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  • 1801. Yang, Y.
    et al.
    Welch, G. F.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Himonides, E.
    Pedagogical strategies for ensuring the continued survival of China´s musical folksong heritage:: A case study2007Ingår i: Proceedings of APSMER 2007, 6th Asia-Pacific Society for Music Education Research, 2007, s. 37-38Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1802.
    Yiwen, Chen
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi. Uppsala University.
    Generating Chinese Lyrics using Neural Networks with Lyric Patterns2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we explore lyrics generation as a subbranch of computational creativity.

    The dataset is comprised of 16,858 Chinese songs from 160 singers. Compared to the baseline which uses a character-level Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), we apply a sequence to sequence model with a bidirectional encoder and a decoder with attention mechanism. In addition, we introduce new standards to evaluate the quality of generated lyrics: lyricism,

    accuracy, singability and coherence. Two quality tests are included: human judgment and selecting which lyrics are written by human lyricists.

    In the evaluation, the average scores for our model perform better than the baseline in all standards. The average probability of a human judging lyrics generated by our model as created by a human is 17.23%.

  • 1803.
    Yusupujiang, Zulipiye
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Using Unsupervised Morphological Segmentation to Improve Dependency Parsing for Morphologically Rich Languages2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we mainly investigate the influence of using unsupervised morphological segmentation as features on the dependency parsing of morphologically rich languages such as Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian, Turkish, Uyghur, and Kazakh. Studying the morphology of these languages is of great importance for the dependency parsing of morphologically rich languages since dependency relations in a sentence of these languages mostly rely on morphemes rather than word order. In order to investigate our research questions, we have conducted a large number of parsing experiments both on MaltParser and UDPipe. We have generated the supervised morphology and the predicted POS tags from UDPipe, and obtained the unsupervised morphological segmentation from Morfessor, and have converted the unsupervised morphological segmentation into features and added them to the UD treebanks of each language. We have also investigated the different ways of converting the unsupervised segmentation into features and studied the result of each method. We have reported the Labeled Attachment Score (LAS) for all of our experimental results.

    The main finding of this study is that dependency parsing of some languages can be improved simply by providing unsupervised morphology during parsing if there is no manually annotated or supervised morphology available for such languages. After adding unsupervised morphological information with predicted POS tags, we get improvement of 4.9%, 6.0%, 8.7%, 3.3%, 3.7%, and 12.0% on the test set of Turkish, Uyghur, Kazakh, Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian respectively on MaltParser, and the parsing accuracies have been improved by 2.7%, 4.1%, 8.2%, 2.4%, 1.6%, and 2.6% on the test set of Turkish, Uyghur, Kazakh, Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian respectively on UDPipe when comparing the results from the models which do not use any morphological information during parsing.

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  • 1804. Zampieri, Marcos
    et al.
    Ljubešić, Nikola
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Merging Comparable Data Sources for the Discrimination of Similar Languages: The DSL Corpus Collection2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Building and Using Comparable Corpora Building Resources for Machine Translation Research, 2014, s. 6-10Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1805. Zangger Borch, D.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Lindestad, P.
    Thalén, M.
    Vocal fold vibration and voice source aperiodicity in "dist" tones: a study of a timbral ornament in rock singing2004Ingår i: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 147-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The acoustic characteristics of so-called 'dist' tones, commonly used in singing rock music, are analyzed in a case study. In an initial experiment a professional rock singer produced examples of 'dist' tones. The tones were found to contain aperiodicity, SPL at 0.3 m varied between 90 and 96 dB, and subglottal pressure varied in the range of 20-43 cm H2O, a doubling yielding, on average, an SPL increase of 2.3 dB. In a second experiment, the associated vocal fold vibration patterns were recorded by digital high-speed imaging of the same singer. Inverse filtering of the simultaneously recorded audio signal showed that the aperiodicity was caused by a low frequency modulation of the flow glottogram pulse amplitude. This modulation was produced by an aperiodic or periodic vibration of the supraglottic mucosa. This vibration reduced the pulse amplitude by obstructing the airway for some of the pulses produced by the apparently periodically vibrating vocal folds. The supraglottic mucosa vibration can be assumed to be driven by the high airflow produced by the elevated subglottal pressure.

  • 1806.
    Zechner, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    A novel approach to text classification2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the foundations of text classification, using both empirical and deductive methods, with a focus on author identification and syntactic methods. We strive for a thorough theoretical understanding of what affects the effectiveness of classification in general. 

    To begin with, we systematically investigate the effects of some parameters on the accuracy of author identification. How is the accuracy affected by the number of candidate authors, and the amount of data per candidate? Are there differences in how methods react to the changes in parameters? Using the same techniques, we see indications that methods previously thought to be topic-independent might not be so, but that syntactic methods may be the best option for avoiding topic dependence. This means that previous studies may have overestimated the power of lexical methods. We also briefly look for ways of spotting which particular features might be the most effective for classification. Apart from author identification, we apply similar methods to identifying properties of the author, including age and gender, and attempt to estimate the number of distinct authors in a text sample. In all cases, the techniques are proven viable if not overwhelmingly accurate, and we see that lexical and syntactic methods give very similar results. 

    In the final parts, we see some results of automata theory that can be of use for syntactic analysis and classification. First, we generalise a known algorithm for finding a list of the best-ranked strings according to a weighted automaton, to doing the same with trees and a tree automaton. This result can be of use for speeding up parsing, which often runs in several steps, where each step needs several trees from the previous as input. Second, we use a compressed version of deterministic finite automata, known as failure automata, and prove that finding the optimal compression is NP-complete, but that there are efficient algorithms for finding good approximations. Third, we find and prove the derivatives of regular expressions with cuts. Derivatives are an operation on expressions to calculate the remaining expression after reading a given symbol, and cuts are an extension to regular expressions found in many programming languages. Together, these findings may be able to improve on the syntactic analysis which we have seen is a valuable tool for text classification.

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  • 1807.
    Zechner, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Derivatives of regular expressions with cuts2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Derivatives of regular expressions are an operation which for a given expression produces an expression for what remains after a specific symbol has been read. This can be used as a step in transforming an expression into a finite string automaton. Cuts are an extension of the ordinary regular expressions; the cut operator is essentially a concatenation without backtracking, formalising a behaviour found in many programming languages. Just as for concatenation, we can also define an iterated cut operator. We show and derive expressions for the derivatives of regular expressions with cuts and iterated cuts.

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  • 1808. Zellers, M.
    et al.
    House, David
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Alexanderson, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Prosody and hand gesture at turn boundaries in Swedish2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Speech Prosody, International Speech Communications Association , 2016, s. 831-835Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to ensure smooth turn-taking between conversational participants, interlocutors must have ways of providing information to one another about whether they have finished speaking or intend to continue. The current work investigates Swedish speakers’ use of hand gestures in conjunction with turn change or turn hold in unrestricted, spontaneous speech. As has been reported by other researchers, we find that speakers’ gestures end before the end of speech in cases of turn change, while they may extend well beyond the end of a given speech chunk in the case of turn hold. We investigate the degree to which prosodic cues and gesture cues to turn transition in Swedish face-to-face conversation are complementary versus functioning additively. The co-occurrence of acoustic prosodic features and gesture at potential turn boundaries gives strong support for considering hand gestures as part of the prosodic system, particularly in the context of discourse-level information such as maintaining smooth turn transition.

  • 1809.
    Zellers, Margaret
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Perception of pitch tails at potential turn boundaries in Swedish2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, 2014, s. 1944-1948Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a number of languages, intonational patterns at prosodic boundaries are considered to be relevant for turn transition or turn hold. A perception experiment tested the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) peak height and rising final contours on Swedish listeners’ judgment about whether a speaker wanted to hold the turn. While F0 peak height, as has been previously shown, did influence listeners’ judgments, the end height of rising pitch tails apparently did not influence listeners’ judgments about whether a speaker planned to continue talking, even though they showed sensitivity to the differences in a discrimination task. The differences in responses in the tasks, as well as the difference from results found for other languages, may indicate that listeners used comparative prominence to guide their judgments, rather than intonation playing a direct role in the turn-transition system.

  • 1810.
    Zellers, Margaret
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Pitch and lengthening as cues to turn transition in Swedish2013Ingår i: Proceedings of Interspeech 2013, 2013, s. 248-252Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many cases of turn transition in conversation, a new speaker may respond to phonetic cues from the end of the prior turn, including variation in prosodic features such as pitch and final lengthening. Although consistent pitch and lengthening features are well-established for some languages at potential points of turn transition, this is not necessarily the case for Swedish. The current study uses a two-alternative forced choice task to investigate how variation in pitch contour and lengthening at the ends of syntactically complete turns can influence listeners’ expectations of turn hold or turn transition. Both lengthening and pitch contour features were found to influence listeners’ judgments about whether turn transition would occur, with shorter length and higher final pitch peaks associated with turn hold. Furthermore, listeners were more certain about their judgments when asked about turn-hold rather than turn-change, suggesting an imbalance in the strength of turn-hold versus turn-transition cues.

  • 1811.
    Zellers, Margaret
    Department of Language and Linguistic Science, University of York, York, UK .
    Prosodic variation for topic shift and other functions in local contrasts in conversation2013Ingår i: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, E-ISSN 1423-0321, Vol. 69, nr 4, s. 231-253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Speakers and listeners have been shown to use phonetic cues to help them in tracking the ongoing structure of conversational interaction, but fragmentation between qualitative and quantitative research means that the forms and functions of these cues have been given varying characterizations. The current study explores prosodic variation in contrastive structures in conversational data, using a combined methodology adopting aspects from both qualitative (conversation analysis) and quantitative (experimental phonetics/phonology) approaches. Statistical and conversation-analytical methods used together reveal relationships between prosodic variation and interactional function, such as variations in pitch range across adjacent turns being linked to the presence of 'stepwise' topic changes.

  • 1812.
    Zellers, Margaret
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    House, David
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Parallels between hand gestures and acoustic prosodic features in turn-taking2015Ingår i: 14th International Pragmatics Conference, Antwerp, Belgium, 2015, s. 454-455Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1813. Zeman, Daniel
    et al.
    Hajič, Jan
    Popel, Martin
    Potthast, Martin
    Straka, Milan
    Ginter, Filip
    Nivre, Joakim
    Petrov, Slav
    CoNLL 2018 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the CoNLL 2018 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies, 2018, s. 1-21Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1814. Zeman, Daniel
    et al.
    Popel, Martin
    Straka, Milan
    Hajic, Jan
    Nivre, Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Ginter, Filip
    Luotolahti, Juhani
    Pyysalo, Sampo
    Petrov, Slav
    Potthast, Martin
    Tyers, Francis
    Badmaeva, Elena
    Gokirmak, Memduh
    Nedoluzhko, Anna
    Cinkova, Silvie
    Hajic jr., Jan
    Hlavacova, Jaroslava
    Kettnerová, Václava
    Uresova, Zdenka
    Kanerva, Jenna
    Ojala, Stina
    Missilä, Anna
    Manning, Christopher D.
    Schuster, Sebastian
    Reddy, Siva
    Taji, Dima
    Habash, Nizar
    Leung, Herman
    de Marneffe, Marie-Catherine
    Sanguinetti, Manuela
    Simi, Maria
    Kanayama, Hiroshi
    dePaiva, Valeria
    Droganova, Kira
    Martínez Alonso, Héctor
    Çöltekin, Ça\ugrı
    Sulubacak, Umut
    Uszkoreit, Hans
    Macketanz, Vivien
    Burchardt, Aljoscha
    Harris, Kim
    Marheinecke, Katrin
    Rehm, Georg
    Kayadelen, Tolga
    Attia, Mohammed
    Elkahky, Ali
    Yu, Zhuoran
    Pitler, Emily
    Lertpradit, Saran
    Mandl, Michael
    Kirchner, Jesse
    Alcalde, Hector Fernandez
    Strnadová, Jana
    Banerjee, Esha
    Manurung, Ruli
    Stella, Antonio
    Shimada, Atsuko
    Kwak, Sookyoung
    Mendonca, Gustavo
    Lando, Tatiana
    Nitisaroj, Rattima
    Li, Josie
    CoNLL 2017 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the CoNLL 2017 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies, 2017, s. 1-19Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1815.
    Zetterholm, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy & Linguistics, Umeå University.
    Blomberg, Mats
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Elenius, Daniel
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    A comparison between human perception and a speaker verification system score of a voice imitation2004Ingår i: Proc of Tenth Australian International Conference on Speech Science & Technology, 2004, s. 393-397Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A professional impersonator has been studied when training his voice tomimic two target speakers. A three-fold investigation has been conducted; acomputer-based speaker verification system was used, phonetic-acousticmeasurements were made and a perception test was conducted. Our ideabehind using this type of system is to measure how close to the target voice aprofessional impersonation might be able to reach and to relate this tophonetic-acoustic analyses of the mimic speech and human perception. Thesignificantly increased verification scores and the phonetic-acoustic analysesshow that the impersonator really changes his natural voice and speech in hisimitations. The results of the perception test show that there is no, or only asmall, correlation between the verification system and the listeners whenestimating the voice imitations and how close they are to one of the targetspeakers.

  • 1816.
    Zhang, Yaxi
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Named Entity Recognition for Social Media Text2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to perform named entity recognition for English social media texts. Named Entity Recognition (NER) is applied in many NLP tasks as an important preprocessing procedure. Social media texts contain lots of real-time data and therefore serve as a valuable source for information extraction. Nevertheless, NER for social media texts is a rather challenging task due to the noisy context. Traditional approaches to deal with this task use hand-crafted features but prove to be both time-consuming and very task-specific. As a result, they fail to deliver satisfactory performance. The goal of this thesis is to tackle this task by automatically identifying and annotating the named entities with multiple types with the help of neural network methods. In this thesis, we experiment with three different word embeddings and character embedding neural network architectures that combine long short- term memory (LSTM), bidirectional LSTM (BI-LSTM) and conditional random field (CRF) to get the best result. The data and evaluation tool comes from the previous shared tasks on Noisy User-generated Text (W- NUT) in 2017. We achieve the best F1 score 42.44 using BI-LSTM-CRF with character-level representation extracted by a BI-LSTM, and pre-trained word embeddings trained by GloVe. We also find out that the results could be improved with larger training data sets.

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  • 1817.
    Zimmer, Björn
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE SICS.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Visual Analysis of Relationships between Heterogeneous Networks and Texts: An Application on the IEEE VIS Publication Dataset2017Ingår i: Informatics, ISSN 2227-9709, Vol. 4, nr 2, artikel-id 11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The visual exploration of large and complex network structures remains a challenge for many application fields. Moreover, a growing number of real world networks are multivariate and often interconnected with each other. Entities in a network may have relationships with elements of other related data sets, which do not necessarily have to be networks themselves, and these relationships may be defined by attributes that can vary greatly. In this work, we propose a comprehensive visual analytics approach that supports researchers to specify and subsequently explore attribute-based relationships across networks, text documents, and derived secondary data. Our approach provides an individual search functionality based on keywords and semantically similar terms over the entire text corpus to find related network nodes. For examining these nodes in the interconnected network views, we introduce a new interaction technique, called Hub2Go, which facilitates the navigation by guiding the user to the information of interest. To showcase our system, we use a large text corpus collected from research papers listed in the IEEE VIS publications dataset that consists of 2752 documents over a period of 25 years. Here, we analyze relationships between various heterogeneous networks, a Bag-of-Words index, and a word similarity matrix, all derived from the initial corpus and metadata. 

  • 1818.
    Åke, Viberg
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi. Lingvistik.
    •Wordnets, Framenets and Corpus-based Contrastive Lexicology.2007Ingår i: FRAME 2007: Building frame semantics resources for Scandinavian and Baltic languages. NODALIDA 2007, 2007, s. 1-10Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1819. Öhlin, David
    et al.
    Carlson, Rolf
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Data-driven formant synthesis2004Ingår i: Proceedings FONETIK 2004: The XVIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference / [ed] Peter Branderud, Hartmut Traunmüller, Stockholm University, 2004, s. 160-163Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1820.
    Öhrström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system.
    Cluster Analysis with Meaning: Detecting Texts that Convey the Same Message2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Textual duplicates can be hard to detect as they differ in words but have similar semantic meaning. At Etteplan, a technical documentation company, they have many writers that accidentally re-write existing instructions explaining procedures. These "duplicates" clutter the database.

    This is not desired because it is duplicate work. The condition of the database will only deteriorate as the company expands. This thesis attempts to map where the problem is worst, and also how to calculate how many duplicates there are.

    The corpus is small, but written in a controlled natural language called Simplified Technical English. The method uses document embeddings from doc2vec and clustering by use of HDBSCAN* and validation using Density-Based Clustering Validation index (DBCV), to chart the problems. A survey was sent out to try to determine a threshold value of when documents stop being duplicates, and then using this value, a theoretical duplicate count was calculated.

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  • 1821.
    Öquist, Gustav
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Assessing usability across multiple user interfaces2004Ingår i: Multiple User Interfaces: Cross-Platform Applications and Context-Aware Interfaces, 2004Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 1822.
    Öquist, Gustav
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Enabling Embodied Text Presentation on Mobile Devices2004Ingår i: Proceedings of Mobile and Ubiquitous Information Access 2004, 2004, s. 26-31Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1823.
    Öquist, Gustav
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Multimodal Interaction with Mobile Devices: Outline of a Semiotic Framework for Theory and Practice2006Ingår i: Proceedings of Wireless Networks and Systems 2006, 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how interfaces that fully uses our ability to communicate through the visual, auditory, and tactile senses, may enhance mobile interaction. The first step is to look beyond the desktop. We do not need to reinvent computing, but we need to see that mobile interaction does not benefit from desktop metaphors alone. The next step is to look at what we have at hand, and as we will see, mobile devices are already quite apt for multimodal interaction. The question is how we can coordinate information communicated through several senses in a way that enhances interaction. By mapping information over communication circuit, semiotic representation, and sense applied for interaction; a framework for multimodal interaction is outlined that can offer some guidance to integration. By exemplifying how a wide range of research prototypes fit into the framework today, it is shown how interfaces communicating through several modalities may enhance mobile interaction tomorrow.

  • 1824.
    Öquist, Gustav
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Goldstein, Mikael
    Towards an improved readability on mobile devices: Evaluating Adaptive Rapid Serial Visual Presentation2002Ingår i: Proceedings of Mobile HCI 2002, 2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1825.
    Öquist, Gustav
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Goldstein, Mikael
    Björk, Staffan
    Utilizing gaze detection to stimulate the affordances of paper in the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Format2002Ingår i: Proceedings of Mobile HCI 2002, 2002, s. 378-381Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1826.
    Öquist, Gustav
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Sågvall Hein, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Ygge, Jan
    Goldstein, Mikael
    Eye movemement study of reading text on a mobile device using the traditional page and the dynamic RSVP format.2004Ingår i: Proceedings of Mobile HCI 2004, 2004, s. 108-119Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 1827.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    A Bayesian model for joint word alignment and part-of-speech transfer2016Ingår i: Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers, Osaka, Japan: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2016, s. 620-629Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current methods for word alignment require considerable amounts of parallel text to deliver accurate results, a requirement which is met only for a small minority of the world’s approximately 7,000 languages. We show that by jointly performing word alignment and annotation transfer in a novel Bayesian model, alignment accuracy can be improved for language pairs where annotations are available for only one of the languages—a finding which could facilitate the study and processing of a vast number of low-resource languages. We also present an evaluation where our method is used to perform single-source and multi-source part-of-speech transfer with 22 translations of the same text in four different languages. This allows us to quantify the considerable variation in accuracy depending on the specific source text(s) used, even with different translations into the same language.

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    fulltext
  • 1828.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    A Construction Grammar Method for Disambiguating Swedish Compounds2010Ingår i: SLTC 2010 Workshop on Compounds and Multiword Expressions, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses the structure of Swedish compounds within the framework of Construction Grammar, and applies the result to Word Sense Disambiguation of compound components. A construction-based approach is shown to achieve significantly better results than a set of baselines.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 1829.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Bayesian Models for Multilingual Word Alignment2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I explore Bayesian models for word alignment, how they can be improved through joint annotation transfer, and how they can be extended to parallel texts in more than two languages. In addition to these general methodological developments, I apply the algorithms to problems from sign language research and linguistic typology.

    In the first part of the thesis, I show how Bayesian alignment models estimated with Gibbs sampling are more accurate than previous methods for a range of different languages, particularly for languages with few digital resources available—which is unfortunately the state of the vast majority of languages today. Furthermore, I explore how different variations to the models and learning algorithms affect alignment accuracy.

    Then, I show how part-of-speech annotation transfer can be performed jointly with word alignment to improve word alignment accuracy. I apply these models to help annotate the Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC) with part-of-speech tags, and to investigate patterns of polysemy across the languages of the world.

    Finally, I present a model for multilingual word alignment which learns an intermediate representation of the text. This model is then used with a massively parallel corpus containing translations of the New Testament, to explore word order features in 1001 languages.

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    omslagsframsida
  • 1830.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Bayesian Word Alignment for Massively Parallel Texts2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, volume 2: Short Papers, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2014, s. 123-127Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a great amount of work done in the field of bitext alignment, but the problem of aligning words in massively parallel texts with hundreds or thousands of languages is largely unexplored. While the basic task is similar, there are also important differences in purpose, method and evaluation between the problems. In this work, I present a non-parametric Bayesian model that can be used for simultaneous word alignment in massively parallel corpora. This method is evaluated on a corpus containing 1144 translations of the New Testament.

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    eacl2014.pdf
  • 1831.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Part of Speech Tagging: Shallow or Deep Learning?2018Ingår i: Northern European Journal of Language Technology (NEJLT), ISSN 2000-1533, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep neural networks have advanced the state of the art in numerous fields, but they generally suffer from low computational efficiency and the level of improvement compared to more efficient machine learning models is not always significant. We perform a thorough PoS tagging evaluation on the Universal Dependencies treebanks, pitting a state-of-the-art neural network approach against UDPipe and our sparse structured perceptron-based tagger, efselab. In terms of computational efficiency, efselab is three orders of magnitude faster than the neural network model, while being more accurate than either of the other systems on 47 of 65 treebanks.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 1832.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Stagger: an Open-Source Part of Speech Tagger for Swedish2013Ingår i: Northern European Journal of Language Technology (NEJLT), ISSN 2000-1533, Vol. 3, s. 1-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents Stagger, a new open-source part of speech tagger for Swedish based on the Averaged Perceptron. By using the SALDO morphological lexicon and semi-supervised learning in the form of Collobert and Weston embeddings, it reaches an accuracy of 96.4% on the standard Stockholm-Umeå Corpus dataset, making it the best single part of speech tagging system reported for Swedish. Accuracy increases to 96.6% on the latest version of the corpus, where the annotation has been revised to increase consistency. Stagger is also evaluated on a new corpus of Swedish blog posts, investigating its out-of-domain performance.

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    stagger.pdf
  • 1833.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Studying colexification through massively parallell corpora2016Ingår i: The Lexical Typology of Semantic Shifts / [ed] Päivi Juvonen, Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2016, s. 157-176Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-sample studies in lexical typology are limited by whatever lexical information is available or can be obtained for all the languages in the study. Various types of word lists, from simple Swadesh lists to large dictionaries, can be used for this purpose. Unfortunately, these resources often present only a very fragmentary view of a given language’s vocabulary. As a complement, we propose an additional source of lexical information: parallel texts. Books such as the New Testament have been translated into thousands of languages, and it is possible to automatically extract word lists from their vocabulary, which can then be applied to lexical typological studies. In particular, we focus on studying colexification using a sample of 1 001 different languages, based on 1 142 translations of the New Testament. We find that although the automatically extracted word lists contain errors, their quality can be sufficiently good to find real areal patterns, such as the ‘tree’/’fire’ colexification that is widespread in the Sahul area.

  • 1834.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Svenska dialektkartor på sekunden2015Ingår i: Språkbruk, ISSN 0358-9293, Vol. 3, s. 10-13Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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    fulltext
  • 1835.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Word order typology through multilingual word alignment2015Ingår i: The 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing of the Asian Federation of Natural Language Processing: Proceedings of the Conference, Volume 2: Short Papers, 2015, s. 205-211Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With massively parallel corpora of hundreds or thousands of translations of the same text, it is possible to automatically perform typological studies of language structure using very large language samples. We investigate the domain of wordorder using multilingual word alignment and high-precision annotation transfer in a corpus with 1144 translations in 986 languages of the New Testament. Results are encouraging, with 86% to 96% agreementbetween our method and the manually created WALS database for a range of different word order features. Beyond reproducing the categorical data in WALS and extending it to hundreds of other languages, we also provide quantitative data for therelative frequencies of different word orders, and show the usefulness of this for language comparison. Our method has applications for basic research in linguistic typology, as well as for NLP tasks like transfer learning for dependency parsing, which has been shown to benefit from word order information.

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    Word order typology through multilingual word alignment
  • 1836.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    SU-RUG at the CoNLL-SIGMORPHON 2017 shared task: Morphological inflection with attentional sequence-to-sequence models2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the CoNLL SIGMORPHON 2017 Shared Task: Universal Morphological Reinflection / [ed] Mans Hulden, Vancouver, Canada: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017, s. 110-113Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the Stockholm University/University of Groningen (SU-RUG) system for the SIGMORPHON 2017 shared task on morphological inflection. Our system is based on an attentional sequence-to-sequence neural network model using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) cells, with joint training of morphological inflection and the inverse transformation, i.e. lemmatization and morphological analysis. Our system outperforms the baseline with a large margin, and our submission ranks as the 4th best team for the track we participate in (task 1, high resource).

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    fulltext
  • 1837.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Enriching the Swedish Sign Language Corpus with Part of Speech Tags Using Joint Bayesian Word Alignment and Annotation Transfer2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics: NODALIDA 2015, May 11-13, 2015, Vilnius, Lithuania / [ed] Beáta Megyesi, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, s. 263-268Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used a novel Bayesian model of joint word alignment and part of speech (PoS) annotation transfer to enrich the Swedish Sign Language Corpus with PoS tags. The annotations were then hand-corrected in order to both improve annotation quality for the corpus, and allow the empirical evaluation presented herein.

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    Enriching the Swedish Sign Language Corpus with Part of Speech Tags Using Joint Bayesian Word Alignment and Annotation Transfer
  • 1838.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Grigonyte, Gintare
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Transparent text quality assessment with convolutional neural networks2017Ingår i: The Twelfth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications: Proceedings of the Workshop, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017, s. 282-286Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a very simple model for text quality assessment based on a deep convolutional neural network, where the only supervision required is one corpus of user-generated text of varying quality, and one contrasting text corpus of consistently high quality. Our model is able to provide local quality assessments in different parts of a text, which allows visual feedback about where potentially problematic parts of the text are located, as well as a way to evaluate which textual features are captured by our model. We evaluate our method on two corpora: a large corpus of manually graded student essays and a longitudinal corpus of language learner written production, and find that the text quality metric learned by our model is a fairly strong predictor of both essay grade and learner proficiency level.

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    fulltext
  • 1839.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Scherrer, Yves
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    Tang, Gongbo
    Nieminen, Tommi
    The Helsinki Neural Machine Translation System2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the Conference on Machine Translation (WMT): Shared Task Papers, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017, Vol. 2, s. 338-347Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the Helsinki Neural Machine Translation system (HNMT) and how it is applied in the news translation task at WMT 2017, where it ranked first in both the human and automatic evaluations for English–Finnish. We discuss the successof English–Finnish translations and the overall advantage of NMT over a strong SMT baseline. We also discuss our sub-missions for English–Latvian, English–Chinese and Chinese–English.

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    fulltext
  • 1840.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Smolentzov, André
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Tyrefors Hinnerich, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Höglin, Erik
    Automated Essay Scoring for Swedish2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2013, s. 42-47Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first system developed for automated grading of high school essays written in Swedish. The system uses standard text quality indicators and is able to compare vocabulary and grammar to large reference corpora of blog posts and newspaper articles. The system is evaluated on a corpus of 1 702 essays, each graded independently by the student’s own teacher and also in a blind re-grading process by another teacher. We show that our system’s performance is fair, given the low agreementbetween the two human graders, and furthermore show how it could improve efficiency in a practical setting where one seeks to identify incorrectly graded essays.

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    W13-1705.pdf
  • 1841.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    Continuous multilinguality with language vectors2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Short Papers / [ed] Mirella Lapata, Phil Blunsom, Alexander Koller, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017, Vol. 2, s. 644-649Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most existing models for multilingual natural language processing (NLP) treat language as a discrete category, and make predictions for either one language or the other. In contrast, we propose using continuous vector representations of language. We show that these can be learned efficiently with a character-based neural language model, and used to improve inference about language varieties not seen during training. In experiments with 1303 Bible translations into 990 different languages, we empirically explore the capacity of multilingual language models, and also show that the language vectors capture genetic relationships between languages.

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    fulltext
  • 1842.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Efficient word alignment with Markov Chain Monte Carlo2016Ingår i: Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics, ISSN 0032-6585, E-ISSN 1804-0462, nr 106, s. 125-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present efmaral, a new system for efficient and accurate word alignment using a Bayesian model with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inference. Through careful selection of data structures and model architecture we are able to surpass the fast_align system, commonly used for performance-critical word alignment, both in computational efficiency and alignment accuracy. Our evaluation shows that a phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) system produces translations of higher quality when using word alignments from efmaral than from fast_align, and that translation quality is on par with what is obtained using giza++, a tool requiring orders of magnitude more processing time. More generally we hope to convince the reader that Monte Carlo sampling, rather than being viewed as a slow method of last resort, should actually be the method of choice for the SMT practitioner and others interested in word alignment.

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    fulltext
  • 1843.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Compounding in a Swedish Blog Corpus2013Ingår i: Computer mediated discourse across languages / [ed] Laura Álvarez López, Charlotta Seiler Brylla & Philip Shaw, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, s. 45-63Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Compounding in a Swedish Blog Corpus
  • 1844.
    Šoštarić, Margita
    et al.
    University of Zagreb.
    Hardmeier, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Stymne, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Discourse-Related Language Contrasts in English-Croatian Human and Machine Translation2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Research Papers, 2018, s. 36-48Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of a number of coreference phenomena in English-Croatian human and machine translations. The aim is to shed light on the differences in the way these structurally different languages make use of discourse information and provide insights for discourse-aware machine translation system development. The phenomena are automatically identified in parallel data using annotation produced by parsers and word alignment tools, enabling us to pinpoint patterns of interest in both languages. We make the analysis more fine-grained by including three corpora pertaining to three different registers. In a second step, we create a test set with the challenging linguistic constructions and use it to evaluate the performance of three MT systems. We show that both SMT and NMT systems struggle with handling these discourse phenomena, even though NMT tends to perform somewhat better than SMT. By providing an overview of patterns frequently occurring in actual language use, as well as by pointing out the weaknesses of current MT systems that commonly mistranslate them, we hope to contribute to the effort of resolving the issue of discourse phenomena in MT applications.

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    fulltext
  • 1845. Montemagni, Simonetta (Redaktör)
    Nivre, Joakim (Redaktör)
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependency Linguistics (Depling 2017)2017Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 1846. de Marneffe, Marie-Catherine (Redaktör)
    Nivre, Joakim (Redaktör)
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi.
    Schuster, Sebastian (Redaktör)
    Proceedings of the NoDaLiDa 2017 Workshop on Universal Dependencies (UDW 2017)2017Bok (Refereegranskat)
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