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  • 19851.
    Åström, Therese
    et al.
    Karolinska institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jergeby, Ulla
    Sweden´s National board of health and welfare, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tengström, Anders
    Karolinska institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social workers' assessments of needs and interventions for adolescents with substance misuse problems, criminal behaviour and mental health difficulties: a vignette study2013In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 635-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current vignette study was to examine how social workers assess adolescents with substance misuse problems, criminal behaviour and mental health difficulties, and how they make decisions about treatment interventions to reduce these problems. Earlier research has shown lack of knowledge concerning factors and processes that govern assessments and decisions in social work practice. In this anonymously administered survey, social workers in Stockholm, Sweden, were invited to assess fictitious youth issues. We found that social workers recognise the problems and needs of young people, but that they find it harder to link needs to evidence-based interventions. Also, there is a tendency to overrate alleged non-serious problems in the vignettes. We conclude that there is a need for increased knowledge about evidence-based methods and more structured procedures to broaden the basis for decisions.

  • 19852.
    Åström, Ulrica
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att balansera vardagen: En grounded theory-studie om tonårsflickors upplevelser2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19853.
    Çöltekin, Arzu
    et al.
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich.
    Francelet, Rebecca
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich.
    Richter, Kai-Florian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Thoresen, John
    Laboratory of Behavioural Genetics, Brain Mind Institute, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL).
    Fabrikant, Sara Irina
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich.
    The effects of visual realism, spatial abilities, and competition on performance in map-based route learning in men2018In: Cartography and Geographic Information Science, ISSN 1523-0406, E-ISSN 1545-0465, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 339-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on how visual realism might influence map-based route learning performance in a controlled laboratory experiment with 104 male participants in a competitive context. Using animations of a dot moving through routes of interest, we find that participants recall the routes more accurately with abstract road maps than with more realistic satellite maps. We also find that, irrespective of visual realism, participants with higher spatial abilities (high-spatial participants) are more accurate in memorizing map-based routes than participants with lower spatial abilities (low-spatial participants). On the other hand, added visual realism limits high-spatial participants in their route recall speed, while it seems not to influence the recall speed of low-spatial participants. Competition affects participants’ overall confidence positively, but does not affect their route recall performance neither in terms of accuracy nor speed. With this study, we provide further empirical evidence demonstrating that it is important to choose the appropriate map type considering task characteristics and spatial abilities. While satellite maps might be perceived as more fun to use, or visually more attractive than road maps, they also require more cognitive resources for many map-based tasks, which is true even for high-spatial users.

  • 19854.
    Öberg, Björn
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Arnåsen, Mattias
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    LEDARSKAP OCH PERSONLIGHET INOM IDROTTEN: Prefererat ledarskap i relation tillpersonlighet hos lagidrottare på elitjuniornivå2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between elite junior athlete’s   leadership preferences and their personality. Study participants consisted of 167 elite juniors, aged 16-20 years (M = 17,29). Subjects were both male (116) and female (51), and active in interactive sports. Participants were asked to answer three questionnaires (1) Demographic facts (2) Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS) (3) NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Subsequent correlation analyses showed significant associations between Extraversion, Democratic behavior and Positive Feedback, and between Neuroticism and social supportive behavior. The results also showed a significant correlation between the personality trait Agreeableness and Autocratic and Social support behavior. One conclusion from the results is that preferred leadership is a function of the athlete’s personality traits. This suggests that leadership in sports should be characterized by flexibility and adaptation to athlete’s individual differences to a greater extend. Examples of practical implications and future research are presented.

  • 19855.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Differential sex effects in olfactory functioning: The role of verbal processing2002In: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 8, p. 691-698Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19856.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Odor Identification in Old Age: Demographic, Sensory, and Cognitive Correlates2005In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 12, p. 231-244Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19857.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Recollective experience in odor recognition: influences of adult age and familiarity2006In: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 70, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19858.
    Öberg, Emil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Flow och rädsla för negativ bedömning hos musiker2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie hade för avsikt att undersöka om det går att förutse graden av flow hos musiker utifrån rädsla för negativ bedömning. En internetbaserad enkät skickades till musiker via meddelandefunktionen på en studentplattform, internetforumet Vi Musiker samt facebookgruppen Musiker i Karlstad, och antalet deltagare blev 164 stycken. Enkäten bestod av två etablerade tester som kunde framställa mått på graden av flow samt rädsla för negativ bedömning. Enligt resultatet så fanns det en signifikant negativ korrelation mellan rädsla för negativ bedömning och flow, där hög grad av rädsla för negativ bedömning innebar lägre grad av flow. En regressionsanalys utfördes med rädsla för negativ bedömning som prediktor för graden av flow, men trots ett signifikant resultat visade sig sambandet vara svagt. Slutsatsen är att en liten del av graden av flow kan förklaras av rädsla för negativ bedömning.

  • 19859.
    Öberg, Hannah
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Från kunskap till praktiskt handlande: Anställdas upplevelse av personalutbildning och organisatoriskt stöd. En kvalitativ studie.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace training is considered being of great importance for developing the skills of the most important resource of the organization – the staff. The higher organizational capacity, the greater competitiveness in the market. The aim of all workplace training is that the knowledge and skills learned will transfer to the work. Evaluations of courses are often carried out but fewer resources are devoted to follow-up on the results and effects of training. Previous research shows several factors that affect the training transfer, such as perceived organizational support, work motivation before training, self-efficacy and work climate. The aim of the study was to investigate customer service employees' perceived results and/or effects of training on their workmanship and their perception of themselves. The effects of perceived organizational support on the results and effects were also explored. The study was conducted in a customer service center in a transport company in Gothenburg, Sweden. Employees who had passed a customer care course were asked to participate in the study. Five employees chose to participate. 1Semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed literally. The data was analyzed with a thematic analysis and five themes were identified. These were: changed thinking , common language, personal development, training and follow-up and daring to evolve. The participants of the study perceived organizational support such as feedback and discussion after training as important for the training transfer. Therefore one conclusion of the study was that focus should be placed on this kind of organizational support. For future research focus could be placed on the importance of the individual factors for training transfer.

  • 19860.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University, Institutionen för medier, konst och filosofi, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Näsans kunskap: Om luktsinnet i arbetsliv, vetenskap och konst2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lukter och dofter är gåtfulla - mäktiga men undflyende. En doft avklingar snabbt, även om luktämnet finns kvar i luften, men intrycken lever kvar i vårt inre. Luktsinnet hjälper oss att finna mat och dryck och kärlek, men de dofter som leder oss låter sig ogärna fångas i ord.

    Luktsinnet har betraktats som primitivt, djuriskt. Det förekommer sällan i vetenskapliga studier.

    I Näsans kunskap lyfter fem forskare fram luktsinnet från dess undanskymda plats. De kommer från vitt sklida ämnesområden: konst och litteratur, arbetsliv och yrkeskunnande, filosofi och psykologi. Här presenteras också sensoriken, den vetenskap som utforskar just lukt och smak.

  • 19861.
    Öberg, Maja
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kåbring, Lotta
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Yrkesverksamma inom rättsväsendet och civilas bedömningar av straff beroende på gärningsmannens bakgrund2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stereotyper inom psykologin handlar om att tillskriva individer egenskaper som generaliseras över grupper. Detta leder till att negativa fördomar skapas och människor felaktigt döms på förhand. Studien undersökte om skillnader fanns i bedömningen gällande en gärningsmans bakgrund. Syftet med studien var att undersöka om en gärningsman med brottsligt förflutet döms till grövre påföljd vid brott, än en gärningsman utan brottsligt förflutet, samt att rättsväsendet bedömer brottet allvarligare än kontrollgruppen. Deltagare var 99 individer, varav 56 från rättsväsendet som besvarade en enkät gällande ett misshandelsfall. Enkäten fanns i tre olika utföranden där en gärningsmans bakgrund manipulerades. Resultaten indikerade att rättsväsendet tilldelar hårdare straff mot gärningsmannen, samt bedömer brottet allvarligare i fallet där gärningsmannen ej var känd tidigare. Detta kan bero på att rättsväsendet är professionella i sina bedömningar oavsett gärningsmäns bakgrund. Kontrollgruppen däremot kan anse att gärningsmannen förtjänar en andra chans och därmed inte dömer lika hårt.

  • 19862.
    Öberg-Blåvarg, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bad Odors Stick Better Than Good Ones: Olfactory Qualities and Odor Recognition2009In: Experimental Psychology, ISSN ISSN-L 1618-3169, ISSN-Print 1618-3169, ISSN-Online 2190-5142, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 375-380Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19863.
    Ödhammar, Gabrielle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Utvärdering av Group Development Questionnaire-interventioner på svenska arbetsgrupper2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsteam har blivit en allt mer vanlig tillämpad organisationsform på dagens arbetsplatser. Att utforma bra metoder för att stödja arbetsgruppers utveckling är därför av stor vikt. Group Development Questionnaire (GDQ) är en metod framställd för att arbeta med grupper ur ett utvecklingsperspektiv. Denna studie utvärderar resultaten av GDQ-interventioner som genomförts på tolv svenska arbetsgrupper, i syfte att undersöka om positiva förändringar skett i grupperna. Resultaten visade inte på några större signifikanta förändringar i gruppernas fasutveckling. De sammanlagda gruppernas mått på produktivitet var signifikant högre efter intervention. Man fann ett signifikant positivt samband mellan gruppens ålder och effektivitet samt ett signifikant samband i att grupper som befann sig i de högre utvecklingsfaserna själva ansåg sig vara mer produktiva. GDQ-metodens användbarhet på en svensk population samt den svenska översättningen av GDQ-enkäten diskuteras. Slutsatsen som dras är att fler studier, med mer rigorös vetenskaplig design, behövs för att pröva metodens användbarhet på en svensk population.

  • 19864.
    Ögren, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark; Department of Chemistry, Nano-Science Center, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nyström, Marcus
    Lund University Humanities Laboratory, Lund, Sweden.
    Jarodzka, Halszka
    Open University, Heerlen, The Netherlands.
    There’s more to the multimedia effect than meets the eye: is seeing pictures believing?2017In: Instructional science, ISSN 0020-4277, E-ISSN 1573-1952, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 263-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textbooks in applied mathematics often use graphs to explain the meaning of formulae, even though their benefit is still not fully explored. To test processes underlying this assumed multimedia effect we collected performance scores, eye movements, and think-aloud protocols from students solving problems in vector calculus with and without graphs. Results showed no overall multimedia effect, but instead an effect to confirm statements that were accompanied by graphs, irrespective of whether these statements were true or false. Eye movement and verbal data shed light on this surprising finding. Students looked proportionally less at the text and the problem statement when a graph was present. Moreover, they experienced more mental effort with the graph, as indicated by more silent pauses in thinking aloud. Hence, students actively processed the graphs. This, however, was not sufficient. Further analysis revealed that the more students looked at the statement, the better they performed. Thus, in the multimedia condition the graph drew students’ attention and cognitive capacities away from focusing on the statement. A good alternative strategy in the multimedia condition was to frequently look between graph and problem statement, and thus to integrate their information. In conclusion, graphs influence where students look and what they process, and may even mislead them into believing accompanying information. Thus, teachers and textbook designers should be very critical on when to use graphs and carefully consider how the graphs are integrated with other parts of the problem.

  • 19865.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bertling, Ulla
    Boalt Boëthius, Siv
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Werbart, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Editorial2012In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 73-76Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This issue of Nordic Psychology, as well as the next one, is devoted to papers presented at the Nordic Conference Psychotherapy and Supervision Research in Dialogue. The conference, which took place at the Stockholm University Department of Psychology on 21 and 22 October 2011, was arranged jointly by the Working Party for Psychotherapy Research in Sweden and the Department of Psychology (http://w3.psychology.su.se/terapiforskning).

    We hope that these two issues of Nordic Psychology will contribute to an interesting sample of ongoing research in the Nordic countries. Our ambition for the conference and the present publications is to stimulate Nordic collaboration and networking in these domains. This first issue focuses on psychotherapy research, current themes in Nordic psychotherapy research and the Nordic network. The next issue of Nordic Psychology will focus on professional development and supervision.

  • 19866.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bertling, Ulla
    Boalt Boëthius, Siv
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hau, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Werbart, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Professional development and psychotherapy supervision2012In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 147-149Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As with the previous issue of Nordic Psychology, this edition is also devoted to papers presented at the Nordic Conference “Psychotherapy and Supervision Research in Dialogue: A Nordic Conference and Network Development”, October 2011. While the previous issue included an analysis of the discussion of these themes at the same conference and was focused on psychotherapy research, this time the emphasis is on research into professional development and supervision in psychotherapy. The main idea for the conference was to introduce these two research areas as being closely related and dependent on each other.

  • 19867.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boalt Boëthius, Siv
    En pedagogisk metod med stora möjligheter2011In: Matrix, ISSN 0109-646X, E-ISSN 2387-600X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 309-322Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste decennierna har handlednig i grupp kommit att bli allt vanligare inom olika verksamhetsområden och inom utbildningar på olika nivåer. Kostnadsskäl gjorde ursprungligen att grupphandledning föredrogs framför individualhandledning inom utbildningar. Efterhand har också grupphandledning som en unik pedagogisk form kommit att bli alltmer uppmärksammad. Forskning och erfarenheter inom området har bidragit till detta.

  • 19868.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boethius, Siv
    Department of Education.
    Sundin, Eva
    Grupphandledning i psykoterapi inom ramen för utbildningar.2005In: Matrix, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 389-403Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport, som har fokus på grupphandledning i psykoterapiutbildning, ger en sammanfattande bild av resultat som erhållits genom ett samarbetsprojekt mellan ett flertal svenska universitet och universitetsrelaterade utbildningsenheter. Projektet bygger på studier av grupphandledning på tre olika utbildningsnivåer; grundläggande psykoterapiutbildning, psykoterapeutbildning och handledarutbildning. Olika teoretiska inriktningar är representerade. Grupperna har omfattat tre eller fyra handledda och en handledare. Kvantitativa och kvalitativa data har samlats in i början, mitten och slutet av respektive utbildning. De studier som presenteras här undersöker och belyser olika aspekter av grupphandledning som upplevelsen av handledning på olika utbildningsnivåer, skillnader och likheter mellan olika psykoterapeutiska inriktningar utifrån att handledningen sker i form av grupphandledning samt upplevelser av gruppklimat och betydelsen av handledarens förhållningssätt. Ett viktigt fynd är att både handledare och handledda betonar behovet av att grupprocesser och fenomen som har sina rötter i såväl samspelet gruppdeltagarna emellan som handledarens förhållningssätt och utbildningens ramar uppmärksammas mer i grupphandledning i psykoterapi.

  • 19869.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boëthius, Siv Boalt
    Sundin, Eva
    From psychotherapist to supervisor: The significance of group format and supervisors’ function as role models in supervisor training2008In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 3-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study was performed on a Swedish postgraduate training program for prospective supervisors. The two-year supervisor training program consisted of weekly theoretical seminars and group supervision of the prospective supervisors’ supervision of a prospective psychotherapist who had a patient in psychotherapy. The training program was based on psychodynamic theory. Supervisees’ and supervisors’ experiences of the group format for supervision, the impact of the supervisor’s style and the supervisor as a role model for the prospective supervisors were explored in semi-structured individual interviews. Both supervisees and supervisors emphasized that the group format was experienced as particularly suitable for this training level. The “super-supervisor’s” style was considered important, as he or she served as a role model for the supervisors in training. The shift of role from psychotherapist to supervisor was specifically emphasized.

  • 19870.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boëthius, Siv Boalt
    Sundin, Eva
    Grupphandledning i psykoterapi inom ramen för utbildningar.: Group supervision in psychotherapy within the framework of training.2005In: Matrix: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Psykoterapi, ISSN 0109-646X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 389-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The focus of this paper is group supervision within psychotherapy training. Results emanating from studies performed in collaboration between a number of Swedish universities and university affiliated training units are summarized. The findings are drawn from studies where data is collected from supervisors and supervisees at several different measurement points, levels of training, and psychotherapeutic orientations. The studies presented here examine and highlight different aspects of group supervision, e.g. the experience of supervision on various training levels and psychotherapeutic orientations with regard to the impact of the group format. Moreover, experiences of supervisor style and group climate are examined. A major finding is that both supervisors and supervisees emphasize the need for paying more attention to group processes and phenomena within group supervision.

  • 19871.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Carl-Otto
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Eva
    Group Supervision in Psychotherapy: The Relationship Between Focus, Group Climate, and Perceived Attained Skill.2005In: Journal of Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0021-9762, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 373-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined supervisees and supervisors' view on focus and group climate in group supervision and their relationship with supervisees' attained skill. After supervision, supervisees completed a revised version of Buckley's measure of psychotherapeutic skill. Supervisees and supervisors' experience of focus and climate in the supervision was measured with a questionnaire. Topics and Climate (TAG). The results showed that supervisors' ratings of the extent to which different foci were used in the supervision were significantly higher compared to supervisees' ratings. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that differences in supervisor style were related to supervisees' experience of attained skill. Supervisees' experience of the degree to which focus in supervision was on psychodynamic processes was positively related to perceived attained skill, whereas focus on Theoretical aspects was negatively related. These findings underline the importance of research work with topics and group processes in group supervision.

  • 19872.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Näslund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Handledning i dag och i framtiden2010In: Grupphandledning: Forskning och erfarenheter från olika verksamhetsområden / [ed] Johan Näslund & Marie-Louise ögren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2010, 1, p. 207-215Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19873.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Siv, Boalt Boëthius
    Department of Education.
    Grupphandledning inom psykoterapiutbildningar.2008In: Mellanrummet, ISSN 1404-5559, Vol. 19, p. 61-75Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna bli en bra terapeut behövs något mer än teoretiska kunskaper. En yrkesskicklighet behöver växa fram genom att teori integreras med tillämpning. Handledning på psykoterapeutisk behandling har en lång tradition som en av tre hörnpelare (teori, egenpsykoterapi och kliniskt arbete under handledning) inom psykoterapiutbildningar på olika nivåer. Tillgång till kontinuerlig handledning har dessutom visat sig fylla en viktig funktion för vidare utveckling och fördjupning för psykoterapeuter för att motverka stagnation och utbrändhet i yrkesrollen.

  • 19874.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Klinisk psykologi.
    Siv, Boalt Boëthius
    Department of Education.
    Olsson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Organizational structure and framework.: A case study of Swedish training programs in psychotherapy.2008In: Organizational and Social Dynamics: An international Journal for the Integration of Psychoanalytic, Systemic and Group Relations Perspectives, ISSN 1474 2780, Vol. 8, no 22, p. 256-278Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to highlight the design and functioning of the organizational framework supporting psychotherapy supervision at psychotherapy training institutions at postgraduate level in Sweden. The study was based on data from course coordinators and supervisors, who are the two main categories of employees involved in these programs. Two questionnaires were constructed (Course Coordinator Questionnaire and Supervisor Questionnaire).

    Our results indicated that the organizational framework for different training institutions were fairly similar with regard to the perceived primary task, i.e. supervision goals and its overall framework. However, according to the course coordinators, there were certain differences with regard to the management of role distribution, group composition, information, routines, regularity and accessibility. Also, economic and geographical conditions had a substantial influence on the design and functioning of the framework. The supervisors stressed the importance of explicit organizational frames, clear information and routines for, e.g. evaluation, how to deal with conflicts and failing, and above all the need for a competent and flexible course coordinator. The collected information might be used for further discussion of a functional framework supporting psychotherapy supervision in a training context.

  • 19875.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Eva
    Experiences of the group format in psychotherapy supervision.2007In: The Clinical Supervisor, Vol. 25, no 1-2, p. 69-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19876.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Eva
    Gruppens inverkan på lärandeprocessen.: (Ingår i rapporten Resultatdialog 2006. Forskning inom utbildningsvetenskp.)2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Despite the fact that group supervision in psychotherapy appears to be the most frequently used modality in many training institutions (Holmes, Stader, Swaim, Haigler, & deRosset, 1998; Ögren, Jonsson, & Sundin, 2005), relatively few systematic studies of psychotherapy supervision in group have been published. GUT (Group Supervision in Psychotherapy in an Academic Context) is a research project that studies aspects of group supervision in psychotherapy training. The project is performed in collaboration between a number of Swedish universities and university-affiliated institutions. Four questionnaires have been developed; 1) Attained knowledge and skill, 2) Group climate, 3) Supervisor style, 4) Actual and ideal usage of the group format. In this project, data is collected from psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral supervisors and their supervisees who work at different training institutions and different training levels. The supervisors and supervisees complete self-ratings at three measurement points during a supervision period of 1.5 to 2 years. Up until now, data has been collected during a five-year period (2002 to 2006), and a data-base with data from 150 supervision groups has been developed. Results from this project have been published in a number of articles.

    Our main findings of this net-work project is summerized as well as major limitations of this project and its design. Implications for future research is discussed.

  • 19877. Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Sundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Intervjuer som prognosinstrument för studieframgång2005In: Nordisk Psykologi: teori, forskning, praksis, ISSN 0029-1463, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 271-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different admission procedures (high school grades/scholastic tests and high school grades/scholastic tests/interview) to the five-year Master's Program in Professional Psychology at Stockholm University were examined. The analyses were based on data from students who were admitted on a combination of high school grades/scholastic test and interview, and students who were admitted based only on high school grades/scholastic test. In the final semester of the five-year Psychologist Program, the students and their supervisors rated the student's development of psychotherapeutic knowledge and skills, and their relation to the supervisor and the supervision group. A self rating scale was used. The results showed that students who were admitted upon interview and their supervisors, rated significantly higher on all factors. Moreover, students admitted upon interview rated their development of psychotherapeutic skill significantly higher than students admitted traditionally. The corresponding difference between supervisor ratings was not significant. Both student and supervisor ratings indicated that the students admitted by an interview had a better relation to their supervisor and to their supervision group.

  • 19878.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Eva
    Intervjuer som prognosinstrument för studieframgång: Interviews as instrument of prognosis for student development.2005In: Nordisk Psykologi, ISSN 0029-1463, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 271-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Two different admission procedures (high school grades/scholastic tests and high school grades/scholastic tests/interview) to the five-year Master's Program in Professional Psychology at Stockholm University were examined. The analyses were based on data from students who were admitted on a combination of high school grades/scholastic test and interview, and students who were admitted based only on high school grades/scholastic test. In the final semester of the five-year Psychologist Program, the students and their supervisors rated the student's development of psychotherapeutic knowledge and skills, and their relation to the supervisor and the supervision group. A self rating scale was used. The results showed that students who were admitted upon interview and their supervisors, rated significantly higher on all factors. Moreover, students admitted upon interview rated their development of psychotherapeutic skill significantly higher than students admitted traditionally. The corresponding difference between supervisor ratings was not significant. Both student and supervisor ratings indicated that the students admitted by an interview had a better relation to their supervisor and to their supervision group.

  • 19879.
    Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Eva C.
    Nottingham Trent University.
    Group supervision in psychotherapy: Main findings from a Swedish research project on psychotherapy supervision in a group format2009In: British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, ISSN 0306-9885, E-ISSN 1469-3534, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 129-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychotherapy supervision is considered crucial for psychotherapists in training on different levels. During the last decades, group supervision has been the most frequently used format of psychotherapy supervision in many countries. Nevertheless, until recently, very few studies had evaluated the small-group format for training of beginner psychotherapists and psychotherapy supervisors. This article aims to summarise and discuss main findings from a research project which used questionnaires to collect supervisee and supervisor reports about various issues of psychotherapy supervision in group. One such finding is that, in several studies, the group format contributed to an in-depth clinical experience. Also, both supervisors and supervisees reported that the working climate in their groups improved over time: a more flexible and collaborative style of interaction over time; the communication became more flexible, the group members took less rigid positions; and fewer dysfunctional subgroups were maintained. These results also suggested that strong efforts to establish close relationships in the group can limit group member involvement and hinder group development. A third finding suggested that there was no difference between supervisees and supervisors who worked with different psychotherapy orientations (psychodynamic, CBT) in terms of how they perceived that the group actually had been used as a didactic tool. In contrast, both supervisees and supervisors with a psychodynamic approach reported that more focus ideally should be on group process issues. Another study finding suggested that the organisational framework for psychotherapy supervision is of considerable importance for the learning process. This finding opens up a new area of research which needs to be explored in future studies. A conclusive discussion relates these findings to the general aim of this research, which is to identify and systematically examine issues of considerable clinical interest, and thus build bridges between academia and clinical practice. Recommendations for future research endeavours are also outlined.

  • 19880.
    Öhberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paul, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The How or the What: The Impact of Narrative Style on Empathy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Narratives in the forms of music or literature have traditionally been highlightedfor their ability to evoke empathy; however, the specific features of the narrativethat serve as the underlying mechanisms responsible for this effect remain unclear.The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a narrative’s style onempathy. An experimental repeated measures research design was used with 41participants (31 female, 10 male; age range 20-63 yrs, M=30.2 yrs) that underwentthree conditions each comprised of a different stimulus (i.e., a song, a piece ofprose and a poem), with the same narrative content but differing in style. The orderof the stimuli was randomized across participants. After each stimulus, empatheticresponses were captured via self reports, measuring valence and arousal of theparticipant, as well as their perceived valence and arousal of the main character ofthe narrative. The song had a strong correlation between participant-rating andcharacter-rating on valence and arousal, thus evoking a stronger (affective)empathetic response than the other two styles of stimuli, having moderatecorrelations. The character-rating barely differed between the style of stimuli, andthe narrative first presented lowered the participants’ valence regardless of style.These findings could possibly be explained by cognitive empathy responding to thenarrative, evoking the same understanding of another person, whereas affectiveempathy seem more prone to respond to stylistic features. Future research andpossible therapeutic implications are discussed.

  • 19881.
    Öhlin, Leif
    et al.
    St Lars Hospital, Lund.
    Hesse, Morten
    University of Aarhus.
    Fridell, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science. Lunds universitet.
    Tätting, Per
    St Lars Hospital, Lund.
    Poly-substance use and antisocial personality traits at admission predict cumulative retention in a buprenorphine programme with mandatory work and high compliance profile2011In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 11, p. Article ID: 81-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Continuous abstinence and retention in treatment for alcohol and drug use disorders are central challenges for the treatment providers. The literature has failed to show consistent, strong predictors of retention. Predictors and treatment structure may differ across treatment modalities. In this study the structure was reinforced by the addition of supervised urine samples three times a week and mandatory daily work/structured education activities as a prerequisite of inclusion in the program.

    Methods

    Of 128 patients consecutively admitted to buprenorphine maintenance treatment five patients dropped out within the first week. Of the remaining 123 demographic data and psychiatric assessment were used to predict involuntary discharge from treatment and corresponding cumulative abstinence probability. All subjects were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR, and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) and the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), all self-report measures. Some measures were repeated every third month in addition to interviews.

    Results

    Of 123 patients admitted, 86 (70%) remained in treatment after six months and 61 (50%) remained in treatment after 12 months. Of those discharged involuntarily, 34/62 individuals were readmitted after a suspension period of three months. Younger age at intake, poly-substance abuse at intake (number of drugs in urine), and number of conduct disorder criteria on the SCID Screen were independently associated with an increased risk of involuntary discharge. There were no significant differences between dropouts and completers on SCL-90, SSP, SOC or AUDIT.

    Conclusion

    Of the patients admitted to the programme 50% stayed for the first 12 months with continuous abstinence and daily work. Poly-substance use before intake into treatment, high levels of conduct disorder on SCID screen and younger age at intake had a negative impact on retention and abstinence.

  • 19882.
    Öhlund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
     Brain Areas Involved in the Retrieval of Updated Memories: The Long-Term Effects2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19883.
    Öhlund, Rebecca
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Könsskillnader i välbefinnande utifrån val av fysisk aktivitet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The society encourages individuals to promote their health habits in order to improve their well-being. The aim was to investigate the effect of different types of physical activity on experience of general health in well-being in men and woman. Sixty men and women in ages 25-50 years old were randomly chosen from training facilities to answer the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Swedish Core Affect Scale (SCAS). The results showed a significant increase in positive well-being due to the practice of physical activity, but there were no gender difference. However, it was found a significant interaction effect of age and physical activity on health, the men who walked and women who conditioning trained showed highest well-being and general health. The conclusion was that the well-being increase regardless of sex after physical activity, however, different activities gave varying increases between the sexes.

  • 19884.
    Öhman, Albin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enkvist, Hampus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Riskfaktorer för stabil insomni: Demografi, livsstil, mental ohälsa och funktionella somatiska syndrom2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Risken att drabbas av insomni har visat sig samvariera med flera demografiska och livsstilsrelaterade variabler, diagnostiserade sjukdomar och syndrom samt grad av psykisk ohälsa. Syftet med studien var att klarlägga huruvida detta samband även uppvisas för stabil insomni definierat som insomni vid två mätpunkter med tre års mellanrum. Stickprovet i studien utgjordes av 2336 personer ur normalbefolkningen i åldrarna 18-79 år. Utfallsvariablerna utgjordes av frågor om demografi, livsstil och läkarbaserade diagnoser om psykiatriska tillstånd och funktionella somatiska syndrom, samt totalvärden på validerade enkätinstrument för kvantifiering av grad av stress, utbrändhet, ångest och depression. Resultaten visade att risken för stabil insomni var förhöjd i åldrarna 18-29 år, för kvinnor, vid samtliga diagnostiserade sjukdomar och syndrom samt vid högre grad av psykisk ohälsa. För att tillhandahålla en god vård kan det därför vara nödvändigt att även adressera eventuella sömnproblem hos dessa patientgrupper, särskilt kvinnor och unga.

  • 19885.
    Öhman, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Föräldraskap som faktor i psykologiskt välbefinnande och utbrändhet hos studenter2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den psykiska ohälsan ökar alltmer i samhället och en utsatt grupp är universitetsstudenter. Ett uttryck för psykisk ohälsa är utbrändhet, som består av tre dimensioner: emotionell utmattning, cynism samt bristande upplevd prestation. Positiv hälsa har av tradition inte studerats lika mycket, men har kommit att intressera allt fler forskare. Ett begrepp inom positiv hälsa är psykologiskt välbefinnande, som består av sex olika dimensioner. Föräldraskapets betydelse för den psykiska hälsan har visat sig variera, varför syftet med studien var att undersöka hur föräldraskapet påverkar det psykologiska välbefinnandet och graden av utbrändhet hos studenter. En enkät fylldes i av 98 psykologistudenter. Resultaten visade på en lägre grad av utbrändhet hos studenterna med hemmavarande barn än hos övriga men inga skillnader i psykologiskt välbefinnande uppvisades mellan studenter med och utan barn. Studenter med barn tycks således inte ha sämre psykisk hälsa än de utan barn, vilket delvis går emot tidigare forskning.

  • 19886. Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Dimberg, Ulf
    Esteves, Francisco
    Preattentive activation of aversive emotions1989In: Aversion, avoidance and anxiety: Perspectives on aversively motivated behavior / [ed] T. Archer & L.-G. Nilsson (Eds.), New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989, p. 169-193Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to everyday experience, fear seems to be part of ideosyncratic contexts, and to take such diverse forms as to defy simple classification. Torgerson (1979) asked subjects to rate their fear of many types of situations, and subjected the ratings to factor analysis. In this way, he isolated five clusters of feared situations: separation fears, social fears, animal fears, mutilation fears, and nature fears. Similar, albeit not identical, factors have been identified in many investigations (see Ohman, Dimberg, & Ost, 1985, for a review).

  • 19887.
    Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Soares, J J F
    Gateways to consciousness: Emotion, attention, and electrodermal activity1993In: Progress in electrodermal research: NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Electrodermal Activity: From Physiology to Psychology, New York: Plenum Press , 1993Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19888. Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Parra, Cristina
    Estrategias de investigación en psicopatología: Una perspectiva vulnerabilidad-estrés1995In: Manual de psicopatología y trastornos psiquiátricos / [ed] V. E. Caballo, G. Buela-Casal, y J. A. Carrobles (Eds.), Madrid: Siglo XXI Editores, 1995Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19889. Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Emotion drives attention: Detecting the snake in the grass2001In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, ISSN 0096-3445, Vol. 130, no 3, p. 466-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participants searched for discrepant fear-relevant pictures (snakes or spiders) in grid-pattern arrays of fear-irrelevant pictures belonging to the same category (flowers or mushrooms) and vice versa. Fear-relevant pictures were found more quickly than fear-irrelevant ones. Fear-relevant, but not fear-irrelevant, search was unaffected by the location of the target in the display and by the number of distractors, which suggests parallel search for fear-relevant targets and serial search for fear-irrelevant targets. Participants specifically fearful of snakes but not spiders (or vice versa) showed facilitated search for the feared objects but did not differ from controls in search for nonfeared fear-relevant or fear-irrelevant, targets. Thus, evolutionary relevant threatening stimuli were effective in capturing attention, and this effect was further facilitated if the stimulus was emotionally provocative.

  • 19890. Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    Unconscious emotion: Evolutionary perspectives, psychophysiological data, and neuropsychological mechanisms2000In: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotion, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19891.
    Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    Karolinska institutet.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Karolinska institutet.
    The face in the crowd revisited: A threat advantage with schematic stimuli2001In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-3514, E-ISSN 1939-1315, Vol. 80, p. 381-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schematic threatening, friendly, and neutral faces were used to test the hypothesis that humans preferentially orient their attention toward threat. Using a visual search paradigm, participants searched for discrepant faces in matrices of otherwise identical faces. Across 5 experiments, results consistently showed faster and more accurate detection of threatening than friendly targets. The threat advantage was obvious regardless of whether the conditions favored parallel or serial search (i.e., involved neutral or emotional distractors), and it was valid for inverted faces. Threatening angry faces were more quickly and accurately detected than were other negative faces (sad or "scheming"), which suggests that the threat advantage can be attributed to threat rather than to the negative valence or the uniqueness of the target display.

  • 19892.
    Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Soares, Sandra
    University of Aveiro, Portugal.
    Juth, Pernilla
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindström, Björn
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Esteves, Francisco
    ISCTE/Lisbon University Institute, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Evolutionary derived modulations of attention to two common fear stimuli: Serpents and hostile humans2012In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 24, p. 17-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present an evolutionary analysis of attention to stimuli that are threatening from an evolutionary perspective, such as angry faces and snakes. We review data showing that angry, photographically depicted angry faces are more rapidly detected than happy faces in a visual search setting provided that they are male and that distractors are redundant in the sense that they are drawn from a small set of faces. Following Isbell's (2009) novel Snake Detection Theory, we predicted that snakes, as the prototypical predators, should be more rapidly detected than spiders, given that spiders have provided less of a predatory threat for primates. We review a series of experiments from our laboratory showing that snakes indeed are more rapidly detected than spiders provided that the target stimuli are presented in a demanding visual context, such as many distractor stimuli, or in peripheral vision. Furthermore, they are more distracting than spiders on the performance of a primary attention task. Because snakes were not affected by perceptual load, whereas spiders followed the usual rule of better detection with low perceptual load, we concluded that attending to snakes might constitute an evolutionary adaptation.

  • 19893.
    Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Emotional factors in cardiovascular disorder1995In: Current Opinion in Psychiatry, ISSN 0951-7367, E-ISSN 1473-6578, Vol. 8, p. 410-413Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19894.
    Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Stress, hjerteinfarkt og type A-atferd. (Stress, myocardial infarction and type A behavior.)1991In: Diskriminanten, ISSN 0801-0536, Vol. 18, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19895.
    Öhman, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceived chronic stress, health and cognition2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this licentiate thesis was to examine consequences of chronic stress for stressrelated diseases and to investigate the chronic stress – cognition relationship. In the first study data covering ten years was used from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study (Nilsson et al., 1997). Based on the ratings on a stress scale, matched samples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high and low stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumor, and musculoskeletal diseases wasassessed five and ten years after a baseline assessment. The incidence of diseases five years after baseline assessment showed no differences between the groups. After ten years, there was a higher incidence of psychiatric diseases in the high stress group as well as a significant effect for tumors. These results indicated that moderately elevated stress levels may have an impact on psychiatric diseases, especially depression, and possibly also some tumor diseases, but it was concluded that prolonged moderate stress does not appear to be very harmful to health in general. In the second study cognitive performance was studied in chronic stress outpatients and matched controls. A battery of cognitive tests assessing processing speed, attention, episodic-, semantic- and working memory was used. Performance decrements for thechronic stress patients were found in episodic memory, particularly in learning across repeated trials, and in tasks requiring divided attention under either encoding or retrieval of words. Performance differences were also seen in aspects of working memory, mental tempo, semantic access (letter fluency) and prospective memory. It was concluded that executive functioning may be suboptimal in chronic stress patients and that letter fluency and prospective memory tests can be useful as clinical tools when evaluating chronic stressstates. Taken together, the findings indicate that there is no clear association between moderately elevated chronic stress and increased incidence of stress related diseases, whereas certain cognitive functions such as executive functioning appear vulnerable to chronic stress.

  • 19896. Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Nyberg, Lars
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Longitudinal analysis of the relation between moderate long-term stress and health2007In: Stress and Health, Vol. 23, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19897.
    Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Longitudinal analysis of the relation between moderate long-term stress and health2007In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of the present work was to longitudinally examine consequences of long-term moderately elevated levels of stress for various health outcomes. To address this issue, data covering 10 years was used from the ongoing Swedish population-based prospective Betula Study. Based on the ratings on a validated self-reported stress scale, matched subsamples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high (n = 137) and low (n = 211) stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumour and musculoskeletal diseases was assessed 5 and 10 years after baseline (baseline = 1993–1995) without contaminating effects of past health history. The incidence of diseases 5 years after baseline assessment showed no differences between the groups. After 10 years, there was a significantly higher incidence of psychiatric diseases, mainly depression in the high-stress group as well as a significant effect for tumours, although the number of cases was low. Although moderately elevated stress level may have a possible impact on psychiatric diseases especially depression and some tumours, it seems that prolonged moderate stress does not appear to be harmful to other stress-related diseases.

  • 19898. Öhman, S
    et al.
    Strand, Susanne
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Amundsdotter, E.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Processes of change linked to leadership and gender: the story of a group of Swedish female researchers2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19899.
    Öhman, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davidsson, Jennie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att träna eller inte träna: En dagboksstudie om sambanden mellan fysisk aktivitet, motivation och atletisk identitet2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet för en ökad fysisk aktivitet hos befolkningen är komplext, då många faktorer påverkar en individs aktivitetsnivå. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka dagliga och generella samband mellan atletisk identitet, motivation och träningsmängd. I studien användes en dagboksdesign och data samlades in med en webbenkät varje dag under sju dagar. Studenter från tre universitet deltog och datamaterialet härrörde från 156 personer och 686 mättillfällen. Data analyserades med flernivåanalys, vilket möjliggjorde separering av effekter på två nivåer; inomindivids- och mellanindividsnivå. På inomindividsnivå predicerade identifierad reglering högre träningsmängd, vilket indikerade att internaliserade värderingar, som kan tänkas påverkas av sociala intryck, är viktiga för individers dagliga träningsmängd. Även amotivation visade ett dagöverskridande samband, och predicerade lägre träningsmängd. På mellanindividsnivå predicerade introjicerad reglering lägre träningsmängd, vilket kan förklaras av externa faktorer som associeras med urvalsgruppen. Resultatet visade en trend mot att individer med starkare atletisk identitet generellt tränade mer, detta i linje med tidigare studier. Starkare atletisk identitet visade även ett samband med mer autonoma typer av motivation, vilket teoretiskt kan förklaras av begreppens liknande processer där externa motiv integreras i individens värderingar och påverkar dennes beteende. Studien belyser värdet av att inom idrottsforskning studera samband på flera nivåer. Fler studier bör undersöka sambanden mellan olika psykologiska faktorer, för att bättre förstå hur de samvarierar och påverkar individers träningsbeteende.

  • 19900.
    Öhrlund, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Skuld hos mödrar: en fenomenologisk jämförelse av brittiska och svenska mödrars skuldbeskrivning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syfte var att jämföra hur svenska och brittiska mödrar beskrev fenomenet skuld.

    Undersökningen är en fenomenologisk studie som bygger på ostrukturerade intervjuer där huvudfrågan löd; ”Can you describe a situation in which you have experienced feelings of guilt?”.

    Målgruppen var brittiska arbetande mödrar som var sambo eller gifta med barnets/barnens far.

    Resultatet av de brittiska kvinnornas intervjuer kom sedan att jämföras med en svensk fenomenologisk studie (av Elvin-Nowak, 1999) på samma ämne. Detta för att undersöka om det fanns skillnader i sätten skuld beskrevs av mödrarna i de båda länderna. I båda studier användes EPP-metoden för fenomenologiskt behandling av insamlade data.

    Resultatet indikerade att det fanns både likheter och skillnader i hur skuld beskrevs av kvinnorna i de två länderna.

    Studien visade att kvinnorna i Sverige och Storbritannien beskrev skuldkänslor på liknande vis då det kom till skuld rörande egna behov, skuldkänslor i relation till andra samt då de bröt mot sina principer eller föreställningen om sig själv.

    En viktig skillnad tycktes vara hur de brittiska kvinnornas skuld så tydligt kunde kopplas till valet att arbeta utanför hemmet, vilket de svenska kvinnorna inte rapporterade.

    De svenska kvinnorna verkade uppleva ambiguitet och konflikt kring sina antagna roller, detta kunde enligt författaren inte skönjas i de brittiska kvinnornas skuldberättelser.

    Kulturella faktorer som könsroller i samhället, jämställdhet och sociala policys kom till stor del att inverka på vad kvinnorna kände skuld inför.

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