyance and perceivedhealth is possibly biased due to the fact that bothwere measured within the same questionnaire. These are the mainconclusions of a cross-sectional multi-center study carried out among 2,844schoolchildren (age 9–11 years) attending 89 primary schools around threeEuropean airports. The aim was to investigate how annoyance affectsthe relation between air and road traffic noise exposure andchildren's health and cognition. Different, sometimes competing, working mechanisms ofhow noise affects children's health are suggested. Some effects aresupposed to be precipitated through (chronic) stress, while others mayarise directly. There is still no theory that can adequatelyaccount for the circumstances in which noise will affect cognitiveperformance.

  • 210.
    Wang, DeLiang
    et al.
    Ohio State University, USA.
    Kjems, Ulrik
    Oticon A/S, Smørum, Denmark .
    Pedersen, Michael S
    Oticon A/S, Smørum, Denmark .
    Boldt, Jesper B
    Oticon A/S, Smørum, Denmark .
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Oticon Research Centre Eriksholm, Snekkersten, Denmark .
    Speech intelligibility in background noise with ideal binary time-frequency masking2009In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 125, no 4, p. 2336-2347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ideal binary time-frequency masking is a signal separation technique that retains mixture energy in time-frequency units where local signal-to-noise ratio exceeds a certain threshold and rejects mixture energy in other time-frequency units. Two experiments were designed to assess the effects of ideal binary masking on speech intelligibility of both normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners in different kinds of background interference. The results from Experiment 1 demonstrate that ideal binary masking leads to substantial reductions in speech-reception threshold for both NH and HI listeners, and the reduction is greater in a cafeteria background than in a speech-shaped noise. Furthermore, listeners with hearing loss benefit more than listeners with normal hearing, particularly for cafeteria noise, and ideal masking nearly equalizes the speech intelligibility performances of NH and HI listeners in noisy backgrounds. The results from Experiment 2 suggest that ideal binary masking in the low-frequency range yields larger intelligibility improvements than in the high-frequency range, especially for listeners with hearing loss. The findings from the two experiments have major implications for understanding speech perception in noise, computational auditory scene analysis, speech enhancement, and hearing aid design.

  • 211.
    Wang, DeLiang
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science & Engineering, and Center for Cognitive Science, The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.
    Kjems, Ulrik
    Oticon A/S, Smørum, Denmark .
    Pedersen, Michael S
    Oticon A/S, Smørum, Denmark.
    Boldt, Jesper B
    Oticon A/S, Smørum, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Oticon Research Centre Eriksholm, Snekkersten, Denmark and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, and Technical Audiology, Linköping University, S-58183 Linköping, Sweden .
    Speech perception of noise with binary gains2008In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 2303-2307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a given mixture of speech and noise, an ideal binary time-frequency mask is constructed by comparing speech energy and noise energy within local time-frequency units. It is observed that listeners achieve nearly perfect speech recognition from gated noise with binary gains prescribed by the ideal binary mask. Only 16 filter channels and a frame rate of 100Hz are sufficient for high intelligibility. The results show that, despite a dramatic reduction of speech information, a pattern of binary gains provides an adequate basis for speech perception

  • 212.
    Weng, Chenyang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Boij, Susann
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    The attenuation of sound by turbulence in internal flows2013In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 133, no 6, p. 3764-3776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The attenuation of sound waves due to interaction with low Mach number turbulent boundary layers in internal flows (channel or pipe flow) is examined. Dynamic equations for the turbulent Reynolds stress on the sound wave are derived, and the analytical solution to the equation provides a frequency dependent eddy viscosity model. This model is used to predict the attenuation of sound propagating in fully developed turbulent pipe flow. The predictions are shown to compare well with the experimental data. The proposed dynamic equation shows that the turbulence behaves like a viscoelastic fluid in the interaction process, and that the ratio of turbulent relaxation time near the wall and the sound wave period is the parameter that controls the characteristics of the attenuation induced by the turbulent flow.

  • 213.
    Wong, Lena L. N.
    et al.
    University of Hong Kong.
    Ng, Hoi Ning Elaine
    The University of Hong Kong.
    Soli, Sigfrid D.
    House Ear Institute, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Characterization of speech understanding in various types of noise2012In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 132, no 4, p. 2642-2651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined (1) the effects of noise on speech understanding and (2) whether performance in real-life noises could be predicted based on performance in steady-state speech-spectrum-shaped noise. The noise conditions included a steady-state speech-spectrum-shaped noise and six types of real-life noise. Thirty normal-hearing adults were tested using sentence materials from the Cantonese Hearing In Noise Test (CHINT). To achieve the first aim, the performance–intensity function slopes in these noise conditions were estimated and compared. Variations in performance–intensity function slopes were attributed to differences in the amount of amplitude fluctuations and the presence of competing background speech. How well the data obtained in real-life noises fit the performance–intensity functions obtained in steady-state speech-spectrum-shaped noises was examined for the second aim of the study. Four out of six types of noise yielded performance–intensity function slopes similar to that in steady-state speech-spectrum-shaped noise. After accounting for individual differences in sentence reception threshold (SRT) and the offset between the signal-to-noise ratio for 50% intelligibility across different types of noise, performance in steady-state speech-spectrum-shaped noise was found to predict well the performance in most of the real-life noise conditions.

  • 214.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Molin, Nils-Erik
    On structure-borne sound: experiments showing the initial transient acoustic wave field generated by an impacted plate1994In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 96, no 5, p. 2791-2797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial propagating transient acoustic field in air generated by an impacted plate is visualized. The transient traveling flexural waves in the plate created by the impact are shown, simultaneously. The experiments are performed using double pulsed holographic interferometry. It is shown that flexural waves in a plate act as a series of traveling acoustic sources. Since the flexural waves in the plate are dispersive the trace matched acoustical waves further away from the impact source propagate at a smaller angle relative to the plate than those closer to the impact. An observer situated close to the plate and away from the impact point will first receive high-frequency components of the sound. A quantitative evaluation of the acoustic field also shows that if there is a transient increase in pressure on one side of the plate there will be a similar decrease on the other side.

  • 215. Yardibi, Tarik
    et al.
    Li, Jian
    Stoica, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Cattafesta, Louis N.
    Sparsity constrained deconvolution approaches for acoustic source mapping2008In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 123, no 5, p. 2631-2642Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 216. Yardibi, Tarik
    et al.
    Li, Jian
    Stoica, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Zawodny, Nikolas S.
    Cattafesta, Louis N.
    A covariance fitting approach for correlated acoustic source mapping2010In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 127, no 5, p. 2920-2931Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Zea, Elias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    On modified wavenumber filters for rail contribution estimations2018In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 144, p. EL286-EL289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This brief communication exposes an overview of various wavenumber filters to separate the rail contribution to pass-by noise via the wave signature extraction method [Zea, Manzari, Squicciarini, Feng, Thompson, and Lopez Arteaga, J. Sound Vib. 409, 24–42 (2017)]. It has been found that the originally proposed filters underesti- mate the rail noise at frequencies above 1.6 kHz due to the presence of higher-order wave families that is unaccounted for. The goal of this let- ter is thus to propose and examine different filter functions that can cap- ture such waves, and to assess whether the rail contribution estimations can be improved.

  • 218.
    Zea, Elias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Single-layer array method to reconstruct extended sound sources facing a parallel reflector2017In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 141, no 5, p. 3984-3984Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The accuracy of sound field reconstruction methods with single-layer microphone arrays is subject to the room or enclosure in which the measurements take place. Thus, the authors recently introduced a single-layer method that can be employed to reconstruct compact sources in the presence of a reflecting surface that is parallel to the array. Now the authors propose a method conceived for extended planar sources such as baffled plates facing a parallel reflector. The method is based on a wavenumber-domain function describing the propagation paths between the source, the reflector and the array. The free-space sound field radiated by the source is then recovered by means of a regularized inversion of the propagation function. Numerical simulations are performed in order to assess the method's performance and potential for source reconstructions. The results are promising and point towards future experimental validation.

  • 219.
    Zekveld, Adriana A
    et al.
    Department of ENT/Audiology and the EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    S Johnsrude, Ingrid
    Department of ENT/Audiology and the EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The effects of working memory capacity and semantic cues on the intelligibility of speech in noise2013In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 134, no 3, p. 2225-2234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined how semantically related information facilitates the intelligibility of spoken sentences in the presence of masking sound, and how this facilitation is influenced by masker type and by individual differences in cognitive functioning. Dutch sentences were masked by stationary noise, fluctuating noise, or an interfering talker. Each sentence was preceded by a text cue; cues were either three words that were semantically related to the sentence or three unpronounceable nonwords. Speech reception thresholds were adaptively measured. Additional measures included working memory capacity (reading span and size comparison span), linguistic closure ability (text reception threshold), and delayed sentence recognition. Word cues facilitated speech perception in noise similarly for all masker types. Cue benefit was related to reading span performance when the masker was interfering speech, but not when other maskers were used, and it did not correlate with text reception threshold or size comparison span. Better reading span performance was furthermore associated with enhanced delayed recognition of sentences preceded by word relative to nonword cues, across masker types. The results suggest that working memory capacity is associated with release from informational masking by semantically related information, and additionally with the encoding, storage, or retrieval of speech content in memory.

  • 220.
    Åberg, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    Gudmundson, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
    The usage of standard finite element codes for computation of dispersion relations in materials with periodic microstructure1997In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 102, no 4, p. 2007-2013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method with which standard finite element programs can be used to compute dispersion relations in periodic composites is proposed. The method is applied to two composite microstructures: a two-phase laminate and a fiber composite. The dispersion relations computed for the laminate are compared with a known analytical solution and the agreement is very good. The dispersion relations computed for the fibrous composite are compared with an existing approximate model and experimental results from the literature. The agreement between the approximate model, the experiments, and the computations is very good in the wave guide case and satisfactory for the wave reflect case.

  • 221.
    Öberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Askenfelt, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Acoustical and perceptual influence of duplex stringing in grand pianos2012In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 131, no 1, p. 856-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the acoustical and perceptual influence of the string parts outside the speaking length in grand pianos (front and rear duplex strings). Acoustical measurements on a grand piano in concert condition were conducted, measuring the fundamental frequencies of all main and duplex strings in the four octaves D4-C8. Considerable deviations from the nominal harmonic relations between the rear duplex and main string frequencies, as described by the manufacturer in a patent, were observed. Generally the rear duplex strings were tuned higher than the nominal harmonic relations with average and median deviations approaching _50 cent. Single keys reached +190 and -100 cent. The spread in deviation from harmonic relations within trichords was also substantial with average and median values around 25 cent, occasionally reaching 60 cent. Contributions from both front and rear duplex strings were observed in the bridge motion and sound. The audibility of the duplex strings was studied in an ABX listening test. Complete dampening of the front duplex was clearly perceptible both for an experiment group consisting of musicians and a control group with naive subjects. The contribution from the rear duplex could also be perceived, but less pronounced.

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