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  • 19351.
    Åström, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nakosteen, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Zimmer, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Twice chosen.: Spouse matching and earnings among women in first and second marriages2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines spousal matching for females in second-order marriages. It is based on detailed data from longitudinal Swedish population data registers. We aim to follow women who marry, divorce, and subsequently remarry compared with females who marry and stay married over the course of the study interval. The earnings of both groups are modeled through regression analysis in the year prior to their marriages along with the earnings of each husband. The residuals from the regressions represent unobservables in the process of earnings generation. From the regressions we obtain spouse-to-be pairs of earnings residuals and we measure the correlation of residuals for each marital regime. Overall, we find significant positive correlations for all three of the marital partitions. The correlation tends to be smaller for the first of a sequence of marriages for women who divorce than for women who marry and stay so. For the second of the successive marriages, however, the correlation of the residuals is larger than that for women who marry but once. We also find evidence of “matching” between successive husbands. Women who marry men with unmeasured positive earnings capacities, in the event of divorce, tend to select and match in a similar fashion the second time around.

  • 19352.
    Åström, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sex and migration: who is the tied mover?2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effects of interregional migration on two-earner household gross earnings as well as on the relative income between married and cohabiting couples. In particular, we examine the link between education level and income gains.  Our empirical analysis is based on longitudinal data from Sweden as well as on functional regional labour markets that operate as regional entities. Using difference-in-differences propensity score matching, we find that migration increases total gross household earnings and has no significant impact on the male/female earnings gap. We find that pre-migration education level is a key determinant of migration and economic outcomes and is also a determinant of the effect of migration on income distribution within the household. The positive average effect on household earnings is largely explained by income gains among highly-educated males. Females generally experience no significant income gain from migration in absolute terms. Females gain significant relative income only if they are highly educated and married or cohabitating with a lower-educated male. 

  • 19353.
    Åström, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nakosteen, Robert A.
    Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, MA. .
    Zimmer, Michael A.
    Department of Economics, University of Evansville, 800 Lincoln Ave, Evansville, IN, 47714, USA.
    See the future by looking at the past: predicting divorce with pre-marital earnings2011In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, ISSN 1350-4851, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 997-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of spouse's premarital earnings capacity on the probability of divorce is examined. This study is based on longitudinal register data on married and cohabitating couples in Sweden. We use the residuals from estimated earnings equations of men and women based on observations before their marriage in estimation of a logit model of divorce. By using information on individuals as singles, we can identify the impact of relative earnings power on the probability of divorce, per se, without the confounding effect of the marital relationship. The results indicate that differences in spouse's conditional earnings capacities increase the probability of divorce.

  • 19354.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kindbom, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    EUA-BCA   Stakeholder Analysis Report2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The stakeholder analysis was done to identify which stakeholders would be important in the process to Increase coordination of Arctic black carbon policies and to some extent to Facilitate early emission reductions of black carbon affecting the Arctic. The analysis included 95 Arctic-relevant stakeholders, categorised in six groups: Intergovernmental organisations, National authorities, Indigenous people’s organisations, Expert and working groups, Non-governmental organisations, and Industry. 

     The analysis supporting the results above was made by quantitatively ranking each stakeholder over three dimensions: Power, Interest, and Network capacity. The stakeholder analysis indicates that there are some stakeholders that appear more important to include in the process to increase coordination of Arctic black carbon policies and to facilitate early emission reduction of black carbon affecting the Arctic.

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  • 19355.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ensamkommandes framtidsutsikter i Sverige2017In: Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, no 3, p. 46-47Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19356.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    De unga utrikes föddas etablering på arbetsmarknaden: en kvantitativ bild2018In: Unga inför arbetslivet: om utanförskap, lärande och delaktighet / [ed] Jonas Olofsson, Fredrik Wikström, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 277-302Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19357.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Dropping out of Education: Refugee Youth Who Arrived as Unaccompanied Minors and Separated Children2019In: Unaccompanied Children: From Migration to Integration / [ed] Işık Kulu-Glasgow, Monika Smit, Ibrahim Sirkeci, Transnational Press London , 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19358.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ensamkommande barns och ungas väg in i det svenska samhället2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur går det för ensamkommande barn och unga att utbilda sig och etablera sig på den svenska arbetsmarknaden? Den frågan försöker vi besvara med hjälp av registerdata för dem som fick uppehållstillstånd i Sverige 2003–2014. Vi undersöker hur olika faktorer som ålder vid uppehållstillstånd, ursprungsland, tid i Sverige, utbildning, och bostadslän, påverkar etableringen. Andra aspekter vi studerar är ensamkommandes hälsa och civilstånd. I analysen jämför vi både med unga som har invandrat till Sverige med sina föräldrar från samma länder och med unga födda i Sverige med svenskfödda föräldrar.

  • 19359.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ensamkommande flickor på väg in i samhället2018Report (Other academic)
  • 19360.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ensamkommande flyktingbarns väg till utbildning och arbetsmarknad2017In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 103-117Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19361.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Kartläggning av erfarenheter och forskning om ensamkommande flyktingbarn i Sverige och andra länder: Rapport till Arbetsmarknadsdepartementet2016Report (Other academic)
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  • 19362.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Missuppfattningar om studier av ensamkommande barn2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 73-77Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19363.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nyanlända på väg mot etablering i Stockholm: Underlagsrapport2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19364.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Policies, Practices and Prospects: The Unaccompanied Minors in Sweden2017In: Social Work and Society, E-ISSN 1613-8953, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19365.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sweden: Intergenerational mobility patterns in immigrant and native families2018In: Catching Up? Country Studies on Intergenerational Mobility and Children of Immigrants, OECD Publishing, 2018, p. 121-143Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates the labour market situation of Swedish native-born sons and daughters in immigrant and native families with regard to their parents’ education, as well as intergenerational educational mobility patterns for these families. The latter are compared in order to ascertain whether the roles played by institutions and family background vary across these two groups. Rather than focussing solely on father-son pairs, the chapter looks at all family combinations, including mothers and daughters and mixed couples. Since there can be differences across countries of origin for those families with an immigrant background, all country groups of interest are analysed separately. Transmission patterns are also investigated separately for different household types with regard to parental composition.

  • 19366.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Unaccompanied minors and separated refugee children in Sweden: an outlook on demography, education and Employment2015Report (Other academic)
  • 19367.
    Çelikaksoy, Aycan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Utbildning och arbetsmarknad för ensamkommande ungdomar2019In: Ensamkommandes upplevelser & professionellas erfarenheter- integration, inkludering och jämställdhet / [ed] Mehrdad Darvishpour, Niclas Månsson, Liber, 2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19368.
    Öberg, Ann
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Efficiency Effects of Capital Income Taxation in Sweden 1985-19992002Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 19369.
    Öberg, Ann
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays on Capital Income Taxation in the Corporate and Housing Sectors2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introduction and four self-contained chapters.

    Chapter I gives a brief introduction to the topic of the thesis and summarizes the main results.

    Chapter II reports an extensive set of calculations of effective marginal tax rates (EMTR) covering the tax legislation in force in Sweden in 1985, 1991 and 1999. The purpose is to determine how taxation influences the profitability of new investments in the corporate and housing sectors. It is shown that the results agree with the popular view that the old (pre-reform) tax system favored investment in owner-occupied housing at the expense of business investment in real capital. Owner-occupied housing was also much favored relative to other forms of housing investment. Turning to the new 1991 tax system, there is a marked reduction in EMTR for all sectors included in the study. Ignoring owner-occupied housing, it is clear that the difference in the tax treatment between corporate assets and other forms of housing investment were small. Moreover, by 1999 the EMTR had increased again for all sectors.

    Chapter III tentatively puts effective tax rates to work, by illustrating their use in measuring the efficiency losses of taxation. As in Chapter II, Chapter III examines the tax systems in force in 1985, 1991 and 1999, and the focus of interest is on the (aggregated) corporate and the (aggregated) housing sectors of the economy. It is shown that the tax distortion to resource allocation between these sectors was negligible in 1985, and even though the tax reform of 1991 implied far-reaching changes in the taxation of capital income, the measured efficiency losses did not change between 1985 and 1991. However, limiting the focus to the tax treatment of investments in widely held corporations and owner-occupied housing, it turns out that the efficiency losses decreased as response to the new tax system in 1991.

    Chapter IV (with Tobias Lindhe and Jan Södersten) analyzes the income splitting rules for closely held corporations (CHC) in the Nordic countries, and determines their impact on the long run cost of capital. We conclude that the Swedish tax rules for CHC offer roughly the same cost of capital as for widely held corporations (WHC) when new investments are financed by retained earnings, while Finnish CHC, in terms of the long run cost of capital, are favored by the tax system compared to WHC. The Norwegian scheme, finally, may or may not cause the cost of capital to be different from that of WHC.

    Chapter V addresses the question of possible tax discrimination between the self-employed, wage earners and the owners of corporations. The analysis demonstrates that the tax rules for sole proprietorships (SP) in the Nordic countries may or may not offer a possibility for income shifting by switching from being an employee to being a self-employed proprietor. The outcome hinges on the special rule chosen by the tax authorities for splitting business income. Compared to corporate firms (closely and widely held) the SP’s cost of capital is lower, and the reason for that is that the SP avoids the two-tier taxation on the corporate form of organization.

  • 19370.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing and Tourism Studies (MTS).
    Sharing economy models and sustainability: Towards a typology2024In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 447, article id 141636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sharing economy was initially beckoned as a facilitator of exchanges that would not compromise future needs and held great promise for those at the lower end of the socioeconomic pyramid. However, as the sharing economy expanded, questions about its sustainability emerged. This expansion manifested in two main forms: an influx of new users and providers into existing operations and the emergence of new platforms, resulting in a proliferation of sharing economy models. By categorizing these models based on their resource utilization, this paper establishes a connection between scalability and compromised sustainability, shedding light on the interplay between the two. The paper identifies seven distinct configurations in the sharing economy: co-use, re-use, repeated use, sustainable output, pooling of resources, and products and services created specifically for individual users. These configurations serve as a tool to uncover the tensions between scalability and coordination, as well as between sustainability and provision. The paper contributes to prior research by bringing attention to how the sharing economy is entangled in these tensions and by developing a typology. Understanding how these tensions can be resolved presents a highly significant practical contribution, allowing stakeholders in the sharing economy to navigate the challenges of scalability and sustainability effectively.

  • 19371.
    Öberg, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    On Money and Consumption2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Price Level Determination When Tax Payments Are Required in Money. We formalize the idea that the price level can be determined by a requirement that taxes be paid in money. We show that if households have to pay a money tax of a fixed real value and the money supply is constant, there is a unique stationary price level, and a continuum of non-stationary deflationary equilibria. The non-stationary equilibria can be excluded if we introduce an arbitrarily lax borrowing constraint. Thus, in the basic model, tax requirements can uniquely determine the price level. When money has liquidity value, tax requirements can exclude self-fulfilling hyperinflations.

    The New Keynesian Transmission Mechanism: A Heterogeneous-Agent Perspective. We argue that a two-agent version of the standard New Keynesian model - where a "worker'' receives only labor income and a "capitalist'' only profit income - offers insights about how income inequality affects the monetary transmission mechanism. Under rigid prices, monetary policy has no effect on output as workers choose not to change their hours worked in response to wage movements. In the corresponding representative-agent model, in contrast, hours do rise after a monetary policy loosening due to a wealth effect on labor supply: profits fall, thus reducing the representative worker's income. If wages are rigid too, however, the monetary transmission mechanism is active and resembles that in the corresponding representative-agent model.

    Consumption Dynamics under Time-varying Unemployment Risk. We argue that adjustment frictions for durable goods generate a powerful amplification channel from fluctuations in unemployment risk to aggregate consumption demand. First, we use survey data to document that durable expenditures react strongly to increased unemployment risk, while the effect on nondurable expenditures is indistinguishable from zero. Second, we propose and calibrate a buffer-stock savings model that includes adjustment frictions for durable goods. Although not targeted in the calibration, we find that the model reproduces the semi-elasticities of expenditures to unemployment risk estimated in the data. Using the model, we find that the inclusion of adjustment frictions raises the aggregate demand response of durable goods to fluctuations in perceived unemployment risk by approximately 200 percent. Moreover, upon experiencing an adverse risk shock, the responsiveness of aggregate demand for durable goods to the interest rate and transitory income shocks is dampened.

    Consumption Dynamics under Time-varying Unemployment Risk: Evidence from Time Series Data. We investigate the relationship between consumption expenditures and unemployment risk using aggregate time series data for the US and ten EU countries. As a proxy for perceived unemployment risk, we use data on households' subjective expectations over the future unemployment rate. First, we employ a single-equation framework to test whether subjective unemployment expectations predict aggregate consumption growth when controlling for predicted aggregate income growth. Second, we exploit the timing of the survey interviews in relation to the publication of official statistics to isolate exogenous innovations to unemployment expectations in a small-scale vector autoregression. For the US, both methods suggest that there is a large effect of unemployment risk on aggregate consumption. For the ten EU countries, the evidence is mixed.

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  • 19372.
    Öberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Tino Sanandaji: Tio tusen miljarder – skuldkalaset och den förträngda baksmällan2019In: Ekonomisk Debatt, no 47Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19373.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Skadade fotgängare: kostnad för fotgängarskador jämfört med vinterväghållningskostnader2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project’s aim was to analyse the importance of the authority or the association responsible for winter maintenance. Did it make a difference in the number of injury cases if it was the road authority or a property association who managed the winter maintenance? What was the pedestrian injury cost in relation to the cost of winter maintenance?

    Injured pedestrian data from STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) healthcare client, from the period 2003/07/01 to 2010/06/30, provided a basis for the analysis. Often, it was only the Kalmar, Skåne, Värmland, Västmanland, Västernorrland and Jämtland regions that were included in the analysis. This was because hospitals from these regions had registered injured pedestrian data in STRADA during the whole analysis period. All injured persons do not necessarily seek hospital treatment. Treatment may have been obtained from other health care providers. The greater the distance to the hospital, the more likely it is to seek other health care treatment. This means that there will be an underestimate of the number of injured.

    Winter maintenance costs were obtained for the years 2005 and 2007. The costs related to road the authorities’ total winter maintenance costs. Property associations’ maintenance costs for footway surfaces are not included in road authority costs so the costs are for road maintenance. Where the road authority is also responsible for footway surfaces, the cost of maintaining these surfaces is included in the total cost. This means that road authority costs are overestimated. Pedestrian injury costs are much higher than winter maintenance costs.

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  • 19374.
    Öberg, Marja-Liisa
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. EU Law, Brugge, Belgium.
    Internal Market Acquis as a Tool in EU External Relations: From Integration to Disintegration2020In: Legal Issues of Economic Integration, ISSN 1566-6573, E-ISSN 1875-6433, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 151-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brexit and the ensuing uncertainty about the United Kingdom's (UK's) future relationship with the European Union (EU) have brought the participation of non-EU Member States in the internal market to the centre of academic attention. The latter phenomenon is not novel and many of the existing frameworks for cooperation between the EU and its neighbourhood countries have been used as models for a possible post-Brexit arrangement. This article identifies the various roles played by the internal market acquis - both of integration and disintegration - in the EU's relations with its neighbourhood by analysing the dynamics between the aims of various bilateral and multilateral instruments and the character and scope of the internal market acquis contained therein. The article argues that over time the function of the internal market acquis has evolved from providing a legal framework for the functioning of the internal market among the EU's Member States to also integrating third countries into the Union's sphere of influence beyond the accession process, and even membership. The internal market can thus no longer be regarded as an 'internal' and exclusive affair for the committed few that offers inspiration and limited access for third countries but rather as a dynamic and geographically inclusive form of collaboration between the Union and its periphery.

  • 19375.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    What's the value of an acceptance letter?: Using admissions data to estimate the return to college2010In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 504-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper exploits discontinuities and randomness in the college admissions in Sweden in 1982, to estimate the economic return to college in the 1990s. At the time, college admissions were highly selective and applicants were ranked with respect to their formal merits. Admissions were given to those ranked higher than some threshold value. At the margin, applicants were sometimes randomly assigned to college. Exploiting this Regression-Discontinuity design, individuals who were admitted in 1982 are estimated to have about 0.20 years longer college education in 1996. However, the earnings effects for applicants at the margin of admission are insignificant. Controlling for the college admission determinants, the OLS-estimates of the return to college is 1.4 percent in 1991-96. The IV-estimates are not significantly different from the OLS counterparts.

  • 19376.
    Ödborn Jönsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahl, Edvin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Egna märkesvaror och e-handel inom dagligvarumarknaden: Förbättring eller försämring av konkurrensen när egna märkesvaror och e-handel tar marknadsandelar?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish grocery market is characterized by an oligopoly market with high market concentration. The market is dominated by three players who together make up 90% of the grocery market. This means that the grocery market has been criticized when prices have risen by more than 20% compared to the general price increase of 10%. Furthermore, it has been speculated that the competitive conditions of the grocery market have deteriorated over the years. 

    In recent years, new conditions have emerged in the grocery market in Sweden, where the development of e-commerce and the increased growth of own-brand products (EMV) are two new components of the market. Previous studies and price surveys have focused on evaluating competition in the market when examining the growth of e-commerce, but without specifically focusing on own-brand products and their influence on competition in the grocery market. 

    Information from the secondary data shows that the three dominant players are actively engaged in offering their own online services and buying into the activities of new players. This information together with the results from the price survey shows that e-commerce does not necessarily contribute to the promotion of competition in the grocery market. On the other hand, e-commerce contributes to increased price awareness among consumers when comparing the pricing of operators/shops. In this way, consumers can easily compare prices and determine which store is the cheapest. 

    Furthermore, the price survey shows that own-brand products (EMV) are cheaper than classic brands, giving consumers more choice at lower prices. Although EMV is shown to be the cheaper option, this implies the promotion of a more vertically integrated market, which in turn creates barriers to entry for new players. Thus, it can be concluded that EMV contributes to a deterioration of competition in the grocery market. 

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  • 19377.
    Ögren, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Determinants behind Household Saving Behavior: -Empirical analysis on 15 OECD countries2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the factors behind what determine household saving behaviour. Observing the persistence differences of household saving ratio in OECD countries, serves as the base for the empirical study. Taking stance from economic theory and previous papers to formulate the method and likely explanatory variables suitable for this study, a model is specified based on the theoretical and empirical discussions.

    The result of the empirical analysis estimation finds that the explanatory variables accomplish to explain some of the household saving behaviour. Confirming and expanding on the discussion on the theoretical and empirical discussions. Factors such as uncertainty and fiscal policy are found to have a significant effect on household saving, while failing to prove other established determinants, like demographic factors. Among other included factors considered.

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  • 19378.
    Ögren, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Local government fragmentation and impact on local government debt: A panel data analysis of Swedish municipalities2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sets out to investigate the impact of government fragmentation on local government debt. The weak government hypothesis states that government fragmentation leads to higher budget deficits and higher public debt. The hypothesis is tested on a panel dataset comprised of 285 out of 290 Swedish municipalities over the period 2000-2017. The impact of government fragmentation is explained using government inaction theory and the common-pool problem. I find no evidence supporting that coalition governments generally accumulate higher public debt compared to single-party governments. However, there is evidence for the that ideological differences within coalition governments have a positive effect on the municipal debt level.

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    Local government fragmentation and impact on local government debt
  • 19379.
    Ögren, Fanny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Ett hållbarhetsmåtts påverkan på fondavkastning: En eventstudie om huruvida svenska småbolagsfonder uppvisar över- eller underavkastning i samband med annonseringen av ett hållbarhetsbetyg från Morningstar respektive vid erhållandet av ett högt betyg när måttet lanseras.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable investments have become the fastest growing investment trend that has been observed for several years. However, the opinions on whether a sustainable investment - in addition to being better in terms of sustainability - also generates higher returns or not, differs. In the light of this discussion this thesis intends to test the null hypothesis that the abnormal fund return is zero when a sustainability rating is launched and the funds in question receive a high rating, using historical data of returns from Swedish small company equity funds. The thesis will also test the null hypothesis that the abnormal fund return is zero when the news about the launch of the sustainability rating takes place, to see if the advertising has any effect on the fund returns. Any abnormal returns in conjunction with the news from February 2016 and the obtaining of the rating in August 2016 are examined for both the individual funds and for the funds together. Based on these two events, two event studies have been conducted with three different event windows each. The results for the news announcement show negative, but non-significant, abnormal returns for the individual funds across all event windows and significant negative abnormal returns for the funds together across all event windows. Thus, the null hypothesis can not be rejected at a 5% significance level for the individual funds, but it can be rejected for the funds together at a 5% significance level. The results from the actual launch of the sustainability rating, on the other hand, show positive but non-significant abnormal returns for the individual funds in all event windows and non-significant positive abnormal returns for the funds together in the two longer event windows. However, significant positive abnormal returns were shown for the shortest event window regarding the funds together. The null hypothesis for the individual funds and for the funds together in the two longer event windows can thus not be rejected at a significance level of 5%, while the null hypothesis for the funds together in the shortest event window can be rejected at a 5% significance level.

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    Ett hållbarhetsmåtts påverkan på fondavkastning
  • 19380.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginalkostnad av tågbuller2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En del i projektet Jäsmage är att bestämma marginalkostnaden för buller från olika typer av järnvägsfordon. Arbetet är uppdelat i två delar; att bestämma hur stor samhällskostnad en förändring i bullernivå innebär och att utgående från denna värdering beräkna vad kostnaden blir för en extra marginell fordonspassage vid olika sträckor. Denna rapport behandlar den andra delen. Arbetet inleddes under 2009 och kommer dels att rapporteras i december 2010, dels resultera i en artikel som är klar för vetenskaplig granskning under början på 2011.

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  • 19381.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Marginalkostnad av tågbuller2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En del i projektet Jäsmage är att bestämma marginalkostnaden för buller från olika typer av järnvägsfordon. Arbetet är uppdelat i två delar; att bestämma hur stor samhällskostnad en förändring i bullernivå innebär och att utgående från denna värdering beräkna vad kostnaden blir för en extra marginell fordonspassage vid olika sträckor. Denna rapport behandlar den andra delen. Arbetet inleddes under 2009 och kommer dels att rapporteras i december 2010, dels resultera i en artikel som är klar för vetenskaplig granskning under början på 2011.

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  • 19382.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Noise charges for Swedish railways based on marginal cost calculations2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an effort to calculate marginal costs for railway traffic in Sweden using 1) standardised and already well established methods for calculating noise and 2) valuations of noise based on hedonic regression. The main point is that the marginal costs are calculated using well established methods used for other purposes (urban planning for the noise method and cost benefit analysis for the noise values), the combination of these methods requires knowledge in both transport economics and acoustics but apart from that no new methods need to be developed. The results show large variations over the network explained mainly by the large variations in population density. It is necessary to include similar variations in a charging system in order to gain the full benefits of internalizing the noise cost.

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  • 19383.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Noise charges for Swedish railways based on marginal cost calculations2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an effort to calculate marginal costs for railway traffic in Sweden using 1) standardised and already well established methods for calculating noise and 2) valuations of noise based on hedonic regression. The main point is that the marginal costs are calculated using well established methods used for other purposes (urban planning for the noise method and cost benefit analysis for the noise values), the combination of these methods requires knowledge in both transport economics and acoustics but apart from that no new methods need to be developed. The results show large variations over the network explained mainly by the large variations in population density. It is necessary to include similar variations in a charging system in order to gain the full benefits of internalizing the noise cost.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 19384.
    Öhlund, Axel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Domnina, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Quantitative Easing and Bubble Formation in Real-Estate: A study of the relationship between novel monetary policies and speculative bubbles in the Swedish real-estate market2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to study how much of price appreciations on the Swedish real-estate market in recent times have been fundamentally warranted, as well as if the unconventional monetary policies implemented by the Swedish central bank have had any interaction with these price escalations. The methodology employed to research this is divided into two parts. Firstly, a bubble component time series has been computed using a Kalman filtering technique in a state-space model in which the bubble is inferred from a fundamental equation. The next step involves studying the dynamics between the bubble element vis-a-vis the quantitative easing policies implemented by Riksbanken. This procedure involves estimating vector autoregressive models in which several policy variables are included in the nexus and analyzed simultaneously to better grasp how QE transmits and impacts the component for the bubble. The empirical results from the first segment designate that price inflation on the Swedish housing market has become more and more principally unjustifiable throughout the sample. However, no significant inference may be made in this stage as to whether or not the market is influenced by a speculative bubble. In the dynamic system, some, yet thin evidence is found of quantitative easing policies preceding the evolvement of exuberance in house prices. Conclusively, this thesis affirms most of the growth in the non-fundamental part of prices to an expansion of credit, which in turn cannot be accredited to the policies of the Swedish Riksbank. Only a slight expectational effect is found and therefore we conclude that quantitative easing only has a trivial impact on the development of a speculative bubble in the market for real-estate.

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  • 19385.
    Öhman, Matilda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Persson, Sanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    The determinants of secondary copper production: An econometric analysis of European countries2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Copper is a metal that is commonly found in our society's infrastructure, such as cables and wires. In addressing the climate threat, society is facing a major transition towards electrification and digitization, and here copper plays an essential role. Since copper is a main component in the infrastructure, the demand for copper has increased rapidly due to the electrification of, for example, the automotive industry. Even though copper in the earth’s crust is a scarce resource, it can be recycled an infinite number of times without losing its quality. For this reason, meeting future demand partly through secondary copper production is likely to be important.

    The aim of this study is to investigate what factors influence the secondary refined copper production levels in nine different countries in Europe. Specifically, the study examines how electricity prices, copper scrap prices, primary production of copper, GDP per capita and cost of labor affect the supply of secondary refined copper. The empirical analysis is based on data from nine European countries and over a period of 21 years, 1998 – 2019, thus adopting a panel data approach. The results from the econometric analyses show that all five variables tend to influence the supply of secondary refined copper, some having a more profound effect than the others. For instance, the findings suggest the presence of a low and negative electricity price elasticity of secondary refined supply, while an increase in the copper scrap price appears to have significant deterring impact on secondary refined copper production.

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  • 19386.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Be smart, live long: the relationship between cognitive and non-cognitive abilities and mortality2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I study the association between cognitive and non-cognitive abilities and mortality, and investigate how well income and education act as proxy measures for ability. The risk of premature mortality is estimated using Cox proportional hazard models with a dataset of 692,303 Swedish men aged 18-20 years, enlisted between the years 1969-1983, and deaths between the years 1969 and 2009. Results suggest that both cognitive and non-cognitive abilities are strongly associated with mortality, independently and through income and education. Non-cognitive ability is a stronger predictor of the risk of mortality than cognitive ability. For middle and high income earners, and individuals with a college education, there are no associations between the abilities and mortality. However, for low income earners and individuals without a college education, cognitive and non-cognitive ability have strong associations with mortality. Results are mainly driven by the bottom of the measured ability distributions.

  • 19387. Öhman, Mattias
    "Be Smart, Live Long: The Relationship Between Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Abilities and Mortality" and "Exogenous Health Information and Individuals' Subjective Well-Being: RD Evidence from a Screening-Program for an Asymptomatic Disease"2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 19388.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Covid-19-vaccinationsgrad mer jämlik med förbokade tider2023In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, no 42, p. 26-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I en publicerad studie undersökte vi sambandet mellan kognitiv förmåga och benägenheten att vaccinera sig mot covid-19, samt hur denna påverkades av vaccinationsprogrammets utformning.

  • 19389.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Dani Rodrik: Economics Rules: The Rights and Wrongs of the Dismal Science2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 6, p. 62-64Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19390.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays on Cognitive Development and Medical Care2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained papers.

    Essay I (with Linuz Aggeborn): Fluoridation of the drinking water is a public policy whose aim is to improve dental health. Although the evidence is clear that fluoride is good for dental health, concerns have been raised regarding potential negative effects on cognitive development. We study the effects of fluoride exposure through the drinking water in early life on cognitive and non-cognitive ability, education and labor market outcomes in a large-scale setting. We use a rich Swedish register dataset for the cohorts born 1985-1992, together with drinking water fluoride data. To estimate the effects, we exploit intra-municipality variation of fluoride, stemming from an exogenous variation in the bedrock. First, we investigate and confirm the long-established positive relationship between fluoride and dental health. Second, we find precisely estimated zero-effects on cognitive ability, non-cognitive ability and education for fluoride levels below 1.5 mg/l. Third, we find evidence that fluoride improves later labor market outcomes, which indicates that good dental health is a positive factor on the labor market.

    Essay II: I study the associations between cognitive and non-cognitive abilities and mortality using a population-wide dataset of almost 700,000 Swedish men born between 1950 and 1965. The abilities were measured at the Swedish military enlistment at age 18-20. In addition, I investigate if income and education are good proxies for the abilities. The results suggest that both cognitive and non-cognitive abilities are strongly associated with mortality, but that non-cognitive ability is a stronger predictor. The associations are only partly mediated through income and education. For middle and high income earners and individuals with a college education there are no associations with mortality. However, for low income earners and individuals without a college education, both abilities are strongly associated with mortality. The associations are mainly driven by the bottom of the distributions.

    Essay III (with Matz Dahlberg, Kevin Mani and Anders Wanhainen): We examine how health information affects individuals' well-being using a regression discontinuity design on data from a screening program for an asymptomatic disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The information provided to the individuals is guided by the measured aorta size and its relation to pre-determined levels. When comparing individuals that receive information that they are healthy with those that receive information that they are in the risk zone for AAA, we find no effects. However, when comparing those that receive information that they have a small AAA, and will be under increased surveillance, with those who receive information that they are in the risk zone, we find a weak positive effect on well-being. This indicates that the positive information about increased surveillance may outweigh the negative information about worse health.

    Essay IV: I estimate the effect of SSRI antidepressants on the risk of mortality for myocardial infarction (MI) patients using Propensity Score Matching on individual health variables such as pharmaceutical drug prescription, patient history and severity of the MI. The effect of antidepressants on mortality is a heavily debated topic. MI patients have an elevated risk of developing depression, and antidepressants are among the most common treatments for depression and anxiety. However, there are indications that some classes of antidepressants may have drug-induced cardiovascular effects and could be harmful for individuals with heart problems, but there is a lack of large-scale studies using credible identification strategies. My findings indicate no increased risk of two-year mortality for MI patients using SSRI. The results are stable for several specifications and robustness checks.

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  • 19391.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Kunde vi ha fått fler att vaccinera sig mot covid-19 – och snabbare?2023In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, no 3-4, p. 66-77Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den mångårige "voffaren" Mattias Öhman, forskare i nationalekonomi vid Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning vid Uppsala universitet, lyfter fram resultat av en studie som han tillsammans med två kollegor genomförde om samband mellan intelligens och vaccinationsgrad.

  • 19392.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Smarta och sociala lever längre: sambanden mellan intelligens, social förmåga och mortalitet2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport dokumenteras sambanden mellan intelligens, social förmåga och mortalitet. Resultaten pekar på att både intelligens och social förmåga är negativt kopplade till risken att dö i förtid, men att sambandet är starkast för social förmåga. Mönstren är tydligast bland låginkomsttagare och individer utan högskoleutbildning. Inom dessa grupper, låginkomsttagare respektive ej högskoleutbildade, finns stora skillnader i risken för mortalitet som kan förklaras av skillnader i intelligens och social förmåga.

  • 19393.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Välgörenhet och social påverkan: Ett fältexperiment om pantning och donationsbenägenhet2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med ett naturligt fältexperiment studeras betydelsen av social påverkan för individers benägenhet att skänka pengar. Den dominerande teorin inom nationalekonomin som förklaring till välgörenhet är warm glow altruism. Teorin säger att människor skänker pengar på grund av en kombination av altruism och warm glow. Men det finns även teorier som förutsäger att socialt tryck spelar roll. I experimentet ställdes frågor till pantkunder om deras bidrag till välgörenhet. Individerna i behandlingsgruppen blev tillfrågade innan de började panta och kunnat välja om de ska skänka panten. I kontrollgruppen besvarades frågorna efteråt. Resultatet tyder på att social påverkan spelar stor roll för benägenheten att skänka panten.

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    Välgörenhet och social påverkan : Ett fältexperiment om pantning och donationsbenägenhet
  • 19394.
    Öhman, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Centre for Research on Economic Relations, Department of Social Sciences, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Bo
    Uppsala University, Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Gävle, Sweden.
    Uhlin, Ola
    Mid Sweden University, Centre for Research on Economic Relations, Department of Social Sciences, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Accuracy of Swedish property appraisers' forecasts of net operating income2012In: Journal of Property Research, ISSN 0959-9916, E-ISSN 1466-4453, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 103-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses how property appraisers forecast one important component of the commercial property valuation model: net operating income. We compare appraisers' ex ante forecasts with corresponding ex post figures from company financial reports. The data are from the Swedish Property Index, 1998-2005, and comprise over 7000 observations. The findings indicate that the appraisers' forecasts are somewhat forward looking and almost as accurate as those obtained using mechanical autoregressive models. However, the forecasts are biased, as appraisers systematically overestimate future net operating income. There was also evidence of decreasing accuracy over the study period.

  • 19395.
    Öhman, Victor
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Ylitalo, Tuomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Vilka faktorer påverkar svenska hushållens sparkvot?: En tidsserieanalys om svenska hushållens sparkvot åren 1970-20172019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines factors that affect the Swedish households’ savings ratio. The savings ratio is defined in this paper as the share of disposable income that is not consumed. Based on economic theories such as the Life Cycle hypothesis and Ricardian equivalence together with previous studies on the subject, we have developed six relevant variables for the study. The data were collected for all variables aggregated annually for the period 1970- 2017. The independent variables used in the study are: inflation, GDP growth per capita, interest rate, unemployment, dependency ratio (demography) and the budget balance of the Swedish state. In order to investigate how the independent variables affect the dependent variable, an econometric method in the form of OLS will be used. Four econometric models were used to estimate how the independent variables affect Swedish households’ savings ratio during the period. The results of the study show that no variable had a statistically significant effect in relation to the Swedish households’ savings ratio, with respect to the requirement for stationarity in the variables to be fulfilled. However, there were some variables that proved to have a practical and statistically significant effect in relation to the Swedish households’ savings ratio if stationarity is ignored.

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  • 19396.
    Öhrn, Alexandra
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Det genuina sparandet och en hållbar utveckling: En empirisk analys om varfö̈r vissa ekonomiers utveckling är hållbar och andras inte.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Det genuina sparandet och en hållbar utveckling
  • 19397.
    Öhrn Lundin, Josefin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Transparency in Global Value Chains: A Case Study on How Swedish Firms in Global Value Chains Perceive Their Level of Transparency2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a qualitative case study on how Swedish companies operating in global valuechains percieve their level of transparency concerning social- and environmental aspects, andhow they manage this work. The thesis contributes to existing literature since it draw attentionto the role of transparency concerning social- and environmental aspects and study howcompanies operating in global value chains actually perceive their level of transparency. Theanalysis and results in this thesis is based on interviews with sustainability experts within fivedifferent Swedish companies operating in global value chains. The companies in this studydiffer in size and belong to different industries. The result shows that companies in this studydo not perceive transparency as an issue in itself; rather the ability to control the chains has animpact on the level of transparency. The level of control seems to depend on resources andstakeholders pressure, and differ depending on industry and size of the company. In thisstudy, the larger companies have more resources to control their chains than the smallercompanies and therefore they have a higher level of transparency.

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  • 19398.
    Öhrner, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Risk of getting caught and its impact on residential burglaries: Panel study of residential burglaries and clearance rates in Swedish counties in the period 2001-20132022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on deterrence from crime is often about the strength of possible punishment, but less often about the risk of getting caught as a deterrent. According to rational choice theory, the risk of getting caught should have a deterrent effect. In this essay, I investigate whether the number of residential burglaries solved affects the number of reported residential burglaries. The relationship between these is examined through an analysis of the 21 Swedish counties during the period 2001 to 2013. I use a dynamic two ways fixed effects model, estimated with a least squares dummy variable estimation (LSDV). Control variables are used to capture criminological factors such as wealth and population density. The clarification percentage is adjusted for 1 and 2 years respectively. A significant negative relationship is found between clearance rate and reported residential burglaries.

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  • 19399.
    Öller, Lars-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Jakten på syndabockar2009In: Forum för ekonomi och teknik, Vol. 5, p. 30-30Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 19400.
    Ölmebäck, Emma
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences.
    Lohela, Malin
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences.
    Kommunala skillnader i sjukskrivningar: - en konsekvens av den kommunala arbetslösheten? -2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 1997 har sjukfrånvaron i Sverige fördubblats och kostnaden uppgick år 2003 till närmare 40 miljarder kronor. De demografiska förändringarna och minskade skatteintäkter i kombination med ökade offentliga utgifter är stora utmaningar för framtidens välfärdsfinansiering. Med hjälp av regressionsanalys vill vi undersöka om de kommunala skillnaderna i sjukskrivningar kan förklaras av den kommunala arbetslösheten år 2003. Vi vill även ta reda på om det finns förklaringar till varför en del kommuner har högre sjukfrånvaro än andra. Resultaten analyseras utifrån teorier om nyttomaximering och Moral Hazard. Vårt resultat visar på fem signifikanta variabler på fem procents nivån. Dessa är arbetslöshet, förtidspensionärer, andelen 45-64 år, glesbygdskommuner och varuproducerande kommuner. Vår slutsats är att de geografiska skillnaderna i sjukfrånvaron inte enbart förklaras av den kommunala arbetslösheten. Trots ett signifikant samband är förklaringsgraden låg. Det som förklarar de kommunala skillnaderna är till störst del de demografiska faktorerna. Vid sidan av demografin påverkar även kommunkaraktär och den sociala interaktionen sjukfrånvaron.

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