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  • 201.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Constitutions and the Application of Public Management Reforms: Formulating a Research Agenda2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since constitutional aspects of public management reforms are rarely debated, scholars and politicians alike end up underestimating two fundamental problems in modern democratic political systems. The first concerns the effects that public management policies may have on power allocation within and outside the public sphere. Here the lack of critical analysis and debate concerns the fact that seemingly technical adjustments of the government’s tool box may end up changing the power allocation among actors vertically as well as horizontally. The second perspective, and the one to be discussed in this paper, concerns the reverse relationship, i.e. how constitutions influence public management policy reforms. The last decades have resulted in a global spread of ideas regarding how governments should manage public authorities and the public sector. In this paper we aim at identifying constitutional variables to explain the variation of how specific public management tools are applied in different contexts.

  • 202.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Government Steering over Two Decades: A Large-N comparison2016In: RC27 Structure and Organization of Government: Panel:  RC27.05 Out of Control or over Controlled? Incentives, Audits and New Public Management, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The post-NPM debate on government control of state authorities is un-decisive in both problem description and in terms of suggested remedies. ‘Wicked problems’ are said to call for re-integration of state executives, and for enhanced government control in order to increase coordination between public organizations. At the same time, excessive (performance) control is accused of posing a threat to professionalism in the public sector and to its problem solving capacity. In this paper we build upon Verhoest et al’s (2004) suggestion that we need to treat autonomy as a multi-dimensional phenomenon and argue the importance of adopting a nuanced analytical perspective on issues of too much or too little control. Using a unique data set containing information on nearly 20 years of governmental steering as this is expressed in yearly appropriation direction documents (N=1330) issued by the Swedish government, we a) map out how the government’s demand for performance information has developed over time, and b) as we treat performance information demands as one out of many policy instruments in a government’s toolbox we also look for specific and stable combinations of different policy instruments (represented by autonomy dimensions). Our findings show that the number of performance information indicators requested from governments in appropriation direction-documents have on a general level decreased over time. From our bivariate and multivariate analyses we have shown that any government’s inclination to e.g. demand less performance information from its state agencies in general comes with a less autonomous management model for the state agency.

  • 203.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Policy and Knowledge: Ignoring Facts or Surrendering to Experts2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest to evaluate policies and make use of scientific evidence in politics and policy. However, the relationship between politics and knowledge is quite complex. Sometimes politicians involve policy analysts, because they want to find out “the best solution” to a policy problem. But other times they just want to find arguments for a position already decided. This is discouraging. If we want politics to take the form of enlightened understanding it is not acceptable that relevant information is totally ignored. In that case, policy analysis and evaluations might just be a play to the gallery or an empty ritual. On the other hand we do not want politicians to be like puppets on a string for experts. Results from evaluations, scientific committees or other policy analyses, should not be uncritically accepted by politicians. If so, we risk a situation where politics moves from democratic arenas to closed offices of consultants and experts. Hence, from a normative point of view, we would like decision-makers to critically reflect on relevant information, and be able to argue why they dismiss some information and make use of other. But this is not easy, and there are still a lot unknown: there is a need for better instruments for analysis of the problem and more empirical knowledge of how and when politicians navigate between ignorance and technocracy. In this article we take some steps in that direction. First, we elaborate on three basic ideal types; Ignorance, Rational deliberation and Entrusting experts. Second, we test the hypothesis that politicians will entrust experts when there is established knowledge in the field, consensus among experts, and clear politically established criteria to follow. However, the two cases examined do not confirm expected results. In a first case where we would expect decisive influence from experts, the knowledge produced was ignored. In the second case, where we expected politicians to have excellent opportunities to control decision-making, it was instead controlled by experts. This has important implications for how we look upon the relationship between politics and expertise, and for future research.

  • 204. Ahlgreen, Mette
    et al.
    Dahlerup, DrudeStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Nordic BRYT-Project: final report1990Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 205. Ahlgren, Michael
    et al.
    Nilsson, Per Åke
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Olausson, Pär M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Rylenius, Karin
    Högertrafik och massturism: En betraktelse över folkomröstningar och deras betydelse1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En betraktelse över folkomröstningar och deras betydelse.

  • 206.
    Ahlin, Martin
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Carler, Nicklas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT.
    Media and the Muslims: A thesis on media framing & priming in Argentina2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All over the western world, media are giving Muslims the role as scapegoats for everything that is wrong with society. Through grave generalizations as well as alleged connections between Islam and terrorism, social categorizations are established in which Muslims become the ‘others’. Research has been made on a various amount of western nations, with the exception of a few, and this thesis explores how Argentinean media portray Islam and Muslims. With the use of quantitative and qualitative text analyses, the result will show the levels of priming and framing in relation to earlier research. By assuming social constructivism, a high frequency of these two ‘faces of power’ would affect societal relations, possibly creating a gap between an ‘us’ and ‘them’. Our findings suggest, however, this is not the case in Argentina; on the contrary, Argentinean media lack the frames which make Muslims ‘others’. This important discovery implies that the relationship between Islam and the West of today does not necessarily have to be one of two combatants, incapable of coexisting.

  • 207.
    Ahlin, Terese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Den kommunala självstyrelsen: En kvalitativ idéanalys om riksdagspartiers syn på skolan och kommunens mottagande av nyanlända2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 208.
    Ahling, Jesse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kosovo - Självständighetens betydelse och möjligheter: En fallstudie i demokratiutveckling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the democratization process of Kosovo in the years after the countries independence was assured. Two central questions for the case study consist of whether a democratic improvement in the country has occurred and which factors, positive and negative, are present to further improve or impede the democratizationprocess. The study builds upon two central definitions, democratic states and democratization in order to gain theoretical background to be able to measure these two quite abstract expressions. A socioeconomic model is used to measure favorable or negative developments within Kosovos society and the findings of this model confirms the hypothesis of modernization theory, namely that increased socioeconomic development increases the chance of a positive democratizationprocess. There has been a positive democratic development aswell as socioecomic progress but since the nature of this study is merely descriptive and not explanatory, it doesnt make claims on the explanatory power of modernization theory. A transition model is used for gaining a general overview of where in the democratizationprocess Kosovo currently resides. The findings of this model suggests that Kosovo currently sits in the transitionsphase of the model with problems like corruption and ethnical conflicts between minorities aswell as gender inequality as the main forces holding back the quality aspect of the consolidationphase.

  • 209.
    Ahlqvist, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kan de gröna nyckeltalen vara ett effektivt verktyg i arbetet mot hållbar utveckling och i så fall hur?2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 210.
    Ahlqvist, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Fallstudie över Luleå kommuns implementering av gröna nyckeltal2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 211.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Besvär!: Om motståndet hos två tvångssammanslagna kommuner i samband med kommunblocksreformen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate why the two Swedish municipalities of Frykerud and Östmark were the only municipalities in Värmland that were forcibly merged by the state during the ”Municipality block reform” of 1971, and whether local identities played a role in the resistance against this reform. 

        The study is designed as a comparative case study and builds on both history and political science to analyze the topic from a broader perspective. Based on the research situation three theoretical theses have been formulated, the durability of which will be tested in the analysis part of the essay.

        The study notes that Frykeruds resistance against the ”Municipality block reform” started when the reform prevented a planned retirement home construction in the municipality. In the analytical part of the essay, the author discusses how the discontent can be interpreted as symptomatic of bourgeois centralization resistance, as well as being due to the fact that traditional, local self-government as a political subject was perceived as threatened. In Östmark, the "Municipality block reform" developed into a political struggle between the reformist Social Democrats and the "reform-skeptical" conservative parties. The battle started with disagreements over the completions of investments in the municipality.

        In the analysis section, the hypotheses previously formulated have been tested, and the author also formulates a new hypothesis regarding the local communities and local identities' political role in the resistance against the "Municipality block reform".

  • 212.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University.
    Håll gränsen!: Centerpartiets försvarspolitik 1912-20152016Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe the Swedish Centre Party’s defense policy between the years 1912-2015. and try to outline potential ideological changes in their politics during the same period. An ideology analysis is employed for the purpose.

    The analysis is carried out by a method based on ideological ideal types, to which the Swedish Centre Party’s defense policy through history are compared to. The ideological ideal types ”liberalism” and ”realism” are aiming to describe the international defense policy, whilst the ideal types ”doves” and ”hawks” are aiming to describe the national defense policy. The use of ideal types, as it is done in this study, is to be seen as a way to bridge the gap between everyday policies and more abstract ideology.

    The result of this study shows that not only has an ideological change taken place in the Swedish Centre Party’s defense policy during the course of history; three major changes are identified and described. The study also shows that the Swedish Centre Party has made an ideological travel from being isolationistic pacifists pre-World War I to approaching a more liberal hawk-influenced defense policy in the 21th Century.

  • 213.
    Ahlqvist, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Den lyssnande kommunen: Om medborgardialog ur förtroendevaldas, tjänstemäns och medborgares perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    For the last decades, the party memberships in Sweden have decreased from 600.000 to 300.000, although the general interest in politics have been stable during the same period. This situation can be percieved as a threat to swedish democracy; if the political parties are loosing contact with the citizens, the parties will also face the risk of not being able to canalize the views of the citizens. If that’s the case, the represenative democracy might loose legitimacy. These conclusions have triggered local municipalities in Sweden to launch ”civil dialogue”, innovative ways to include the citizens in public projects and welfare services, with the purpose to re-establish connection and trust between the public and civil sector. However, political studies suggest that civil dialogue rarely have succeeded to strenghtened democracy. In some cases, civil dialogue seemed to hurt trust and legitimacy in local municipalities. That makes the civil dialogue phenomenon interesting – how can attempts to reinforce trust and democracy result in a backfire? What in the core of civil dialogue might catalyze this backlash?

       The nature of civil dialogue suggest that cooperation between the public and civil sphere is becoming more acceptable, even desirable, in swedish politics. This development breaks with the traditional ways of public administration and bureaucracy in Sweden. However, the cooperation between the public and civil sphere is also the core of a new broad trend in public administration and governing, namely ”governace”. Governance refers to a way of adminstrating public affairs by the logic of networks, including the civil society in the public affairs with the purpose of making the public administration more effective and to find creative solutions on new problems. The first aim of this study is to recieve a new understanding how the subjective experiences of civil dialogue participants can affect legitimacy and trust, by analyzing the experiences of participants in a failed dialogue. The second aim is to explore wether civil dialogue is better understood as a part of a new broad trend in public buraucracy, governance, rather than more traditional bureaucracy. These aims are fulfilled using a case study, which has a swedish local municipality, Sunne, in focus.

       The results of the study suggests that none of the participants of the civil dialogue in Sunne experienced that they had ”been listened to”, which seems to be an important cause behind the negative result of the specific dialogue. The innovativeand failed attempt to strengthen the legitimacy of local democracy resulted in a negative reaction through the traditional channels of political participation. The study also suggests that civil dialogue and governace have some similarities regarding their main principles of value and general logic, but since the municipality of Sunne didn’t implement the steering logics of civil dialogue in its full practice, it’s hard to judge wether it should be perceived as governance or not.

  • 214.
    Ahlqvist, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Alldeles för byråkratisk?: En studie av Djurskyddsmyndighetens organisation2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to describe the organization of the Swedish Animal WelfareAgency during the time it was in operation. The Swedish Animal Welfare Agency was established in 2005 by the government who saw it as necessary in order to strengthen the protection of cruelty to animals in Sweden. However, the agency was shut down already in2007 and its responsibilities as an agency was moved back to the government and the department of agriculture. During its time in operation, the Swedish Animal Welfare Agency, received much criticism, among other things because of its interpretations of the law which were seen as too focused on details and thus “bureaucratic”. In order to describe the organization of the agency the theoretical approach of this study is based on three of Bo Rothstein’s ideal administration models; the legal bureaucratic, thepolitical oriented and the user oriented model. The purpose is to see which one of these ideal administrations the Swedish Animal Welfare Agency was most like, through an organizational perspective. There will also be a comparison over time, from the establishing to the shutting down of the agency in order to see if the organization of the agency had changed over time. The method used for this paper is a qualitative text-based analysis where the central arguments concerning the organization of the agency will be highlighted and interpreted from the different criteria of the administration models. The study showed that the organization of the Swedish Animal Welfare Agency can be described as a legal bureaucratic administration. The comparison over time showed that the organization of the agency did not change, it could be described as legal bureaucratic when it was established as well as when it was shut down. This shows that the criticism of the agency of being too “bureaucratic” might be justified but the legitimacy of the agency’s organization was based on bureaucratic principles.

  • 215.
    Ahlqvist, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Högre utbildning och globalisering2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 216.
    Ahlqvist, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    EMU & de demokratiska argumenten2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 217.
    Ahlqvist, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kina i Afrika: Motiv, strategier och konsekvenser?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 218.
    Ahlroos Källhed, Ivar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bridging the integration gap: The relationship between women's employment, childcare costs and integration policies2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is an unexplained gap in employment between native-born and foreign-born women in most European countries and it is not evident how it can be closed. This essay studies some possible explanations of the gap by looking at the effect of childcare costs and integration policies, through regression analysis. The individual effects are not significant, but the results do however give some indication that the degree of integration policies in a country can change the effect of welfare policies such as childcare.

  • 219.
    Ahlskog, Emmelie
    Swedish National Defence College.
    EU som normativ makt: en studie av det normativa inslaget i unionens politik gentemot Ryssland2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a base in Ian Manners’ theory about Normative Power Europe – that the European Union is to be seen as a normative power instead of a civilian or military – this paper seeks to contribute to the discussion about identity by examine the normative elements of the union’s policies towards Russia between 1997 and 2013. Which norms are most important and how does the diffusion look? The findings show that democracy, rule of law and respect of human rights are among the most diffused norms, and this is more than often done by using the Russian interest in economic progress. Over time the European Union has taken on a more critical approach against Russia, while still appreciating their prosperous relation when it comes to trade and energy. The union balances between asserting its identity by the diffusion of norms on one hand, and maintaining a pragmatic relationship on the other, which leaves the identity issue as still a very complex question. 

  • 220.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Money for nothing?: Motivation crowding and economic rationality in the vaccination decision.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vaccines famously possess public goods characteristics that make them vulnerable to the collective action dilemma. Economists have posited a simple way of solving the problem -- economic incentives. However, results from studies on motivation crowding suggest that extrinsic incentives can crowd out intrinsic motivation and therefore backfire. This study investigates if vaccines are subject to motivation crowding using two sets of survey experiments. It is found that in the aggregate, introducing economic incentives has positive effects on vaccination propensity. However, for a subset of highly intrinsically motivated individuals, the effect of introducing economic incentives could be negative. Further, the distinction between pure and impure public goods seems to be driving this dynamic.

  • 221.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    When is blood thicker than water?: Variations of other-regard in the vaccination decision.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social proximity and kinship have been shown to heavily influence our tendency to altruistic behavior. Evidence about group formation, the development of prosocial motivation during adolescence as well as on both endocrinological and psychological mechanisms involved in prosociality also highlight the likely inherently parochial character of human altruism. Meanwhile, other-regarding motivations can play a central role in vaccination behavior. It is not well-understood, however, what types of other-regard are involved, and what role they play.

    In this study, I use a 2x2 factor survey experiment to investigate the differing effects of narrow (family-oriented) versus wide (purely altruistic) other-regard. I find that stimulating either of these types of other-regard leads to increases in vaccination propensity. However, the effects differ markedly between types of subjects: subjects in a settled family constellation display large effects of narrow, but not wide, other-regard, whereas others display the opposite. Wide other-regard therefore appears to be crowded out by narrow when humans enter pair-bonding. To maintain sufficient vaccination uptake, this distinction should be taken into consideration when designing messages to the public.

  • 222.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Democracy and vaccination uptake - a complex friendshipManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Democracies are generally thought to be better able to handle the provision of public goods than non-democracies. However, vaccines are a type of public good where we might expect this dynamic not to apply. Generally, a high vaccination uptake is net-profitable for the state above a certain level of national wealth, given losses of tax income to disease and health care expenditures. At the same time, democracies may be suspected to be less likely to use coercive means to achieve the goal of high uptake. This leads to the hypothesis that at least among rich countries, democracies may fare worse in terms of vaccination uptake.

    In this paper, I test this proposal using a cross-country panel of WHO uptake data. I test both traditional panel models, as well as an IV-approach using regional democratization waves as an instrument for own-country democracy. With both approaches, the theoretical prediction appears to hold up: rich non-democracies do indeed achieve higher uptake than rich democracies.

  • 223.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Essays on the collective action dilemma of vaccination2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vaccines famously possess positive externalities that make them susceptible to the collective action dilemma: when I get vaccinated, I protect not only myself, but also those who I might otherwise have infected. Thus, some people will have an incentive to free ride on the immunity of others. In a population of rational agents, the critical level of vaccination uptake required for herd immunity will therefore be difficult to attain in the long run, which poses difficulties for disease eradication.

    In this doctoral dissertation, I explore different implications of the collective action dilemma of vaccination, and different ways of ameliorating it. First: given that coercion or force could solve the dilemma, and democracies may be less likely to engage in policies that violate the physical integrity of citizens, democracies may also be at a disadvantage compared to non-democracies when securing herd immunity. In essay I, I show that this is, empirically, indeed the case. Barring the use of extensive coercion therefore necessitates other solutions.

    In essay II, I highlight the exception to individual rationality found in other-regarding motivations such as altruism. Our moral psychology has likely evolved to take other's welfare into account, but the extent of our prosocial motivations vary: a wider form of altruism that encompasses not just family or friends, but strangers, is likely to give way to a more narrow form when humans pair-bond and have children. This dynamic is shown to apply to the sentiments underlying vaccination behavior as well: appeals to the welfare of society of getting vaccinated have positive effects on vaccination propensity, but this effect disappears in people with families and children. On this demographic, appeals to the welfare of close loved ones instead appears to have large effects.

    In essay III, I investigate whether the prosocial motivations underlying vaccination behavior are liable to be affected by motivation crowding - that is, whether they are crowded out when introducing economic incentives to get vaccinated. I find that on average, economic incentives do not have adverse effects, but for a small minority of highly prosocially motivated people, they might.

  • 224.
    Ahlström, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Målstyrning i Migrationsverket: ur två perspektiv2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 225.
    Ahlström, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Högström, UlfSwedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, War Studies Division, Sektionen för markoperationer (KV Mark).
    Tankar om fälttåg: en bok om fälttåg och den gemensamma stridens komplexitet2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 226.
    Ahlsén, Bengt
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Sydafrika, Namibia, Rhodesia: Minoritetsstyrda länder i södra Afrika1973Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 227.
    Ahlsén, Bengt
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Portugisiska Afrika: Beskrivning av ett kolonialimperium och dess sönderfall1972Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 228.
    Ahlén, Anton
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Unconditional Conditions: A Study of How Civic Integration Policies Affect Migration Flows in Europe2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade, there has been a diffusion of civic integration policies in Europe, which

    requires immigrants by certain category of entry to accomplish integration tests for

    acquisition of residence. Despite a flurry of literature based on civic integration policies,

    attention drawn to the implication of these policies has been quite rare. This thesis examines

    how civic integration strategies associate with immigration, and tests if civic integration

    policies are connected to variations of immigration by certain category of entry. I argue in

    this thesis that the conditional factor in civic integration policies creates a barrier for affected

    migrants and their possibility to gain long term residence in the host country. Based on

    theories of immigrant integration that relate civic integration to the backlash against

    multiculturalism in Europe, the thesis emphasize a reasoning in which the push for internal

    inclusion seems to be associated with excluding implications. The result presented here

    shows that there are connections between the extension of civic integration policies and

    reduced family and labour immigration between 2004 and 2011. The connection between the

    variables can however not be discerned from other integration requirements. The main

    concern is the lack of harmonized data, which obstructs the possibility to test for causality

    and to draw generalizing conclusions. However, the thesis reveals noteworthy correlations

    between the concepts, which contribute to the research field by connecting civic integration

    to immigration and by showing what implications civic integration policies may result in.

  • 229.
    Ahmad, Aisha
    et al.
    Harvard Kennedy School.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Harvard Kennedy School.
    Semple, Michael
    Harvard Kennedy School.
    Scholars reflect on Afghan Koran burnings, rioting2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Several Harvard Kennedy School scholars who have worked in Afghanistan were asked to comment on how the United States should respond to the accidental burning of Korans by the U.S. military, and the subsequent deadly rioting in the country. Here are their responses:

  • 230.
    Ahmad, Batool
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Europafortet - under Turkarnas beskydd: Motivanalys av överenskommelsen mellan EU och Turkiet under den pågående flyktingkrisen.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The discussion about the refugees in Europe has never before been as important to address as now. We rely on our decision-makers to call the right shots for the people in need. So what do we do, if we do not believe that they make the right decisions?

    In March 2016, the European Union made a deal with Turkey to outsource the handling of the refugee-crisis. The EU will pay large amounts of money and grant visa liberation for the Turks, in exchange for them taking care of the refugees so they don’t cross the EU borders. The deal has been questioned by many and it criticized for being illegal and violating human rights. But it is still in effect.

    This study aims to detect the motives of the EU-leaders that led to the deal and subsequently with the motives detect what kind of decision-process that made the decision possible. The study conducts a motive analysis, based on Axel Hadenius theory of hermeneutics. To conclude, the study will use the critics aimed at the deal to discover whether there is a gap between the stated motivations of the EU-leaders, and the result that the deal brings when implemented. 

  • 231.
    ahmed, amal
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Botswana och Zimbabwe: En jämförande studie studie utifrån demokratiseringens fyra interna faktorer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is a comparative study between Botswana och Zimbabwe. The author presents the four internal democratication factors which are: economic development, free values,authotarian divisions and the civil society. These factors are presented and applied to each country. Zimbabwe is a authotarian regime and Botswana is a democractic regime. Which of the factors influences the democratization process? The author found that it is the economic development. Industrialized countries are more prone to be democratic than poor countries. 

  • 232.
    Ahmed, Ishtiaq
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Tillämpningen av islamsk lag i Europa1997In: Euroislam - en tulipanaros?, Stockholm: Svenska Nationalkommitten För Kulturellt Samarbete i Europa , 1997Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 233.
    Ahmed, Ishtiaq
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sikherna och sikhisk nationalism1994In: Stat, Nation och Nationalism i Asien, Uppsala: Sällskapet för asienstudier , 1994Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 234.
    Ahmed, Ishtiaq
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Kashmir Dispute: Is There an Important Hydropolitical Dimension to It?1998In: Hydropolitik och Demokrati, Uppsala: Sällskapet för asienstudier , 1998Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Ahmed, Ishtiaq
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Abdullahi An-Naim on Constitutional and Human Rights Issues1993In: Islamic Law Reform and Human Rights, Oslo: Nordic Human Rights Publications , 1993Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 236.
    Ahmed, Ishtiaq
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Religious Nationalism and Sikhism1996In: Questioning the Secular State: The Worldwide Resurgence of Religion in Politics, London: Hurst & Company , 1996Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 237.
    Ahmed, Ishtiaq
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sydasiatisk islam: Konfronation mellan gamla värderingar och nya realitet1994In: Majoritetens Islam: Om Muslimer utanför Arabvärlden, Stockholm: Arena , 1994Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Ahmed, Ishtiaq
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Politics of Ethncity, and the Rise of Separatist Movements in South Asia1992In: When Democracy Makes Sense, Uppsala: AKUT , 1992Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 239.
    Ahmed, Ishtiaq
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ethnicity abd Separatist Movements in South Asia1993In: Formation of Identity and Dynamics of Conflict in the 1990s, Göteborg: Nordnes , 1993Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 240.
    Ahmed, Ishtiaq
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The 1947 partition of Punjab: Arguments put forth before the Punjab Boundary Commission by the parties involved1999In: Region and partition: Bengal, Punjab and the partition of the subcontinent / [ed] Ian Talbot, Gurharpal Singh, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, 116-167 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 241.
    Ahmed, Ishtiaq
    Stockholm University.
    The Concept of an Islamic State: An Analysis of the Ideological Controversy in Pakistan1985Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 242.
    Ahmed, Ishtiaq
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Punjab Bloodied, Partitioned and Cleansed: Unravelling the 1947 Tragedy through Secret British Reports and First-Person Accounts2012Book (Other academic)
  • 243.
    Ahmedi, Idris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    El Kurdistanán iraní: pasado, presente y futuro2014In: Estos son los kurdos: Análisis de una Nación / [ed] Manuel Férez Gil, México: Universidad Anáhuac , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Ahmedi, Idris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Från Nixon till Obama: Förändring i amerikansk utrikespolitik gentemot Iran och Irak2015In: Fokus på Mellanöstern: Ur Uppsala Senioruniversitets program 2011-2015 / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Lena Jonsell, Gunilla Öbrink, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2015, 30-35 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om förändring i den amerikanska Mellanösternpolitiken är inte enbart av akademiskt intresse. Förändring i såväl den övergripande amerikanska strategin som de bilaterala relationerna till regionens stater kan få långtgående konsekvenser både inom och utanför regionen. I vissa fall tämligen dramatiska sådana. Artikeln fokuserar på förändring i den amerikanska politiken gentemot Iran och Irak.

  • 245.
    Ahmedi, Idris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Öppning för kurderna: nyckelroll i kriget mot IS2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 246.
    Ahmedi, Idris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Iran2015In: Komparativ politik: Nio politiska system / [ed] Thomas Denk, Carsten Anckar, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 247.
    Ahmedi, Idris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Remaking of American Strategy toward Iran and Iraq: Outline of a Theory of Foreign Policy Change2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sets out to develop a realist-constructivist theory of foreign policy change. The theory claims that whenever policymakers believe that the distribution of power favors an expansive grand strategy or necessitates retrenchment, they will act accordingly. Similarly, when policymakers revise their images of other states – that is, whether they view them as hostile or friendly – change in existing strategy will follow.

    The historical record of the (re)making of American strategy toward the Persian Gulf lends support to the theory. After having relied on pro-American Iran to balance Iraq in the region in the 1970s, Washington “tilted” toward Iraq to prevent post-revolutionary Islamic Iran from achieving victory in the ensuing war between the two regional powers in the 1980s. This offshore balancing strategy during the Cold War bipolar distribution of power gave way to the simultaneous containment of these regional adversaries in the post-Cold War unipolar era. However, some years after the adoption of this new strategy, it underwent a shift. Whereas concerted efforts were made to normalize relations with Iran after the presidential victory of a “reformist” candidate, Mohammad Khatami, the Clinton administration eventually adopted regime change as official policy toward Iraq. In the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks on American soil, the George W. Bush administration endorsed a strategy of forcible regime change and democracy promotion, leading to the invasion of Iraq in 2003.

    Over time, U.S. strategy toward these two regional powers has become more expansive – from offshore balancing limited to checking their outward expansion, to containment aimed at facilitating alteration in their policies, to outright regime change policy. However, with the erosion of unipolarity and the superpower’s retrenchment in the Middle East, we may witness a return to offshore balancing in combination with containment of a perceived hostile Iran. 

  • 248.
    Ahmedi, Idris
    et al.
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Security, Strategy and Leadership (ISSL), Political Science Section.
    Bremberg, Niklas
    Utrikespolitiska Institutet.
    Teori: varför en eklektisk ansats är att föredra inom samhällsvetenskaplig forskning2016In: Att forska: praktiker och roller inom samhällsvetenskapen / [ed] Linus Hagström, Niklas Bremberg, Arita Holmberg, Carlsson Bokförlag, 2016, 119-142 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 249.
    Ahnqvist, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ja eller nej till kommunala hälsoförbund2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 250.
    Aho, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Massmedier2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
2345678 201 - 250 of 14637
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