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  • 201.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Shale gas and oil: Fundamentally changing global energy markets2013In: Oil & gas journal, ISSN 0030-1388, E-ISSN 1944-9151, Vol. 111, no 12, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shale production on a significant scale arose quite recently and is so far limited to the US with gas having a few years' lead on oil. Shale has already had a significant impact on US gas and oil output. Further sizable production increases can be expected in the US, and the shale revolution is likely to spread, with a lag, across the globe. This will result in fundamental repercussions for international energy markets. The resources in focus of our attention, comprising shale gas and coalbed methane along with tight gas and tight oil, typically lack strict definitions and they often overlap. However, they are all characterized by low permeability that yields commercially insufficient flows from vertical drilling. The shale revolution is the result of technological breakthroughs in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing that have made vast dormant gas and oil resources economically exploitable

  • 202.
    Aguilera, Roberto F
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Skifferrevolutionen: hur den kommer att transformera de globala gas- och oljemarknaderna2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 30-41Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 203.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Price of Oil2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on their extensive knowledge of the oil industry, Roberto F. Aguilera and Marian Radetzki provide an in-depth examination of the price of the world's most important commodity. They argue that although oil has experienced an extraordinary price increase over the past few decades, we have now reached a turning point where scarcity, uncertain supply and high prices will be replaced by abundance, undisturbed availability and suppressed price levels. They look at the potential of new global oil revolutions to bring the upward price push to an end and examine the implications of this turnaround for the world economy, as well as for politics, diplomacy, military interventions and the efforts to stabilize climate. This book will appeal to a wide readership of both academics and professionals working in the energy industry, as well as to general readers interested in the ongoing debate about oil prices

  • 204.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The shale revolution: Global gas and oil markets under transformation2014In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shale gas and oil revolution has unexpectedly and forcefully begun to change the energy landscape in the USA. It is expected to spread beyond the USA, with far reaching implications for the global energy map, but also for the macroeconomy and politics of many countries. The purpose of this paper is to bring a better understanding to what prompted the revolution, to assess the production methods and associated environmental concerns, to speculate what can reasonably be expected in coming decades, and to sketch the full impact of a ripening shale revolution on the emerging economic and political policy choices for energy exporting and importing countries. We find that a large scale expansion can be expected in US shale gas and oil activities in the coming two decades. Globally, the shale leaders are likely to be countries that are already significant gas and oil producers. Setting up a policy framework to allow and promote shale development in a safe manner is a necessity for the launch of shale exploitation. The most important implication of a successful shale revolution would arguably be a downward pressure on gas and coal prices in regional markets and on the global oil price.

  • 205.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The synchronized and exceptional price performance of oil and gold: Explanations and prospects2017In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 54, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the global markets for gold and oil so as to explain the surprisingly high correlation of the two materials’ prices since 1970, and the exceedingly impressive rise of both price series compared with that of virtually all other primary commodities. We propose that developments in the oil market, and the resulting effects on the macroeconomy, influenced investment activity in gold, thus providing the most plausible explanation for the two commodities’ price synchronization. Our view on the extraordinary price increases of oil and gold, compared to a broad category of metals and minerals, is that oil prices rose first based on above-ground hurdles that restrained the capacity to produce, and gold prices then reacted as they were pushed up by rising safe-haven investment to store value – an attribute not shared by other metals and minerals. The paper also comments on the likely future price evolution of these important materials, arguing that oil prices will stagnate at levels observed from late 2014, or even weaken in the coming decades, but that gold prices will continue to ride relatively high – thus leading to a collapse of the oil/gold price connection.

  • 206.
    Agus, Claudio
    et al.
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Svensson, Lukas
    University West, Department of Economics and IT, Divison of Law, Economics, Statistics and Politics.
    Vilka egenskaper påverkar slutpriserna på bostadsrätter i centrala Göteborg?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyze different condominium characteristics and to find out how much they affect the prices of condominiums located in the central areas of Gothenburg. A hedonic pricing model and several regression analyzes have been used to find the results. Information from 332 sold condominiums from 18-02-2015 to 18-05-2015 has been used in the calculations, grouped into different variables. The various independent variables as living space, fees and location explains the dependent variable that is the final price of condominiums. A shorter time interval has been used to minimize price impact from macroeconomic factors such as inflation, interest rates and economic forecasts. Four different parish areas have been explored: Johanneberg, Vasa, Annedal and Domkyrkan. The information about the condominiums sold was retrieved from värderingsdata.se. The results showed that the size, fees, balcony, floor and age influence the prices. The size indicated the absolute greatest impact on prices.

  • 207.
    Aguz, Josef
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Gulin, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Magiska aktieportföljer på den svenska marknaden: en undersökning av the Magic Formula på Stockholmsbörsen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen undersöker hur Joel Greenblatts investeringstrategi The Magic Formula presterat på Stockholmsbörsen mellan mars 1993 och mars 2013. Formeln presenteras i Greenblatts bok "The Little Book that Beats the Market" från 2006 och sorterar ut de aktier som har bäst kombinerad ranking av två nyckeltal; Direktavkastning och Avkastning på Kapital. Aktierna bildar en portfölj, vars utveckling jämförs med index. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att The Magic Formula slår index på Stockholmsbörsen och har en högre riskjusterad avkastning. Slutsatsen blir således att Greenblatts investeringstrategi är effektiv på Stockholmsbörsen.

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  • 208.
    Ahl Bollesparr, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Andrea John, Michelle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Fondförvaltning: Går det fortfarande inte att generera en större riskjusterad avkastning än marknadens?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many Swedish households are investors, in 2018 investments in funds reached an average of 434 000 Swedish Crowns per person. The Nobel laureate Fama showed that yielding a higher risk-adjusted return than the market is not possible. Simultaneously, a great amount of actively conducted funds that pledges a higher return than the market is still launched today. Which arises a disorientation among small savers if passive or active conducted funds generate higher returns. Unlike previous studies, the range of funds were increased in this study. The purpose is to examine the returns of the funds with the performance measures Sharpe-ratio and Jensen’s Alpha. The results indicate that it is not possible to outperform a higher risk-adjusted yield than the market for the chosen time period. Overall, the passive funds had higher risk-adjusted returns compared to the active funds, which indicates that a higher fee for the funds is unjustified.

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  • 209.
    Ahl, Hampus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society.
    Lundmark, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society.
    Sanctions, what sanctions?: An empirical study on the effect of economic sanctions against the Russian Federation between 2014 and 20192021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we examine if sanctions had a causal effect on total trade on Russia after its annexation of Crimea 2014. To answer this a synthetic control method (SCM) and a difference in difference (DiD) method was implemented. The results show that a causal effect of sanctions was not found by neither method. However, the year 2016 and 2017 result gave a statistically significant causal effect with the SCM where the synthetic unit is 1.23 times greater than Russia. A general practical or statistically significant causal effect was not found.

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  • 210.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Lifelong learning/Encell.
    Berglund, K.
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, K.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tillmar, M.
    Linneuniversitet Ekonomihogskolan Växjö, Växjö, Sweden.
    Women's contributions to rural development: implications for entrepreneurship policy2023In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Policy for women's entrepreneurship is designed to promote economic growth, not least in depleted rural areas, but very little is known about the contributions of rural women entrepreneurs, their needs or how the existing policy is received by them. Using a theoretical framework developed by Korsgaard et al. (2015), the authors analyse how rural women entrepreneurs contribute to rural development and discuss the implications for entrepreneurship policy. This paper aims to focus on the aforementioned objectives. Design/methodology/approach: The authors interviewed 32 women entrepreneurs in rural Sweden representing the variety of businesses in which rural Swedish women are engaged. The authors analysed their contributions to rural development by analysing their motives, strategies and outcomes using Korsgaard et al.’s framework of “entrepreneurship in the rural” and “rural entrepreneurship” as a heuristic, interpretative device. Findings: Irrespective of industry, the respondents were deeply embedded in family and local social structures. Their contributions were substantial, multidimensional and indispensable for rural viability, but the policy tended to bypass most women-owned businesses. Support in terms of business training, counselling and financing are important, but programmes especially for women tend to miss the mark, and so does rural development policy. More important for rural women entrepreneurs in Sweden is the provision of good public services, including for example, schools and social care, that make rural life possible. Research limitations/implications: Theoretically, the findings question the individualist and a-contextual focus of much entrepreneurship research, as well as the taken-for-granted work–family divide. How gender and how the public and the private are configured varies greatly between contexts and needs contextual assessment. Moreover, the results call for theorising place as an entrepreneurial actor. Practical implications: Based on the findings, the authors advise future policymakers to gender mainstream entrepreneurship policy and to integrate entrepreneurship and rural development policy with family and welfare state policy. Originality/value: The paper highlights how rural women respond to policy, and the results are contextualised, making it possible to compare them to other contexts. The authors widen the discussion on contributions beyond economic growth, and the authors show that policy for public and commercial services and infrastructure is indeed also policy for entrepreneurship.

  • 211.
    Ahlandsberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Hansson, Felix
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Winiarski, Szymon
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Containerbrist i Kina: obalans av containertillgång2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie fokuserar på obalansen av containertillgången mellan Kina, Europa och USA. Företag inom containerindustrin i Kina har en låg tillgång på containrar men en hög efterfrågan, medan företagen försöker få tillgång till ett högre utbud av containrar kämpar USA med att tillgodose företagens efterfrågan i Kina. Studien identifiera de huvudsakliga orsakerna som kommer hjälpa till för att förstå varför det har uppstått en containerbrist i Kina, med fokus på konsekvenserna som uppkommit utifrån dessa bidragande faktorer. 

    Det finns problem gällande distributionen med containerfrakt vilket skapar oro gällande hanteringen av tomma containrar och hur de ska bli ompositionerade. Detta resulterar i en obalans av containrar inom vissa sektorer. Industrin inom Kina har haft produktionsstopp längre än förväntat på grund av pandemin vilket är orsaken till att den ökade produktionen satte stor press på hamnarna i Kina efter att nedstängningen var över. En annan orsak är att hamnar i USA blivit utsatta för pandemin, vilket i sin tur skapat en personalbrist och fartyg tvingades till att köa för att bli avlastade. Ytterligare en orsak fokuserar på Suezkanalen och hur ett fartyg blockerade hela kanalen, vilket orsakade förseningar och resursförluster för de inblandade parterna. 

    En konsekvens av den ökande efterfrågan på containerfrakt är att priset för frakten blir dyrare, vilket i sin tur kan påverka varornas pris då risken finns att specifikt priset kan stiga. Kinas exportföretag har skickat färre containrar som en direkt konsekvens av deras produktionsstopp vid det kinesiska nyåret, en konsekvens av den minskade exporten av containrar är att Kinas företag stöter på logistiska problem gällande att kunna möta efterfrågan på containerfrakt. En ytterligare konsekvens handlar om att tomma containrar spenderar mer tid ute på havet än vanligt gods, vilket orsakar obalanser gällande utbudet på containrar i världen. Gällande stoppet i Suezkanalen kommer de långvariga konsekvenserna kvarstå framöver gällande förseningar på transporter. 

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  • 212.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Analysis of discrete multi-unit, common value auctions: a study of three sealed-bid mechanisms2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a discrete bidding model for both quantities and pricing. It has a two-unit demand environment where subjects bid for contracts with an unknown redemption value, common to all bidders. Prior to bidding, the bidders receive private signals of information on the (common) value. The value and the signals are drawn from a known discrete affiliated joint distribution. The relevant task for the paper is to compare the equilibrium strategies and the seller’s revenue of three auction formats. We find that, of the three auctionformats below with two players, the discriminatory auction always gives the largest revenue to the seller; both the uniform and the Vickrey auction have zero revenue equilibrium strategies that put them further down in the revenue ranking. In equilibrium, bidders bid the same amount on both items in the discriminatory auction; a phenomenon not noted in either of the other auction formats.

  • 213.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Kostnader för störningar i infrastrukturen: metodik och fallstudier på väg och järnväg2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the methodology that can be used in calculations of the cost to society when disruptions in the infrastructure occurs, specifically for traffic on road and rail. The principles and values that are recommended to be used in social cost-benefit analyses (CBA) in the Swedish transport sector are proposed by the ASEK-group (a working-group addressing issues on the application of CBA in the transport sector), and decided by the Swedish Transport Administration. They will be taken as given on the cost side of the CBA in this study, there will not be a benefit side since the interest for this study lies expressively on the cost side. This study is thus not a normative analysis, the aim is instead to study and apply methodologies for valuing (in monetary terms) the consequences of already occurred disturbances. The various ASEK-values require information about several aspect of the trips when calculating the value of travel time and transport time, as well as when calculating the delays and the value of travel time savings in congestion. Even though the ASEK-values are recommended by the Swedish Transport Administration, they are also questioned, especially for freight transport. This is also addressed in the report.

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  • 214.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Luftfartens samhällsekonomiska marginalkostnader: delstudie inom SAMKOST2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a literature review on the marginal social costs of aviation, and is a sub-project to VTI’s project about updating the knowledge of the external costs of traffic (SAMKOST). The report discusses which impacts of aviation are external, and which are already internalized. It is not entirely clear which impacts that should be considered as the relevant marginal costs for aviation. For example, both congestion and accidents are seen as internalized since they are already taken care of through the air traffic control service, a service that all aircraft must use in Swedish airspace by law. Similar arguments applies to the infrastructure. The large external effect is aviation’s environmental impact. It is separated into three different categories; the impact of noise, air quality and the impact on the climate.

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  • 215.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Multi-unit common value auctions: a laboratory experiment with three sealed-bid mechanisms2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses a discrete common value environment with independent (one-dimensional) private signals, where the seller offers two identical units and the buyers have (flat) demand for both. Each session is conducted with2, 3 or 4 buyers. Three auction formats are used: the discriminatory, uniformand Vickrey auctions which are all subjected to a variation in the number of bidders and to repeating bid rounds on each subject. The main findings are that there are no significant differences between the uniform and the discriminatory auction in collecting revenue, while the Vickrey auction comes out as inferior. More bidders in the auction result in a greater revenue and level out the performance across the mechanisms. Demand reduction is visible in the experiment, but it is not as prominent as anticipated. Moreover, subjects come closer to equilibrium play over time. Finally, the winner’s curse is less severe than what is reported for inexperienced bidders in other studies.

  • 216.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Multi-unit common value auctions: an experimental comparison between the static and the dynamic uniform auction2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is still an open question whether the dynamic or the static format should be used in multi-unit settings, in a uniform price auction. The present study conducts an economic experiment in a common value environment, where it is found that it is more a question of whether the auctioneer wants to facilitate price discovery, and thereby lessen the otherwise pervasive overbidding, or if only the revenue is important. The experiment in the present paper provides evidence that the static format gives a significantly greater revenue than the dynamic auction, in both small and large group sizes. But a higher revenue comes at a cost; half of the auctions in the static format yield negative profits to the bidders, the winner’s curse is more severely widespread in the static auction, and only a minority of the bidders use the equilibrium bidding strategy.

  • 217.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Multi-unit common value auctions: theory and experiments2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on auctions that involve more than one identical item for sale was,almost non-existing in the 90’s, but has since then been getting increasing attention. External incentives for this research have come from the US spectrum, sales, the European 3G mobile-phone auctions,  and Internet auctions. The policy relevance and the huge amount of money involved in many of them have helped the theory and experimental research advance. But in auctions where values are equal across bidders, common value auctions, that is, when the value depends on some outside parameter, equal to all bidders, the research is still embryonic.

    This thesis contributes to the topic with three studies. The first uses a Bayesian game to model a simple multi-unit common value auction, the task being to compare equilibrium strategies and the seller’s revenue from three auction formats; the discriminatory, the uniform and the Vickrey auction. The second study conducts an economic laboratory experiment on basis of the first study. The third study comprises an experiment on the multi-unit common value uniform auction and compares the dynamic and the static environments of this format.

    The most salient result in both experiments is that subjects overbid. They are victims of the winner’s curse and bid above the expected value, thus earning a negative profit. There is some learning, but most bidders continue to earn a negative profit also in later rounds. The competitive effect when participating in an auction seems to be stronger than the rationality concerns. In the first experiment, subjects in the Vickrey auction do somewhat better in small groups than subjects in the other auction types and, in the second experiment, subjects in the dynamic auction format perform much better than subjects in the static auction format; but still, they overbid.

    Due to this overbidding, the theoretical (but not the behavioral) prediction that the dynamic auction should render more revenue than the static fails inthe second experiment. Nonetheless, the higher revenue of the static auction comes at a cost; half of the auctions yield negative profits to the bidders, and the winner’s curse is more severely widespread in this format. Besides, only a minority of the bidders use the equilibrium bidding strategy.The bottom line is that the choice between the open and sealed-bid formats may be more important than the choice of price mechanism, especially in common value settings.

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  • 218.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Multi-unit common value auctions: theory and experiments2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on auctions that involve more than one identical item for sale was,almost non-existing in the 90’s, but has since then been getting increasing attention. External incentives for this research have come from the US spectrum, sales, the European 3G mobile-phone auctions,  and Internet auctions. The policy relevance and the huge amount of money involved in many of them have helped the theory and experimental research advance. But in auctions where values are equal across bidders, common value auctions, that is, when the value depends on some outside parameter, equal to all bidders, the research is still embryonic.

    This thesis contributes to the topic with three studies. The first uses a Bayesian game to model a simple multi-unit common value auction, the task being to compare equilibrium strategies and the seller’s revenue from three auction formats; the discriminatory, the uniform and the Vickrey auction. The second study conducts an economic laboratory experiment on basis of the first study. The third study comprises an experiment on the multi-unit common value uniform auction and compares the dynamic and the static environments of this format.

    The most salient result in both experiments is that subjects overbid. They are victims of the winner’s curse and bid above the expected value, thus earning a negative profit. There is some learning, but most bidders continue to earn a negative profit also in later rounds. The competitive effect when participating in an auction seems to be stronger than the rationality concerns. In the first experiment, subjects in the Vickrey auction do somewhat better in small groups than subjects in the other auction types and, in the second experiment, subjects in the dynamic auction format perform much better than subjects in the static auction format; but still, they overbid.

    Due to this overbidding, the theoretical (but not the behavioral) prediction that the dynamic auction should render more revenue than the static fails inthe second experiment. Nonetheless, the higher revenue of the static auction comes at a cost; half of the auctions yield negative profits to the bidders, and the winner’s curse is more severely widespread in this format. Besides, only a minority of the bidders use the equilibrium bidding strategy.The bottom line is that the choice between the open and sealed-bid formats may be more important than the choice of price mechanism, especially in common value settings.

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  • 219.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Optimal taxation of intermediate goods in the presence of externalities: A survey towards the transport sector2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The paper surveys the literature on optimal taxation with emphasis on intermediate goods, or, more specific, freight (road) transport. There are two models frequently used, first, the one emanated from Diamond & Mirrlees' (1971) paper, where the production efficiency lemma made it clear that intermediate goods was not to be taxed. And, second, the Ramsey-Boiteux model where a cost-of-service regulation imposes a budget constraint for the regulated firm. In the latter model, in contrast to the first, freight transports (intermediate goods) are to be taxed in the Ramsey tradition, and thus trades the production efficiency lemma against a budget restriction. The paper also discusses welfare effects due to environmental tax reforms, with emphasis to what has become to known as the double dividend hypothesis. Finally, administrative costs in the context of optimal taxation is touched upon, a subject that is to a large degree repressed in optimal tax theory.

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  • 220.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Optimal taxation of intermediate goods in the presence of externalities: A survey towards the transport sector2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The paper surveys the literature on optimal taxation with emphasis on intermediate goods, or, more specific, freight (road) transport. There are two models frequently used, first, the one emanated from Diamond & Mirrlees' (1971) paper, where the production efficiency lemma made it clear that intermediate goods was not to be taxed. And, second, the Ramsey-Boiteux model where a cost-of-service regulation imposes a budget constraint for the regulated firm. In the latter model, in contrast to the first, freight transports (intermediate goods) are to be taxed in the Ramsey tradition, and thus trades the production efficiency lemma against a budget restriction. The paper also discusses welfare effects due to environmental tax reforms, with emphasis to what has become to known as the double dividend hypothesis. Finally, administrative costs in the context of optimal taxation is touched upon, a subject that is to a large degree repressed in optimal tax theory.

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  • 221.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Revenues in discrete multi-unit, common value auctions: a study of three sealed-bid mechanisms2009In: Portuguese economic journal, ISSN 1617-9838, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 21p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose in this paper a discrete bidding model, both on quantities and in pricing. It has a two-unit demand environment where subjects bid for contracts with an unknown redemption value, common to all bidders. Prior to bidding, the bidders receive private signals of information on the (common) value. Both the value and the signals are drawn from a known discrete affiliated joint distribution. The relevant task for the paper is to compare equilibrium strategies and the seller's revenue between the three auction formats. We find that, among the three auction formats below with two players, the Vickrey auction always gives the most revenue to the seller, where the discriminatory auction becomes second and the uniform auction last. We also find that, in equilibrium, bidders bid the same amount on both items in the discriminatory auction; a phenomenon we do not notice in either of the other two auction formats. There, different amount of demand reduction is encountered.

  • 222.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Ramböll .
    Ericson, Johan
    WSP.
    Johansson, Oskar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Ridderstedt, Ivan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Marginalkostnad för luftfartens infrastruktur2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to estimate the marginal costs of aviation infrastructure. But since it not exist a uniform definition of what is the cost base of the aviation infrastructure, there is also a discussion of what costs should be included. An additional purpose of the study is to relate the estimated marginal costs to today's pricing and to investigate whether aviation pays its socio-economic costs.

    Estimates of the marginal cost of utilizing (relevant) airport infrastructure and for operating airline infrastructure is being analyzed using cost data from Stockholm Arlanda Airport and the Civil Aviation Authority. The empirical approach used to analyze cost items is a regression analysis, with adjustments for month-specific variations in travel patterns, when the airport section is investigated, and taking into account regional differences for airports when investigating air traffic control in the towers.

    There are some uncertainties in the study, but in the light of this, the results indicate that the average marginal cost of the infrastructure is around SEK 13 per passenger and SEK1,168 per aircraft started. Corresponding estimation for air traffic management is also uncertain, with results indicating a marginal cost of SEK 373 per flight. Furthermore, it appears that the revenue from marginal cost-based charges could not alone finance the state aviation infrastructure.

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  • 223.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Ramböll .
    Ericson, Johan
    WSP.
    Johansson, Oskar
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Ridderstedt, Ivan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Marginalkostnad för luftfartens infrastruktur2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to estimate the marginal costs of aviation infrastructure. But since it not exist a uniform definition of what is the cost base of the aviation infrastructure, there is also a discussion of what costs should be included. An additional purpose of the study is to relate the estimated marginal costs to today's pricing and to investigate whether aviation pays its socio-economic costs.

    Estimates of the marginal cost of utilizing (relevant) airport infrastructure and for operating airline infrastructure is being analyzed using cost data from Stockholm Arlanda Airport and the Civil Aviation Authority. The empirical approach used to analyze cost items is a regression analysis, with adjustments for month-specific variations in travel patterns, when the airport section is investigated, and taking into account regional differences for airports when investigating air traffic control in the towers.

    There are some uncertainties in the study, but in the light of this, the results indicate that the average marginal cost of the infrastructure is around SEK 13 per passenger and SEK1,168 per aircraft started. Corresponding estimation for air traffic management is also uncertain, with results indicating a marginal cost of SEK 373 per flight. Furthermore, it appears that the revenue from marginal cost-based charges could not alone finance the state aviation infrastructure.

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  • 224.
    Ahlberg, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Job Polarization and Effects of Technological Progress on the Swedish Labor Market2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies on the U.S. and European labor markets have shown a pattern of job polarization with rises in employment shares in the highest- and lowest-wage occupations. The most popular explanation for this pattern is the idea of task biased technical change where technology can substitute routine middle-paid jobs. The purpose of this paper is to document the wage profile of net job creation in Sweden between 2004 and 2013 and to investigate whether the observed job creation is linked to this “routinization” hypothesis. The results show a clear pattern of job polarization over the full period with relative growth in the two tails of the wage distribution. The potential link between job tasks and the observed job polarization is associated with some statistical uncertainty but the estimated changes in employment of different tasks moves in the direction predicted by the TBTC-hypothesis.

  • 225.
    Ahlberg, Olle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wahlstedt, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Varför du bör jubla när byggmaskinerna rullar in : En studie på prisutvecklingen av befintliga bostadsrätter i nybyggnationsområden 2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 226.
    Ahlborg, Helene
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Environmental Systems Analysis.
    Broäng, Frida
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Provision of electricity to African households: The importance of democracy and institutional quality2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 87, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can differences in per capita household electricity consumption across African countries be understood? Based on theories that highlight the importance of democracy and institutional quality for provision of public goods, the aim of the paper is to analyse the degree to which the level of per capita household electricity consumption in African countries can be attributed to the countries’ democratic status and their institutional quality. We rely on regression analysis employing a pooled data set for 44 African countries over the time period 1996–2009. The analysis shows that democracy and institutional quality both have significant positive effects on per capita household consumption of electricity. Our results have implications for how energy sector reforms are promoted in developing countries. At a more general level they illustrate that institution-building policy efforts are relevant also in areas where contemporary debates have tended to primarily centre on economic development, financial prerequisites and ownership issues.

  • 227.
    Ahlbäck, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Carlsson, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Analys av Swedbanks bankkunders risktagande: En studie om hur Behavioural Finance kan utveckla Swedbanks rådgivningsprocess2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Analys av Swedbanks bankkunders risktagande. En studie om hur Behavioural Finance kan utveckla Swedbanks rådgivningsprocess.
  • 228.
    Ahle, Julius
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Alfredéen, Daniel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Home bias i svenska aktiefonder: En undersökning av tio globala aktiefonder och deras allokering i hemlandet2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Home bias i svenska aktiefonder
  • 229.
    Ahlerup, Pelle
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet Handelshögskolan. Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Tengstam, Sven
    Do the land-poor gain from agricultural investments? Empirical evidence from Zambia using panel data2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of the global land rush, some portray large-scale land acquisitions as a potent threat to the livelihoods of already marginalized rural farming households in Africa. In order to avoid the potential pitfall of studying a particular project that may well have atypical effects, this paper systematically investigates the impact on commercial farm wage incomes for rural smallholder households of all pledged investments in the agricultural sector in Zambia between 1994 and 2007. The results suggest that agricultural investments are associated with a robust moderate positive effect, but only for households with a relative shortage of land.

  • 230.
    Ahlfors, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Spelar risktoleransen någon roll?: En studie om svenska studenters investeringsbeslut2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 231.
    Ahlfors, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Är den svenska bostadsmarknaden effektiv?: En studie om bostadsmarknadens effektivitet i åtta svenska regioner2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 232.
    Ahlgren, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Bernard, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Aktiemarknadens effektivitet: En studie av effektiviteten på den svenska aktiemarknaden i samband med kvartalsrapporter2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Effektiva marknadshypotesen (EMH) utvecklades av Eugene Fama under 1960- och 1970-talet. Grundtanken var att prisbildningen alltid reflekterar den information som finns tillgänglig för marknaden. Fama skiljde på tre former av effektivitet: svaga, semistarka och starka formen. I denna uppsats studerar vi den semistarka formen av effektivitet, vilken omfattar all offentligt tillgänglig information. Syftet är att undersöka effektiviteten i samband med att ny information tillfaller den svenska aktiemarknaden. I de fall aktiemarknaden är effektiv finns ingen möjlighet till onormal avkastning. Vår studie omfattar de 39 största företagen noterade på den svenska aktiemarknaden, vilket motsvarar 81,5 procent av det totala värdet. Vi kunde i vår undersökning dra slutsatsen att Stockholmsbörsen inte är fullständigt effektiv när ny information offentliggörs.

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  • 233. Ahlin, Christian
    et al.
    Gulesci, Selim
    Madestam, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Stryjan, Miri
    Loan contract structure and adverse selection: Survey evidence from Uganda2020In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 172, p. 180-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While adverse selection is an important theoretical explanation for credit rationing it is difficult to quantify empirically. Many studies measure the elasticity of credit demand of existing or previous borrowers as opposed to the population at large; other studies use cross-sectional approaches that may confound borrower risk with other factors. We circumvent both issues by surveying a representative sample of microenterprises in urban Uganda and by measuring their responses to multiple hypothetical contract offers, varying in interest rates and collateral requirements. The two seminal theories on selection provide contradicting predictions following a change in the contractual terms. Under adverse selection, a lower interest rate or a lower collateral obligation should increase take up among less risky borrowers. By contrast, advantageous selection implies that take up should increase among the riskier borrowers. We test these two predictions by examining if firm owners respond to changes in the interest rate or the collateral requirement and whether higher take up varies by firms' risk type. We find support for the presence of adverse selection as contracts with lower interest rates or lower collateral obligations increase hypothetical demand - especially for less risky firms. Our results imply that changes to the standard loan product available to microenterprises may have substantial effects on credit demand.

  • 234.
    Ahlin, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    En paneldatastudie av Beveridgekurvan: Fokus på ungdomsarbetslöshet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 235.
    Ahlin, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Hur påverkas hälsan av konjunkturförändringar i Sverige?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie avser analysera hur hälsan i den svenska befolkningen varierar med konjunkturcykeln. Relationen mellan hälsa och konjunkturcykeln studeras genom att undersöka hur mortalitet och utnyttjandet av sjukvård påverkas av förändringar i arbetslöshet. Relationen mellan mortalitet och arbetslöshet är välstuderad utomlands och i Sverige men denna studie tar analysen ett steg vidare genom att även använda utnyttjandet av sluten respektive öppen vård som mått på hälsa. Den ekonometriska metoden som tillämpats är regression med fixa effekter som estimerats med paneldata som avser Sveriges 21 län. Överlag kan resultaten i denna studie inte visa på ett tydligt samband mellan arbetslöshet och de studerade hälsovariablerna. Med viss försiktighet i tolkningarna kan resultaten visa tecken på att en ökad arbetslöshet leder till lägre mortalitet och högre sjukvårdsutnyttjande momentant. Den dynamiska analysen i studien visar tecken på att arbetslöshet har en större effekt på mortalitet ett och två år senare, liknande resultat finns i relationen mellan arbetslöshet och utnyttjandet av öppen vård. Utnyttjandet av sluten vård ökar momentant men effekten av stigande arbetslöshet minskar efter ett och två år.

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    Hur påverkas hälsan av konjunkturförändringar i Sverige?
  • 236.
    Ahlin, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kan ekonomiska styrmedel riktade mot livsmedel förbättra folkhälsan?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie utvärderar ekonomiska styrmedels effekt på konsumtionen av livsmedel samt ifall skatter och subventioner kan vara en metod som styr matkonsumtionen mot hälsosamma livsmedelsval. Sex livsmedelsgrupper analyseras i studien och dessa är sötsaker och glass, kött, grönsaker, mejerivaror, bröd och spannmålsprodukter samt frukt och bär. Fyra scenarier som representerar olika skatte- och/eller subventionsreformer simuleras för att analysera vilken effekt ekonomiska styrmedel kan ha på matkonsumtion och hälsa. Responsen som de ekonomiska styrmedlen har på matkonsumtionen beräknas med elasticiteter som tagits fram från parameterestimat i AIDS-modellen. Den data som ligger till grund för den ekonometriska modellen är aggregerad konsumtionsdata, konsumentprisindex och livsmedelsförsäljning. Resultatet från studien visar att det går att styra konsumtionen av livsmedel men att substitution mellan varor kan leda till att de hälsomål som reformen är menad att nå inte uppfylls.

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  • 237.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    1. Individual Demand for Local Public Schooling: Evidence from Swedish Survey Data. 2. Does School Competition Matter? Effects of a Large-Scale School Choice Reform on Student Performance.2002Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 238.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Compulsory Schooling in a Decentralized Setting: Studies of the Swedish Case2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay 1 (with Eva Johansson) investigates the demand for local public schooling using survey data, a method previously never applied to Sweden. Estimating a demand specification corresponding to that in U.S. studies, more elastic demand than in the U.S. is found. In an alternative specification, a more inelastic demand is indicated, in line with earlier findings on demand for total local spending in Sweden. Support for the hypothesis that municipal employees tend to have higher preferences for local public school spending than other employees is found. The differences in elasticities are, however, not statistically significant.

    Essay 2 investigates school competition and its implications for student performance. Using a value added specification, increased local school competition is shown to have positive effects on average performance in mathematics, but no significant effects in English or Swedish test performance. Immigrant pupils and those in need of special education tend to gain more from increased school competition, while adverse effects on students from low education families are found in terms of English and Swedish performance. Quantile regressions indicate homogeneous effects on low and high performing students.

    Essay 3 (with Eva Mörk) investigates the extent to which grants, local tax base, preferences and structural characteristics affected local school resources in connection with the decentralization of compulsory schooling in Sweden, using municipal panel data covering 1989-1995. The main arguments against decentralization are not supported by our findings. First, school spending as well as teacher density is found to be more equally distributed across municipalities following decentralization. Second, local tax capacity is not found to influence local school resources more in the decentralized than in the centralized regime. Furthermore, targeted grants have a significant impact on resources while general grants have not.

    Essay 4 examines teacher mobility in Sweden. Particular attention is paid to the role of working conditions. Various school attributes are used to proxy for teachers’ working conditions, including the average student performance, school resources and student composition. The results indicate a link, in the expected direction, between school attributes and the probability that a teacher will leave her teaching position in favour of another school. Also, teachers with higher wages tend to have a lower propensity of leaving their school. In contrast to previous US findings, the estimated impact of wages are not sensitive to whether or not controls for school attributes are included.

  • 239.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Does School Competition Matter? Effects of a Large-Scale School Choice Reform on Student Performance2003Report (Other scientific)
  • 240.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Demand for local public schooling: another brick in the wall2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the demand for local public school expenditures in Sweden. By using survey data, a method previously never applied to Swedish data, the paper provides an additional piece of evidence on individual demand for publicly provided local services. Estimating a linear demand specification, we find that the demand is inelastic with respect to income and tax, much in line with previous Swedish findings in a median voter framework. Estimation of a log-linear demand specification indicates more elastic demand. Testing the hypothesis that municipal employees tend to have a higher demand for public spending than others, we conclude that income, as well as taxprice, enters the demand function differently for the two groups of employees. We find no evidence of Tiebout sorting.

  • 241.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Individual Demand for Local Public Schooling: Evidence from Swedish Survey Data2001In: International Tax and Public Finance, ISSN 0927-5940, E-ISSN 1573-6970, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 331-352Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 242.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Effects of Decentralization on School Resources2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 243.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Effects of decentralization on school resources2008In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 276-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has undertaken major national reforms of its school sector, which, consequently, has been classified as one of the most decentralized ones in the OECD. This paper investigates whether local tax base, grants, and preferences affected local school resources differently as decentralization took place. We find that municipal tax base affects per pupil spending in the same way regardless of whether the school sector is centralized or decentralized, but has a smaller effect on teacher–pupil ratio after the reforms. The less-targeted grants are the fewer teachers per pupil do the municipalities employ. The results for local preferences are less clear-cut.

  • 244.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Effects Of Decentralization On School Resources: Sweden 1989-20022007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has undertaken major national reforms of its school sector which, con- sequently, has been classified as one of the most decentralized ones in the OECD. This paper investigates whether school resources became more un- equally distributed across municipalities in connection with the reforms and if local tax base, grants, and preferences affected local school resources differently as decentralization took place. Using municipal data the paper studies how per pupil spending and the teacher-pupil ratio has evolved over the period 1989– 2002, separating between three different waves of decentralization. As nothing much has happened with per pupil spending, the teacher-pupil ratio has become more evenly distributed across municipalities. Municipal tax base affects per pupil spending in the same way regardless of whether the school sector is cen- tralized or decentralized, but has a smaller effect on teacher-pupil ratio after the reforms. The less targeted grants are, the fewer teachers per pupil do the mu- nicipalities employ. The results for local preferences are less clear cut.

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  • 245.
    Ahlinder, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, Stockholm Centre for Commercial Law.
    Granath Hansson, Anna
    Hur kan förutsättningarna för att fler ska kunna bo i socialt hållbara bogemenskaper förbättras? En litteraturgenomgång av potentiella initiativtagare, samarbetspartners och legala förhållanden2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker möjligheten att utveckla bogemenskaper till en ekonomiskt mer åtkomlig och socialt inkluderande boendeform för en bredare del av befolkningen i Sverige. Syftet är att bidra med ökad kunskap om hur de svenska förutsättningarna för att fler ska kunna bo i socialt hållbara bogemenskaper kan förbättras. Studien baseras på en systematisk litteraturöversikt och fokuserar på tre teman: potentiella initiativtagare, samarbetsaktörer och juridiska förutsättningar. Studien redovisas i denna rapport. Rapporten inleds med en redogörelse av bogemenskapers utveckling över tid i Sverige. Därefter ges en sammanställning av vilka hinder och potentiella lösningar för att utveckla boendeformen till en mer socialt och ekonomiskt hållbar boendeform som diskuterats i svenska rapporter, utredningar och forskningsprojekt. Utifrån den lösnings- och problembild som identifierats genom den svenska sammanställningen analyseras sedan frågorna utifrån hur de behandlats i europeisk samhällsvetenskaplig forskning, samt rättsvetenskaplig forskning i andra västerländska rättsordningar.

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  • 246.
    Ahlmark, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Cooperation in rehabilitating between the Swedish Insurance Agency and the Employment Office: An analysis of the outcome of the Strengthened Rehabilitation Cooperation and FAROS, with emphasis on the differences between specific diagnoses and gender 2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis examines if the likelihood of full-time sickness differs between diagnoses and between gender after the individual on sick leave participated in collaboration between Försäkringskassan and Arbetsförmedlingen. Hence, the thesis studies if individuals with certain diagnoses are more or less likely full-time sick after participating in the collaboration, and if there are differences between men and women. In particular, individual data on participants of the Strengthened Rehabilitation Cooperation and FAROS is used. The analysis also evaluates and compares the two collaborations by the likelihood of full-time sickness in their respective participants. Logit regression models are used to calculate the probability of being full-time sick one year after the start of the specific collaboration. In order to provide sick individuals with suitable rehabilitation measures, research contributing with information on potential differences in response is essential. The results of this thesis indicate that participants in the Strengthened Rehabilitation Cooperation are generally more likely full-time sick one year after the start of the collaboration than individuals in FAROS. Individuals in the Strengthened Rehabilitation Cooperation with musculoskeletal diagnoses have lower probability of full-time sickness and individuals in FAROS with musculoskeletal diagnoses seems to have higher probability of full-time sickness, compared to individuals in the respective collaboration with psychiatric diagnoses. The results found indicate that the introduction of the Strengthened Rehabilitation Cooperation, on average, increased the probability of full-time sickness. Further, the thesis shows that women are, on average, more likely to be full-time sick one year after the start of the cooperation than men. This indicates a troublesome inequality between genders in the individual’s response to currently used rehabilitation measures.

  • 247.
    Ahlmark, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Inflytandet av ”irrelevanta” alternativ till resmål: En studie utifrån teorin om rationella val, antagandet om oberoendet av irrelevanta alternativoch prospektteorin.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien undersöker jag människors beslutsfattande gällande val av resmål och hur valen påverkas av att ett ”irrelevant” alternativ adderas. Respondenterna som deltagit i undersökningen ombeds ta ställning till hypotetiska resor till kända resmål. En kontrollgrupp fick två resmål att välja mellan medan undersökningsgruppen stod inför valet mellan tre resmål, där det ytterligare resmålets syfte var att påverka preferenserna mellan de andra två. Vidare undersöks om individens generella uppfattning och tidigare besök till resmålet i fråga påverkar valet. Jag jämför den traditionella synen av beslutsfattande enligt ekonomisk rationalitet med den alternativa synen som grundar sig i prospektteorin. Studien finner att individer i viss mån är beredda att frångå nyttomaximering till fördel för den alternativa modellen.

  • 248. Ahlquist, John S.
    et al.
    Downey, Mitch
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    The Effects of Import Competition on Unionization2023In: American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, ISSN 1945-7731, E-ISSN 1945-774X, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 359-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study direct and indirect effects of Chinese import competition on union membership in the United States, 1990–2014. Import competition in manufacturing induced a modest decline in unionization within manufacturing industries. The magnitude is small because unionized manufacturers competed in higher-quality product segments. Manufacturers in right-to-work states experienced more direct competition with low-quality Chinese imports. Outside of manufacturing, however, import competition causes an important increase in union membership, as less educated women shift away from retail and toward jobs in health care and education where unions are stronger. We calculate that Chinese imports prevented 26 percent of the union density decline that would have otherwise occurred.

  • 249.
    Ahlroos Källhed, Ivar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Intolerans - effekten av ekonomisk frihet och fraktionalisering2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen undersöks intolerans mot tre olika samhällsgrupper; andra etniska grupper, andra religiösa grupper och homosexuella. Uppsatsen undersöker om en högre ekonomisk frihet leder till en minskad intolerans och om denna korrelation påverkas av om den etniska fraktionaliseringen är hög i ett land. Inga statistiskt signifikanta resultat för dessa samband hittas vid regressionsanalysen. Statistiskt signifikanta resultat för att hög etnisk fraktionalisering leder till en minskad intolerans mot andra etniska grupper framkommer däremot. Begränsningar i datamaterialet innebär att enbart 43 länder undersöks. Inga kausala samband mellan ekonomisk frihet och någon form av intolerans kan fastslås.

  • 250.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Quantifying Bias from Measurable and Unmeasurable Confounders Across Three Domains of Individual Determinants of Political Preferences2023In: Political Analysis, ISSN 1047-1987, E-ISSN 1476-4989, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 181-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A core part of political research is to identify how political preferences are shaped. The nature of these questions is such that robust causal identification is often difficult to achieve, and we are not seldom stuck with observational methods that we know have limited causal validity. The purpose of this paper is to measure the magnitude of bias stemming from both measurable and unmeasurable confounders across three broad domains of individual determinants of political preferences: socio-economic factors, moral values, and psychological constructs. We leverage a unique combination of rich Swedish registry data for a large sample of identical twins, with a comprehensive battery of 34 political preference measures, and build a meta-analytical model comparing our most conservative observational (naive) estimates with discordant twin estimates. This allows us to infer the amount of bias from unobserved genetic and shared environmental factors that remains in the naive models for our predictors, while avoiding precision issues common in family-based designs. The results are sobering: in most cases, substantial bias remains in naive models. A rough heuristic is that about half of the effect size even in conservative observational estimates is composed of confounding.

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