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  • 201. Heitmann, Annegret
    'A Window on the World': Introduction2014In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 13-18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Heitmann, Annegret
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, Germany.
    „[A]lles öde und kahl, und somit echt isländisch.“: Ein Reisebericht aus dem Jahr 1846 oder die Anfänge des Island-Tourismus2011In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 39-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Der Artikel stellt einen Reisebericht der Österreicherin Ida Pfeiffer in den Mittelpunkt, die im Jahr 1845 Island besuchte. Da Tourismus als ein Phänomen und Charakteristikum der Moderne gilt, lädt Pfeiffers Islandreise zu Fragen bezüglich der Anfänge touristischen und einer möglichen Authentizität frühmodernen Reisens ein. Der Authentizitätsbegriff, der heute oft im Zentrum neuer Tourismusforschung steht, stellt einen Einfallswinkel für die Analyse dar. Während die Autorin selbst die Ursprünglichkeit des Landes und die Echtheit ihres Erlebens hervorhebt, wird deutlich, dass sie eben diese Authentizität durch bestimmte Inszenierungsverfahren hervorbringt. So ist es nicht erstaunlich, dass – wie eine zeitgenössische Karikatur belegt – die Autorin schon in der Mitte des 19. Jh. in einen Tourismusdiskurs eingeschrieben wird.

  • 203. Heitmann, Annegret
    Jonas Harvard & Peter Stadius (eds.), Communicating the North. Media Structures and Images in the Making of the Nordic Region, Farnham: Ashgate 2013, ISBN 9781409449485, 364 S.2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 129-132Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 204. Heitmann, Annegret
    Zwischen zwei Welten: Aspekte der Mobilitat in J.A. Friis´ and G. Schneevoigts Lajla2014In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 71-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Einer der bekanntesten Texte über das Leben der Samen ist Jens Andreas Friis’ norwegischer Roman Lajla aus dem Jahr 1881. Sein Status als Klassiker wurde durch zwei Verfilmungen von Georg Schnéevoigt (Stummfilm von 1929 und Tonfilm von 1937) untermauert. Während es die Intention des Autors war, in unterhaltsamer Form ethnographische Informationen über das Leben der Samen zu vermitteln, wurde der Roman vor allem als eine romantische Liebesgeschichte über das einfache Leben in der Finnmark rezipiert. Der folgende Aufsatz beleuchtet den Handlungsgang um das „vertauschte Kind“ neu, indem er verschiedene Aspekte der Mobilität ins Zentrum stellt: des Textes selbst, des Mediums Film und vor allem der Konzeption der Ethnizität, die durch Betonung von Mobilität ihre dichotomische Starrheit verliert.

  • 205. Herrmann, Elisabeth
    Norrland’s Regional Literature as World Literature: Per Olov Enquist’s Literary Work2014In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 143-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work of Per Olov Enquist, one of the most important contemporary Swedish authors, is known far beyond Sweden’s and Europe’s borders, and thus even received in North America. A great many of his fictional documentary works and dramatic plays, the biographies of poets such Hans Christian Andersen, Selma Lagerlöf, Knut Hamsun, and August Strindberg, as well as the bestselling novels Lewis Journey, The Royal Physician’s Visit and The Book about Blanche and Marie, have secured a firm position for this Norrland author in the canon of world literature. The continuous transgression of the borders between historical facts and their fictionalization builds the basic characteristic of Enquist’s literature. For Enquist, the goal of writing is to sound out the "innermost space of human existence." He is eager to explore those secrets and ambiguities that underlie certain historical events or individual life stories. How is individual life determined? And how do individuals find their place in the world? In several of his works, the author uses the metaphor of drawing topographical maps to illustrate the search for one’s own identity as an attempt to position oneself in the world. Starting from his memory of lying on the kitchen floor as a young boy and drawing maps of his native village Hjoggböle, the area around Bureå, the Västerbotten and Norrland region as well as of his native country Sweden, Enquist reveals to his readers what it is that he considers literature to be: the compression of real signs into a fictional space which resembles reality, but, at the same time, moves beyond the boundaries of reality. Through an analytical synopsis of those works that use the motif of map-drawing as a central theme and often refer to each other in direct intertextual reference, namely the novel Captain Nemo’s Library, the essay collection Kartritarna [‘The cartographers’], and Enquist’s biography Ett annat liv [‘A different life’], this article examines the metaphorical function and poetological meaning that the depiction of the author’s own region and home as well as references to his own life story and origin have in Enquist’s work.

  • 206.
    Herrmann, Elisabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Norrland's Regional Literature as World Literature: Per Olov Enquist's Literary Work2014In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 143-167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 207. Hicks, Sheila
    Who Is Responsible for Today’s Northern Landscapes, Climate or Human Beings?2014In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 89-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present-day landscapes of northern Fennoscandia are the end result of a process of evolution. Mountains and valleys have scarcely altered during the last 10,000 years, whereas coastal areas have slowly but constantly changed. The nature of the vegetation that covers the landscape and is driven primarily by climate, has changed at a faster rate, but fastest of all have been the changes resulting from human activities. Steps towards the present-day situation are briefly reviewed on different temporal and spatial scales and on each the impacts of climate and people are weighed one against the other. Environmental reconstructions are made on the basis of pollen analysis and historical/ archaeological records, while a quantified basis for their interpretation is provided by present day reference situations. Examples from palaeoecological research projects provide illustrations. On the coarsest spatial and temporal scales the bigger driving force is climate, but if the focus is on a small area and the time considered the last 100 years, then it is people who have played the bigger role in producing what we see. Two important questions for the north are: which impact will have the bigger effect in the future, the climate or human beings, and will future changes be reversible or not?

  • 208. Holm, Birgitta
    Foreword: Norrland with no Borders2014In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 11-12Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 209. Hultgård, Anders
    Anatoly Liberman, In Prayer and Laughter. Essays on Medieval Scandinavian and Germanic Mythology, Literature, and Culture, Moscow: Paleographic Press 2016, ISBN 978-5-89526-027-2, 588 pp.2017In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 75-79Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 210. Johnsson, Hans-Roland
    Kajsa Andersson (ed.), L’Image du Sápmi. Études comparées, vol. 1–3, Örebro: Örebro University 2009–20132016In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 93-105Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Jörgensen, Hans
    et al.
    Department of Economic History, Umeå University.
    Grubbström, Ann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University.
    Private Landowners' Relation to Land and Forest in Two Estonian Counties2010In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 33-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comparative study is based on two large surveys of private land and forest owners in two Estonian counties. While more than half of Põlva County is covered with forests, Läänemaa has a potential for summer tourism and second homes. We explore different rationales for obtaining landed property and analyse the individual property holders’ relations to – and use of – land and forests. Based on the two interlinked restitution and privatisation processes from 1991 onwards, our surveys reveal two main rationales among the owners: emotional and economic. The owners’ relations to the property are connected with legacies from both the interwar independence and the Soviet period. In addition, different rationalities, ambitions and attitudes are also related to how the property was obtained. In spite of the demand for land, many resituated landowners have chosen to maintain or recreate family property, even if the property was not actively used. In both Põlvamaa and Läänemaa the emotional bonds to land are strong among the owners of restituted or inherited property, while this is a weaker factor among those who have obtained land or forest through privatisation.

  • 212.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näckter, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Karlsson, Maria
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Experiences of Being a Young Female Sami Reindeer Herder: A Qualitative Study from the Perspective of Mental Health and Intersectionality2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 55-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 213.
    Karlgren, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Eckeryd, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Edlund, Lars-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    “The inquisitive vicar”: Bringing Jonas A. Nensen’s nineteenth century records of northern people’s life and culture to a wider audience2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 100-108Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 214. Knoespel, Kenneth J.
    Sweden and the Transformation of Northern Historiography2014In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 103-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viewed from the Mediterranean South, the North was associated from the earliest ages with a darkness linked with strange languages, distance, alien cultural behavior, and just plain bad weather. This darkness—or the fog and mist if we use the early description of Marco Polo—was not ignored but itself became a screen upon which the South could project an ever-growing list of fantasies. While Swedish figures such as Olof Rudbeck made elaborate national projections about the role of the North in civilization, Carl von Linné and others succeeded in translating fantasies of political empire into kingdoms of knowledge. Drawing on Swedish historiography and the history of technology, this essay poses questions about the ways Sweden’s often invisible presence continues to shape the formulation of knowledge.

  • 215. Koskela Vasaru, Mervi
    Bjarmaland and interaction in the North of Europe from the Viking Age until the Early Middle Ages2012In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 37-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The medieval Scandinavian written sources locate Bjarmaland to the WhiteSea. The words Terfinna land connect the location with the KolaPeninsula and the environs of the Varzuga River whereas the name Gandvíkguides our interest towards the Kantalahti Bay of the White Sea. The name Vína can be connected with either theNorthern Dvina River or Viena Karelia. The Bjarmians as portrayed in the writtensources seem to have been a permanently settled group of Baltic Fennic speakingpeople that lived in the north of Europe since the Viking Age (first mentionedin writing in the ninth century) until the early Middle Ages (mid-thirteenthcentury). They seem to have been involved in the international fur trade andhad continuous contacts with Norwegians with both looting and trade as integralpart of interaction. The Bjarmians cannot be connected ethnically with anyexisting group of people but must be considered as a group of their own. Theorigin of the specific ethnical identity most likely lies in economicalinteraction (trade with furs and possibly other items) with neighbouring areas.Since the twelfth and thirteenth centuries new settlers moved to the northernareas and many political and economical changes occurred in NorthernFennoscandia and Russia, all of which would have contributed to a change thatleft the Bjarmians out of written sources.

  • 216. Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Kola Sami in the Stalinist Terror: A Quantitative Analysis2012In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 59-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is focused on aspects that have been understudied by previous research on the Kola Sami. First there is a quantitative analysis of the Sami victims of the Stalinist terror. Second there is a discussion of the short- and long-term roles of state violence for the affected indigenous community. Most prior studies of the ethnic aspects of the Stalinist terror have focused on the large Diaspora nationalities or post-war deportations, while this paper concentrates on a small homogenous indigenous community. The study reaches a new level of accuracy about the nature of Soviet terror, and who became victims and why.

  • 217.
    Kotljarchuk, Andrej
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, History.
    Kola Sami in the Stalinist Terror: A Quantitative Analysis2012In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 59-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is focused on aspects that have been understudied by previous research on the Kola Sami. First there is a quantitative analysis of the Sami victims of the Stalinist terror. Second there is the discussion of the shortand long-term roles of state violence for the affected indigenous community. Most prior studies of the ethnic aspects of the Stalinist terror have focused on the large Diaspora nationalities or post-war deportations, while this paper concentrates on a small homogenous indigenous community. The study reaches a new level of accuracy about the nature of Soviet terror, and who became victims and why.

  • 218.
    Larsen, Rolf Inge
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway.
    Thorvaldsen, Steinar
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway.
    Conzett, Philipp
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway.
    Making Cultural Heritage Online: Lars Levi Lastadius’ Work and its Relevance in the Arctic Region2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 96-100Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 219.
    Larsson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Åkermark, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Climate Change Adaptation and Vulnerability Planning within the Municipal and Regional System: Examples from Northern Sweden2016In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 67-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration or mainstreaming of adaptation to climate change, while highly emphasized in the literature, is often operationally both very complex and places high requirements on resources for coordination in organizational units. This study reviews the development of integration of adaptation in the regional and local risk and vulnerability analysis processes, in the cases of the counties of Norrbotten and Västerbotten in Northern Sweden. The study concludes that adaptation as a non-binding and not specifically resourced policy area risks limited integration with existing measures. The Swedish distribution of authority and resourcing on adaptation, focusing on integrating adaptation within the municipal authority without specific funding, will thus constitute a limitation to integration and mainstreaming in particular in sparsely populated municipalities that despite limited tax bases are required to maintain the same municipal services as a larger municipality.

  • 220.
    Larsson, Thomas B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Sami Prehistory and Early History in the western Barents Region (SAMIARC)2007In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, no 1-2, p. 2p. 155-156Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conference report. A short description of the NordForsk network: "Sami Prehistory and Early History in the western Barents Region (SAMIARC)", lead by the author.

  • 221.
    Larsson, Thomas B
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Rosqvist, Gunhild
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ericsson, Göran
    SLU, Umeå.
    Heinerud, Jans
    Västerbottens museum, Umeå.
    Climate Change, Moose and Humans in Northern Sweden 4000 cal. yr BP2012In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 9-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 222.
    Latham, Robert
    et al.
    Department of Political Science and Program on Communication and Culture, York University, Canada.
    Wiliams, Lisa
    York University, Canada.
    Power and Inclusion: Relations of Knowledge and Environmental Monitoring in the Arctic2013In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 7-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a critical study of the planning and design process of the Sustaining Arctic Observing Network (SAON). SAON, in its ambition to build a comprehensive, pan-Arctic monitoring system, seeks to integrate all relevant scientific and environmental monitoring sites in the Arctic, guided by an ethic of inclusion regarding the know-ledge of indigenous Arctic peoples (KIAP). It is argued that the logics of inclusion in play, paradoxically, risks limiting the capacity for Arctic indigenous peoples to control their knowledge and its uses, to monitor the activities and outputs of SAON itself, and to appropriate the SAON system and its data for uses they control. This article also suggests an alternative approach: rather than place KIAP within SAON, it calls for planners to consider establishing knowledge relations between SAON and KIAP so that the distinct status of KIAP—in a position of exteriority to the comprehensive monitoring system—is acknowledged. Within these knowledge relations, differences in the production of knowledge can be effectively recognized, a site can be created for reviewing SAON’s monitoring work by local communities and practices, and strategies for open, adaptable data systems for local users can be established.

  • 223.
    Lemelin, Raynald Harvey
    et al.
    Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Canada.
    Beaulieu, Michel S.
    Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Canada.
    The Technology Imperative of the Cree: Examining Adaptability and Livelihood in Northern Ontario, Canada2013In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 31-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss how the incorporation of selected technologies (i.e., outboard motor, snowmobile) in Northern Ontario profoundly and irrevocably transformed two Cree nations located in the Hudson Bay Lowlands. We demonstrate how this technological integration has provided two remote First Nations in Canada with the ability to adapt to biophysical and socio-cultural changes, thereby sustaining traditional livelihood and providing food security. Interviews conducted in 2006–2010 with the Weenusk First Nation at Peawanuck, and the Washaho First Nation at Fort Severn are used to contextualize the discussion and answer the following research questions: (a) Are a greater or smaller number of people in these two First Nations engaged in subsistence behaviour today than in the past?; (b) Are these harvesters more or less successful?; and (c) Are levels of subsistence consumption different? The findings indicate that while less people are generally participating in traditional subsistence activities, access to traditional foods due to technology remains, for the time being, the same. The sustainability of these activities on the long-term is examined in the conclusion.

  • 224.
    Lidström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jóhann Páll Árnason & Björn Wittrock (eds.), Nordic Paths to Modernity, New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books 2012, ISBN 9780857452696, 288 pp.2013In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 95-96Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 225.
    Liliequist, Marianne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Elderly Sami as the "Other": Discourses on the Elderly Care of the Sami, 1850–19302011In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 9-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors have examined images of elderly Sami in relation to elderly care in Sweden between the years 1850 and 1930. What discourses can be revealed from spoken statements, written documents and every-day practices? This study has shown that the higher the degree of closeness and mutual exchange between Sami and non-Sami, the more the image of the "Other" as something "foreign" has been challenged and rejected. To be able to one-sidedly distance oneself from other people and turn them into stereotypes requires a certain amount of emotional and geographic distance. Where there has been physical distance and a lack of mutually beneficial exchange, the elderly Sami are more often described as "foreign," "threatening" and "deviant," a force of nature that must be tamed and controlled. The Sami dismissed as "not-quite-human" in the popular discourse were the paupers among them. A more balanced relationship existed between the Sami and the settlers in the mountains and the elderly Sami were often described as "one of the family." The staffs of the Sami old-age homes were far more nuanced in their view of the elderly than the civil servants sent from Stockholm to report back on the Sami.

  • 226. Lillevoll, Tor Arne
    Sheep Farmers in the Realm of Læstadius: Science and Religion as Motivating Forces in the Community of Practice in Northern Norway2016In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 7-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses some aspects of a successful development in a village in Northern Norway, where agriculture is an important industry. The author examines family-based farms with sheep, upbringing, socialization and learning in communities of practice, and integrated academic and sociocultural forces in development. Sheep farming in the studied village is integrated into a sophisticated field of knowledge rooted in the local culture. An important aspect is the bidirectional support and knowledge exchange between experience-based and science-based knowledge centres (i.e. there is a two-way transfer): the farmers supply external agricultural experts with data on breeding and fattening, and subsequently input their derived knowledge for further use in development. Another important part of this field of practice is financial support from the state. The author argues that the interaction between culture and the business environment is important and provides synergy. As a consequence, an extraordinary momentum resulting from sheep farming is created in the mapping between the organized business community on the one hand, and local culture and religious communities with strong historical roots on the other hand. The findings indicate that these conditions could be of general interest for innovation and development also in other industries and other types of societies.

    Sheep Farmers in the Realm of 

  • 227. Lukin, Karina
    Anna-Leena Siikala (1943-2016)2016In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 2p. 91-92Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 228.
    Lång, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Making Wilderness: An inquiry into Stig Wesslén's Documentation and Representation of the Northern Swedish Landscape2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 9-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article explores images of the Northern Swedish landscape, produced and mediated by Stig Wesslén (1902–1987) in the 1930s and 1940s. Trained as a forester, Wesslén gradually turned into a documentarist, focusing on the wilderness, notably big birds, predators and the mountain range in Lapland. Along with making a number of ambitious movies and embarking on intensive lecture tours, he was an active debater and writer and published six, richly illustrated books. These careers were interwoven, partly for practical reasons; income from lecturing and journalism financed his filmmaking and gave him time to write his books. It is argued in the article that Wesslén was driven by a strong feeling for wilderness and that he was against the way modern civilization exploited nature. The goal of his documentary work was ultimately to raise public awareness regarding the state of nature and he may thus be seen as a link between the preservationists of the early twentieth century and the environmentalists of the 1960s. In order to reveal the true essence of nature, Wesslén developed a “scientific” documentary technique, which he named “camera hunting.” The idea was to use the best camera equipment possible that would allow him to observe nature at a distance, not disturb the natural order of things, and present authentic images. Yet, as the article shows, Wesslén sometimes anthropomorphized the animals and also dramatized nature in many of his works.

  • 229.
    Lüdecke, Cornelia
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Wissenschaft und Abenteuer in der Arktis: Beispiele deutscher Polarexpeditionen2007In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 51-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From its beginning in 1868 German polar expeditions were focused on scientific exploration. History shows that around 1910 only well prepared and equipped expeditions were successful and could gain valuable experiences. The training expedition of the Bavarian officer Wilhelm Filchner who subsequently led the German Antarctic Expedition (1911–1912) was one of these. This is contrasted by the preliminary expedition to Nordaustlandet (Svalbard) of the west Prussian officer Herbert Schroder-Stranz. Other expeditions gave rise to longrange investigations like the permanently occupied German Geophysical Observatory on Svalbard (1911–1914) established for the investigation of the upper air by aerological measurements to prepare a future exploration of the Arctic by airships.

    There was a long tradition for German scientific expeditions to Greenland, which is represented for instance by Alfred Wegener‘s meteorological programme to investigate the glacial anticyclone. The year 1930 was a fateful year for German polar research, when he died on the ice-cap and geologist Hans Kurt Erich Krueger vanished in the north Canadian archipelago. Both men represented science as well as adventure.

    International projects initiated or organised from the German side were always successful. Georg von Neumayer, director of the German Navy Observatory (Deutsche Seewarte), played an important role in organising the 1st International Polar Year (1882–883) after the untimely death of Karl Weyprecht. Only extensive research without recognition of national borders would provide new scientific knowledge in meteorology and earth magnetics for weather forecast and shipping. After World War I economical ideas concerning the introduction of trans-arctic air traffic lead to the foundation of the International Society for the Exploration of the Arctic Regions by Means of Aircraft (Aeroarctic). In the meteorological planning of the first expedition with the airship LZ 127 “Graf Zeppelin” to the Russian Arctic, the results of the German Geophysical Observatory in Svalbard were used. This paper discusses the connections between science and adventure established through the German expeditions.

  • 230. MacMillan, Mark
    et al.
    MacMillan, Faye
    Rigney, Sophie
    How Indigenous Nation-Building Can Strengthen Indigenous Holistic Health Outcomes: Retelling the Right to Health2016In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 147-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) has declared that Indigenous peoples and populations inherently possess a right to health. Such a right does not merely exist with reference to physical health. The General Assembly of the United Nations when adopting the UNDRIP requires the meaning of "health" to be expansive and also be characterised as a collective right. This article will provide a particular framework for understanding the right to health for Indigenous peoples as a collective right, which exists in a symbiotic relationship with the rights to greater self-determination and governance.

  • 231. Martin-Nielsen, Janet
    Re-Conceptualizing the North: A Historiographic Discussion2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 51-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past few years have brought a surge in re-conceptualizations of the North in the humanities and social sciences. Bringing together history, environment, geography, politics and culture, these re-conceptualizations offer frameworks, terminology and perspectives designed to situate the North in its complex modern context. They are linked by the authors’ shared interest in what the North has looked like and what it will look like in the future. This paper engages with a few of these re-conceptualizations in order to understand what agendas they put forward, explicitly and implicitly, and how they are situated within historical contexts. In this context, I ask what the North encompasses: which narratives, identities and connections merge with latitude, climate and physical environment to create new (and not-so-new) ways of thinking about northern spaces? Ultimately, I argue that these re-conceptualizations of the North are in fact themselves articulations of the future: developed and presented to tell particular stories, they are part of a larger story, one that reaches into the past and one which will continue to evolve and change.

  • 232. Mashford-Pringle, Angela
    Is There Self-Determination in Canada’s First Nations Communities?2016In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 107-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is self-determination? How was the definition created? Examining First Nations health care systems has shown that definitions of self-determination for First Nations leaders and communities are different from those provided by federal and provincial governments. To ensure First Nations survival in the long term, it is important for First Nations people, leaders and communities to collaboratively develop definitions of self-determination in an Aboriginal context. This paper reviews perceptions of self-determination in health care by First Nations, and provincial and federal governments, and how relationships between these three groups are affected by differing perceptions. The impacts of colonialism are examined and discussed as they pertain to perceptions of self-determination in health care in First Nations communities. To survive, First Nations must establish firm definitions and boundaries to prevent further oppression and colonization, and to navigate control of their health and health care for future generations.

  • 233. Mason, Arthur
    et al.
    Stoilkova, Maria
    Corporeality of Consultant Expertise in Arctic Natural Gas Development2012In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 83-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contemporary ethnographic landscape and social fields of emerging actors involved in resource extraction in the Arctic draw attention to the role “expert” knowledge, specifically, the organization of consultant work, the production, commodification and dissemination of expert forecasting, and technologies. While anthropology traditionally has focused on adaptations in northern areas in relation to state policies, regulations of the environment and ethnopolitical categorizations, in this article we introduce new approaches to the study of experts and forms of knowledge that have the potential for shaping energy development in the Arctic. We contribute to the state of theory and knowledge in relation to how experts drive the structure and content of pivotal conversations on Arctic oil and gas development by building a conceptual terminology and typology of relations between products of human bodies associated with expertise (gesture, ideas, voice, linguistic phenomena) and the material environment that ensures the security and authority of experts (turnstiles, ID badges, guards) as forces of energy production in their own right.

  • 234. Mohnike, Thomas
    The Joy of Narration: Mikael Niemi’s Popular Music from Vittula 2014In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 169-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    Le goût du baiser d’un garçon (2000) de Mikael Niemi fut le plus grand succès littéraire en Suède après 1989. Souvent, le roman est décrit comme un témoignage d’une culture minoritaire dans la région suédoise frontalière de la Finlande, où l’on parle une langue particulière, le meänkieli. Dans mon article, j’explique que cette réception est moins due à l’intention implicite du roman qu’aux attentes de ses lecteurs dans une phase de restructuration identitaire en Suède après la fin de la guerre froide. En effet, la Suède est, depuis, souvent imaginée comme un pays multiculturel, et le témoignage littéraire supposé d’une culture minoritaire sur le territoire du pays répondait bien à ces attentes. Cependant, ce n’est pas la seule façon d’interpréter le roman. Il s’agit plutôt d’un texte ouvert, jouant avec des discours identitaires multiples pour ouvrir des pistes d’identification au lecteur, sans préférence pour l’une de ces pistes. Plus important que le contenu du roman est donc en effet la forme, ou plutôt la dynamique inhérente aux formes narratives utilisées. Une oeuvre composée moins pour donner du sens que pour l’ouvrir, et pour suivre la joie de la narration.

  • 235.
    Mulk, Inga-Maria
    et al.
    Ájtte, the Swedish Mountain and Sámi Museum, Jokkmokk, Sweden.
    Bayliss-Smith, Tim
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Liminality, Rock Art and the Sami Sacred Landscape2007In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 95-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper suggests that cultural landscapes were permeated by religious meanings in all pre-modern societies, including Sami societies before c. AD 1600. We suggest that knowledge of this sacred landscape was not restricted to an elite or to shamans, but was widely shared. For the Sami, religious rituals and associated images (e.g. rock art) involved all levels within a social hierarchy that linked the individual adult or child, the family, the band or sijdda, and the association of family groups or vuobme. We can decode the sacred landscapes of such societies if we can reconstruct sites of perceived anomaly and liminality in the landscape. This is discussed in the article with reference to Proto-Uralic cosmology in general and the Sami world-view in particular. The concepts of anomaly and liminality enable us to interpret the Badjelannda rock art site in Laponia, northern Sweden, as not only a place of resource procurement (asbestos, soapstone) but also a sacred site. We suggest that the Badjelannda site should be seen as a gateway to the Underworld, and therefore visits for quarrying, human burials at the site, or wild reindeer hunting in the vicinity were marked by ritual acts, directed perhaps towards the Sami female deity Máttaráhkká. The rock art should therefore be interpreted as an aspect of religious ritual, and in a context where anomalous topography signified that the Badjelannda site was necessarily a liminal place.

  • 236. Möller, Frank
    "Wild Weirdness?" "Gross Humbugs!": Memory-Images of the North and Finnish Photography2011In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 29-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay it is argued that northern photography can serve as an epistemological triangle both combining different layers of experiences and memories with one another—experience in the north, experience as inhabitants of the north and experience as such—and connecting photographers, subjects of photography and viewers with one another. The essay discusses selected photographs of northern indigenous people and landscapes—and the approaches underlying them—in terms of what is here deemed key concepts in social research including northern studies: experience and memory. Owing to the surplus of meaning that images inevitably carry with them and their irreducibility to one meaning, photographic images, it is argued, contribute to what Sherrill Grace has called the north’s “resistance to measure and closure.” Images may help the beholder to acknowledge that different groups of people may have different memories of what only seems to be the same history. A brief discussion of the work of Jorma Puranen, Tiina Itkonen and Antero Takala substantiates these claims.

  • 237.
    Niemi, Einar
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    North Norway: An Invention?2007In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 81-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article has as a starting point the fact that regions are one of the central political topics of today. Though regions have certain roots in history, they were not politicized until the nineteenth century, when they were “invented” as a tool for identity-shaping and development in the fringe areas of the state. The article operates with North Norway as a case in analyzing modern region-building processes and state regionalization strategies. This region is well suited as a case because of its particular position as a border area and its unique position in Norway’s political and economic history. The region-building process developed through distinct stages. In the 1970s North Norway came close to being understood as an identity region. Since the early 1990s, however, there have been fissures in this identity and the old regional visions have been under pressure from within as well as from without. In addition old tensions within the region have been disclosed. The most striking example is Finnmark, the northernmost county of the region, and of the nation as well, which through history has played a role in the margin. It is a kind of historical irony that the current development of the Norwegian “northern policy” programme together with the promising prospect of ocean-based oil and gas industry has put Finnmark in the forefront of future expectations.

  • 238. Nihtinen, Atina
    Åland as a Special Case: From Monolith to Diverse?2017In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 49-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article discusses two sets of issues. On the one hand, I consider the different factors and circumstances which have influenced relations between Swedish and Finnish on Åland and the implications of political change. On the other hand, I discuss the ways in which these are understood and presented in history writing. By considering continuity and change in history writing and language discussions I argue that history writing has changed from a rather monolithic interpretation rooted in nationalism and the early decades of autonomy towards a more versatile interpretation (such as considering Åland as being connected to both east and west and ideas such as many Ålands). At the same time the role of Swedish remains important, both as a matter of continuity (history) and as a matter of its instrumental function.

  • 239. Nilsson, Bertil
    Iain G. MacDonald, Clerics and Clansmen. The Diocese of Argyll between the Twelfth and Sixteenth Centuries (The Northern World 61), Leiden & Boston: Brill 2013, ISBN 9789004185470, xlvii + 417 pp., index and illustrations.2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 137-142Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 240. Norrhem, Svante
    Review of Daniel Riches, Protestant Cosmopolitanism and Diplomatic Culture. Brandenburg- Swedish Relations in the Seventeenth Century (The Northern World 59), Leiden & Boston: Brill 2013, ISBN 9789004240797, 332 pp2013In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 134-135Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 241.
    Olsen, Torjer A.
    Universitetet i Tromsø.
    “Masculinities” in Sami studies2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 37-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sami masculinities must be understood as plural. This is the starting point for this article. There is little research done on gender and/in Sami society, especially concerning men and masculinity. The article deals with Sami masculinities as a field of research, and has two main goals. Firstly, the main trends in relevant research on gender in Sapmi in general and on Sami men in particular are presented and discussed. Secondly, a number of challenges related to doing research on Sami masculinities are explored. The theoretical perspectives are mainly drawn from the fields of gender studies and indigenous studies. The article will hopefully serve as a platform and a starting point for further research on Sami masculinities.

  • 242.
    Omma, Lotta M
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Holmgren, Lars E
    Jacobsson, Lars H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Being a young sami in Sweden: living conditions, identity and life satisfaction2011In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 9-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to illuminate the contemporary cultural reality of being a young Sami in Sweden, with special reference to issues such as identity/self-perception, autonomy, and experiences of being ill treated and discrimination.

    Design: The study comprises a qualitative and a quantitative part. The qualitative part includes meetings, discussions and dialogues with young Sami and others. The quantitative part includes a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions, Sami ethnicity, experiences of being ill-treated because of a Sami background, specific questions on identity and self-perception, questions about self-determination, and thoughts and expectations of the future. The sample consists of 876 young Sami aged 18–28, of whom 516 (59 per cent) responded to the questionnaire.

    Results: A majority are proud to be Sami and wish to preserve their culture. 71 per cent have a close connection to a Sami community. Most of the young Sami have had to explain and defend their culture and way of life. Nearly half had perceived discrimination or ill-treatment because of their ethnicity, with reindeer herders reporting a higher degree of ill-treatment (70 per cent). Reindeer herders exist in a severe environment with an insecure legacy. Most of the young Sami in this study have a positive self-perception and think that their lives are meaningful. Very few dropped out of school and very few are unemployed.

    Conclusion: We believe that there are protective factors that potentially explain the well-being of this group; a strong feeling of belonging among the Sami, strong connections to family, relatives and friends and good sociocultural adaptation (to have a job, completed school).

  • 243. Plakans, Andrejs
    Peter Paul Bajer, Scots in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth,16th–18th Centuries: The Formation and Disappearance of an Ethnic Group2012In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 106-109Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 244. Pongérard, Julien
    Nuna: Naming the Inuit land, imagining indigenous community2017In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 37-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Inuit land is often known through Western phrasings such as the “Arctic” or the “Great North.” In this article, based on an extensive review of literature, I focus on the name the Inuit give to their own land, which is one of the only words common to all Inuit dialects: nuna. Studying the word’s meaning casts light on a peculiar indigenous territoriality, and on the centrality of environment in Inuit ways of life and holism thinking. The Inuit conceptualize their inhabiting of the circumpolar region in a way radically opposed to Western narratives of wilderness or wasteland.

    In the late twentieth century, nuna was turned into a key component of identity politics. Inuit peoples linguistically reappropriated their lands, in parallel with formal land claims and the recognition of Inuit self-governed territories. Nuna is at the core of these processes, as the concept justifies the claims for recognition of vernacular toponyms, and the vocable itself was included in the names of Inuit regions. Nuna as an indigenous political banner helps understanding the imagination of Inuit political communities, emerging from a dialectical co-construction of identities and territories mediated through the linguistics of place.

  • 245. Pool, Ian
    Māori Health, Colonization and Post-Colonization: Aotearoa New Zealand, from 17692016In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 19-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Māori of Aotearoa New Zealand are a case-study of the negative impacts of colonization on the health of precursor peoples, such as indigenous peoples in Australia, the Americas, and northern Eurasia. But, colonization has such effects regardless of whether colonized peoples eventually become "independent," or are swamped demographically and politically by a settler population. Indigenous peoples still suffer "internal colonialism" after their country becomes independent (from the United Kingdom for Aotearoa), even in social democracies, simply because majorities, through benign neglect or paternalism, often fail to meet the particular needs of indigenous citizens. Incidentally, "independent" ex-colonies do not escape post-colonialism, because they are subject to interventions by powerful international and bi-lateral agencies, such as structural adjustment policies imposed by the World Bank.

    This paper uses the epidemiological transition framework, but questions its application to colonized peoples, who often, contrary to the paradigm’s deterministic principle of progress, may suffer "regression" as their very survival is threatened by newly introduced diseases to which they have no immunity. Some, not Māori, even go through demographic collapses." The eventual Māori transition did follow the conventional framework, but in its "delayed" form.

    Finally the paper shifts from theoretical dimensions into praxis: health services. It identifies stages in the evolution of these as they affect indigenous people. This is a more detailed overview than the conventional view: a shift from social determinants of health change to the impacts of public health interventions, and from the domination of communicable diseases to non-communicable.

  • 246. Price, Neil
    Researching the North at Aberdeen2011In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 75-78Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 247.
    Priebe, Janina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    The Arctic scramble revisited: the Greenland consortium and the imagined future of fisheries in 19052015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 13-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 248. Pétursson, Einar G.
    Alessia Bauer, Laienastrologie im nachreformatorischen Island. Studien zu Gelehrsamkeit und Aberglauben (Münchner Nordistische Studien 21), Munich: Herbert Utz Verlag 2015, ISBN 978-3-8316-4480-3 [5], 644 pp.2017In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 67-71Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 249. Reichenberg, Monica
    Harald Thuen, Den norske skolen. Utdanningssystemets historie, Oslo: Abstrakt forlag 2017, ISBN 978-82-7935-389-8, 283 p.2017In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 94-104Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 250.
    Reichenberg, Monica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nikolaj Frydensbjerg Elf & Peter Kaspersen (eds.), Den nordiske skolen – fins den? Didaktiske diskurser og dilemmaer i skandinaviske morsmålsfag, Oslo: Novus forlag 2012, ISBN 9788270997077, 260 pp.2013In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 96-97Article, book review (Other academic)
23456 201 - 250 of 285
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