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  • 201.
    Hui, Hongxun
    et al.
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310027, Peoples R China..
    Ding, Yi
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310027, Peoples R China..
    Shi, Qingxin
    Univ Tennessee, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Knoxville, TN 37996 USA..
    Li, Fangxing
    Univ Tennessee, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Knoxville, TN 37996 USA..
    Song, Yonghua
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310027, Peoples R China.;Univ Macau, State Key Lab Internet Things Smart City, Macau 519000, Peoples R China.;Univ Macau, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Macau 519000, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    5G network-based Internet of Things for demand response in smart grid: A survey on application potential2020In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 257, article id UNSP 113972Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demand response (DR) has been widely regarded as an effective way to provide regulation services for smart grids by controlling demand-side resources via new and improved information and communication technologies. Emerging 5G networks and 5G-based Internet of Things (IoTs) can doubtless provide better infrastructure for DR, owing to 5G's advantages of fast transfer speed, high reliability, robust security, low power consumption, and massive number of connections. However, nearly none of the existing studies have applied 5G technology to DR, which will be the subject surveyed in this paper. First, the concept of DR and recent practical advances are investigated, especially the application of communication technologies to DR. Then, a comprehensive review of the cyber security, consumer privacy, and reliability of DR is presented. These topics received little attention in the past, but they will be among the most crucial factors in the future. In addition, the essential features and typical application scenarios of 5G communication are investigated. On this basis, the advantages, methods, recent advances, and implementation planning of 5G on DR are studied. Finally, the future work that must urgently be conducted in order to achieve the application of 5G to DR is discussed. This paper's application survey of 5G on DR is carried out before 5G technology enters the large-scale commercial stage, so as to provide references and guidelines for developing future 5G networks in the smart grid paradigm.

  • 202.
    Huopanaa, Tuomas
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Kolehmainen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Niska, Harri
    University of Eastern Finland.
    A regional model for sustainable biogas electricity production: A case study from a Finnish province2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 102, p. 676-686Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A regional model for sustainable biogas electricity production was formulated and tested for a Finnishprovince, North-Savo. By using the model the aim was to support decision making for reducing greenhousegas (GHG) emissions and increasing renewable energy (RE) production in the studied region inthe biogas electricity production system. The system boundary of the model included transportation ofwaste, biogas production, heat and electricity production, as well as the delivery of heat and digestateto the end users. When electricity production was maximized in the studied region, the electricity productionand GHG emissions were 20 GW h/year and 24 kt/year of CO2 equivalent, respectively. WhenGHG emissions were minimized, the electricity production and GHG emissions were 20 GW h/year and23 kt/year of CO2 equivalent, respectively. By producing electricity of 20 GW h/year, the maximumGHG reductions were roughly 74% of the theoretical maximum GHG emissions of 90 kt/year of CO2 equivalentin both cases. The regional electricity production potential of 20 GW h/year was only 21% of themaximum electricity production potential of 94 GW h/year. The locations of biogas plants, regional relativeGHG emissions, potential feedstocks and regional electricity production were optimized in bothcases in the studied region.

  • 203.
    Ilic, Danica Djuric
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University.
    District heating and ethanol production through polygeneration in Stockholm2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 214-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol can be produced with little impact on the environment through the use of polygeneration technology. This paper evaluates the potential of integrating a lignocellulosic ethanol plant into a district heating system by case study; the plant has an ethanol capacity of 95MW with biogas, electricity and heat as by-products. Stockholm's district heating system is used as the case study, but the results may be relevant also for other urban areas. The system has been studied using MODEST - an optimisation model framework. The results show that introducing the plant would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of heat production. The income from the biofuels and electricity produced would be about €76million and €130million annually, respectively, which is an increase of 70% compared to the income from the electricity produced in the system today. Assuming that the electricity produced will replace marginal electricity on the European electricity market and that the biofuel produced will replace gasoline in the transport sector, the introduction of the polygeneration plant in the district heating system would lead to a reduction of global CO2 emissions of about 0.7million tonnes annually

  • 204.
    Imai, Akihisa
    et al.
    School of Environment and Society, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan.
    Hardi, Hardi
    Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan.
    Lundqvist, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Unit of Climate and Sustainable Cities, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Karagöz, Selhan
    Department of Chemistry, Karabük University, Karabük, Turkey.
    Tekin, Kubilay
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Karabük University, Karabük, Turkey.
    Yoshikawa, Kunio
    School of Environment and Society, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan.
    Alkali-catalyzed hydrothermal treatment of sawdust for production of a potential feedstock for catalytic gasification2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 231, p. 594-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of reaction temperature and catalyst loading on product yields and fuel properties of produced slurry during the alkali catalyzed hydrothermal treatment (HTT) of pine sawdust. The yield of the liquid fraction, or the aqueous product (AP), at process temperatures of 180–260 °C obtained after solid/liquid separation of the slurry ranged from 11.1 to 34.3 wt% on a dry, ash free basis. The fuel quality of the produced slurry, such as the elemental composition and the higher heating value (HHV), was mainly affected by the catalyst loading. An increase in the catalyst loading caused the ash content to increase. Although the increase in temperature leads to a higher liquid fraction in the slurry making it more homogeneous, its contribution to the elemental composition of the whole slurry was limited. HHV of the produced slurry ranged from 12.0 to 16.4 MJ/kg. These values are comparable to that of black liquor (BL), which has previously been shown to be a promising feedstock for gasification in a pilot scale entrained flow gasifier. These results imply the possibility of a fuel switch from BL to the HTT slurry for entrained flow gasification though its gasification reactivity and conversion characteristics must be investigated further.

  • 205.
    Javed, Fahad
    et al.
    LUMS Sch Sci & Engn, Dept Comp Sci, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Arshad, Naveed
    LUMS Sch Sci & Engn, Dept Comp Sci, Lahore, Pakistan .
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Forecasting for demand response in smart grids: An analysis on use of anthropologic and structural data and short term multiple loads forecasting2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 96, p. 150-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric grid is changing. With the smart grid the demand response (DR) programs will hopefully make the grid more resilient and cost efficient. However, a scheme where consumers can directly participate in demand management requires new efforts for forecasting the electric loads of individual consumers. In this paper we try to find answers to two main questions for forecasting loads for individual consumers: First, can current short term load forecasting (STLF) models work efficiently for forecasting individual households? Second, do the anthropologic and structural variables enhance the forecasting accuracy of individual consumer loads? Our analysis show that a single multi-dimensional model forecasting for all houses using anthropologic and structural data variables is more efficient than a forecast based on traditional global measures. We have provided an extensive empirical evidence to support our claims.

  • 206.
    Jelica, Darijan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Taljegard, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thorson, L.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnsson, F.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hourly electricity demand from an electric road system – A Swedish case study2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 141-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the hourly electricity demand related to implementing an electric road system (ERS) on five Swedish roads with the highest traffic flows that connect the three largest cities in Sweden. The study also compares the energy demands and the CO2 mitigation potentials of the ERS with the use of carbon-based fuels to obtain the same transportation work, and extrapolates the results to all Swedish European- and National- (E- and N) roads. The hourly electricity demand along the roads are derived by linking 12 available measurement points for hourly road traffic volumes with 12,553 measurement points for the average daily traffic flows along the roads. The results show that applying an ERS to the five Swedish roads with the highest traffic flows can reduce by ∼20% the levels of CO2 emissions from the road transport sector, while increasing by less than 4% the hourly electricity demand on the peak dimensioning hour. Extending the ERS to all E- and N-roads would electrify almost half of the vehicle kilometers driven annually in Sweden, while increasing the load of the hourly peak electricity demand by only ∼10% on average.

  • 207.
    Ji, X.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lundgren, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Wang, Chuan
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Dahl, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Grip, C.-E.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Simulation and energy optimization of a pulp and paper mill - Evaporation plant and digester2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed mathematical process integration model of a pulp and paper mill in the Northern Sweden has been developed. The main objective of this work has been set to describe the practical development of the model with particular emphasis on the development of the digester and evaporation plant sub-models. Actual plant measurements have been used to validate the model. By implementing the sub-models into the complete plant model, the influence of different operation parameters on the overall plant performance has been investigated. Furthermore, introductory studies with the main objective to minimize the plant energy cost have been carried out. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 208.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wang, Chuan
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Simulation and energy optimization of a pulp and paper mill: evaporation plant and digester2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, no Spec. Issue, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed mathematical process integration model of a pulp and paper mill in the Northern Sweden has been developed. The main objective of this work has been set to describe the practical development of the model with particular emphasis on the development of the digester and evaporation plant sub-models. Actual plant measurements have been used to validate the model. By implementing the sub-models into the complete plant model, the influence of different operation parameters on the overall plant performance has been investigated. Furthermore, introductory studies with the main objective to minimize the plant energy cost have been carried out.

  • 209. Jiang, Xi
    et al.
    Kraft, Markus
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Selected papers from the Twelfth International Conference on Combustion and Energy Utilisation (12th ICCEU) Preface2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 156, p. 747-748Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 210.
    Jiang, Xi
    et al.
    Univ Lancaster, Dept Engn, Chair Energy Use & Transport, Lancaster LA1 4YR, England..
    Kraft, Markus
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Selected papers from the Twelfth International Conference on Combustion and Energy Utilisation (12th ICCEU) Preface2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 156, p. 747-748Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Jin, Ming
    et al.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Ind Engn & Operat Res, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Jain, Rishee
    Stanford Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Spanos, Costas
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Jia, Qingshan
    Tsinghua Univ, Dept Automat, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Norford, Leslie K.
    MIT, Dept Architecture, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Kjaergaard, Mikkel
    Univ Southern Denmark, Maersk McKinney Moller Inst, Odense, Denmark..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Energy-cyber-physical systems2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 256, article id UNSP 113939Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Jin, Ming
    et al.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Ind Engn & Operat Res, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Jain, Rishee
    Stanford Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Spanos, Costas
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Jia, Qingshan
    Tsinghua Univ, Dept Automat, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Norford, Leslie K.
    MIT, Dept Architecture, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Kjaergaard, Mikkel
    Univ Southern Denmark, Maersk McKinney Moller Inst, Odense, Denmark..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Malardalen Univ, Sch Sustainable Dev Soc & Technol, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Energy-cyber-physical systems2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 256, article id 113939Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 213.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    District heating and energy efficiency in detached houses of differing size and construction2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 126-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    House envelope measures and conversion of heating systems can reduce primary energy use and CO2 emission in the existing Swedish building stock. We analysed how the size and construction of electrically heated detached houses affect the potential for such measures and the potential for cogenerated district heating. Our starting point was two typical houses built in the 1970s. We altered the floor plans to obtain 6 houses, with heated floor space ranging between 100 and 306 m2. One of the houses was also analysed for three energy standards with differing heat loss rates. CO2 emission, primary energy use and heating cost were estimated after implementing house envelope measures, conversions to other heating systems and changes in the generation of district heat and electricity. The study accounted for primary energy, including energy chains from natural resources to useful heat in the houses. We showed that conversion to district heating based on biomass, together with house envelope measures, reduced the primary energy use by 88% and the CO2 emission by 96%, while reducing the annual societal cost by 7%. The choice of end-use heating system was decisive for the primary energy use, with district heating being the most efficient. Neither house size nor energy standard did significantly change the ranking of the heating systems, either from a primary energy or an economic viewpoint, but did affect the extent of the annual cost reduction after implementing the measures.

  • 214.
    Joelsson, Anna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    District heating and energy efficiency in detached houses of differing size and construction2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 126-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    House envelope measures and conversion of heating systems can reduce primary energy use and CO2 emission in the existing Swedish building stock. We analysed how the size and construction of electrically heated detached houses affect the potential for such measures and the potential for cogenerated district heating. Our starting point was two typical houses built in the 1970s. We altered the floor plans to obtain 6 houses, with heated floor space ranging between 100 and 306 m2. One of the houses was also analysed for three energy standards with differing heat loss rates. CO2 emission, primary energy use and heating cost were estimated after implementing house envelope measures, conversions to other heating systems and changes in the generation of district heat and electricity. The study accounted for primary energy, including energy chains from natural resources to useful heat in the houses. We showed that conversion to district heating based on biomass, together with house envelope measures, reduced the primary energy use by 88% and the CO2 emission by 96%, while reducing the annual societal cost by 7%. The choice of end-use heating system was decisive for the primary energy use, with district heating being the most efficient. Neither house size nor energy standard did significantly change the ranking of the heating systems, either from a primary energy or an economic viewpoint, but did affect the extent of the annual cost reduction after implementing the measures.

  • 215. Johansson, Lars
    et al.
    Westerlund, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Energy efficient bio fuel drying with an open absorption system: parameter study in order to reduce investment costs2000In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 231-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot plant using the open absorption system for drying of timber and bio fuel has been realized at a sawmill located in the northern part of Sweden. The technique decreases the energy demand for the dryers considerably and the system has an availability of about 8000 h per year. Compared with other drying techniques, the investment cost is high due to large airflow and therefore large apparatus. The main part of the investment cost, i.e. about 70% originates from the bio fuel dryer and the absorbers. In order to decrease the initial cost a parameter study has been made to investigate the possibilities to reduce the airflow of the drying process, i.e. bio fuel dryer and absorber. Parameters studied are drying temperature, salt concentration and cooling of the airflow during the absorption process. Measured values from the pilot plant have been used as a reference case. The results show that it is possible to decreases the airflow by 31% when using a higher drying temperature. Higher salt concentration decreases the airflow by approximately 32% and cooling during absorption makes it possible to decrease the airflow by 50%. In order to minimize the airflow, the three parameters were combined. In this case it is possible to decrease the airflow by approximately 60%. The electrical input for the plant is also high due to large air and solution flows. By decreasing the airflow, the required electrical input will also decrease since the fan power is proportional to the volume airflow. The results clearly show that it is possible to reduce the airflow and therefore the investment costs compared with the pilot plant.

  • 216. Johansson, Lars
    et al.
    Westerlund, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Energy savings in indoor swimming-pools: comparison between different heat-recovery systems2001In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 281-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In indoor swimming-pool facilities, the energy demand is large due to ventilation losses with the exhaust air. Since water is evaporated from the pool surface, the exhaust air has a high water content and specific enthalpy. Because of the low temperature, the heat from the evaporation is difficult to recover. In this paper, the energy demand for the conventional ventilation technique in indoor swimming pools is compared to two different heat-recovery techniques, the mechanical heat pump and the open absorption system. The mechanical heat-pump is the most widely used technique in Sweden today. The open absorption system is a new technique in this application. Calculations have been carried out on an hourly basis for the different techniques. Measurements from an absorption system pilot-plant installed in an indoor swimming pool in the northern part of Sweden have been used in the calculations. The results show that with the mechanical heat pump, the electrical input increases by 63 MWh/year and with the open absorption system 57 MWh/year. However, a mechanical heat-pump and an open absorption system decrease, the annual energy demand from 611 to 528 and 484 MWh respectively, which correspond to decreases of approximately 14 and 20% respectively. The electricity input will increase when using heat-recovery techniques. Changing the climate in the facility has also been investigated. An increased temperature decreases the energy demand when using the conventional ventilation technique. However, when either the mechanical heat-pump or the open absorption system is used, the energy demand is increased when the temperature is increased. Therefore increasing the temperature in the facility when using the conventional technique should be considered the first measure to reduce the energy demand.

  • 217.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mangold, Mikael
    Research Institutes of Sweden, City Development.
    Development of an energy atlas for renovation of the multifamily building stock in Sweden2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 203, p. 723-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have highlighted the importance of retrofitting to mitigate the energy use of building stocks. An important step in the development of renovation strategy and energy conservation advising is to gather information of the energy performance of the existing buildings. However, renovation strategies must also consider the socio-economic challenges associated with the cost of energy retrofitting. This paper describes the development of an energy atlas of the multifamily building stock in Sweden for visualizing and analyzing energy use and renovation needs. The atlas has been developed using Extract Transform and Load technology (ETL) to aggregate information on the energy performance, building ownership, renovation status, and socio-economic status of inhabitants from various data sources. The atlas can visualize the energy use and renovation status of multifamily buildings in 2D maps and 3D models, displaying data for either individual buildings or aggregated data on spatial scales ranging from 250 × 250 m squares through district and municipality to county areas. A demonstration of its use on national and city scales indicates that energy retrofits of multifamily buildings reaching a service life of 50 years can reduce the energy use of the existing building stock by up to 50% relative to 1990. However, costs associated with renovation and energy retrofits of multifamily buildings can be problematic, especially in economically weak suburbs. A good understanding of past and future renovation needs and socio-economic consequences is important in the development of a sustainable national renovation strategy.

  • 218.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Development of an energy atlas for renovation of the multifamily building stock in Sweden2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 203, p. 723-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have highlighted the importance of retrofitting to mitigate the energy use of building stocks. An important step in the development of renovation strategy and energy conservation advising is to gather information of the energy performance of the existing buildings. However, renovation strategies must also consider the socio-economic challenges associated with the cost of energy retrofitting. This paper describes the development of an energy atlas of the multifamily building stock in Sweden for visualizing and analyzing energy use and renovation needs. The atlas has been developed using Extract Transform and Load technology (ETL) to aggregate information on the energy performance, building ownership, renovation status, and socio-economic status of inhabitants from various data sources. The atlas can visualize the energy use and renovation status of multifamily buildings in 2D maps and 3D models, displaying data for either individual buildings or aggregated data on spatial scales ranging from 250 × 250 m squares through district and municipality to county areas. A demonstration of its use on national and city scales indicates that energy retrofits of multifamily buildings reaching a service life of 50 years can reduce the energy use of the existing building stock by up to 50% relative to 1990. However, costs associated with renovation and energy retrofits of multifamily buildings can be problematic, especially in economically weak suburbs. A good understanding of past and future renovation needs and socio-economic consequences is important in the development of a sustainable national renovation strategy. © 2017

  • 219. Jonsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Mulu, Berhanu
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Experimental investigation of a Kaplan draft tube: Part II: Off-design conditions2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 71-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Off-design conditions of hydropower turbines are becoming more frequent with the deregulation of electricity markets and the introduction of renewable energy resources. Originally, turbines were not built to operate under such conditions. It is evident that there is a need to develop turbines that can operate under off-design conditions while attaining high efficiency. This may be achieved with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, the complexity of Kaplan turbine flows is challenging to treat using CFD. Therefore, detailed experimental investigations are necessary to validate and develop CFD. This paper presents an investigation of a modern design Kaplan turbine model. The measurements were performed in the draft tube with laser Doppler anemometry and flush-mounted pressure sensors, with a focus on the part load and high load operation of the turbine. Mean and phase-averaged quantities are presented for the velocity and pressure along several sections. A contra-rotating flow region was observed under high load operation. Under part load operation, a rotating vortex rope (RVR) develops due to vortex breakdown. The presence of the RVR significantly reduces the draft tube performance.

  • 220.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden .
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden .
    Reflective coatings for interior and exterior of buildings and improving thermal performance2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 103, p. 562-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reducing building energy usage and thriving for more energy efficient architectures, has nurtured creative solutions and smart choices of materials in the last few decades. Among those are optimizing surface optical properties for both interior and exterior claddings of the building. Development in the coil-coating steel industries has now made it possible to allocate correct optical properties for steel clad buildings with improved thermal performance. Although the importance of the exterior coating and solar gain are thoroughly studied in many literatures, the effect of interior cladding are less tackled, especially when considering a combination of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. This paper contemplates the thermal behavior of small cabins with reflective coatings on both interior and exterior cladding, under different conditions and climates with the aim to clarify and point out to the potential energy saving by smart choices of clad coatings.

  • 221.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Svedung, Harald
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Highly reflective coatings for interior and exterior steel cladding and the energy efficiency of buildings2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 12, p. 4655-4666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of surface heat-radiation properties of coil-coated steel cladding material on the energy efficiency of buildings in Nordic climate is addressed by parallel temperature and energy usage measurements in a series of test cabins with different exterior solar reflectivity and interior thermal reflectivity. During one year, a number of one- or two-week experiments with air conditioner cooling and electrical floor heating were made while logging air-, radiation- and surface temperatures, energy consumption and weather conditions. Measurements show significant energy savings in the test cabins by the use of high thermal reflectivity interior surfaces both during heating and cooling and a strongly reduced cooling demand by the use of high solar reflectivity exterior surfaces. Results are interpreted within the context of a steady-state energy flux model, to illuminate the importance of surface resistance properties (radiation and convective heat dissipation).

  • 222.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Svedung, Harald
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Highly reflective coatings for interior and exterior steel cladding and the energy efficiency of buildings2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 12, p. 4655-4666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of surface heat-radiation properties of coil-coated steel cladding material on the energy efficiency of buildings in Nordic climate is addressed by parallel temperature and energy usage measurements in a series of test cabins with different exterior solar reflectivity and interior thermal reflectivity. During one year, a number of one- or two-week experiments with air conditioner cooling and electrical floor heating were made while logging air-, radiation- and surface temperatures, energy consumption and weather conditions. Measurements show significant energy savings in the test cabins by the use of high thermal reflectivity interior surfaces both during heating and cooling and a strongly reduced cooling demand by the use of high solar reflectivity exterior surfaces. Results are interpreted within the context of a steady-state energy flux model, to illuminate the importance of surface resistance properties (radiation and convective heat dissipation).

  • 223.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Svedung, Harald
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. SSAB EMEA.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Reflective coatings for interior and exterior of buildings and improving thermal performance2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 103, p. 562-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reducing building energy usage and thriving for more energy efficient architectures, has nurtured creative solutions and smart choices of materials in the last few decades. Among those are optimizing surface optical properties for both interior and exterior claddings of the building. Development in the coil-coating steel industries has now made it possible to allocate correct optical properties for steel clad buildings with improved thermal performance. Although the importance of the exterior coating and solar gain are thoroughly studied in many literatures, the effect of interior cladding are less tackled, especially when considering a combination of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. This paper contemplates the thermal behavior of small cabins with reflective coatings on both interior and exterior cladding, under different conditions and climates with the aim to clarify and point out to the potential energy saving by smart choices of clad coatings.

  • 224.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Svedung, Harald
    SSAB Europe, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mattias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden .
    Reflective coatings for interior and exterior of buildings and improving thermal performance2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 103, p. 562-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reducing building energy usage and thriving for more energy efficient architectures, has nurtured creative solutions and smart choices of materials in the last few decades. Among those are optimizing surface optical properties for both interior and exterior claddings of the building. Development in the coil-coating steel industries has now made it possible to allocate correct optical properties for steel clad buildings with improved thermal performance. Although the importance of the exterior coating and solar gain are thoroughly studied in many literatures, the effect of interior cladding are less tackled, especially when considering a combination of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. This paper contemplates the thermal behavior of small cabins with reflective coatings on both interior and exterior cladding, under different conditions and climates with the aim to clarify and point out to the potential energy saving by smart choices of clad coatings.

  • 225.
    Kantarelis, Efthymios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Forsgren, C.
    Zabaniotou, A.
    Thermochemical treatment of E-waste from small household appliances using highly pre-heated nitrogen-thermogravimetric investigation and pyrolysis kinetics2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 922-929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU directive on waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) 2002/96/EC has set a goal of recovering 70-80% in terms of materials and energy. Nowadays, thermal cracking (pyrolysis) of such waste streams is receiving renewed attention, due to the energy and material recovery that can be achieved and therefore the sustainable waste management. However, it still lacks the kinetic background which is of great importance for a successful design of thermochemical processes. In this study the kinetic parameters of WEEE (originating from small household appliances) pyrolysis using highly pre-heated nitrogen under six different heating rates (1-2.5 K/s) have been estimated using a combination of model-free and model fitted methods. Even though WEEE is heterogeneous material, similar behavior at each of the six different heating rates applied was observed. The activation energy of the pyrolysis process determined with two different model-free methods gave comparable results. Pre-exponential factor and reaction order were determined using the Coats-Redfern method. The estimated kinetic parameters for the WEEE pyrolysis are: E = 95.54 kJ/mol, A = 1.06 x 10(8) and n = 3.38.

  • 226.
    Karakaya, Emrah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Finite Element Method for Forecasting the Diffusion of Photovoltaic Systems: Why and How?2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 163, p. 464-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Finite Element Method (FEM) has been used in the broad field of continuum mechanics in engineering disciplines for several decades. However, recently, some scholars have attempted to apply the method to social science phenomena. What is the scope of using FEM in social science-related fields?  Anchored in the literature on social sciences, this paper, firstly, reviews the scope of using FEM in social science phenomena, and then applies FEM to a semi-hypothetical case study on the diffusion of solar photovoltaic systems in southern Germany.  By doing so, the paper aims to shed light on why and how the Finite Element Method can be used to forecast the diffusion of solar photovoltaic systems in time and space. Unlike conventional models used in diffusion literature, the computational model considers spatial heterogeneity. The model is based on a partial differential equation that describes the diffusion ratio of photovoltaic systems in a given region over time. The results of the application show that the FEM constitutes a powerful tool by which to study the diffusion of an innovation as a simultaneous space-time process.

  • 227.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The MIND method: A decision support for optimization of industrial energy systems – Principles and case studies2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 577-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in complex industrial energy systems require adequate tools to be evaluated satisfactorily. The MIND method (Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems) is a flexible method constructed as decision support for different types of analyses of industrial energy systems. It is based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and developed at Linköping University in Sweden. Several industries, ranging from the food industry to the pulp and paper industry, have hitherto been modelled and analyzed using the MIND method. In this paper the principles regarding the use of the method and the creation of constraints of the modelled system are presented. Two case studies are also included, a dairy and a pulp and paper mill, that focus some measures that can be evaluated using the MIND method, e.g. load shaping, fuel conversion and introduction of energy efficiency measures. The case studies illustrate the use of the method and its strengths and weaknesses. The results from the case studies are related to the main issues stated by the European Commission, such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, improvements regarding security of supply and increased use of renewable energy, and show great potential as regards both cost reductions and possible load shifting.

  • 228.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klugman, Sofia
    Gävle University.
    Henning, Dag
    Optensys Energianal.
    Moshfegh , Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 441-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy supply companies and industrial plants are likely to face new situations due to, for example, the introduction of new energy legislation, increased fuel prices and increased environmental awareness. These new prerequisites provide companies with new challenges but also new possibilities from which to benefit. Increased energy efficiency within companies and increased cooperation between different operators are two alternatives to meet the new conditions. A region characterized by a high density of energy-intensive processes is used in this study to find the economic potential of connecting three industrial plants and four energy companies, within three local district heating systems, to a regional heat market, in which different operators provide heat to a joint district heating grid. Also, different investment alternatives are studied. The results show that the economical potential for a heat market amounts to between 5 and 26 million EUR/year with payback times ranging from two to eleven years. However, the investment costs and the net benefit for the total system need to be allotted to the different operators, as they benefit economically to different extents from the introduction of a heat market. It is also shown that the emissions of CO2 from the joint system would decrease compared to separate operation of the systems. However, the valuation of CO2 emissions from electricity production is important as the difference of emitted CO2 between the accounting methods exceeds 650 kton/year for some scenarios.

  • 229.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Klugman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Henning, Dag
    Optensys Energianalys, Linköping, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 441-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy supply companies and industrial plants are likely to face new situations due to, for example, the introduction of new energy legislation, increased fuel prices and increased environmental awareness. These new prerequisites provide companies with new challenges but also new possibilities from which to benefit. Increased energy efficiency within companies and increased cooperation between different operators are two alternatives to meet the new conditions. A region characterized by a high density of energy-intensive processes is used in this study to find the economic potential of connecting three industrial plants and four energy companies, within three local district heating systems, to a regional heat market, in which different operators provide heat to a joint district heating grid. Also, different investment alternatives are studied. The results show that the economical potential for a heat market amounts to between 5 and 26 million EUR/year with payback times ranging from two to eleven years. However, the investment costs and the net benefit for the total system need to be allotted to the different operators, as they benefit economically to different extents from the introduction of a heat market. It is also shown that the emissions of CO(2) from the joint system would decrease compared to separate operation of the systems. However, the valuation of CO(2) emissions from electricity production is important as the difference of emitted CO(2) between the accounting methods exceeds 650 kton/year for some scenarios. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 230.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Considering start-ups and shutdowns using an optimisation tool – Including a dairy production planning case study2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 107, p. 338-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many different aspects a production-planning model has to be able to handle to make a model adequate for the purpose. One aspect is the handling of start-ups and shutdowns for different processes. The production plan is likely to be changed when considering, for example, a cost connected to the start-up and/or shutdown of processes. Besides costs associated with start-ups and shutdowns, waste may be produced during the start-up and shutdown. However, there is also the possibility of carrying out soft start-ups and shutdowns or limiting the number of start-ups and shutdowns. Thus, start-ups and shutdowns have to be handled in an adequate way in models to produce reliable and accurate results. In optimisation tools, this may be dealt with by introducing certain constraints, including integers. In this paper, the implementation of alternative ways to consider start-ups and shutdowns are presented. This is done in the energy system optimisation tool reMIND, which deals with Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problems. The purpose of this paper is to show four alternatives to consider start-ups and shutdowns in optimisation models. This involves, in total, almost 50 constraints. Also, a simple dairy case study is included in the paper to visualise the effect of implementing the different alternatives to shutdowns.

  • 231. Khan, Z.
    et al.
    Yusup, S.
    Kamble, P.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Watson, I.
    Assessment of energy flows and energy efficiencies in integrated catalytic adsorption steam gasification for hydrogen production2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 225, p. 346-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the energy flows and energy efficiency of integrated catalytic adsorption biomass steam gasification for hydrogen production in a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed system utilizing palm kernel shell as feedstock. The integrated catalytic adsorption utilizes catalyst and CO2 adsorbent together in the single fluidized bed gasifier. Various variables such as effect of temperature (600–750 °C), steam to biomass ratio (1.5–2.5 w/w), adsorbent to biomass ratio (0.5–1.5 w/w), fluidization velocity (0.15–0.26 m/s) and biomass particle size (0.355–0.500 to 1.0–2.0 mm) are investigated. The results imply that the overall requirement of gasification energy increases with increasing gasification temperature, steam to biomass ratio, fluidization velocity, and decreases with adsorbent to biomass ratio whilst no significant increase is observed by varying the biomass particle size. However, a slight reduction in required energy is observed from 600 °C to 675 °C which might be due to strong CO2 adsorption, an exothermic reaction, and contributes to the energy requirements of the process. Besides, hydrogen-based energy efficiencies increase with increasing temperature while first increases to a medium value of steam to biomass ratio (2.0), adsorbent to biomass ratio (1.0) and fluidization velocity (0.21 m/s) followed by a slight decrease (or remains unchanged). The integrated catalytic adsorption steam gasification is found to be a high energy consuming process and thus, waste heat integration needs to be implemented for feasible hydrogen production

  • 232.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Altorkmany, Lobna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    How global warming and building envelope will change buildings energy use in central Europe2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, no Spec. Issue, p. 999-1004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal performance of ground source heat pump systems (GSHP) strongly depends on ground temperature and energy demand for heating and cooling during the year. Certainly, increasing the global temperature means warmer ground. On the other hand, the thermal load of a building is influenced by thermal quality of building envelop (TQBE) and also influenced by the ambient air temperature. There is absolutely no doubt that the global temperature has increased during the last century. Over time, the buildings designs are changing. These result in changed thermal load of the buildings, ground temperature, and thereby changed the thermal performance of GSHPs. The objective of current work was to investigate the impact of TQBE under different global warming scenarios on driving energy and construction cost of GSHPs in Vienna. This was achieved by comparing the driving energy of the GSHP as well the required total length of the borehole heat exchanger for different GW scenarios and different TQBE. Under climate conditions of Vienna city study shows that improving the TQBE and increasing ambient air temperature result in reduced driving energy of GSHP. While is it not obvious for the required total borehole depth. Namely, after a certain degree of GW, increasing TQBE might result in increased required borehole depth.

  • 233.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Venkata K., Bharadwaj
    World Bioenergy Association, Holländargatan 17, 111 60 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Johnson X., Francis
    Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) Africa Centre, c/o ICRAF, United Nations Avenue, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya.
    Energy and GHG balances of ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 164, p. 756-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the sustainability of fuel ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed to evaluate the net emissions (climate change impact) and energy inputs (resource consumption) in the production chain. The lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the production and use of ethanol are estimated at 29 gCO2eq per MJ of ethanol produced which is a 67% reduction in comparison to gasoline emissions. Net Energy Value (NEV) and Net Renewable Energy Value (NREV) are -7 MJ/l and 17.7 MJ/l, while the energy yield ratio (ER) is 6.1. Economic allocation is chosen for dividing environmental burdens and resource consumption between sugar (i.e. main product) and molasses (i.e. co-product used for fuel production). Sensitivity analysis of various parameters is performed. The emissions and energy values are highly sensitive to sugarcane yield, ethanol yield, and the price of molasses. The use of sugarcane biomass residues (bagasse/trash) for efficient cogeneration, and different waste management options for the treatment of spent wash (effluent of distilleries) are also explored. Surplus bioelectricity generation in the efficient cogeneration plant, biogas recovery from wastewater treatment plant, and their use for fossil fuel substitution can help improve energy and environmental gains. The study also compares important results with other relevant international studies and discusses issues related to land use change (LUC) impact.

  • 234.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    Lindgärde, Olof
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Reducing Auxiliary Energy Consumption of Heavy Trucks by Onboard Prediction and Real-time Optimization2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 188, p. 652-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric engine cooling system, where the coolant pump and the radiator fan are driven by electric motors, admits advanced control methods to decrease auxiliary energy consumption. Recent publications show the fuel saving potential of optimal control strategies for the electric cooling system through offline simulations. These strategies often assume full knowledge of the drive cycle and compute the optimal control sequence by expensive global optimization methods. In reality, the full drive cycle is unknown during driving and global optimization not directly applicable on resource-constrained truck electronic control units. This paper reports state-of-the-art engineering achievements of exploiting vehicular onboard prediction for a limited time horizon and minimizing the auxiliary energy consumption of the electric cooling system through real-time optimization. The prediction and optimization are integrated into a model predictive controller (MPC), which is implemented on a dSPACE MicroAutoBox and tested on a truck on a public road. Systematic simulations show that the new method reduces fuel consumption of a 40-tonne truck by 0.36% and a 60-tonne truck by 0.69% in a real drive cycle compared to a base-line controller. The reductions on auxiliary fuel consumption for the 40-tonne and 60-tonne trucks are about 26% and 38%, respectively. Truck experiments validate the consistency between simulations and experiments and confirm the real-time feasibility of the MPC controller. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 235.
    Killer, Marvin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Farrokhseresht, M.
    Paterakis, N. G.
    Implementation of large-scale Li-ion battery energy storage systems within the EMEA region2020In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 260, article id 114166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale Lithium-ion Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) are gradually playing a very relevant role within electric networks in Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA). The high energy density of Li-ion based batteries in combination with a remarkable round-trip efficiency and constant decrease in the levelized cost of storage have led to the recent boom of the technology. However, many of the potential applications of large-scale battery systems are not economically viable at this point in time. As a result, several BESS projects are being pushed by the industry towards specific niches which are based on revenue streams that can be rather complex than straightforward. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of how large-scale Li-ion BESS are currently being implemented in the EMEA region, giving an answer to the following questions: what are the main use-cases of large-scale Li-ion batteries that are being implemented? What are the key factors that are enabling the deployment of BESS projects in the present markets? How can current tendencies be extrapolated to the future outlook of Li-ion BESS implementations? The large-scale energy storage market is evolving at a very fast pace, hence this review paper intends to contribute to a better understanding of the current status of Li-ion battery systems focusing on the economic feasibility that is driving the realization of Li-ion BESS projects in the EMEA region.

  • 236.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Local and regional energy companies offering energy services: Key activities and implications for the business model2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 171, p. 491-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy services play a key role in increasing energy efficiency in the industry. The key actors in these services are the local and regional energy companies that are increasingly implementing energy services as part of their market offering and developing service portfolios. Although expectations for energy services have been high, progress has so far been limited, and many companies offering energy services, including energy companies, are experiencing difficulties in implementing energy services and providing them to the market. Overall, this research examines what is needed for local and regional energy companies to successfully implement energy services (and consequently provide them to the market). In doing this, a two-stage process is used: first, we identify key activities for the successful implementation of energy services, and second, we aggregate the findings to the business model level. This research demonstrates that to succeed in implementing energy services, an energy company may need to renew parts or all of its existing product-based business model, formulate a new business model, or develop coexisting multiple business models. By discussing two distinct business model innovation processes, this research demonstrates that there can be different paths to success.

  • 237.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill. Part 1. Energy audit aiming at efficiency measures2007In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 326-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish wood-pulp mill is surveyed in terms of energy supply and use in order to determine the energy-saving potential. Conservation measures are of increasing interest to Swedish industry, as energy prices have continued to rise in recent years. The electricity price particularly increased after the deregulation of the Scandinavian electricity market in 1996. The deregulation expanded to all of the EU in July 2004, which may increase the Swedish electricity price further until it reaches the generally higher European price level. Furthermore, oil prices have increased and the emissions trading scheme for CO2 adds to the incentive to reduce oil consumption. The energy system at the surveyed pulp mill is described in terms of electricity and process heat production and use. The total energy-saving potential is estimated and some saving points are identified. The heat that today is wasted at the mill has been surveyed in order to find potential for heat integration or heat export. The result shows that the mill probably could become self-sufficient in electricity. Particularly important in that endeavour is updating old pumps.

  • 238.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill: Part 1. Energy audit aiming at efficiency measures2007In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 326-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish wood-pulp mill is surveyed in terms of energy supply and use in order to determine the energy-saving potential. Conservation measures are of increasing interest to Swedish industry, as energy prices have continued to rise in recent years. The electricity price particularly increased after the deregulation of the Scandinavian electricity market in 1996. The deregulation expanded to all of the EU in July 2004, which may increase the Swedish electricity price further until it reaches the generally higher European price level. Furthermore, oil prices have increased and the emissions trading scheme for CO2 adds to the incentive to reduce oil consumption. The energy system at the surveyed pulp mill is described in terms of electricity and process heat production and use. The total energy-saving potential is estimated and some saving points are identified. The heat that today is wasted at the mill has been surveyed in order to find potential for heat integration or heat export. The result shows that the mill probably could become self-sufficient in electricity. Particularly important in that endeavor is updating old pumps.

  • 239.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill. Part 2. International and model mills comparison.2007In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 340-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy use at a Swedish chemical wood-pulp mill is compared internationally and for two model mills that aim to use the most efficient available technology. The international comparison is performed between Canadian and Scandinavian pulp-mills on a general level, and on a closer level among eleven Swedish and Finnish non-integrated sulfate pulp-mills, the type of mill considered in the case study. The two model mills that are used for comparison are one Swedish and one Canadian. The Scandinavian pulp-mills are somewhat more energy efficient than the Canadian mills. Still, the variation in energy use is remarkably large among the Scandinavian mills, which indicates that the energy-saving potential is great. If all Swedish freestanding sulfate pulp-mills became as energy efficient as the most efficient Scandinavian mill, electricity savings corresponding to nearly 1% of the national electricity use would be obtained. In the model mills comparison it was found that large amounts of heat could be saved, particularly in the evaporation plant.

  • 240.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    A Scandinavian chemical wood-pulp mill: Part 2. International and model mills comparison2007In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 340-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy use at a Swedish chemical wood-pulp mill is compared internationally and for two model mills that aim to use the most efficient available technology. The international comparison is performed between Canadian and Scandinavian pulp-mills on a general level, and on a closer level among eleven Swedish and Finnish non-integrated sulfate pulp-mills, the type of mill considered in the case study. The two model mills that are used for comparison are one Swedish and one Canadian. The Scandinavian pulp-mills are somewhat more energy efficient than the Canadian mills. Still, the variation in energy use is remarkably large among the Scandinavian mills, which indicates that the energy-saving potential is great. If all Swedish freestanding sulfate pulp-mills became as energy efficient as the most efficient Scandinavian mill, electricity savings corresponding to nearly 1% of the national electricity use would be obtained. In the model mills comparison it was found that large amounts of heat could be saved, particularly in the evaporation plant.

  • 241.
    Kordas, Olga
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Liu, Gengyuan
    Ulgiati, Sergio
    Energy and urban systems2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 186, p. 83-85Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 242. Kupecki, J.
    et al.
    Papurello, D.
    Lanzini, A.
    Naumovich, Y.
    Motylinski, K.
    Blesznowski, M.
    Santarelli, M.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Department of Energy (DENERG), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129, Italy.
    Numerical model of planar anode supported solid oxide fuel cell fed with fuel containing H2S operated in direct internal reforming mode (DIR-SOFC)2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 230, p. 1573-1584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental analysis of a planar 100 mm × 100 mm SOFC cell was conducted during operation at 1173 K in direct internal reforming (DIR) mode. In the first phase the rate of direct internal reforming was varied from 0 to 100% what corresponds to complete external reforming and complete DIR, respectively. In the second phase 1.2 ppm(v) of H2S was introduced to the feeding gas and the variation of the rate of direct internal reforming was repeated. Following the experimental analysis the numerical model was proposed to determine the correlation between the presence of the poisoning agent and the electrochemical performance. The effect on the resistance of the cell was studied. The lumped volume model was applied to predict the cell voltage. With the use of the experimental data it was possible to determine the relative change of the model parameters which describe the ionic and electronic conductivity of the SOFC. Model was adopted for predictive modeling of the solid oxide fuel cell, operated in DIR-SOFC mode with and without the presence of hydrogen sulfide. Additionally, literature data measured for a cell operated in complete internal reforming mode with variation of the sulfur content in the feeding gas were analyzed to define the effect of H2S content on the performance drop. Relative change of the resistance of a cell was correlated with the rate of internal reforming and the content of sulfur. Results of the analysis show that the degradation of the performance of SOFC due to sulfur poisoning during operation in DIR mode can be modelled with high fidelity. Change of the ionic and electronic resistance of a cell accounted for the maximum of 34 and 53%, respectively when the rate of DIR was altered between 0 and 100%. The contribution of the sulfur poisoning accounts for 69 and 79% when the H2S content varies in the range of 0.001–5 ppm(v). With average relative prediction error below 3%, the proposed approach finds good application in simulating the performance of a cell exposed to different gas mixtures with different levels of sulfur in the fuel stream. 

  • 243.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    On the trade-off between aviation NOx and energy efficiency2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 185, p. 1506-1516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess the trade-off between the ever-increasing energy efficiency of modern aero-engines and their   performance. The work builds on performance models previously developed to optimise the specific fuel consumption of future aero-engine designs. As part of the present work a simple and adaptable   emissions correlation for Rich-burn Quick-quench Lean-burn combustor designs is derived. The proposed model is computationally inexpensive and sufficiently accurate for use in aero-engine multi-disciplinary conceptual design tools. Furthermore, it is possible to adapt the correlation to model the   emissions of combustors designed for very aggressive future cycles. An approach to lean-burn combustor   emissions modelling is also presented. The simulation results show that improving engine propulsive efficiency is likely to have a benign effect on  emissions at high altitude; at sea-level conditions   emissions are particularly likely to reduce. Improving engine thermal efficiency however has a detrimental effect on   emissions from RQL combustors, both at high altitude and particularly at sea-level conditions. LDI combustor technology does not demonstrate such behaviour. Current legislation permits trading   emissions engine efficiency and hence reduce   emissions. If we are to reduce the contribution of aviation to global warming, however, future certification legislation may need to become more stringent and comprehensive.

  • 244.
    Lam, H. L.
    et al.
    Hon Loong Lam Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Malaysia.
    Varbanov, P. S.
    University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary.
    Klemeš, J. J.
    University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Green Applied Energy for sustainable development2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 161, p. 601-604Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue of Applied Energy contains articles developed from initial ideas related to the 17th Conference Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (PRES 2014) held in Prague, Czech Republic, during 23-27 August 2014. The conference has been organised jointly with CHISA 2014. Both events have benefitted from the shared pool of participants as well as the expanded opportunities for exchanging ideas. From all contributions presented at the conference, high-quality ones suitable for Applied Energy, have been invited. Overall, 37 extended manuscripts have been invited as candidate articles. Of those, after a thorough review procedure, 11 articles have been selected to be published. The topics attained in the focus of this Special Issue include Process Integration and Energy Management, CO2 capture, and Green Energy Applications. 

  • 245. Lam, Hon Loong
    et al.
    Varbanov, Petar Sabev
    Klemes, Jiri Jaromir
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Green Applied Energy for sustainable development2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 161, p. 601-604Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue of Applied Energy contains articles developed from initial ideas related to the 17th Conference Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (PRES 2014) held in Prague, Czech Republic, during 23-27 August 2014. The conference has been organised jointly with CHISA 2014. Both events have benefitted from the shared pool of participants as well as the expanded opportunities for exchanging ideas. From all contributions presented at the conference, high-quality ones suitable for Applied Energy, have been invited. Overall, 37 extended manuscripts have been invited as candidate articles. Of those, after a thorough review procedure, 11 articles have been selected to be published. The topics attained in the focus of this Special Issue include Process Integration and Energy Management, CO2 capture, and Green Energy Applications.

  • 246.
    Larsson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH.
    Yan, Jinying
    KTH. Vattenfall AB, Sweden.
    Nordenskjöld, C.
    Forsberg, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Liu, Longcheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Characterisation of stormwater in biomass-fired combined heat and power plants: Impact of biomass fuel storage2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 170, p. 116-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characteristics of stormwater in industrial areas are evaluated, specifically based on a biomass-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant with on-site biomass fuel storage. An evaluation method is developed to combine general methodology applied for stormwater characterisation with the on-site features of the biomass-fired CHP plant. Investigations were carried out through on-site monitoring and laboratory experiments with the defined methodology. Recycled wood chips as biomass fuel currently used in Swedish biomass-fired CHP plants have been used as an example for this study. The impacts of outdoor biomass fuel storage have been analysed for both runoff water quantity and quality. The results indicate that the properties of stored biomass fuels will significantly affect the runoff quantity by its water absorption capability. The overall runoff quality is highly depended on precipitation intensity and the runoff volume from the biomass storage piles, which is influenced by the water retention capacity and leaching ability of biomass fuels. The practical data and information presented in this paper can be used to understand the principal issues and the most important factors for internal control of contamination sources in order to achieve sustainable Energy-Water systems for bioenergy conversion in biomass-fired CHP plants.

  • 247.
    Larsson, Sylvia H.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry.
    Rudolfsson, Magnus
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry.
    Nordwaeger, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Samuelsson, Robert
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry.
    Effects of moisture content, torrefaction temperature, and die temperature in pilot scale pelletizing of torrefied Norway spruce2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 102, p. 827-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot scale pelletizing of torrefied Norway spruce was performed in a factorial design with controlled factors at two levels: material moisture content (11% and 15%) and torrefaction temperature (270 and 300 °C), and die temperature as an uncontrolled factor (60–105 °C). Compared to commercial wood pellets, produced pellets had comparable bulk densities (630–710 kg/m3) but lower pellet durability (80–90%). Energy consumption for pelletizing of torrefied materials was approximately 100% higher than for softwood pelletizing, despite using a much shorter die channel length (35 vs. 55 mm:s), and the amounts of fines were high (10–30%). Die temperature showed a strong positive correlation with pellet production rate. Material moisture content had little influence on pellet quality and production rate, but addition of water created handling problems due to bad flow behavior.

  • 248.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics on electricity saving in energy-intensive industry2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 240, p. 499-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study looked at the extent to which firm characteristics such as total firm capital affect electricity saving in energy-intensive industry in Sweden from 2007 to 2015. Specifically, the most influential variables for systematic variation in electricity saving in the energy-intensive companies participating in Sweden’s voluntary programme for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (the PFE) were studied by analysing monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics. Monetary investment and payback time influenced electricity savings during the PFE more than firm characteristics, with monetary investment being most influential. Nevertheless, the total systematic variation in firm characteristics may account for ∼16% of the systematic variation in electricity saving, where ∼74% (32 of 43) of the studied firm characteristics seemed to merit further investigation and where ∼49% (21 of 43) of firm characteristics appeared most influential. The most influential firm characteristics were total firm capital, stock turnover ratio, machinery, short-term liabilities per turnover ratio and goodwill. The overall results showed that firm characteristics can influence a firm’s energy-saving activities and indicated a tendency for more energy savings in companies that were financially weaker or had done less work to improve energy efficiency prior to the PFE.

  • 249.
    Leduc, S.
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria;b.Division of Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Lundgren, J.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria;b.Division of Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Franklin, O.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Dotzauer, E.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Location of a biomass based methanol production plant: A dynamic problem in northern Sweden2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerning production and use of biofuels, mismatch between the locations of feedstock and the biofuel consumer may lead to high transportation costs and negative environmental impact. In order to minimize these consequences, it is important to locate the production plant at an appropriate location. In this paper, a case study of the county of Norrbotten in northern Sweden is presented with the purpose to illustrate how an optimization model could be used to assess a proper location for a biomass based methanol production plant. The production of lignocellulosic based methanol via gasification has been chosen, as methanol seems to be one promising alternative to replace fossil gasoline as an automotive fuel and Norrbotten has abundant resources of woody biomass. If methanol would be produced in a stand-alone production plant in the county, the cost for transportation of the feedstock as well as the produced methanol would have great impact on the final cost depending on where the methanol plant is located. Three different production plant sizes have been considered in the study, 100, 200 and 400 MW (biomass fuel input), respectively. When assessing a proper location for this kind of plant, it is important to also consider the future motor fuel demand as well as to identify a heat sink for the residual heat. In this study, four different automotive fuel- and district heating demand scenarios have been created until the year 2025. The results show that methanol can be produced at a maximum cost of 0.48 €/l without heat sales. By selling the residual heat as district heating, the methanol production cost per liter fuel may decrease by up to 10% when the plant is located close to an area with high annual heat demand.

  • 250. Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Franklin, O.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Dotzauer, E.
    Mälardalen University.
    Location of a biomass based methanol production plant: a dynamic problem in northern Sweden2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerning production and use of biofuels, mismatch between the locations of feedstock and the biofuel consumer may lead to high transportation costs and negative environmental impact. In order to minimize these consequences, it is important to locate the production plant at an appropriate location. In this paper, a case study of the county of Norrbotten in northern Sweden is presented with the purpose to illustrate how an optimization model could be used to assess a proper location for a biomass based methanol production plant. The production of lignocellulosic based methanol via gasification has been chosen, as methanol seems to be one promising alternative to replace fossil gasoline as an automotive fuel and Norrbotten has abundant resources of woody biomass. If methanol would be produced in a stand-alone production plant in the county, the cost for transportation of the feedstock as well as the produced methanol would have great impact on the final cost depending on where the methanol plant is located. Three different production plant sizes have been considered in the study, 100, 200 and 400 MW (biomass fuel input), respectively. When assessing a proper location for this kind of plant, it is important to also consider the future motor fuel demand as well as to identify a heat sink for the residual heat. In this study, four different automotive fuel- and district heating demand scenarios have been created until the year 2025. The results show that methanol can be produced at a maximum cost of 0.48 €/l without heat sales. By selling the residual heat as district heating, the methanol production cost per liter fuel may decrease by up to 10% when the plant is located close to an area with high annual heat demand.

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