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  • 201.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Roli, Fabio
    Marcialis, Gian Luca
    Fierrez, Julian
    Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Ortega-Garcia, Javier
    Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Performance of Fingerprint Quality Measures Depending on Sensor Technology2008In: Journal of Electronic Imaging (JEI), ISSN 1017-9909, E-ISSN 1560-229X, Vol. 17, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 202.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Escuela Politecn Super, Biometr Recognit Grp ATVS, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.
    Roli, Fabio
    University of Cagliari, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Piazza d'Armi, 09123 Cagliari, Italy.
    Marcialis, Gian Luca
    University of Cagliari, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Piazza d'Armi, 09123 Cagliari, Italy.
    Fierrez, Julian
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Escuela Politecn Super, Biometr Recognit Grp ATVS, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.
    Ortega-Garcia, Javier
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Escuela Politecn Super, Biometr Recognit Grp ATVS, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Escuela Politecn Super, Biometr Recognit Grp ATVS, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.
    Performance of Fingerprint Quality Measures Depending on Sensor Technology2008In: Journal of Electronic Imaging (JEI), ISSN 1017-9909, E-ISSN 1560-229X, Vol. 17, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many image quality measures have been proposed for fingerprints, few works have taken into account how differences among capture devices impact the image quality. Several representative measures for assessing the quality of fingerprint images are compared using an optical and a capacitive sensor. We implement and test a representative set of measures that rely on different fingerprint image features for quality assessment. The capability to discriminate between images of different quality and the relationship with the verification performance are studied. For our verification experiments, we use minutiae- and ridge-based matchers, which are the most common approaches for fingerprint recognition. We report differences depending on the sensor, and interesting relationships between sensor technology and features used for quality assessment are also pointed out. © 2008 SPIE and IS&T.

  • 203.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Tome-Gonzalez, P.
    Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Ruiz-Albacete, V.
    Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Ortega-Garcia, J.
    Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Iris Recognition Based on SIFT Features2009In: 2009 First IEEE International Conference on Biometrics, Identity and Securit, 2009, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biometric methods based on iris images are believed to allow very high accuracy, and there has been an explosion of interest in iris biometrics in recent years. In this paper, we use the Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) for recognition using iris images. Contrarily to traditional iris recognition systems, the SIFT approach does not rely on the transformation of the iris pattern to polar coordinates or on highly accurate segmentation, allowing less constrained image acquisition conditions. We extract characteristic SIFT feature points in scale space and perform matching based on the texture information around the feature points using the SIFT operator. Experiments are done using the BioSec multimodal database, which includes 3,200 iris images from 200 individuals acquired in two different sessions. We contribute with the analysis of the influence of different SIFT parameters on the recognition performance. We also show the complementarity between the SIFT approach and a popular matching approach based on transformation to polar coordinates and Log-Gabor wavelets. The combination of the two approaches achieves significantly better performance than either of the individual schemes, with a performance improvement of 24% in the Equal Error Rate.

  • 204.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Veldhuis, R. N. J.
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Bazen, A. M.
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Fierrez-Aguilar, J.
    Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Ortega-Garcia, J.
    Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    On the relation between biometric quality and user-dependent score distributions in fingerprint verification2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Veldhuis, R. N. J.
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Bazen, A. M.
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Fierrez-Aguilar, J.
    Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Ortega-Garcia, J.
    Escuela Politecnica Superior, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Sensor Interoperability and Fusion in Fingerprint Verification: A Case Study Using Minutiae- and Ridge-based Matchers2006In: 2006 9th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, Vols 1- 5, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Press, 2006, p. 422-427Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information fusion in fingerprint recognition has been studied in several papers. However, only a few papers have been focused on sensor interoperability and sensor fusion. In this paper, these two topics are studied using a multisensor database acquired with three different fingerprint sensors. Authentication experiments using minutiae and ridge-based matchers are reported. Results show that the performance drops dramatically when matching images from different sensors. We have also observed that fusing scores from different sensors results in better performance than fusing different instances from the same sensor. © 2006 IEEE.

  • 206. Al-Qahtani, Fawaz S.
    et al.
    Duong, Quang Trung
    Gurung, Arun K.
    Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc
    Selection Decode-and-Forward Relay Networks with Rectangular QAM in Nakagami-m Fading Channels2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the average symbol error probability (SEP) of fixed decode-and-forward relay networks over independent but not identically distributed Nakagami-m fading channels. We have derived closed form expression of SEP for general rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) under relay selection scheme where only the best relay forwards message from the source to the destination. The expressions are in terms of hypergeometric series which can be efficiently numerically evaluated. The numerical results are validated with Monte-Carlo simulations.

  • 207. Al-Qahtani, Fawaz S.
    et al.
    Duong, Quang Trung
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Zhong, Caijun
    Qaraqe, Khaild A.
    Alnuweiri, Hussein
    Performance Analysis of Dual-Hop AF Systems with Interference in Nakagami-m Fading Channels2011In: IEEE Signal Processing Letters, ISSN 1070-9908, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 454-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of dual-hop channel state information-assisted amplify-and-forward relaying systems over Nakagami-m fading channels in the presence of multiple interferers at the relay. Assuming integer fading parameter m, we derive closed-form expressions for the exact outage probability and accurate approximation for symbol error rate of the system. Furthermore, we look into the asymptotical high signal to noise ratio regime, and characterize the diversity order achieved by the system. All the analytical results are validated via Monte Carlo simulations.

  • 208.
    ALRimawi, Mohammed
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology.
    Doppler Wheel for Emulation of Automotive Radar Target2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive radar is an emerging field of research and development. Technological ‎advancements in this field will improve safety for vehicles, pedestrians, and ‎bicyclists, and enable the development of autonomous vehicles. Usage of the ‎Automotive radar is expanding ‎in car and road areas to reduce collisions and ‎accident. Automotive radar ‎developers face a problem to test their radar sensor in ‎the street since there are a lot of interferences ‎signals, noise and unpredicted ‎situations. This thesis provides a part of the solution for this problem by designing a ‎device can demonstrate a different speeds value. This device will help the developer ‎to test their radar sensor inside an anechoic chamber room that provides accurate ‎control of the environmental conditions. This report shows how to ‎build the ‎measuring setup device, step by step to demonstrate the people and vehicle’s speed ‎‎in the street by a Doppler emulator using the wheel for millimetre FWMC radar. ‎Linear speed system needs a large space for testing, but using the rotational wheel ‎allow the developer to test the radar sensor in a small area. It begins with the wheel ‎design specifications and the relation between the ‎rotational speed (RPM) of the ‎wheel and the Doppler frequency. The Doppler ‎frequency is changed by varying the ‎speed of the wheel. Control and power circuit ‎was carefully designed to control the ‎wheel speed accurately. All the measuring ‎setup device parts were assembled in one ‎box. Also, signal processing was done by ‎MATLAB to measure the Doppler frequency ‎using millimetre FMCW radar sensor. ‎The measuring setup device was tested in the ‎anechoic chamber room for different speeds. the ‎manual and automatic tests show ‎good results to measure the different wheel speeds ‎with high accuracy.‎

  • 209. Alves, Dimas I.
    et al.
    Machado, Renato
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Legg, Andrei P.
    Uchoa-Filho, Bartolomeu F.
    Cooperative multiple-access scheme with antenna selection and incremental relaying2014In: 2014 INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYMPOSIUM (ITS), São Paulo: IEEE , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cooperative multiple-access scheme for wireless communications systems with antenna selection and incremental relaying is proposed. The scheme aims to improve the system throughput while preserving good performance in terms of bit error rate. The system consists of N nodes which send their information to both the destination node and the multiple-antenna relay station. Based on the channel state information, the destination node decides whether or not relaying will be performed. When the relaying is performed, the decode-remodulate-and-forward protocol is used with the best antenna. Results reveal that the proposed scheme achieves a good tradeoff between throughput and bit error rate, which makes suitable to be considered for multi-user networks.

  • 210. Alves, G.R.
    et al.
    Marques, M.A.
    Viegas, C
    Lobo, M.C. Costa
    Barral, R.G.
    Couto, R.J.
    Jaob, F.L.
    Ramos, C.A.
    Vilao, G.M.
    Gustavsson, Ingvar
    Using VISIR in a large undergraduate course: Preliminary assessment results2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of remote labs in undergraduate courses has been reported in literature several times since the mid 90's. Nevertheless, very few articles present results about the learning gains obtained by students using them, especially with a large number of students, thus suggesting a lack of data concerning their pedagogical effectiveness. This paper addresses such a gap by presenting some preliminary results concerning the use of a remote laboratory, known as VISIR, in a large undergraduate course on Applied Physics, with over 500 students enrolled.

  • 211. Alvesund, Carolin
    Att minska beroendet av motoriserade transporter: en fråga om att kunna och vilja!1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report includes (i) planning measures potential on reducing the dependency of motorized transports, (ii) the intrest of municipals and county administrative boads on reducing the dependency of motorized transports and (iii) legal potentials on reducing the dependency of motorized transports.

  • 212.
    Alwan, Abdulrahman
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Implementation of Wavelet-Kalman Filtering Technique for Auditory Brainstem Response2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory brainstem response (ABR) evaluation has been one of the most reliable methods for evaluating hearing loss. Clinically available methods for ABR tests require averaging for a large number of sweeps (~1000-2000) in order to obtain a meaningful ABR signal, which is time consuming.  This study proposes a faster new method for ABR filtering based on wavelet-Kalman filter that is able to produce a meaningful ABR signal with less than 500 sweeps. The method is validated against ABR data acquired from 7 normal hearing subjects with different stimulus intensity levels, the lowest being 30 dB NHL. The proposed method was able to filter and produce a readable ABR signal using 400 sweeps; other ABR signal criteria were also presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  • 213. Ambat, S. K.
    et al.
    Chatterjee, Saikat
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Hari, K. V. S.
    Fusion of algorithms for Compressed Sensing2013In: ICASSP IEEE Int Conf Acoust Speech Signal Process Proc, 2013, p. 5860-5864Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous algorithms have been proposed recently for sparse signal recovery in Compressed Sensing (CS). In practice, the number of measurements can be very limited due to the nature of the problem and/or the underlying statistical distribution of the non-zero elements of the sparse signal may not be known a priori. It has been observed that the performance of any sparse signal recovery algorithm depends on these factors, which makes the selection of a suitable sparse recovery algorithm difficult. To take advantage in such situations, we propose to use a fusion framework using which we employ multiple sparse signal recovery algorithms and fuse their estimates to get a better estimate. Theoretical results justifying the performance improvement are shown. The efficacy of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by Monte Carlo simulations using synthetic sparse signals and ECG signals selected from MIT-BIH database.

  • 214. Ambat, Sooraj K.
    et al.
    Chatterjee, Saikat
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Hari, K. V. S.
    A Committee Machine Approach for Compressed Sensing Signal Reconstruction2014In: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ISSN 1053-587X, E-ISSN 1941-0476, Vol. 62, no 7, p. 1705-1717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many sparse recovery algorithms have been proposed recently in compressed sensing (CS), it is well known that the performance of any sparse recovery algorithm depends on many parameters like dimension of the sparse signal, level of sparsity, and measurement noise power. It has been observed that a satisfactory performance of the sparse recovery algorithms requires a minimum number of measurements. This minimum number is different for different algorithms. In many applications, the number of measurements is unlikely to meet this requirement and any scheme to improve performance with fewer measurements is of significant interest in CS. Empirically, it has also been observed that the performance of the sparse recovery algorithms also depends on the underlying statistical distribution of the nonzero elements of the signal, which may not be known a priori in practice. Interestingly, it can be observed that the performance degradation of the sparse recovery algorithms in these cases does not always imply a complete failure. In this paper, we study this scenario and show that by fusing the estimates of multiple sparse recovery algorithms, which work with different principles, we can improve the sparse signal recovery. We present the theoretical analysis to derive sufficient conditions for performance improvement of the proposed schemes. We demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods through numerical simulations for both synthetic and real signals.

  • 215. Ambat, Sooraj K.
    et al.
    Chatterjee, Saikat
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Hari, K. V. S.
    Fusion of Algorithms for Compressed Sensing2013In: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ISSN 1053-587X, E-ISSN 1941-0476, Vol. 61, no 14, p. 3699-3704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For compressed sensing (CS), we develop a new scheme inspired by data fusion principles. In the proposed fusion based scheme, several CS reconstruction algorithms participate and they are executed in parallel, independently. The final estimate of the underlying sparse signal is derived by fusing the estimates obtained from the participating algorithms. We theoretically analyze this fusion based scheme and derive sufficient conditions for achieving a better reconstruction performance than any participating algorithm. Through simulations, we show that the proposed scheme has two specific advantages: 1) it provides good performance in a low dimensional measurement regime, and 2) it can deal with different statistical natures of the underlying sparse signals. The experimental results on real ECG signals shows that the proposed scheme demands fewer CS measurements for an approximate sparse signal reconstruction.

  • 216.
    Ambat, Sooraj K.
    et al.
    IISc - Indian Institute of Science.
    Chatterjee, Saikat
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Hari, K.V.S.
    IISc - Indian Institute of Science.
    Fusion of greedy pursuits for compressed sensing signal reconstruction2012In: 2012 Proceedings Of The 20th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), IEEE Computer Society, 2012, p. 1434-1438Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Greedy Pursuits are very popular in Compressed Sensing for sparse signal recovery. Though many of the Greedy Pursuits possess elegant theoretical guarantees for performance, it is well known that their performance depends on the statistical distribution of the non-zero elements in the sparse signal. Inpractice, the distribution of the sparse signal may not be knowna priori. It is also observed that performance of Greedy Pursuits degrades as the number of available measurements decreases from a threshold value which is method dependent. To improve the performance in these situations, we introduce a novel fusion framework for Greedy Pursuits and also propose two algorithms for sparse recovery. Through Monte Carlo simulations we show that the proposed schemes improve sparse signal recovery in clean as well as noisy measurement cases.

  • 217.
    Ambrozinski, Lukasz
    et al.
    Department of Robotics and Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Polen.
    Packo, Pawel
    Department of Robotics and Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Polen.
    Stepinski, Tadeusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    Uhl, Tadeusz
    Department of Robotics and Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Polen.
    Ultrasonic guided waves based method for SHM: Simulations and an experimental test2011In: 5th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, Tokyo, Japan, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Ambrozinski, Lukasz
    et al.
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Polen.
    Stepinski, Tadeusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    Packo, Pawel
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Polen.
    Uhl, Tadeusz
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Polen.
    Self-focusing Lamb waves based on the decomposition of the time-reversal operator using time-frequency representation2012In: Mechanical systems and signal processing, ISSN 0888-3270, E-ISSN 1096-1216, Vol. 27, p. 337-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active ultrasonic arrays are very useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) of large plate-like structures. Large areas of a plate can be monitored from a fixed position but it normally requires precise information on material properties. Self-focusing methods can perform well without the exact knowledge of a medium and array parameters. In this paper a method for selective focusing of Lamb waves will be presented. The algorithm is an extension of the DORT method (French acronym for decomposition of time-reversal operator) where the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is used for the time-frequency representation (TFR) of nonstationary signals instead of the discrete Fourier transform. The performance of the methods is compared and verified in the paper using both simulated and experimental data. It is shown that the extension of the DORT method with the use of TFR considerably improved its resolving ability. To experimentally evaluate the performance of the proposed method, a linear array of small piezoelectric transducers attached to an aluminum plate was used to obtain interelement responses, required for beam self-focusing on targets present in the plate. The array was used for the transmission of signals calculated with the DORT-CWT algorithm. To verify the self-focusing effect the backpropagated field generated in the experiment was sensed using laser scanning vibrometer.

  • 219.
    Ambrozinski, Lukasz
    et al.
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Polen.
    Stepinski, Tadeusz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    Uhl, Tadeusz
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Polen.
    Self focusing of 2D arrays for SHM of plate-like structures using time reversal operator2011In: 8th Workshop on SHM, Stanford, CA, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 220.
    Amerineni, Rajesh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Multi Channel Sub Band Wiener Beamformer2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the recent advance in microphone array speech processing, achieving robustness of speaker localization becomes most significant aspect. At the same time considerable research growth is performed in developing the multiple microphone sensors equipped rooms are developed also called as smart rooms for real time applications. The accuracy of speaker localization is down casted by acoustic noise and room reverberations. In distributed meeting environment speaker localization is performed by far field microphone arrays with the help of beamforming. But far field Microphone performance is degraded by room reverberations and acoustic noise. In this master thesis, speaker localization with two adaptive beamforming techniques in distributed meeting application in reverberated environment with the help of far filed microphone arrays is design and implemented. The two beamforming methods examined are multichannel wiener beamformer and multichannel sub band wiener beamformer. These methods use wiener filtering technique for their implementation and they are implemented to capture the human voice using widely separated microphone arrays even when irregular disturbances are present. A smart room is developed with Image source model for generating reverberation in which beamformers are implemented. In sub band beamformer WOLA filter bank is designed. The sub band beamforming is further extended to steered response power with phase transform for speaker localization is achieved with the cross correlation but speech is heavily degraded by the noise which can be further studied to eliminated it. Finally the quality of the speech is tested using SNR and PESQ (Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality) and also the performance of the system with respect to reverberation time is calculated. The results show that the two implementations are acceptable in terms of PESQ score.

  • 221.
    Amin, Shoaib
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Characterization and Linearization of Multi-band Multi-channel RF Power Amplifiers2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The World today is deeply transformed by the advancement in wireless technology. The envision of a smart society where interactions between physical and virtual dimensions of life are intertwined and where human interaction is mediated by machines, e.g., smart phones, demands increasingly more data traffic. This continual increase in data traffic requires re-designing of the wireless technologies for increased system capacity and flexibility. In this thesis, aspects related to behavioral modeling, characterization, and linearization of multi-channel/band power amplifiers (PAs) are discussed.

    When building a model of any system, it is advantageous to take into account the knowledge of the physics of the system and include into the model. This approach could help to improve the model performance. In this context, three novel behavioral models and DPD schemes for nonlinear MIMO transmitters are proposed.

    To model and compensate distortions in GaN based RF PAs in presence of long-term memory effects, novel models for SISO and concurrent dual-band PAs are proposed. These models are based on a fixed pole expansion technique and have infinite impulse response. They show substantial performance improvement. A behavioral model based on the physical knowledge of the concurrent dual-band PA is derived, and its performance is investigated both for behavioral modeling and compensation of nonlinear distortions.

    Two-tone characterization is a fingerprint method for the characterization of memory effects in dynamic nonlinear systems. In this context, two novel techniques are proposed. The first technique is a dual two-tone characterization technique to characterize the memory effects of self- and cross-modulation products in concurrent dual-band transmitter. The second technique is for the characterization and analysis of self- and cross-Volterra kernels of nonlinear 3x3 MIMO systems using three-tone signals.

  • 222.
    Amin, Shoaib
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Characterization and Linearization of Multi-band Multi-channel RF Power Amplifiers2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The World today is deeply transformed by the advancement in wireless technology. The envision of a smart society where interactions between physical and virtual dimensions of life are intertwined and where human interaction is mediated by machines, e.g., smart phones, demands increasingly more data traffic. This continual increase in data traffic requires re-designing of the wireless technologies for increased system capacity and flexibility. In this thesis, aspects related to behavioral modeling, characterization, and linearization of multi-channel/band power amplifiers (PAs) are discussed.

    When building a model of any system, it is advantageous to take into account the knowledge of the physics of the system and include into the model. This approach could help to improve the model performance. In this context, three novel behavioral models and DPD schemes for nonlinear MIMO transmitters are proposed.

    To model and compensate distortions in GaN based RF PAs in presence of long-term memory effects, novel models for SISO and concurrent dual-band PAs are proposed. These models are based on a fixed pole expansion technique and have infinite impulse response. They show substantial performance improvement. A behavioral model based on the physical knowledge of the concurrent dual-band PA is derived, and its performance is investigated both for behavioral modeling and compensation of nonlinear distortions.

    Two-tone characterization is a fingerprint method for the characterization of memory effects in dynamic nonlinear systems. In this context, two novel techniques are proposed. The first technique is a dual two-tone characterization technique to characterize the memory effects of self- and cross-modulation products in concurrent dual-band transmitter. The second technique is for the characterization and analysis of self- and cross-Volterra kernels of nonlinear 3x3 MIMO systems using three-tone signals.

  • 223.
    Amin, Shoaib
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Characterization and Linearization of Multi-channel RF Power Amplifiers2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for high data rates and broadband wireless access requirethe development of wireless systems that can support wide and multi-bandsignals. To deploy these signals, new radio frequency (RF) front-ends are requiredwhich impose new challenges in terms of power consumption efficiencyand sources of distortion e.g., nonlinearity. These challenges are more pronouncedin power amplifiers (PAs) that degrade the overall performance ofthe RF transmitter.Since it is difficult to optimize the linearity and efficiency characteristicsof a PA simultaneously, a trade-off is needed. At high input power, a PAexhibits high efficiency at the expense of linearity. On the other hand, atlow input power, a PA is linear at the expense of the efficiency. To achievelinearity and efficiency at the same time, digital pre-distortion (DPD) is oftenused to compensate for the PA nonlinearity at high input power. In case ofmulti-channel PAs, input and output signals of different channels interactwith each other due to cross-talk. Therefore, these PAs exhibit differentnonlinear behavior than the single-input single-output (SISO) PAs. The DPDtechniques developed for SISO PAs do not result in adequate performancewhen used for multi-channel PAs. Hence, an accurate behavioral modeling isessential for the development of DPD for multi-channel RF PAs.In this thesis, we propose three novel behavioral models and DPD schemesfor nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmitters in presenceof cross-talk. A study of the source of cross-talk in MIMO transmittershave been investigated to derive simple and powerful modeling schemes.These models are extensions of a SISO generalized memory polynomial model.A comparative study with a previously published MIMO model is also presented.The effect of coherent and partially non-coherent signal generationon DPD performance is also highlighted. It is shown experimentally thatwith partially non-coherent signal generation, the performance of the DPDdegrades compared to coherent signal generation.In context of multi-channel RF transmitters, PA behavioral models andDPD schemes suffer from a large number of model parameters with the increasein nonlinear order and memory depth. This growth leads to highcomplexity model identification and implementation. We have designed aDPD scheme for MIMO PAs using a sparse estimation technique for reducingmodel complexity. This technique also increases the numerical stability whenlinear least square estimation model identification is used.A method to characterize the memory effects in a nonlinear concurrentdual-band PAs is also presented. Compared to the SISO PAs, concurrentdual-band PAs are not only affected by intermodulation distortions but alsoby cross-modulation distortions. The characterization of memory effects inconcurrent dual-band transmitter is performed by injecting a two-tone testsignal in each input channel of the transmitter. Asymmetric energy surfacesare introduced for the intermodulation and cross-modulation products, whichcan be used to identify the power and frequency regions where the memory effects are dominant.

  • 224.
    Amin, Shoaib Amin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Characterization and Linearization of Multi-channel RF Power Amplifiers2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for high data rates and broadband wireless access require the development of wireless systems that can support wide and multi-band signals. To deploy these signals, new radio frequency (RF) front-ends are required which impose new challenges in terms of power consumption efficiency and sources of distortion e.g., nonlinearity. These challenges are more pronounced in power amplifiers (PAs) that degrade the overall performance of the RF transmitter. Since it is difficult to optimize the linearity and efficiency characteristics of a PA simultaneously, a trade-off is needed. At high input power, a PA exhibits high efficiency at the expense of linearity. On the other hand, at low input power, a PA is linear at the expense of the efficiency. To achieve linearity and efficiency at the same time, digital pre-distortion (DPD) is often used to compensate for the PA nonlinearity at high input power. In case of multi-channel PAs, input and output signals of different channels interact with each other due to cross-talk. Therefore, these PAs exhibit different nonlinear behavior than the single-input single-output (SISO) PAs. The DPD techniques developed for SISO PAs do not result in adequate performance when used for multi-channel PAs. Hence, an accurate behavioral modeling is essential for the development of DPD for multi-channel RF PAs. In this thesis, we propose three novel behavioral models and DPD schemes for nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmitters in presence of cross-talk. A study of the source of cross-talk in MIMO transmitters have been investigated to derive simple and powerful modeling schemes. These models are extensions of a SISO generalized memory polynomial model. A comparative study with a previously published MIMO model is also presented. The effect of coherent and partially non-coherent signal generationon DPD performance is also highlighted. It is shown experimentally that with partially non-coherent signal generation, the performance of the DPD degrades compared to coherent signal generation. In context of multi-channel RF transmitters, PA behavioral models and DPD schemes suffer from a large number of model parameters with the increase in nonlinear order and memory depth. This growth leads to high complexity model identification and implementation. We have designed a DPD scheme for MIMO PAs using a sparse estimation technique for reducing model complexity. This technique also increases the numerical stability when linear least square estimation model identification is used. A method to characterize the memory effects in a nonlinear concurrent dual-band PAs is also presented. Compared to the SISO PAs, concurrent dual-band PAs are not only affected by intermodulation distortions but also by cross-modulation distortions. The characterization of memory effects inconcurrent dual-band transmitter is performed by injecting a two-tone test signal in each input channel of the transmitter. Asymmetric energy surfaces are introduced for the intermodulation and cross-modulation products, which can be used to identify the power and frequency regions where the memory effects are dominant.

  • 225.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Dept of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Händel, Peter
    Dept of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Characterization and modeling of RF amplifiers with multiple input signals2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A characterization technique for RF PAs excited with multiple signals is presented. The technique can be used for characterization of memory effects in IM/CM products. The extracted information can in return be of use for modifying behavioral models to better capture memory in IM/CM products.

  • 226.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Department of Signal Processing, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Signal Processing, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Digital Predistortion of Single and Concurrent Dual Band Radio Frequency GaN Amplifiers with Strong Nonlinear Memory Effects2017In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 65, no 7, p. 2453-2464, article id 7855827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical anomalies due to trapping effects in Gallium Nitride (GaN) power amplifiers (PAs)give rise to long-term or strong memory effects. We propose novel models based on infinite impulse response (IIR) fixed pole expansion techniques for the behavioural modeling and digital pre-distortion of single-input-single-output (SISO) and concurrent dual-bandGaN PAs. Experimental results show that the proposed models outperform the corresponding finite impulse response (FIR) models by up to 17 dB for the same number of model parameters. For the linearization of a SISO GaN PA the proposed models give adjacent channel power ratios (ACPRs) that are 7 to 17 dBlower than the FIR models. For the concurrent dual-band case, the proposed models give ACPRs that are 9to 14 dB lower than the FIR models.

  • 227.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    ATM, University of Gävle.
    Digital Predistortion of Single and Concurrent Dual BandRadio Frequency GaN Amplifiers with Strong NonlinearMemory Effects2017In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 65, no 7, p. 2453-2464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical anomalies due to trapping effects in gallium nitride (GaN) power amplifiers (PAs) give rise to long-term or strong memory effects. We propose novel models based on infinite impulse response fixed pole expansion techniques for the behavioral modeling and digital predistortion of single-input single-output (SISO) and concurrent dual-band GaN PAs. Experimental results show that the proposed models outperform the corresponding finite impulse response (FIR) models by up to 17 dB for the same number of model parameters. For the linearization of a SISO GaN PA, the proposed models give adjacent channel power ratios (ACPRs) that are 7-17 dB lower than the FIR models. For the concurrent dual-band case, the proposed models give ACPRs that are 9-14 dB lower than the FIR models.

  • 228.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Concurrent Dual-band Power Amplifier Model Modification using Dual Two-Tone Test2016In: European Microwave Week 2016: "Microwaves Everywhere", EuMW 2016 - Conference Proceedings; 46th European Microwave Conference, EuMC 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 186-189, article id 7824309Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dual two-tone technique for the characterization of memory effects in concurrent dual-band transmitters is revisited to modify a 2D-DPD model for the linearization of concurrent dual-band transmitters. By taking into account the individual nonlinear memory effects of the self- and cross-kernels, a new2D modified digital pre-distortion (2D-MDPD) model is proposed,which not only supersedes the linearization performance but also reduces the computational complexity compared to the 2DDPDmodel in terms of a number of floating point operations(FLOPs). Experimental results show an improvement of 1.7 dBin normalized mean square error (NMSE) and a 58% reduction in the number of FLOPs.

  • 229.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Concurrent dual-band power amplifier model modification using dual two-tone test2016In: 46th Europena Microwave Conference (EUMC) 2016, 2016, p. 186-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dual two-tone technique for the characterization of memory effects in concurrent dual-band transmitters is revisited to modify a 2D-DPD model for the linearization of concurrent dual-band transmitters. By taking into account the individual nonlinear memory effects of the self- and cross-kernels, a new2D modified digital pre-distortion (2D-MDPD) model is proposed,which not only supersedes the linearization performance but also reduces the computational complexity compared to the 2DDPDmodel in terms of a number of floating point operations(FLOPs). Experimental results show an improvement of 1.7 dBin normalized mean square error (NMSE) and a 58% reduction in the number of FLOPs.

  • 230.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Ladin, Per N.
    ATM, University of Gävle.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    ATM, University of Gävle.
    2D Extended Envelope Memory Polynomial Model forConcurrent Dual-band RF Transmitters2016In: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, E-ISSN 1759-0787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a 2D extended envelope memory polynomial (2D-EEMP) model for concurrent dual-band radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers (PAs). The model is derived based on the physical knowledge of a dual-band RF PA. The derived model contains cross-modulation terms not included in previously published models; these terms are found to be of importance for both behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion (DPD). The performance of the derived model is evaluated both as the behavioral model and DPD, and the performance is compared with state-of-the-art2D-DPD and dual-band generalized memory polynomial (DB-GMP) models. Experimental result shows that the proposed model resulted in normalized mean square error (NMSE) of -51.7/-51.6dB and adjacent channel error power ratio (ACEPR) of -63.1/-63.4 dB, for channel 1/2, whereas the 2D-DPD resulted in the largest model error and DB-GMP resulted in model parameters that are 3 times more than those resulted with the proposed model with the same performance. As pre-distorter, the proposed model resulted in adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) of -55.8/ -54.6 dB for channel 1/2 and is 7-10 dB lower than those resulted with the 2D-DPD model and2-4 dB lower compared to the DB-GMP model.

  • 231.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Landin, Per
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Behavioral modeling and linearization of crosstalk and memory effects in RF MIMO transmitters2014In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 810-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes three novel models for behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion (DPD) of nonlinear 2 x 2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmitters in the presence of crosstalk. The proposed models are extensions of the single-input single-output generalized memory polynomial model. Three types of crosstalk effects were studied and characterized as linear, nonlinear, and nonlinear & linear crosstalk. A comparative study was performed with previously published models for the linearization of crosstalk in a nonlinear 2 x 2 MIMO transmitter. The experiments indicate that, depending on the type of crosstalk, the selection of the correct model in the transmitter is necessary for behavioral modeling and sufficient DPD performance. The effects of coherent and partially noncoherent signal generation on the performance of DPD were also studied. For crosstalk levels of 30 dB, the difference in the normalized mean square error and adjacent channel power ratio was found to be 3-4 dB between coherent and partially noncoherent signal generation.

  • 232.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH.
    Landin, Per
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Händel, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Signal Processing Lab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Behavioral Modeling and Linearization of Crosstalk and Memory Effects in RF MIMO Transmitters2014In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 810-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes three novel models for behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion (DPD) of nonlinear 2$,times,$ 2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmitters in the presence of crosstalk. The proposed models are extensions of the single-input single-output generalized memory polynomial model. Three types of crosstalk effects were studied and characterized as linear, nonlinear, and nonlinear & linear crosstalk. A comparative study was performed with previously published models for the linearization of crosstalk in a nonlinear 2 $,times,$2 MIMO transmitter. The experiments indicate that, depending on the type of crosstalk, the selection of the correct model in the transmitter is necessary for behavioral modeling and sufficient DPD performance. The effects of coherent and partially noncoherent signal generation on the performance of DPD were also studied. For crosstalk levels of ${-}{hbox{30}}$ dB, the difference in the normalized mean square error and adjacent channel power ratio was found to be 3–4 dB between coherent and partially noncoherent signal generation.

  • 233.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Signalbehandling.
    Landin, Per N.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Signalbehandling.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    2D Extended envelope memory polynomial model for concurrent dual-band RF transmitters2017In: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, E-ISSN 1759-0787, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 1619-1627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a 2D extended envelope memory polynomial (2D-EEMP) model for concurrent dual-band radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers (PAs). The model is derived based on the physical knowledge of a dual-band RF PA. The derived model contains cross-modulation terms not included in previously published models; these terms are found to be of importance for both behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion (DPD). The performance of the derived model is evaluated both as the behavioral model and DPD, and the performance is compared with state-of-the-art2D-DPD and dual-band generalized memory polynomial (DB-GMP) models. Experimental result shows that the proposed model resulted in normalized mean square error (NMSE) of -51.7/-51.6dB and adjacent channel error power ratio (ACEPR) of -63.1/-63.4 dB, for channel 1/2, whereas the 2D-DPD resulted in the largest model error and DB-GMP resulted in model parameters that are 3 times more than those resulted with the proposed model with the same performance. As pre-distorter, the proposed model resulted in adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) of -55.8/ -54.6 dB for channel 1/2 and is 7-10 dB lower than those resulted with the 2D-DPD model and2-4 dB lower compared to the DB-GMP model.

  • 234.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Characterization of a Concurrent dual-band Power Amplifier using a dual-tone excitation signals2014In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Signalbehandling.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Characterization of concurrent dual-band power amplifiers using a dual two-tone excitation signal2015In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 2781-2791, article id 7104121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to characterize the memory effects in a nonlinear concurrent dual-band transmitter is presented. It is an extension of the conventional two tone test for power amplifiers to concurrent dual band transmitters. The output signal of a concurrent dual-band transmitter is affected not only by intermodulation products but also by cross-modulation products. In one frequency band, the transmitter is excited by a two tone signal which frequency separation is swept. In the second band the transmitter is concurrently excited by an other two tone signal with slightly wider frequency separation. The frequency difference of the two signals is fixed during the frequency sweep. The two tone test is made at different power levels. The upper and lower third-order inter- and cross-modulation products are measured. The asymmetry between the upper and lower third-order inter- and cross-modulation products are measures of the transmitter's memory effects. The measurement results show that the memory effects are more dominant in the third-order intermodulation products than in the cross modulation products. An error analysis and system calibration was performed and measurement results for two different devices are presented.

  • 236.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    University of Gävle.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle.
    Characterization of concurrent dual-band Power Amplifiers using a dual two-tone excitation signal2015In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, no 99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to characterize the memory effects in a nonlinear concurrent dual-band transmitter is presented. It is an extension of the conventional two tone test for power amplifiers to concurrent dual band transmitters. The output signal of a concurrent dual-band transmitter is affected not only by intermodulation products but also by cross-modulation products. In one frequency band, the transmitter is excited by a two tone signal which frequency separation is swept. In the second band the transmitter is concurrently excited by an other two tone signal with slightly wider frequency separation. The frequency difference of the two signals is fixed during the frequency sweep. The two tone test is made at different power levels. The upper and lower third-order inter- and cross-modulation products are measured. The asymmetry between the upper and lower third-order inter- and cross-modulation products are measures of the transmitter's memory effects. The measurement results show that the memory effects are more dominant in the third-order intermodulation products than in the cross modulation products. An error analysis and system calibration was performed and measurement results for two different devices are presented.

  • 237.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Landin, Per
    Dept. Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development,University of Gävle .
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Dept. Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development,University of Gävle .
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Dept. Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development,University of Gävle .
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Noise Impact on the Identification of DigitalPredistorter Parameters in the Indirect LearningArchitecture2012In: Swedish Communication Technologies Workshop (Swe-CTW), 2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 36-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indirect learning architecture (ILA) is the mostused methodology for the identification of Digital Pre-distorter(DPD) functions for nonlinear systems, particularly for highpower amplifiers. The ILA principle works in black box modelingrelying on the inversion of input and output signals of thenonlinear system, such that the inverse is estimated. This paperpresents the impact of disturbances, such as noise in the DPDidentification. Experiments were performed with a state-of-artDoherty power amplifier intended for base station operationin current telecommunication wireless networks. As expected,a degradation in the performance of the DPD (measured innormalized mean square error (NMSE)) is found in our experiments.However, adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) canbe a misleading figure of merit showing improvement in theperformance for wrongly estimated DPD functions.

  • 238.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Landin, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Signal Processing Lab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Noise Impact on the Identification of DigitalPredistorter Parameters in the Indirect LearningArchitecture2012In: 2012 Swedish Communication Technologies Workshop (Swe-CTW), IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 36-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indirect learning architecture (ILA) is the mostused methodology for the identification of Digital Pre-distorter(DPD) functions for nonlinear systems, particularly for highpower amplifiers. The ILA principle works in black box modelingrelying on the inversion of input and output signals of thenonlinear system, such that the inverse is estimated. This paperpresents the impact of disturbances, such as noise in the DPDidentification. Experiments were performed with a state-of-artDoherty power amplifier intended for base station operationin current telecommunication wireless networks. As expected,a degradation in the performance of the DPD (measured innormalized mean square error (NMSE)) is found in our experiments.However, adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) canbe a misleading figure of merit showing improvement in theperformance for wrongly estimated DPD functions.

  • 239.
    Ananthakrishnan, Gopal
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    From Acoustics to Articulation: Study of the acoustic-articulatory relationship along with methods to normalize and adapt to variations in production across different speakers2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this thesis is the relationship between the articulation ofspeech and the acoustics of produced speech. There are several problems thatare encountered in understanding this relationship, given the non-linearity,variance and non-uniqueness in the mapping, as well as the differences thatexist in the size and shape of the articulators, and consequently the acoustics,for different speakers. The thesis covers mainly four topics pertaining to thearticulation and acoustics of speech.The first part of the thesis deals with variations among different speakersin the articulation of phonemes. While the speakers differ physically in theshape of their articulators and vocal tracts, the study tries to extract articula-tion strategies that are common to different speakers. Using multi-way linearanalysis methods, the study extracts articulatory parameters which can beused to estimate unknown articulations of phonemes made by one speaker;knowing other articulations made by the same speaker and those unknown ar-ticulations made by other speakers of the language. At the same time, a novelmethod to select the number of articulatory model parameters, as well as thearticulations that are representative of a speaker’s articulatory repertoire, issuggested.The second part is devoted to the study of uncertainty in the acoustic-to-articulatory mapping, specifically non-uniqueness in the mapping. Severalstudies in the past have shown that human beings are capable of producing agiven phoneme using non-unique articulatory configurations, when the artic-ulators are constrained. This was also demonstrated by synthesizing soundsusing theoretical articulatory models. The studies in this part of the the-sis investigate the existence of non-uniqueness in unconstrained read speech.This is carried out using a database of acoustic signals recorded synchronouslyalong with the positions of electromagnetic coils placed on selected points onthe lips, jaws, tongue and velum. This part, thus, largely devotes itself todescribing techniques that can be used to study non-uniqueness in the sta-tistical sense, using such a database. The results indicate that the acousticvectors corresponding to some frames in all the phonemes in the databasecan be mapped onto non-unique articulatory distributions. The predictabil-ity of these non-unique frames is investigated, along with verifying whetherapplying continuity constraints can resolve this non-uniqueness.The third part proposes several novel methods of looking at acoustic-articulatory relationships in the context of acoustic-to-articulatory inversion.The proposed methods include explicit modeling of non-uniqueness usingcross-modal Gaussian mixture modeling, as well as modeling the mappingas local regressions. Another innovative approach towards the mapping prob-lem has also been described in the form of relating articulatory and acousticgestures. Definitions and methods to obtain such gestures are presented alongwith an analysis of the gestures for different phoneme types. The relationshipbetween the acoustic and articulatory gestures is also outlined. A method toconduct acoustic-to-articulatory inverse mapping is also suggested, along withva method to evaluate it. An application of acoustic-to-articulatory inversionto improve speech recognition is also described in this part of the thesis.The final part of the thesis deals with problems related to modeling infantsacquiring the ability to speak; the model utilizing an articulatory synthesizeradapted to infant vocal tract sizes. The main problem addressed is related tomodeling how infants acquire acoustic correlates that are normalized betweeninfants and adults. A second problem of how infants decipher the number ofdegrees of articulatory freedom is also partially addressed. The main contri-bution is a realistic model which shows how an infant can learn the mappingbetween the acoustics produced during the babbling phase and the acous-tics heard from the adults. The knowledge required to map correspondingadult-infant speech sounds is shown to be learnt without the total numberof categories or one-one correspondences being specified explicitly. Instead,the model learns these features indirectly based on an overall approval rating,provided by a simulation of adult perception, on the basis of the imitation ofadult utterances by the infant model.Thus, the thesis tries to cover different aspects of the relationship betweenarticulation and acoustics of speech in the context of variations for differentspeakers and ages. Although not providing complete solutions, the thesis pro-poses novel directions for approaching the problem, with pointers to solutionsin some contexts.

  • 240.
    Ande, Santosh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Stereo Echo Cancellation(SEC) employing Signal Decorrelation with emphasis on Affine Projection Algorithm(APA)2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Monophonic tele-conferencing systems employ acoustic echo cancellation (AEC) to reduce echoes that result from coupling between loudspeaker and microphone. Acoustic echo cancellation is simple to develope as there is a single channel. But future tele conferencing systems are expected to have multi channel communication which is necessary in hands-free multi user tele communication systems. Stereophonic echo cancellation (SEC), has been studied since the early 1990s, in hands-free tele communication applications such as tele conferencing, multi user desktop conferencing, and tele video gaming. To enhance the sound realism in order to increase the speech intelligibilty it is necessary to use two channel (stereo) audio systems. This requires SEC systems. In SEC there is a fundamental problem that the adaptive algorithm used can not identify correct echo path responses due to strong correlation between stereo signals and also the convergence is slow. In this case it is necessary to identify two echo paths for each channel thus there are four echo paths to identify which is very difficult. In this thesis, the problems with stereo echo cancellation is explained and echo cancellation with emphasis on two channel affine projection algorithm (APA) is studied. The signal de-correlation techniques are reviewed and compared. The idea behind signal decorrelation techniques is to introduce nonlinearity into each channel. This can be done by using half-wave rectifiers or time varying all-pass filters.Three methods were developed to reduce correlation between stereo signals. One, is to use two positive half-wave rectifiers on both channels considered as NLP1. Second, is to use positive and negative half-wave rectifiers on each channel (NLP2). Third, is to use time varying all-pass filters (TV-APF) on both channels with delays. Experiments were performed using MATLAB and observed echo return loss enhancement (ERLE) and misalignment(MIS) with different scenarios. The euclidean norm distance calculation has been used to find out MIS between filter coefficients and true echo path models. It is observed that NLP1 and NLP2 lack signal perception even though ERLE was good. The MIS falls down below 25dB with decorrelated stereo signals. The use of TV-APFs gives good echo cancellation and does not effect the signal perception, the ERLE in this case was 40.3231dB.

  • 241.
    Andersen, Torben
    et al.
    Lund Observatory, Lund University.
    Owner-Petersen, Mette
    Lund Observatory, Lund University.
    Enmark, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Neural networks for image-based wavefront sensing for astronomy2019In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 44, no 18, p. 4618-4621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the possibility of using convolutional neural networks for wavefront sensing from a guide star image in astronomical telescopes. We generated a large number of artificial atmospheric wavefront screens and determined associated best-fit Zernike polynomials. We also generated in-focus and out-of-focus point-spread functions. We trained the well-known “Inception” network using the artificial data sets and found that although the accuracy does not permit diffraction-limited correction, the potential improvement in the residual phase error is promising for a telescope in the 2–4 m class.

  • 242.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Nilsson, Börje
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Biro, Thomas
    Jönköping University.
    Fourier Methods for harmonic scalar waves in general waveguides2016In: Journal of Engineering Mathematics, ISSN 0022-0833, E-ISSN 1573-2703, Vol. 98, no 1, p. 21-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of semi-analytic techniques based on Fourier analysis is used to solve wave-scattering problems in variously shaped waveguides with varying normal admittance boundary conditions. Key components are the newly developed conformal mapping methods, wave splitting, Fourier series expansions in eigenfunctions to non-normal operators, the building block method or the cascade technique, Dirichlet-to-Neumann operators, and reformulation in terms of stable differential equations for reflection and transmission matrices. For an example, the results show good correspondence with a finite element method solution to the same problem in the low- and medium-frequency domains. The Fourier method complements finite element analysis as a waveguide simulation tool. For inverse engineering involving tuning of straight waveguide parts joining complicated waveguide elements, the Fourier method is an attractive alternative including time aspects. The prime motivation for the Fourier method is its added physical understanding primarily at low frequencies.

  • 243.
    Andersson, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Deep learning applied to system identification: A probabilistic approach2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning has been applied to sequential data for a long time in the field of system identification. As deep learning grew under the late 00's machine learning was again applied to sequential data but from a new angle, not utilizing much of the knowledge from system identification. Likewise, the field of system identification has yet to adopt many of the recent advancements in deep learning. This thesis is a response to that. It introduces the field of deep learning in a probabilistic machine learning setting for problems known from system identification.

    Our goal for sequential modeling within the scope of this thesis is to obtain a model with good predictive and/or generative capabilities. The motivation behind this is that such a model can then be used in other areas, such as control or reinforcement learning. The model could also be used as a stepping stone for machine learning problems or for pure recreational purposes.

    Paper I and Paper II focus on how to apply deep learning to common system identification problems. Paper I introduces a novel way of regularizing the impulse response estimator for a system. In contrast to previous methods using Gaussian processes for this regularization we propose to parameterize the regularization with a neural network and train this using a large dataset. Paper II introduces deep learning and many of its core concepts for a system identification audience. In the paper we also evaluate several contemporary deep learning models on standard system identification benchmarks. Paper III is the odd fish in the collection in that it focuses on the mathematical formulation and evaluation of calibration in classification especially for deep neural network. The paper proposes a new formalized notation for calibration and some novel ideas for evaluation of calibration. It also provides some experimental results on calibration evaluation.

  • 244.
    Andersson, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Wahlström, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Schön, Thomas B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Data-driven impulse response regularization via deep learning2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 245.
    Andersson, Claes R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Fryknäs, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Rickardson, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Gustafsson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    In vitro drug sensitivity-gene expression correlations involve a tissue of origin dependency2007In: Journal of chemical information and modeling, ISSN 1549-9596, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 239-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major concern of chemogenomics is to associate drug activity with biological variables. Several reports have clustered cell line drug activity profiles as well as drug activity-gene expression correlation profiles and noted that the resulting groupings differ but still reflect mechanism of action. The present paper shows that these discrepancies can be viewed as a weighting of drug-drug distances, the weights depending on which cell lines the two drugs differ in.

  • 246.
    Andersson, Claes R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Hvidsten, Torgeir R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    Komorowski, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Revealing cell cycle control by combining model-based detection of periodic expression with novel cis-regulatory descriptors2007In: BMC Systems Biology, ISSN 1752-0509, Vol. 1, p. 45-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We address the issue of explaining the presence or absence of phase-specific transcription in budding yeast cultures under different conditions. To this end we use a model-based detector of gene expression periodicity to divide genes into classes depending on their behavior in experiments using different synchronization methods. While computational inference of gene regulatory circuits typically relies on expression similarity (clustering) in order to find classes of potentially co-regulated genes, this method instead takes advantage of known time profile signatures related to the studied process. Results: We explain the regulatory mechanisms of the inferred periodic classes with cis-regulatory descriptors that combine upstream sequence motifs with experimentally determined binding of transcription factors. By systematic statistical analysis we show that periodic classes are best explained by combinations of descriptors rather than single descriptors, and that different combinations correspond to periodic expression in different classes. We also find evidence for additive regulation in that the combinations of cis-regulatory descriptors associated with genes periodically expressed in fewer conditions are frequently subsets of combinations associated with genes periodically expression in more conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach retrieves combinations that are more specific towards known cell-cycle related regulators than the frequently used clustering approach. Conclusion: The results illustrate how a model-based approach to expression analysis may be particularly well suited to detect biologically relevant mechanisms. Our new approach makes it possible to provide more refined hypotheses about regulatory mechanisms of the cell cycle and it can easily be adjusted to reveal regulation of other, non-periodic, cellular processes.

  • 247.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Radarbolaget.
    Björsell, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Ottoson, Patrik
    Radarbolaget.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Radar Images of Leaks in Building Elements2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 78, p. 1726-1731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through leakage in the building envelope there is a penetration of air, water vapor and particles. The degree of leakage of air can be quantified by existing methods. However, the location of adventitious openings is often not known. In order to overcome the limitations in existing methods, a non-contact and non-destructive method based on ultra-wide bandwidth radar technology is suggested. A test-bed is designed that can measure with different polarization to be able to detect flaws in different directions. Initial measurements shows promising results for further development of the method of using radar images to find leaks in building elements.

  • 248. Andersson, Emil
    et al.
    Schedin, Niklas
    Räkning av Personer i Rörelse med Bildtolkning2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society companies are dependent on market researches in order to continue to grow. A typical research could be the flow of people in department stores. This project is targeted to develop an image processing algorithm that can count the number of people that passes by a camera. The system comprises of two counters, one for people that enters and one for those who exits. To solve this problem the project has been divided in to two parts, education and development. The reason for having an education part, is to get some knowledge about image processing since the project members do not have any prior knowledge. The development part is when the final algorithm is being developed from the knowledge that has been aquired during the education part. The final result shows that the algorithm is reliable at low loads, but when it is strained by more people then the counter starts to deviate from the actual values.

  • 249.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
    Olsson, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
    Linearization of Power Amplifier using Digital Predistortion, Implementation on FPGA2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to linearize a power amplifier using digital predistortion. A power amplifier is a nonlinear system, meaning that when fed with a pure input signal the output will be distorted. The idea behind digital predistortion is to distort the signal before feeding it to the power amplifier. The combined distortions from the predistorter and the power amplifier will then ideally cancel each other. In this thesis, two different approaches are investigated and implemented on an FPGA. The first approach uses a nonlinear model that tries to cancel out the nonlinearities of the power amplifier. The second approach is model-free and instead makes use of a look-up table that maps the input to a distorted output. Both approaches are made adaptive so that the parameters are continuously updated using adaptive algorithms. First the two approaches are simulated and tested thoroughly with different parameters and with a power amplifier model extracted from the real amplifier. The results are shown satisfactory in the simulations, giving good linearization for both the model and the model-free technique. The two techniques are then implemented on an FPGA and tested on the power amplifier. Even though the results are not as well as in the simulations, the system gets more linear for both the approaches. The results vary widely due to different circumstances such as input frequency and power. Typically, the distortions can be attenuated with around 10 dB. When comparing the two techniques with each other, the model-free method shows slightly better results.

  • 250.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Determining recording time of digital soundrecordings using the ENF criterion2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In forensic investigations, verification of digital recordings is an important as-pect. There are numerous methods to verify authentication of recordings, but itis difficult to determine when the media was recorded. By studying the electricalnetwork frequency, one can find a unique signature and then match the recordingto this signature. By matching a recorded signal to a database, which contains allnecessary information, one can find the time when the recording was made.

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