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  • 1751.
    Wikström, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Department of Rheumatology, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Nilsson, Käth
    Department of Rheumatology, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden.
    Roos, Ewa
    Department of Orthopaedics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart
    Department of Rheumatology, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden.
    Reliability, validity and responsiveness of a new leisure index: The Patient-Specific Leisure Scale (PSLS)2009Inngår i: Musculoskeletal Care, ISSN 1557-0681, Vol. 7, nr 3, 178-193 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:

    To investigate the reliability, validity and responsiveness of a new Patient-Specific Leisure Scale (PSLS), constructed to identify goals and outcomes for individual patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

    Methods:

    Forty-nine patients with RA were used to evaluate test-retest reliability, and 100 consecutive RA patients were used for construct validity. Twenty-five RA patients, commencing with treatment on tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, were evaluated before the start and after three months of therapy, to test responsiveness. The most important leisure activity (as judged by the patients) was used when evaluating reliability and validity. The perceived difficulty with each activity was scored from 0 to 10 (0 = able to perform activity without difficulty, 10 = unable to perform activity).

    Results:

    Test-retest reliability indicated a good agreement (0.62-0.87) using weighted kappa. Construct validity was demonstrated by modest positive correlation between leisure activity and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) (rs = 0.27, p = 0.005) visual analogue scale (VAS) pain (rs = 0.28, p = 0.004) VAS global (rs = 0.22, p = 0.027), VAS fatigue (rs = 0.24, p = 0.013), joint index of 28 swollen joints (rs = 0.22, p = 0.027) and negative correlations with short-form-36 (SF-36) physical functioning (rs = -0.18, p = 0.008), bodily pain (rs = -0.31, p < 0.001), general health (rs = -0.23, p = 0.019), vitality (rs = -0.31, p < 0.001), social function (rs = -0.24, p = 0.016) and role-emotional (rs = -0.28, p = 0.005). Mean improvement for the most important leisure activity was 1.36, (p = 0.036, 95% confidence interval 0.10-2.62). Standardized response mean and effect size for the most important activity in PSLS was 1.05 and 0.72, respectively, and for HAQ 0.34 and 0.28, respectively.

    Conclusions:

    PSLS appears to be feasible, reliable, valid and responsive for measuring leisure activities in RA. It provides both an individual result which is useful in clinical work, and results at a group level.

  • 1752.
    Wikström, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Department of Rheumatology, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lennart
    Department of Rheumatology, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Barbro
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    How people with rheumatoid arthritis perceive leisure activities: A qualitative study2005Inngår i: Musculoskeletal Care, ISSN 1557-0681, Vol. 3, nr 2, 74-84 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) perceive leisure activities. METHOD: A phenomenographic approach using semi-structured interviews to explore the impact of RA on leisure pursuits was used. RESULTS: Three descriptive categories containing 11 conceptions emerged: (1) Experiencing constraints included four conceptions: seeing limitations, needing time, finding balance, being dependent. (2) Experiencing coherence included four conceptions: accepting feelings participating in a social context, being active, having insight. (3) Finding solutions included three conceptions: choosing, planning, and adapting. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes the limited choices and problems people with RA had participating in leisure activities, as well as its impact on self-esteem.

  • 1753.
    Wilder-Smith, Annelies
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Renhorn, Karl-Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Tissera, Hasitha
    Abu Bakar, Sazaly
    Alphey, Luke
    Kittayapong, Pattamaporn
    Lindsay, Steve
    Logan, James
    Hatz, Christoph
    Reiter, Paul
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Louis, Valerie R.
    Tozan, Yesim
    Massad, Eduardo
    Tenorio, Antonio
    Lagneau, Christophe
    L'Ambert, Gregory
    Brooks, David
    Wegerdt, Johannah
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Gubler, Duane
    DengueTools: innovative tools and strategies for the surveillance and control of dengue2012Inngår i: Global health action, ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 5, 17273- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease estimated to cause about 230 million infections worldwide every year, of which 25,000 are fatal. Global incidence has risen rapidly in recent decades with some 3.6 billion people, over half of the world's population, now at risk, mainly in urban centres of the tropics and subtropics. Demographic and societal changes, in particular urbanization, globalization, and increased international travel, are major contributors to the rise in incidence and geographic expansion of dengue infections. Major research gaps continue to hamper the control of dengue. The European Commission launched a call under the 7th Framework Programme with the title of 'Comprehensive control of Dengue fever under changing climatic conditions'. Fourteen partners from several countries in Europe, Asia, and South America formed a consortium named 'DengueTools' to respond to the call to achieve better diagnosis, surveillance, prevention, and predictive models and improve our understanding of the spread of dengue to previously uninfected regions (including Europe) in the context of globalization and climate change. The consortium comprises 12 work packages to address a set of research questions in three areas: Research area 1: Develop a comprehensive early warning and surveillance system that has predictive capability for epidemic dengue and benefits from novel tools for laboratory diagnosis and vector monitoring. Research area 2: Develop novel strategies to prevent dengue in children. Research area 3: Understand and predict the risk of global spread of dengue, in particular the risk of introduction and establishment in Europe, within the context of parameters of vectorial capacity, global mobility, and climate change. In this paper, we report on the rationale and specific study objectives of 'DengueTools'. DengueTools is funded under the Health theme of the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Community, Grant Agreement Number: 282589 Dengue Tools.

  • 1754.
    Wilén, Jonna
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Amanda
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kalezic, Nebojsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sandström, Monica
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Psychophysiological tests and provocation of subjects with mobile phone related symptoms2006Inngår i: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 27, nr 3, 204-214 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a mobile phone-like radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field on persons experiencing subjective symptoms when using mobile phones (MP). Twenty subjects with MP-related symptoms were recruited and matched with 20 controls without MP-related symptoms. Each subject participated in two experimental sessions, one with true exposure and one with sham exposure, in random order. In the true exposure condition, the test subjects were exposed for 30 min to an RF field generating a maximum SAR(1g) in the head of 1 W/kg through an indoor base station antenna attached to a 900 MHz GSM MP. The following physiological and cognitive parameters were measured during the experiment: heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV), respiration, local blood flow, electrodermal activity, critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), short-term memory, and reaction time. No significant differences related to RF exposure conditions were detected. Also no differences in baseline data were found between subject groups, except for the reaction time, which was significantly longer among the cases than among the controls the first time the test was performed. This difference disappeared when the test was repeated. However, the cases differed significantly from the controls with respect to HRV as measured in the frequency domain. The cases displayed a shift in low/high frequency ratio towards a sympathetic dominance in the autonomous nervous system during the CFFT and memory tests, regardless of exposure condition. This might be interpreted as a sign of differences in the autonomous nervous system regulation between persons with MP related subjective symptoms and persons with no such symptoms.

  • 1755.
    Winkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Kariologi.
    More distinct food intake patterns among women than men in northern Sweden: a population-based survey2009Inngår i: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, Nutrition journal, Vol. 8, nr 1, 1-9 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The need to promote a healthy diet to curb the current obesity epidemic has today been recognized by most countries. A prerequisite for planning and evaluating interventions on dietary intake is the existence of valid information on long-term average dietary intake in a population. Few large, population-based studies of dietary intake have been carried out in Sweden. The largest to date is the Vasterbotten Intervention Program (VIP), which was initiated in 1985, with data collection still ongoing. This paper reports on the first comprehensive analyses of the dietary data and presents dietary intake patterns among over 60,000 women and men in northern Sweden during 1992-2005. METHODS: Between 1992 and 2005, 71,367 inhabitants in Vasterbotten county aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years visited their local health care center as part of the VIP. Participants of VIP filled in an 84- or 64-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and provided sociodemographic information. Complete and realistic information on consumption frequency was provided by 62,531 individuals. Food intake patterns were analyzed using K-means cluster analyses. RESULTS: The mean daily energy intake was 6,83 (+/-1,77) MJ among women and 8,71 (+/- 2,26) MJ among men. More than half of both women and men were classified as Low Energy Reporters (defined as individuals reporting a food intake level below the lower 95% confidence interval limit of the physical activity level). Larger variation in frequency of daily intake was seen among women than among men for most food groups. Among women, four dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", "Coffee and sandwich", and "Tea and ice cream". Among men, three dietary clusters were identified, labeled "Fruit and vegetables", "High fat", and "Tea, soda and cookies". CONCLUSION: More distinct food intake patterns were seen among women than men in this study in northern Sweden. Due to large proportions of Low Energy Reporters, our results on dietary intake may not be suitable for comparisons with recommended intake levels. However, the results on food intake patterns should still be valid and useful as a basis for targeting interventions to groups most in need.

  • 1756. Winzer, Regina
    et al.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Sorjonen, Kimmo
    Lindberg, Lene
    Positive versus negative mental health in emerging adulthood: a national cross-sectional survey2014Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, 1238- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The dual continuum model suggests that positive mental health not only implies the absence of mental illness, but also constitutes an entity of its own. Measures that encompass both positive and negative mental health in young adults are rare. Thus, we assessed whether dimensions corresponding to positive and negative mental health could be identified in a sample of young individuals. Additionally, we explored how such dimensions were associated with potential health-related factors. Methods: We obtained data from the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2004-2009 (23,394 women, 18,274 men, aged 16-29 years). We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to identify relevant factors revealed by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to verify the factor structure. We tested the significance of the difference between effects of potential health-related factors on positive mental health (PMH) and negative mental health (NMH). Results: The EFA for the GHQ-12 revealed a two factor model with negative items that had high positive loadings on one factor and lower negative loadings on the other factor. The positive items had loading trends that were opposite those of the negative items. The fit of this model was supported by the CFA, which yielded a significantly better match than a unidimensional model. When we investigated the associations between GHQ-scores and potential predictors of health, we found that most potential predictors had significant and opposing effects on both PMH and NMH; with the strongest effects from suicidal ideation and perceived humiliation. Conclusions: Our results could be seen to indicate that positive and negative mental health are distinct and complementary constructs. Still, the results of our factor analysis may specifically reflect the wording of the items. We conclude that the GHQ-12 is an appropriate tool for its original purpose, to detect "psychiatric morbidity". More refined measures, including predictors of health, are needed to assess PMH and validate the bidimensionality hypothesis.

  • 1757.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Childhood General Mental Ability and Midlife Psychosocial Work Characteristics as Related to Mental Distress, Neck/Shoulder Pain and Self-rated Health in Working Women and Men2011Inngår i: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, Vol. 53, nr 6, 439-446 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood General Mental Ability and Midlife Psychosocial Work Characteristics as Related to Mental Distress, Neck/Shoulder Pain and Self-rated Health in Working Women and Men: Cornelia WULFF, et al. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden Psychosocial work characteristics including high demands, lack of control and poor social support have consistently been linked to poor health as has poor general mental ability (GMA). However, less is known about the relationships between stable individual factors such as GMA, psychosocial work characteristics and health. Objective: The present study investigated how childhood mental ability and psychosocial work characteristics relate to health in terms of mental distress, neck/shoulder pain (NSP) and self-rated health (SRH). Methods: Data on childhood GMA, occupational level, self-reports of demands, control and social support and health (mental distress, NSP and SRH) in midlife came from working women (n=271) and men (n=291) included in a Swedish school cohort. Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for occupational level, were used to examine associations between childhood GMA, self-reports of high demands, low control and poor social support and the three health indicators. Taking into consideration the gendered labor market and variations in health patterns between women and men, gender specific analyses were performed. Results: There were no significant associations between childhood GMA and health indicators. Further, there were no significant interactions between GMA and psychosocial work factors. As regards the strength of the associations between GMA, psychosocial work factors and health, no consistent differences emerged between women and men. Conclusions: In a cohort of healthy and working middle-aged women and men, self-reports of current psychosocial work characteristics seem to be more strongly linked to health, than are stable childhood factors such as GMA.

  • 1758.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Childhood General Mental Ability and Midlife Psychosocial Work Characteristics as Related to Mental Distress, Neck/Shoulder Pain and Self-rated Health in Working Women and Men2011Inngår i: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 53, nr 6, 439-446 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood General Mental Ability and Midlife Psychosocial Work Characteristics as Related to Mental Distress, Neck/Shoulder Pain and Self-rated Health in Working Women and Men: Cornelia WULFF, et al. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden Psychosocial work characteristics including high demands, lack of control and poor social support have consistently been linked to poor health as has poor general mental ability (GMA). However, less is known about the relationships between stable individual factors such as GMA, psychosocial work characteristics and health. Objective: The present study investigated how childhood mental ability and psychosocial work characteristics relate to health in terms of mental distress, neck/shoulder pain (NSP) and self-rated health (SRH). Methods: Data on childhood GMA, occupational level, self-reports of demands, control and social support and health (mental distress, NSP and SRH) in midlife came from working women (n=271) and men (n=291) included in a Swedish school cohort. Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for occupational level, were used to examine associations between childhood GMA, self-reports of high demands, low control and poor social support and the three health indicators. Taking into consideration the gendered labor market and variations in health patterns between women and men, gender specific analyses were performed. Results: There were no significant associations between childhood GMA and health indicators. Further, there were no significant interactions between GMA and psychosocial work factors. As regards the strength of the associations between GMA, psychosocial work factors and health, no consistent differences emerged between women and men. Conclusions: In a cohort of healthy and working middle-aged women and men, self-reports of current psychosocial work characteristics seem to be more strongly linked to health, than are stable childhood factors such as GMA.

  • 1759.
    Wåhlén, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Fornander, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Olausson, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Ydreborg, Kjell
    Clinic of Otorhinolaryngology, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Flodin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Graff, Pål
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Protein profiles of nasal lavage fluid from individuals with work-related upper airway symptoms associated to moldy and damp buildings2016Inngår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 26, nr 5, 743-754 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Upper airway irritation is common among individuals working in moldy and damp buildings. The aim was to investigate effects on the protein composition of the nasal lining fluid. The prevalence of symptoms in relation to work was examined in 37 individuals working in two damp buildings. Microbial growth was confirmed in one of the buildings. Nasal lavage fluid was collected from 29 exposed subjects and 13 controls. Protein profiles were investigated with a proteomic approach and evaluated by multivariate statistical models. Subjects from both workplaces reported upper airway and ocular symptoms. Based on protein profiles, symptomatic subjects in the two workplaces were discriminated from each other and separated from healthy controls. The groups differed in proteins involved in inflammation and host defense. Measurements of innate immunity proteins showed a significant increa e of protein S100-A8 and decrease of SPLUNC1 in subjects from one workplace while alpha-1-antitrypsin was elevated in subjects from the other workplace, compared to healthy controls. The results show that protein profiles in nasal lavage fluid can be used to monitor airway mucosal effects in personnel working in damp buildings and indicate that the profile may be separate when the dampness is associated with the presence of molds.

  • 1760.
    Xu, Tao
    et al.
    National Center for Women and Children’s Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
    Gong, Limin
    National Center for Women and Children’s Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Huishan
    National Center for Women and Children’s Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Rui
    Beijing Chaoyang Maternal and Child Health Care Center, Chaoyang District, Panjiayuan, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Xiaoying
    National Center for Women and Children’s Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
    Kaime-Atterhög, Wanjiku
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Epidemiology of Unintentional Injuries Among Children Under Six Years Old in Floating and Residential Population in Four Communities in Beijing: A Comparative Study2014Inngår i: Maternal and Child Health Journal, ISSN 1092-7875, E-ISSN 1573-6628, Vol. 18, nr 4, 911-919 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore and compare the epidemiological characteristics of non-fatal unintentional injury among children in floating and residential population. Using a structured survey, quantitative data were collected on a total of 352 floating and 201 residential families. Some potential influencing factors were questioned, such as socio-demographic characteristics, injury-related family environment, knowledge, attitude and behavior, and child's character. The self-reported incidence of non-fatal unintentional injuries was 11.9 % in the floating group and 12.9 % in the residential group. Unintentional injuries were more serious and caused more disease burden in floating children than residential children, with the average medical cost being over ten times in the floating group than in the residential group. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that children living in floating families have more risk of unintentional injuries than those children in residential families. Older children and children with extroverted character were more vulnerable to unintentional injuries. Risky family environment was also an important risk factor of unintentional injuries. Better household economic status and having more siblings appeared to reduce the probability of unintentional injuries among children. Floating children are more vulnerable to unintentional injuries comparing with residential children. These findings can be used as preliminary data supporting intervention strategies and activities to promote safe living environment and decrease injury incidence among floating children.

  • 1761. Yamamoto, Shelby
    et al.
    Sie, Ali
    Sauerborn, Rainer
    Institute of Public Health, University of Heidelberg .
    Cooking fuels and the push for cleaner alternatives: a case study from Burkina Faso2009Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 2, 156-164 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: More than 95% of the population in Burkina Faso uses some form of solid biomass fuel. When these fuels are burned in traditional, inefficient stoves, pollutant levels within and outside the home can be very high. This can have important consequences for both health and climate change. Thus, the push to switch to cleaner burning fuels is advantageous. However, there are several considerations that need to be taken into account when considering the use and promotion of different fuel types.

    Objective: In the setting of the semi-urban area of Nouna, Burkina Faso, we examine the common fuel types used (wood, charcoal and liquid petroleum gas (LPG)) in terms of consumption, energy, availability, air pollution and climate change.

    Results and conclusion: Although biomass solid fuel does offer some advantages over LPG, the disadvantages make this option much less desirable. Lower energy efficiencies, higher pollutant emission levels, the associated health consequences and climate change effects favour the choice of LPG over solid biomass fuel use. Further studies specific to Burkina Faso, which are lacking in this region, should also be undertaken in this area to better inform policy decisions.

  • 1762.
    Yang, Lei
    et al.
    School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, PR China.
    Zhang, Jianping
    School of Clinical Medicine, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, PR China.
    Zhao, Guanghui
    Hong Hui Hospital, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, PR China.
    Wu, Cuiyan
    School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, PR China.
    Ning, Yujie
    School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, PR China.
    Guo, Xiong
    School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, PR China.
    Wang, Xi
    School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, PR China.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, PR China.
    Gene expression profiles and molecular mechanism of cultured human chondrocytes' exposure to T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol.2017Inngår i: Toxicon, ISSN 0041-0101, E-ISSN 1879-3150, S0041-0101(17)30203-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) are secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi and are commonly found on food and feed. Although T-2 toxin and DON have been suggested as the etiology of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteochondropathy, little is known about the mechanism when human chondrocytes are exposed to T-2 toxin and DON. The purpose of this study is to identify the gene expression differences and underlying molecular changes modulated by T-2 toxin and DON in vitro in human chondrocytes. After the experiments of cell viability, the gene expression profiles were analyzed in cells that were treated with 0.01 μg/ml T-2 toxin and 1.0 μg/ml DON for 72 h by Affymetrix Human Gene Chip. The array results showed that 882 and 2118 genes were differentially expressed for T-2 toxin and DON exposure, respectively. Enrichment analysis revealed that diverse cellular processes including DNA damage, cell cycle regulation and metabolism of extracellular matrix were affected when human chondrocytes were exposed to T-2 toxin and DON. These results demonstrate the gene expression differences and molecular mechanism of cultured human chondrocytes exposure to T-2 toxin and DON, and provide a new insight into future research in the etiology of KBD.

  • 1763.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci Novum, Unit Prevent Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Univ Ghent, Dept Movement & Sport Sci, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Wolf, Alexandra
    Austrian Agcy Hlth & Food Safety, Vienna, Austria.
    Grjibovski, Andrej
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci Novum, Unit Prevent Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden; Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol, Oslo, Norway.
    Brug, Johannes
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Due, Pernille
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Social Med, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ehrenblad, Bettina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci Novum, Unit Prevent Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmadfa, Ibrahim
    Univ Vienna, Inst Nutr Sci, A-1010 Vienna, Austria.
    Franchini, Bela
    Univ Porto, Fac Nutr & Food Sci, Oporto, Portugal.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Univ Oslo, Dept Nutr, Fac Med, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci Novum, Unit Prevent Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rasmussen, Mette
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Social Med, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Landspitali Univ Hosp, Unit Nutr Res, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Perez Rodrigo, Carmen
    Community Nutr Unit, Bilbao, Spain.
    Differences in prevalence of overweight and stunting in 11-year olds across Europe: The Pro Children Study2008Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 18, nr 2, 126-130 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Parents reported height and weight of the children, and BMI values were analysed using the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and the International Obesity Task Force reference populations. Continuous variables were compared with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Games-Howell post hoc tests. Categorical variables were analysed using chi-square tests.Results: The prevalence of overweight + obesity varied between the countries from 8.6% to 30.6% and 5.9% to 26.5%, respectively, depending on the reference population, with the lowest prevalence in Dutch girls, the highest in Portuguese boys. Obesity prevalence varied from 1.1% (Dutch and Danish girls) to 10.7% (Portuguese boys) and from 0.3% (Dutch girls) to 6.2% (Portuguese boys), respectively. Portugal and Spain had the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity for both genders. The ranking of the countries according to overweight and obesity prevalence was roughly the same, independent of reference population. The prevalence of underweight varied from 2.3% (Swedish boys) to 12.3% (Belgian boys), using the American reference population. The proportion of stunted children was highest in Portugal, Spain and Belgium.Conclusions: The highest levels of overweight, obesity and stunting in the pro children material are found in Portugal and Spain.

  • 1764.
    Yngve, Agneta
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci Novum, Unit Prevent Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Univ Ghent, Dept Movement & Sport Sci, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Wolf, Alexandra
    Austrian Agcy Hlth & Food Safety, Vienna, Austria.
    Grjibovski, Andrej
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci Novum, Unit Prevent Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden; Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol, Oslo, Norway.
    Brug, Johannes
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Due, Pernille
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Social Med, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ehrenblad, Bettina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci Novum, Unit Prevent Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmadfa, Ibrahim
    Univ Vienna, Inst Nutr Sci, A-1010 Vienna, Austria.
    Franchini, Bela
    Univ Porto, Fac Nutr & Food Sci, Oporto, Portugal.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Univ Oslo, Dept Nutr, Fac Med, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci Novum, Unit Prevent Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rasmussen, Mette
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Social Med, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Landspitali Univ Hosp, Unit Nutr Res, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Perez Rodrigo, Carmen
    Community Nutr Unit, Bilbao, Spain.
    Differences in prevalence of overweight and stunting in 11-year olds across Europe: The Pro Children Study2008Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 18, nr 2, 126-130 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Parents reported height and weight of the children, and BMI values were analysed using the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and the International Obesity Task Force reference populations. Continuous variables were compared with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Games-Howell post hoc tests. Categorical variables were analysed using chi-square tests.Results: The prevalence of overweight + obesity varied between the countries from 8.6% to 30.6% and 5.9% to 26.5%, respectively, depending on the reference population, with the lowest prevalence in Dutch girls, the highest in Portuguese boys. Obesity prevalence varied from 1.1% (Dutch and Danish girls) to 10.7% (Portuguese boys) and from 0.3% (Dutch girls) to 6.2% (Portuguese boys), respectively. Portugal and Spain had the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity for both genders. The ranking of the countries according to overweight and obesity prevalence was roughly the same, independent of reference population. The prevalence of underweight varied from 2.3% (Swedish boys) to 12.3% (Belgian boys), using the American reference population. The proportion of stunted children was highest in Portugal, Spain and Belgium.Conclusions: The highest levels of overweight, obesity and stunting in the pro children material are found in Portugal and Spain.

  • 1765.
    Yu, Zhaohua
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Persson, Rolf
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Öhgren, Johan
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Sandberg, Stig
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Hörberg, Ulf
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Berglund, Folke
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Karlsson, Kjell
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Steinvall, Ove
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Söderberg, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Green light laser exposure at 532nm near the exposure limit during a human volunteer vehicle driving task does not alter structure or function in the visual system2014Inngår i: Journal of laser applications, ISSN 1042-346X, Vol. 26, nr 2, 022009-1-022009-7 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to verify nonexistence of clinically important pathological effects to the visual system after exposure to 532 nm green laser light close to the exposure limit. The present medical surveillance of vision and visual health reported in this paper is the conjunction with a study of driver performance in the presence of 532 nm laser induced glare. The driving time varied between 25 and 55 s, depending on background luminance. The laser was on during the complete test drive. The peak corneal irradiance typically was 3.5Wm2 in one test drive. Considering a typical test drive, the typical time integrated corneal radiant exposure for one test drive was estimated to be 53 J/m2. The number of test drives varied among drivers but was typically 50, thus resulting in a cumulative corneal exposure dose of approximately 2.7 kJ/m2. Altogether, ten subjects were recruited according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. All ten subjects were examined for visual acuity, intraocular pressure, contrast sensitivity, color vision, monocular reading speed, and eye structure with clinical slit-lamp microscopy examination and indirect retinoscopy. All subjects were examined before exposure, immediately after exposure, and finally within an interval between 1 week and 4 weeks after exposure. There was no significant change of visual acuity, intraocular pressure, contrast sensitivity, color vision, or monocular reading speed between before and after exposure. No abnormal ocular structure was detected after exposure. This study demonstrates that close to exposure limit, exposure to 532 nm green laser light during a vehicle driving task does not induce structural or functional damage to the human visual system as observed in the interval minutes to weeks after exposure.

  • 1766.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordh, E
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Umeå University Hospital, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Per Olof
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Impaired positioning of the gape in whiplash-associated disorders2006Inngår i: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 30, nr 1, 9-15 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously introduced anew concept for natural jaw function suggesting that "functional jaw movements" are the result of coordinated jaw and neck muscle activation, leading to simultaneous movements in the temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital and cervical spine joints. Thus, jaw function requires a healthy state of both the jaw and the neck motor systems. The aim of this study was to examine the positioning of the gape in space during maximal jaw opening at fast and slow speed in healthy as well as whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) individuals. A wireless optoelectronic technique for three-dimensional movement recording was used. Subjects were seated in an upright position,with back support up to the mid-scapular level without headrest. The position of the gape in space was defined as the vertical midpoint position of the gape at maximal jaw opening (MP). In healthy, the MP generally coincided with the reference position at the start of jaw opening. In the WAD group, the MID was significantly lower than the reference position. No sex or speed related differences were found. The results suggest that both the width and orientation of the gape in space relies on coordinated jaw and neck muscle activation and mandibular and head-neck movements. This study also suggests an association between neck pain and dysfunction following trauma, and reduced width and impaired positioning of the gape in space. Finally, the MP seems to be a useful marker in evaluation of the functional state of the jaw-neck motor system.

  • 1767.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Uppsala universitet, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    The impact of visually demanding near work on neck/shoulder discomfort and trapezius muscle activity: Laboratory studies2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Musculoskeletal discomfort in the neck and shoulders is common among workers performing visually demanding near work, e.g., on a computer screen, and sustained low-level muscle activity during such work can lead to work-related pain. The relationships between visual demands and muscle activity and discomfort in the neck/shoulder region are at present unclear. Aim: The aims of this thesis were to determine whether neck/shoulder discomfort and trapezius muscle activity increases during visually demanding experimental near work, and to investigate whether eye-lens accommodation is a mediating mechanism behind increased trapezius muscle activity. Methods: The four papers included are based on two experiments with different visually demanding near work tasks (duration 5 and 7 min). Trial lenses of different diopters were used to manipulate the visual demands (i.e., induce more or less accommodation) and thereby create different viewing conditions. Monocular viewing, which does not require active convergence, was used to examine the isolated effect of accommodation. Eye-lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity were measured continuously during the visual tasks, and in one experiment the participants rated their eye and neck/shoulder discomfort at baseline and after each visual task. Results: Neck/shoulder discomfort and trapezius muscle activity increased during the visually demanding near work and participants experiencing a greater increase in eye discomfort (compared with baseline) also developed more neck/shoulder discomfort with time. There were no significant differences in muscle activity among the viewing conditions, and no effect of isolated accommodation response within the monocular viewing conditions. Conclusion: These findings indicate that accommodation per se is unlikely to mediate trapezius muscle activity. Instead, the increase in trapezius muscle activity observed here may be due to a combination of high visual attention and enhanced requirement for eye-neck (head) stabilisation. Since these results suggest that neck/shoulder discomfort may aggravate with time when the visual demands are high, it is important to provide good visual conditions in connection with visually demanding occupations.

  • 1768.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin. Högskolan i Gävle, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. University of Gävle, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research..
    The impact of visually demanding near work on neck/shoulder discomfort and trapezius muscle activity: Laboratory studies2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Musculoskeletal discomfort in the neck and shoulders is common among workers performing visually demanding near work, e.g., on a computer screen, and sustained low-level muscle activity during such work can lead to work-related pain. The relationships between visual demands and muscle activity and discomfort in the neck/shoulder region are at present unclear. Aim: The aims of this thesis were to determine whether neck/shoulder discomfort and trapezius muscle activity increases during visually demanding experimental near work, and to investigate whether eye-lens accommodation is a mediating mechanism behind increased trapezius muscle activity. Methods: The four papers included are based on two experiments with different visually demanding near work tasks (duration 5 and 7 min). Trial lenses of different diopters were used to manipulate the visual demands (i.e., induce more or less accommodation) and thereby create different viewing conditions. Monocular viewing, which does not require active convergence, was used to examine the isolated effect of accommodation. Eye-lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity were measured continuously during the visual tasks, and in one experiment the participants rated their eye and neck/shoulder discomfort at baseline and after each visual task. Results: Neck/shoulder discomfort and trapezius muscle activity increased during the visually demanding near work and participants experiencing a greater increase in eye discomfort (compared with baseline) also developed more neck/shoulder discomfort with time. There were no significant differences in muscle activity among the viewing conditions, and no effect of isolated accommodation response within the monocular viewing conditions. Conclusion: These findings indicate that accommodation per se is unlikely to mediate trapezius muscle activity. Instead, the increase in trapezius muscle activity observed here may be due to a combination of high visual attention and enhanced requirement for eye-neck (head) stabilisation. Since these results suggest that neck/shoulder discomfort may aggravate with time when the visual demands are high, it is important to provide good visual conditions in connection with visually demanding occupations.

  • 1769.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Effects of visually demanding near work on trapezius muscle activity2013Inngår i: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 23, nr 5, 1190-1198 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor visual ergonomics is associated with visual and neck/shoulder discomfort, but the relation between visual demands and neck/shoulder muscle activity is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate whether trapezius muscle activity was affected by: (i) eye-lens accommodation; (ii) incongruence between accommodation and convergence; and (iii) presence of neck/shoulder discomfort. Sixty-six participants (33 controls and 33 with neck pain) performed visually demanding near work under four different trial-lens conditions. Results showed that eye-lens accommodation per se did not affect trapezius muscle activity significantly. However, when incongruence between accommodation and convergence was present, a significant positive relationship between eye-lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity was found. There were no significant group-differences. It was concluded that incongruence between accommodation and convergence is an important factor in the relation between visually demanding near work and trapezius muscle activity. The relatively low demands on accommodation and convergence in the present study imply that visually demanding near work may contribute to increased muscle activity, and over time to the development of near work related neck/shoulder discomfort.

  • 1770.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Undermålig synergonomi kan påverka muskelaktivitet och nacksmärta2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och syfte:Det är väl dokumenterat att kroppen kompenserar undermåliga synergonomiska förhållanden med ogynnsamma arbetsställningar. Det är däremot inte klarlagt om ökad belastning av ögats muskler påverkar muskelaktivitet och smärta i nackens muskulatur. Syftet med studien var att experimentellt fastställa om ökad belastning på ögats fokuseringsmuskler vid simulerat bildskärmsarbete ger ökad aktivitet i m. trapezius och ökad upplevd nacksmärta.Metoder:Sextiosex forskningspersoner (20-47 år, 54 kvinnor, 12 män) utförde en synuppgift under tre olika randomiserade synförhållanden (binokulärt -3.5D, monokulärt -3.5D och ±0D). Uppgiften var att fokusera blicken på ett mönster på en bildskärm, placerad på 1.5 m avstånd, under 7 minuter. Förhållanden med -3.5D gjorde mönstret oskarpt och personen instruerades att viljemässigt fokusera bort oskärpan. Belastning på ögats fokuseringsmuskel mättes indirekt med en kamera (Plusoptix, Nürnberg, Tyskland). Muskelaktivitet i m. trapezius mättes med EMG. Före och efter experimentet skattade personen sin upplevda nacksmärta med Borgs CR10-skala. Under experimentet satt försökspersonen lätt tillbakalutad i en kontorsstol med nackstöd. Personerna instruerades att sitta bekvämt och avslappnat och att upprätthålla kontakt med nackstödet.Resultat:Resultatet visade att personer med en högre grad av fokusering i binokulärt förhållande (-3.5D), hade högre amplitud EMG i m. trapezius. De två monokulära förhållandena visade inget samband mellan grad av fokuserig och EMG amplitud. Detta tyder på ett positivt samband mellan ögats fokusering (ackommodation och konvergens) och aktivering i trapezius muskulaturen. Resultatet visar också att personer skattar högre nacksmärta efter experimentet jämfört med före. Konklusion:Vid simulerat bildskärmsarbete med undermåliga synförhållanden, kan förhöjd aktivitet i m. trapezius och ökad upplevd nacksmärta uppkomma efter kort tid, även om arbetsställningen är god.

  • 1771.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Uppsala universitet, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Richter, Hans O.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Neck/shoulder discomfort due to visually demanding near work is influenced by previous neck pain, task duration, astigmatism, eye discomfort and accommodation2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 8, e0182439Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Visually demanding near work can cause eye discomfort, and eye and neck/shoulder discomfort during, e.g., computer work are associated. Here, to investigate direct effects of experimental near work on eye and neck/shoulder discomfort, 33 individuals with chronic neck pain and 33 healthy control subjects performed four visual tasks, rating eye and neck/shoulder discomfort at baseline and after each task. The cumulative performance time (reflected in the temporal order of the tasks), astigmatism, concurrent eye discomfort, and extent of accommodation all aggravated neck/shoulder discomfort. There was an interaction effect between the temporal order and eye discomfort: participants with a greater mean increase in eye discomfort also developed more neck/shoulder discomfort with time. Since moderate musculoskeletal symptoms are a risk factor for more severe symptoms, it is important to ensure a good visual environment in occupations involving visually demanding near work.

  • 1772.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin. Högskolan i Gävle, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. University of Gävle, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research..
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet, Institutet för miljömedicin.
    Richter, Hans O
    Högskolan i Gävle, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. University of Gävle, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research..
    Neck/shoulder discomfort due to visually demanding near work is influenced by previous neck pain, task duration, astigmatism, eye discomfort and accommodation.Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Visually demanding near work can cause eye discomfort, and eye and neck/shoulder discomfort during, e.g., computer work are associated. Here, to investigate direct effects of experimental near work on eye and neck/shoulder discomfort, 33 individuals with chronic neck pain and 33 healthy control subjects performed four visual tasks, rating eye and neck/shoulder discomfort at baseline and after each task. The cumulative performance time (reflected in the temporal order of the tasks), astigmatism, concurrent eye discomfort, and extent of accommodation all aggravated neck/shoulder discomfort. There was an interaction effect between the temporal order and eye discomfort: participants with a greater mean increase in eye discomfort also developed more neck/shoulder discomfort with time. Since moderate musculoskeletal symptoms are a risk factor for more severe symptoms, it is important to ensure a good visual environment in occupations involving visually demanding near work.

  • 1773.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nylén, Per
    The Swedish Work Environment Authority, and The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lighting, visual ergonomics and health implications : A workshop2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim of the workshop:

    Deficient visual ergonomics is a problem across many occupations. Poor viewingand lighting conditions is associated with both visual and neck/shoulder discomfort,and can also impact productivity. According to the provision from the Swedish WorkEnvironment Authority on prevention of musculoskeletal disorders (AFS 2012:02), riskassessment of the visual conditions are mandatory. The aim of this workshop is toincrease knowledge about visual ergonomics among practitioners working with riskassessment, and to allow participants hands-on practice in assessing the visual environment.

    Format of the workshop:

    The first part of the workshop will involve a brief presentation of the subject visualergonomics and its implications on health and performance. The impact of progressiveglasses, too small or blurred font letters, or blurred vision on posture at e.g. computerwork will be demonstrated together with advice how to proceed to improve the conditions.The second part of the workshop will allow participants some hands-on practicein for example; how to measure light (luminance and illuminance); how different lightconditions impact pupil size and visual comfort; how to measure and quantify amountof flicker, light modulation and colour rendering in different light sources. Several usefulmobile phone applications concerning light and vision will be demonstrated.

  • 1774.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Lund University.
    Nylén, Per
    The Swedish Work Environment Authority, and The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Workshop in visual ergonomics2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased use of computers is common across many work sectors. Prolonged near work at a computer screen is associated with both visual discomfort and neck/shoulder discomfort and pain. Inadequate visual ergonomics at a computer workstation can also influence both visual and neck/shoulder discomfort. The new provision from the Swedish Work Environment Authority on prevention of musculoskeletal disorders includes risk assessment of occupational visual conditions. These assessments require practitioners to have knowledge of the topic, as well as experience with practical assessment tools.

    The first part of the workshop proposed here will involve a presentation of the theories underlying visual ergonomic practices and a discussion of the most important factors to assess at a computer workstation. These factors include contrast, font size, resolution, glare, reflexion, non-visual flicker, and edge sharpness. The second part of the workshop, will allow participants hands-on practice in measuring and evaluating visual ergonomics at a computer workstation.

  • 1775.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Temporal co-variation between eye lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity during a dynamic near-far visual task2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 5, e0126578Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Near work is associated with increased activity in the neck and shoulder muscles, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. This study was designed to determine whether a dynamic change in focus, alternating between a nearby and a more distant visual target, produces a direct parallel change in trapezius muscle activity. Fourteen healthy controls and 12 patients with a history of visual and neck/shoulder symptoms performed a Near-Far visual task under three different viewing conditions; one neutral condition with no trial lenses, one condition with negative trial lenses to create increased accommodation, and one condition with positive trial lenses to create decreased accommodation. Eye lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity were continuously recorded. The trapezius muscle activity was significantly higher during Near than during Far focusing periods for both groups within the neutral viewing condition, and there was a significant co-variation in time between accommodation and trapezius muscle activity within the neutral and positive viewing conditions for the control group. In conclusion, these results reveal a connection between Near focusing and increased muscle activity during dynamic changes in focus between a nearby and a far target. A direct link, from the accommodation/vergence system to the trapezius muscles cannot be ruled out, but the connection may also be explained by an increased need for eye-neck (head) stabilization when focusing on a nearby target as compared to a more distant target.

  • 1776.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin. University of Gävle, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Richter, Hans O.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Temporal Co-Variation between Eye Lens Accommodation and Trapezius Muscle Activity during a Dynamic Near-Far Visual Task2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 5, e0126578Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Near work is associated with increased activity in the neck and shoulder muscles, but the underlying mechanismis still unknown. This study was designed to determine whether a dynamic change in focus, alternating between a nearby and a more distant visual target, produces a direct parallel change in trapezius muscle activity. Fourteen healthy controls and 12 patients with a history of visual and neck/shoulder symptoms performed a Near-Far visual task under three different viewing conditions; one neutral condition with no trial lenses, one condition with negative trial lenses to create increased accommodation, and one condition with positive trial lenses to create decreased accommodation. Eye lens accommodation and trapeziusmuscle activity were continuously recorded. The trapezius muscle activity was significantly higher during Near than during Far focusing periods for both groups within the neutral viewing condition, and there was a significant co-variation in time between accommodation and trapezius muscle activity within the neutral and positive viewing conditions for the control group. In conclusion, these results reveal a connection between Near focusing and increased muscle activity during dynamic changes in focus between a nearby and a far target. A direct link, from the accommodation/vergence system to the trapezius muscles cannot be ruled out, but the connection may also be explained by an increased need for eye-neck (head) stabilization when focusing on a nearby target as compared to a more distant target.

  • 1777.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    et al.
    Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Örebro University Hospital.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olof
    Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Örebro University Hospital.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    The relationship between low vision and musculoskeletal complaints: A case control study between age-related macular degeneration patients and age-matched controls with normal vision2009Inngår i: Journal of Optometry, ISSN 1888-4296, Vol. 2, nr 3, 127-133 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) patients often describe complaints from neck and scapula area muscles and a decreased postural control. In clinical assessment, these complaints are considered to be due to old age. Purpose: This study focuses on low vision patients with AMD, compared to age matched controls, without eye disease, in order to evaluate if a linkage between self-rated visual and muskuloskeletal complaints are more prominent when low vision is present. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 24 AMD patients, aged 65-85 years, were compared to 24 controls of similar ages without visual problems. Visual acuity, the need for magnification plus other optical and visual data, were obtained. Visual, muskuloskeletal and balance/propriopceptive complaints were collected with a self-rating questionnaire. The Visual Functioning Questionnaire -Near Activities Subscale (VFQ-NAS) was used to evaluate visual function and related complaints. Results: The correlation coefficient between visual and musculoskeletal complaints yielded significant values when computed separately within each group as well as when calculated on the entire material (AMD ρ = 0.60, P = 0.002; control group ρ = 0.59, P = 0.004; both groups together ρ = 0.50 P < 0.001). Stepwise multiple regression analysis supported the hypothesized effect of vision (Visual complaints + Minimal readable typefaces) on musculoskeletal complaints, (R2 = 0.42, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results in this study support the hypothesis of a relationship between visual and muskuloskeletal problems.

  • 1778.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    et al.
    The Low Vision Centre, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden; University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans O.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Visual, Musculoskeletal, and Balance Complaints in AMD: A Follow-Up Study2016Inngår i: Journal of Ophthalmology, ISSN 2090-004X, E-ISSN 2090-0058, Vol. 2016, 2707102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To investigate whether patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) run a potentially higher risk of developing visual, musculoskeletal, and balance complaints than age-matched controls with normal vision. Methods. Visual assessments, self-rated visual function, self-rated visual, musculoskeletal, and balance complaints, and perceived general health were obtained in 37 AMD patients and 18 controls, at baseline and after an average of 3.8 years later. Results. At follow-up both groups reported decreased visual acuity (VA) and visual function, but only AMD patients reported significantly increased visual, musculoskeletal, and balance complaints. Decreased VA, need for larger font size when reading, need for larger magnification, and decreased self-rated visual function were identified as risk markers for increased complaints in AMD patients. These complaints were also identified as risk markers for decreased health. For controls, decreased VA and self-reported visual function were associated with increased visual and balance complaints. Conclusions. Visual deterioration was a risk marker for increased visual, musculoskeletal, balance, and health complaints in AMD patients. Specifically, magnifying visual aids, such as CCTV, were a risk marker for increased complaints in AMD patients. This calls for early and coordinated actions to treat and prevent visual, musculoskeletal, balance, and health complaints in AMD patients.

  • 1779. Zhang, Xin
    et al.
    Li, Fan
    Zhang, Li
    Zhao, Zhuohui
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    A Longitudinal Study of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) among Pupils in Relation to SO2, NO2, O-3 and PM10 in Schools in China2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 11, e112933- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are fewer longitudinal studies from China on symptoms as described for the sick building syndrome (SBS). Here, we performed a two-year prospective study and investigated associations between environmental parameters such as room temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O-3), particulate matter (PM10), and health outcomes including prevalence, incidence and remission of SBS symptoms in junior high schools in Taiyuan, China. Totally 2134 pupils participated at baseline, and 1325 stayed in the same classrooms during the study period (2010-2012). The prevalence of mucosal symptoms, general symptoms and symptoms improved when away from school (school-related symptoms) was 22.7%, 20.4% and 39.2%, respectively, at baseline, and the prevalence increased during follow-up (P<0.001). At baseline, both indoor and outdoor SO2 were found positively associated with prevalence of school-related symptoms. Indoor O-3 was shown to be positively associated with prevalence of skin symptoms. At follow-up, indoor PM10 was found to be positively associated with new onset of skin, mucosal and general symptoms. CO2 and RH were positively associated with new onset of mucosal, general and school-related symptoms. Outdoor SO2 was positively associated with new onset of skin symptoms, while outdoor NO2 was positively associated with new onset of skin, general and mucosal symptoms. Outdoor PM10 was found to be positively associated with new onset of skin, general and mucosal symptoms as well as school-related symptoms. In conclusion, symptoms as described for SBS were commonly found in school children in Taiyuan City, China, and increased during the two-year follow-up period. Environmental pollution, including PM10, SO2 and NO2, could increase the prevalence and incidence of SBS and decrease the remission rate. Moreover, parental asthma and allergy (heredity) and pollen or pet allergy (atopy) can be risk factors for SBS.

  • 1780. Zhang, Y
    et al.
    Li, B
    Huang, C
    Norback, D
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Ten cities cross-sectional questionnaire survey of children asthma and other allergies in China2013Inngår i: Chinese Science Bulletin, ISSN 1001-6538, E-ISSN 1861-9541, Vol. 58, nr 34, 4182-4189 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1781.
    Zhao, Z
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Zhang, X
    Liu, R
    Norback, D
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Prenatal and early life home environment exposure in relation to preschool childrens asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in Taiyuan, China.2013Inngår i: Chinese Science Bulletin, ISSN 1001-6538, E-ISSN 1861-9541, Vol. 58, nr 34, 4245-4251 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1782.
    Zhao, Zhuohui
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Zhang, Zheng
    Wang, Zhuanhua
    Ferm, Martin
    Liang, Yanling
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Asthmatic Symptoms among Pupils in Relation to Winter Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution in Schools in Taiyuan, China2008Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 116, nr 1, 90-97 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are few studies on associations between children's respiratory heath and air pollution in schools in China. The industrial development and increased traffic may affect the indoor exposure to air pollutants in school environment. Moreover, there is a need to study respiratory effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and emissions from new building materials in homes in China.

    Objectives: We studied the associations between pupils' asthmatic symptoms and indoor and outdoor air pollution in schools, as well as selected home exposures, in a coal-burning city in north China.

    Methods: A questionnaire survey was administered to pupils (11–15 years of age) in 10 schools in urban Taiyuan, collecting data on respiratory health and selected home environmental factors. Indoor and outdoor school air pollutants and climate factors were measured in winter.

    Results: A total of 1,993 pupils (90.2%) participated ; 1.8% had cumulative asthma, 8.4% wheezing, 29.8% had daytime attacks of breathlessness. The indoor average concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and formaldehyde by class were 264.8, 39.4, 10.1, and 2.3 µg/m3, respectively. Outdoor levels were two to three times higher. Controlling for possible confounders, either wheeze or daytime or nocturnal attacks of breathlessness were positively associated with SO2, NO2, or formaldehyde. In addition, ETS and new furniture at home were risk factors for wheeze, daytime breathlessness, and respiratory infections.

    Conclusions: Indoor chemical air pollutants of mainly outdoor origin could be risk factors for pupils' respiratory symptoms at school, and home exposure to ETS and chemical emissions from new furniture could affect pupils' respiratory health.

  • 1783. Zheng, Guang
    et al.
    Tian, Liting
    Liang, Yihuai
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Broberg, Karin
    Lei, Lijian
    Guo, Weijun
    Nilsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Jin, Taiyi
    δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genotype predicts toxic effects of lead on workers' peripheral nervous system2011Inngår i: Neurotoxicology, ISSN 0161-813X, E-ISSN 1872-9711, Vol. 32, nr 4, 374-382 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a wide variation in sensitivity to lead (Pb) exposure, which may be due to genetic susceptibility towards Pb. We investigated whether a polymorphism (rs1800435) in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene affected the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Pb. Among 461 Chinese Pb-exposed storage battery and 175 unexposed workers, allele frequencies for the ALAD1 and ALAD2 alleles were 0.968 and 0.032, respectively. The Pb-exposed workers had a higher fraction of the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype than unexposed workers (7.8% vs. 2.3%, p=0.01). The Pb levels in blood (B-Pb) and urine (U-Pb) were higher in Pb-exposed workers carrying the ALAD2 allele compared to homozygotes for ALAD1 (median B-Pb: 606 vs. 499 μg/L; U-Pb: 233 vs. 164 μg/g creatinine), while there was no statistically significant difference in the unexposed controls (median: 24 vs. 37 μg/L, and 3.9 vs. 6.4μg/g creatinine, respectively). High B-Pb and U-Pb were associated with statistically significantly lower sensory and motor conduction velocities in the median, ulnar and peroneal nerves. At the same B-Pb and U-Pb, ALAD1 homozygotes had lower conduction velocities than the ALAD2 carriers. There were similar trends for toxic effects on haem synthesis (zinc protoporphyrin and haemoglobin in blood) and renal function (albumin and N-acetyl-d-β-acetylglucosaminidase in urine), but without statistical significance. There was no difference in Pb toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics associated with VDR BsmI polymorphism. Our results show that the ALAD genotype modifies the relationship between Pb and its toxic effects on the peripheral nervous system. This must be considered in the assessment of risks at Pb exposure.

  • 1784. Zhong, Jia
    et al.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap. Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Guan
    Li, Jun
    Guo, Yichen
    Lin, Xinyi
    Zemplenyi, Michele
    Sanchez-Guerra, Marco
    Trevisi, Letizia
    Urch, Bruce
    Speck, Mary
    Liang, Liming
    Coull, Brent A
    Koutrakis, Petros
    Silverman, Frances
    Gold, Diane R
    Wu, Tangchun
    Baccarelli, Andrea A
    B vitamins attenuate the epigenetic effects of ambient fine particles in a pilot human intervention trial2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, nr 13, 3503-3508 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute exposure to fine particle (PM2.5) induces DNA methylation changes implicated in inflammation and oxidative stress. We conducted a crossover trial to determine whether B-vitamin supplementation averts such changes. Ten healthy adults blindly received a 2-h, controlled-exposure experiment to sham under placebo, PM2.5 (250 μg/m(3)) under placebo, and PM2.5 (250 μg/m(3)) under B-vitamin supplementation (2.5 mg/d folic acid, 50 mg/d vitamin B6, and 1 mg/d vitamin B12), respectively. We profiled epigenome-wide methylation before and after each experiment using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in peripheral CD4(+) T-helper cells. PM2.5 induced methylation changes in genes involved in mitochondrial oxidative energy metabolism. B-vitamin supplementation prevented these changes. Likewise, PM2.5 depleted 11.1% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4%, 21.7%; P = 0.04] of mitochondrial DNA content compared with sham, and B-vitamin supplementation attenuated the PM2.5 effect by 102% (Pinteraction = 0.01). Our study indicates that individual-level prevention may be used to complement regulations and control potential mechanistic pathways underlying the adverse PM2.5 effects, with possible significant public health benefit in areas with frequent PM2.5 peaks.

  • 1785. Zoeller, R. Thomas
    et al.
    Bergman, Ake
    Becher, Georg
    Bjerregaard, Poul
    Bornman, Riana
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Miljötoxikologi.
    Iguchi, Taisen
    Jobling, Susan
    Kidd, Karen A.
    Kortenkamp, Andreas
    Skakkebaek, Niels E.
    Toppari, Jorma
    Vandenberg, Laura N.
    A path forward in the debate over health impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals2014Inngår i: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 13, 118- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent publications reflect debate on the issue of "endocrine disrupting chemicals" (EDCs), indicating that two seemingly mutually exclusive perspectives are being articulated separately and independently. Considering this, a group of scientists with expertise in basic science, medicine and risk assessment reviewed the various aspects of the debate to identify the most significant areas of dispute and to propose a path forward. We identified four areas of debate. The first is about the definitions for terms such as "endocrine disrupting chemical", "adverse effects", and "endocrine system". The second is focused on elements of hormone action including "potency", "endpoints", "timing", "dose" and "thresholds". The third addresses the information needed to establish sufficient evidence of harm. Finally, the fourth focuses on the need to develop and the characteristics of transparent, systematic methods to review the EDC literature. Herein we identify areas of general consensus and propose resolutions for these four areas that would allow the field to move beyond the current and, in our opinion, ineffective debate.

  • 1786.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    What work schedule characteristics constitute a problem to the individual? A representative study of Swedish shift workers2017Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 59, 320-325 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate which detailed characteristics of shift schedules that are seen as problems to those exposed. A representative national sample of non-day workers (N = 2031) in Sweden was asked whether they had each of a number of particular work schedule characteristics and, if yes, to what extent this constituted a "big problem in life". It was also inquired whether the individual's work schedules had negative consequences for fatigue, sleep and social life. The characteristic with the highest percentage reporting a big problem was "short notice (<1 month) of a new work schedule" (30.5%), <11 h off between shifts (27.8%), and split duty (>1.5 h break at mid-shift, 27.2%). Overtime (>10 h/week), night work, morning work, day/night shifts showed lower prevalences of being a "big problem". Women indicated more problems in general. Short notice was mainly related to negative social effects, while <11 h off between shifts was related to disturbed sleep, fatigue and social difficulties. It was concluded that schedules involving unpredictable working hours (short notice), short daily rest between shifts, and split duty shifts constitute big problems. The results challenge current views of what aspects of shift work need improvement, and negative social consequences seem more important than those related to health.

  • 1787.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Petersen, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Axelsson, John
    Sleep Polysomnography and Reported Stress across 6 Weeks2014Inngår i: Industrial health, ISSN 1880-8026, nr 1, 36-42 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the common notion that stress impairs sleep there is little published data showing that sleep (polysomnography [PSG]) is impaired across several sleep episodes in individuals who complain of daily stress during the same period. The present paper aimed at investigating such a connection. 33 subjects had 3 sleeps recorded with PSG at home across 6 weeks and kept a sleep/wake diary each day, including 3-hourly ratings of stress (scale 1-9). The stress ratings and the conventional PSG parameters were averaged across time. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictors of stress were Stage 1 sleep (beta=0.49), latency to Stage 1 sleep (0.47) (adjusted for anxiety and age). Other sleep continuity variables had significant correlations with stress (reversed) but did not enter the multiple regression analysis. The correlation between stress before the start of the study and PSG data was not significant. It was concluded that moderately increased stress over a longer period of time is related to moderate signs of disturbed sleep during that period. This may be of importance when considering stress as a work environment problem.

  • 1788.
    Åsell, Malin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Svenska Rygginstitutet AB, Sundsvall, Sweden; Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Kerschbaumer, Helmut
    Svenska Rygginstitutet AB, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Are lumbar repositioning errors larger among patients with chronic low back pain compared with asymptomatic subjects?2006Inngår i: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 87, nr 9, 1170-1176 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To resolve the debate over whether lumbar repositioning acuity is reduced in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) by using a study design and methodology to minimize the effects of potential confounders. DESIGN: A single-blinded, controlled, multigroup comparative study.

    SETTING: Vocational rehabilitation center.

    PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-two patients with CLBP, divided into subgroups based on severity of symptoms and diagnostic characteristics. An age- and sex-matched group (n=31) of healthy subjects were the control. I

    NTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured repositioning errors (variable, constant) at 3 positions of the lumbar spine. Subjects were guided to a sitting target posture and asked to perform lumbar flexion before reproducing the target posture. Self-assessed pain, self-efficacy, and functional ability were addressed through questionnaires.

    RESULTS: There were no differences in repositioning errors between the patients with CLBP or the subgroups of patients and the control group. We found only weak correlations between the repositioning errors and the self-reported data on functional disability, self-efficacy, and pain.

    CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that sensorimotor dysfunctions in CLBP should be evaluated with methods other than repositioning tests in order to generate data relevant to the development of rational diagnostic methods and rehabilitation programs.

  • 1789.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Larm, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
    The buffering effect of tangible social support on financial stress: influence on psychological well-being and psychosomatic symptoms in a large sample of the adult general population2014Inngår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, 85- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Financial stress is an important source of distress and is related to poor mental and physical health outcomes. The present study investigated whether tangible social support could buffer the effect of financial stress on psychological and psychosomatic health. Methods: Two separate postal surveys were sent to random samples in five counties in Sweden in 2004 and 2008, with a total of 84 263 respondents. The questionnaires included questions about financial stress, tangible social support, psychosomatic symptoms, and psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12). Results: Individuals with high financial stress and low tangible social support had six to seven times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and many psychosomatic symptoms. By contrast, individuals with high financial stress and high tangible social support had only two to three times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and three to four times increased odds ratios for many psychosomatic symptoms, suggesting a buffering effect of tangible social support. Consistent with the buffering hypothesis, there were significant interactions between financial stress and social support, particularly in relation to low psychological well-being. Conclusions: Social support had its strongest effect at high levels of financial stress. The question whether the altering of our social networks may improve physical health is important for the prevention of ill health in people experiencing financial stress. Strengthening social networks may have the potential to influence health-care costs and improve quality of life.

  • 1790.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Health effects of heatwaves: short and long term predictions2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Climate change is defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as changes in the state of the climate associated with changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties. Climate change will affect temperatures both as an increase in mean temperature as well as changes in the frequency of temperature extremes. Health effects associated with extreme heat, both mortality and morbidity, have been observed all over the globe. Groups that are often found to be more vulnerable are the elderly and people diagnosed with certain diseases and/or on taking some specific types of medication. The health effects from climate change in the future depend on a number of underlying sociodemographic and other factors. It is difficult to predict how the underlying societal factors that are likely to alter the health effects from high temperatures will change. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the influence of the underlying assumptions and factors that are key components when predicting and projecting heat-related illness, both in the short and long term. This work aims to identify and to some extent quantify different sources of uncertainty that will have effects on the outcome of health impact assessments.

    Methods: We wanted to evaluate if different statistical models would alter the ability to identify days with elevated heat-related risk. We used observations of temperatures and daily mortality for Greater Stockholm to model different exposure-response relationships (Paper I). Along the observed data, we collected temperature forecasts for the Stockholm area. We defined what constitutes a risk day and compared the model’s ability to identify these days using both observed and forecasted temperatures to evaluate the predictive performance of models based on the different statistical approaches. To estimate how climate change will alter the heat-related health impacts we used climate change projections from a range of climate change scenarios to be able to get stable estimates as well as a measure of the uncertainty in the climate projections (Paper II-III). We estimated the change in respiratory hospital admissions (Paper II) and the future need for adaptation to keep heat-related mortality at current levels (Paper III) in Europe. We also estimated the change in heat-related mortality due to changes in climate, demographics and health status of the population in Stockholm (Paper IV).

    Results: The models using a highly complex exposure-response relationship showed lower predictive performance, especially when looking at a longer time-scale. The more complex models did also estimate a lower mortality increase compared to the less complex ones. There was however high agreement of which days to be considered risk days. The estimated increase in heat-related illness from the three health impact assessment studies showed impacts on a similar order of magnitude when looking at changes in climate only. Respiratory hospital admissions were estimated to more than double in Europe and heat-related mortality in Stockholm was estimated to increase to around 257% of current levels. Therefore, adaptation needs to lower the vulnerability to heat by around 50% in the European countries. In study III and IV we take changes in demographics into account and find that the future health burden from heat will increase due to the growing elderly population.

    Conclusion: To be able to make predictions of future health burdens from heat, both in the long and short term, we need to consider the properties of the epidemiological models and how the choice of model might limit its use within a health impact assessment. Climate change seems to be the main driver of the future health burden from extreme temperatures, but our results suggests that changing demographics will add to the burden considerably unless relevant adaptation measures are implemented. Adding this on top of the challenges posed by climate change, we find that need for adaptation will increase substantially in the future.

  • 1791.
    Åström, Christofer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Ebi, Kristie L
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Langner, Joakim
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Developing a heatwave early warning system for Sweden: evaluating sensitivity of different epidemiological modelling approaches to forecast temperatures2015Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, nr 1, 254-267 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades a number of heatwaves have brought the need for heatwave early warning systems (HEWS) to the attention of many European governments. The HEWS in Europe are operating under the assumption that there is a high correlation between observed and forecasted temperatures. We investigated the sensitivity of different temperature mortality relationships when using forecast temperatures. We modelled mortality in Stockholm using observed temperatures and made predictions using forecast temperatures from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts to assess the sensitivity. We found that the forecast will alter the expected future risk differently for different temperature mortality relationships. The more complex models seemed more sensitive to inaccurate forecasts. Despite the difference between models, there was a high agreement between models when identifying risk-days. We find that considerations of the accuracy in temperature forecasts should be part of the design of a HEWS. Currently operating HEWS do evaluate their predictive performance; this information should also be part of the evaluation of the epidemiological models that are the foundation in the HEWS. The most accurate description of the relationship between high temperature and mortality might not be the most suitable or practical when incorporated into a HEWS.

  • 1792.
    Åström, Christofer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. orru@ut.ee.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Strandberg, Gustav
    Rossby Centre, SMHI, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Ebi, Kristie L
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Heat-related respiratory hospital admissions in Europe in a changing climate: a health impact assessment2013Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 3, nr 1, e001842- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Respiratory diseases are ranked second in Europe in terms of mortality, prevalence and costs. Studies have shown that extreme heat has a large impact on mortality and morbidity, with a large relative increase for respiratory diseases. Expected increases in mean temperature and the number of extreme heat events over the coming decades due to climate change raise questions about the possible health impacts. We assess the number of heat-related respiratory hospital admissions in a future with a different climate.                                

    Design A Europe-wide health impact assessment.                                

    Setting An assessment for each of the EU27 countries.                                

    Methods Heat-related hospital admissions under a changing climate are projected using multicity epidemiological exposure–response relationships applied to gridded population data and country-specific baseline respiratory hospital admission rates. Times-series of temperatures are simulated with a regional climate model based on four global climate models, under two greenhouse gas emission scenarios.                                

    Results Between a reference period (1981–2010) and a future period (2021–2050), the total number of respiratory hospital admissions attributed to heat is projected to be larger in southern Europe, with three times more heat attributed respiratory hospital admissions in the future period. The smallest change was estimated in Eastern Europe with about a twofold increase. For all of Europe, the number of heat-related respiratory hospital admissions is projected to be 26 000 annually in the future period compared with 11 000 in the reference period.                                

    Conclusions The results suggest that the projected effects of climate change on temperature and the number of extreme heat events could substantially influence respiratory morbidity across Europe.                                

     

  • 1793.
    Åström, Christofer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Oudin Åström, Daniel
    Lund Universitet.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI.
    Ebi, Kristie L.
    University of Washington.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Future health impact of higher ambient temperatures in Stockholm, SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1794.
    Åström, Christofer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Oudin Åström, Daniel
    Lund Universitet.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI.
    Ebi, Kristie L.
    University of Washington.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Vulnerability reduction needed to adapt to projected future heat exposure in Europe: Magnitude and determinantsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1795.
    Åström, Christofer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Åström, Daniel Oudin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Ebi, Kristie L
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Vulnerability Reduction Needed to Maintain Current Burdens of Heat-Related Mortality in a Changing Climate-Magnitude and Determinants2017Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, nr 7, 741Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The health burden from heatwaves is expected to increase with rising global mean temperatures and more extreme heat events over the coming decades. Health-related effects from extreme heat are more common in elderly populations. The population of Europe is rapidly aging, which will increase the health effects of future temperatures. In this study, we estimate the magnitude of adaptation needed to lower vulnerability to heat in order to prevent an increase in heat-related deaths in the 2050s; this is the Adaptive Risk Reduction (ARR) needed. Temperature projections under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 from 18 climate models were coupled with gridded population data and exposure-response relationships from a European multi-city study on heat-related mortality. In the 2050s, the ARR for the general population is 53.5%, based on temperature projections under RCP 4.5. For the population above 65 years in Southern Europe, the ARR is projected to be 45.9% in a future with an unchanged climate and 74.7% with climate change under RCP 4.5. The ARRs were higher under RCP 8.5. Whichever emission scenario is followed or population projection assumed, Europe will need to adapt to a great degree to maintain heat-related mortality at present levels, which are themselves unacceptably high, posing an even greater challenge.

  • 1796.
    Öman, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Fredriksson, Rikard
    Bylund, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Analysis of the mechanism of injury in non-fatal vehicle-to-pedestrian and vehicle-to-bicyclist frontal crashes in Sweden2016Inngår i: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, ISSN 1745-7300, E-ISSN 1745-7319, Vol. 23, nr 4, 405-412 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyse and compare injuries and injury sources in pedestrian and bicyclist non-fatal real-life frontal passengercar crashes, considering in what way pedestrian injury mitigation systems also might be adequate for bicyclists. Data from 203 non-fatal vehicle-to-pedestrian and vehicle-to-bicyclist crashes from 1997 through 2006 in a city in northern Sweden were analysed by use of the hospitals injury data base in addition to interviews with the injured. In vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes (n = 103) head and neck injuries were in general due to hitting the windscreen frame, while in vehicle-to-bicycle crashes (n = 100) head and neck injuries were typically sustained by ground impact. Abdominal, pelvic and thoracic injuries in pedestrians and thoracic injuries in bicyclists were in general caused by impacting the bonnet. In vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes, energy reducing airbags at critical impact points with low yielding ability on the car, as the bonnet and the windscreen frame, might reduce injuries. As vehicle-to-bicyclist crashes occurred mostly in good lighting conditions and visibility and the ground impact causing almost four times as many injuries as an impact to the different regions of the car, crash avoidance systems as well as separating bicyclists from motor traffic, may contribute to mitigate these injuries.

  • 1797.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Sjöfartshögskolan (SJÖ). IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd.
    Langer, Sarka
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd..
    Moldanová, Jana
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd..
    Personal exposure of seafarers to air pollutants and perceived indoor air quality on a passenger ferry2016Inngår i: Proceedings of Indoor Air 2016, International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate - ISIAQ , 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine crew members’ personal exposure and perceived air quality on board a Swedish passenger ferry before and after a change of fuel type. Personal exposure was measured in the breathing zone of 20 crew members and quantified in terms of concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) with focus on benzene. Measured concentrations are compared with international indoor air quality guidelines and occupational exposure limit values. The perceived indoor air quality was assessed through a self-reporting questionnaire. The results show that the measured personal exposure was largely below Swedish occupational exposure limit values and international guideline values. Elevated levels were found especially in the engine crew samples. The subjective assessment of the air quality showed the air to be perceived as just acceptable with a slight odour, and a sense of the air being dry and stuffy.

  • 1798.
    Čechová, Eliška
    et al.
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Seifertová, Marta
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kukučka, Petr
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Vojta, Šimon
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Quaak, Ilona
    Department of Health and Life Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    de Cock, Marijke
    Department of Health and Life Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    van de Bor, Margot
    Department of Health and Life Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kočan, Anton
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice, Brno, Czech Republic.
    An effective clean-up technique for GC/EI-HRMS determination of developmental neurotoxicants in human breast milk2017Inngår i: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 409, nr 5, 1311-1322 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing number of children suffering from developmental disorders has raised questions regarding their association with the presence of environmental contaminants in mothers and children. We therefore developed a new method for the determination of 78 proven and potential developmental neurotoxicants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, legacy pesticides, pyrethroids, and old and new halogenated flame retardants in breast milk. The essential part of sample preparation was dialysis as a non-destructive clean-up step which was newly used at 10 °C and showed more efficient lipid removal (up to 96%) than the conventional methods such as gel permeation chromatography or freezing-lipid filtration and thus ensured low limits of detection (LOD) by reducing the sample volume prior to injection. Next advantages were significant solvent reduction and no risk of sample cross-contamination. Gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) was subsequently used for the separation and compound quantification. The method was validated using breast milk samples fortified with the analyzed compounds. Recoveries for most of the compounds ranged from 63 to 121% with a relative standard deviation of 2-25%, and LODs ranged between 0.001 and 0.87 ng g(-1) lipid weight. The method was applied to breast milk samples from a Dutch birth cohort where 35 out of the 78 compounds were quantified in more than 60% of the samples. For novel flame retardants, the method provides unique results regarding their occurrence in human matrices in Europe. Overall, the analysis of a complex mixture of developmental neurotoxicants could be useful for the assessment of the influence of the studied compounds to child health and development. Graphical abstract Flow diagram of the method and levels of the developmental neurotoxicants in Dutch human milk samples.

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