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  • 1751.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Noise in the preschool: health and preventive measures2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on noise recordings and health evaluations carried out at preschools in the northern part of Sweden. Sound level recordings were made on individuals and by use of stationary devices in dining rooms and play halls. Health evaluations were based on ratings by use of questionnaires and by analyses of cortisol.

    The average equivalent individual noise exposure was 71 dB(A). The average equivalent noise levels in the dining room and playing halls were 64 dB(A). The hearing loss of the employees was significantly higher for the frequencies tested than in an unexposed control group. Symptoms of tinnitus were reported among 31% of the employees. Noise annoyance was rated as somewhat to very annoying, and the voices of the children were the most annoying noise source. The dB(A) level and fluctuations of the noise exposure were significantly correlated with the number of children per department. Stress and energy output were pronounced among the employees. About 30% of the staff experienced strong burnout syndromes. Mental recovery was low as indicated by noise fatigue and high levels of stress after work. Increased cortisol levels during work were associated with higher number of children present at the department.

    An essential finding of the thesis was that noise and noise sources may impair the pedagogic work, thereby increasing the work load of employees. It is concluded that noise exposure in the preschool, isolated or in combination with other stressors, plays a fundamental role in the building up of acute as well as long term stress. An intervention study implementing six acoustical and seven organizational measures was tested, aimed to improve the noise situation in the departments. Acoustical measures improved the noise situation as well as the rated noise experiences better than the organizational measures.

  • 1752.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fahlström, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Professionell utveckling.
    Noise Exposure and Hearing Related Risks for Technical Officials during a Major Badminton Tournament2018Inngår i: Jacobs Journal of Physical Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 2469-3103, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the noise exposure for different technical officials during a major badminton tournament.

    Methods: Individual noise exposure for technical officials was measured during the 23rd BWF World Championship, 2017 in Glasgow, Scotland during all days of the tournament.

    Results: Umpires and on-court-doctors had equivalent noise exposure, when working longer shifts, that exceeded the exposure limit according to the EU 2003/10/EC noise directive. Exposure limits regarding impulse sound was also exceeded during several work shifts during the tournament.

    Conclusions: Technical officials are exposed to noise levels that exceed current occupational health leg-islation within the EU, and may therefore be at risk of developing hearing related disorders. It is of high importance for the organizers of sports events to reduce the noise exposure for the technical officials by scheduling shorter work periods, but also by providing individual hearing protectors.

  • 1753.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Univ Gavle, Ctr Built Environm, S-80176 Gavle, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Center for Built Environment, University of Gävle, 80176 Gävle, Sweden .
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Landström, Ulf
    Univ Gavle, Ctr Built Environm, S-80176 Gavle, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Univ Gavle, Ctr Built Environm, S-80176 Gavle, Sweden.
    Measures against preschool noise and its adverse effects on the personnel: an intervention study2014Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 87, nr 1, s. 95-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyze the exposure effects of different types of noise measures carried out at preschools. The project was carried out as an intervention study. The investigation included 89 employees at 17 preschools in the northern part of Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments in each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed with validated questionnaires and saliva cortisol samples. Evaluations were made before and 1 year after the first measurement. Between the two measurements, measures were taken to improve the sound environments at the preschools. The effects of the measures varied a lot, with respect to both the sound environments and health. Regarding acoustical measures, significant changes were seen for some of the variables analyzed. For most of the tested effects, the changes, however, were very small and non-significant. The effects of organizational measures on the objective and subjective noise values were in overall less pronounced. Acoustical measures improved the subjectively rated sound environment more than organizational measures. This may be due to the high work effort needed to implement organizational measures. Even though the sound level was not lower, the personnel experienced improvements of the sound environment.

  • 1754.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Measures against preschool noise and its adverse effects on the personnel: an intervention study2014Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 87, nr 1, s. 95-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyze the exposure effects of different types of noise measures carried out at preschools. The project was carried out as an intervention study. The investigation included 89 employees at 17 preschools in the northern part of Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments in each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed with validated questionnaires and saliva cortisol samples. Evaluations were made before and 1 year after the first measurement. Between the two measurements, measures were taken to improve the sound environments at the preschools. The effects of the measures varied a lot, with respect to both the sound environments and health. Regarding acoustical measures, significant changes were seen for some of the variables analyzed. For most of the tested effects, the changes, however, were very small and non-significant. The effects of organizational measures on the objective and subjective noise values were in overall less pronounced. Acoustical measures improved the subjectively rated sound environment more than organizational measures. This may be due to the high work effort needed to implement organizational measures. Even though the sound level was not lower, the personnel experienced improvements of the sound environment.

  • 1755.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Measures against preschool noise and its adverse effects on the personnel: an intervention study2014Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 87, nr 1, s. 95-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of the study was to analyze the exposure effects of different types of noise measures carried out at preschools. The project was carried out as an intervention study.

    Methods

    The investigation included 89 employees at 17 preschools in the northern part of Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments in each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed with validated questionnaires and saliva cortisol samples. Evaluations were made before and one year after the first measurement. Between the two measurements, measures had been taken to improve the sound environments at the preschools.

    Results

    The effects of the measures varied at lot, both with respect to the sound environments and health. Regarding acoustical measures, significant changes were seen for some of the variables analyzed. For most of the tested effects, the changes however were very small and non-significant. The effects of organizational measures on the objective and subjective noise values were in overall less pronounced.

    Conclusion

    Acoustical measures improved the subjectively rated sound environment more than organizational measures. This may be due to the high work effort needed to implement organizational measures. Even though the sound level was not lower, the personnel experienced improvements of the sound environment.

  • 1756.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Sweden Mid University, Department of public health.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Noise and stress effects on preschool personnel2012Inngår i: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, nr 59, s. 166-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyze the presence of stress-related health problems among preschool employees and the way in which these reactions are related to noise and other work parameters. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå County, located in northern Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments from each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed by use of different validated questionnaires and by saliva cortisol samples. Stress and energy output were pronounced among the employees, and about 30% of the staff experienced strong burnout syndromes. Mental recovery after work was low, indicated by remaining high levels of stress after work. The burnout symptoms were associated with reduced sleep quality and morning sleepiness. Cortisol levels supported the conclusion about pronounced daily stress levels of the preschool employees.

  • 1757.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Noise and stress effects on preschool personnel2012Inngår i: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, nr 59, s. 166-178Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyze the presence of stress-related health problems among preschool employees and the way in which these reactions are related to noise and other work parameters. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå County, located in northern Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments from each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed by use of different validated questionnaires and by saliva cortisol samples. Stress and energy output were pronounced among the employees, and about 30% of the staff experienced strong burnout syndromes. Mental recovery after work was low, indicated by remaining high levels of stress after work. The burnout symptoms were associated with reduced sleep quality and morning sleepiness. Cortisol levels supported the conclusion about pronounced daily stress levels of the preschool employees.

  • 1758.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Sweden Mid University, Department of public health.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Noise exposure and auditory effects on preschool personnel2012Inngår i: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, nr 57, s. 72-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing impairments and tinnitus are being reported in an increasing extent from employees in the preschool. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå county, Sweden. Individual noise recordings and stationary recordings in dining rooms and play halls were conducted at two departments per preschool. The effects of noise exposures were carried out through audiometric screenings and by use of questionnaires. The average individual noise exposure was close to 71 dB(A), with individual differences but small differences between the preschools. The noise levels in the dining room and playing halls were about 64 dB(A), with small differences between the investigated types of rooms and preschools. The hearing loss of the employees was significantly higher for the frequencies tested when compared with an unexposed control group in Sweden. Symptoms of tinnitus were reported among about 31% of the employees. Annoyance was rated as somewhat to very annoying. The voices of the children were the most annoying noise source. The dB(A) level and fluctuation of the noise exposure were significantly correlated to the number of children per department. The preschool sound environment is complex and our findings indicate that the sound environment is hazardous regarding auditory disorders. The fluctuation of the noise is of special interest for further research.

  • 1759.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Noise exposure and auditory effects on preschool personnel2012Inngår i: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, nr 57, s. 72-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing impairments and tinnitus are being reported in an increasing extent from employees in the preschool. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå county, Sweden. Individual noise recordings and stationary recordings in dining rooms and play halls were conducted at two departments per preschool. The effects of noise exposures were carried out through audiometric screenings and by use of questionnaires. The average individual noise exposure was close to 71 dB(A), with individual differences but small differences between the preschools. The noise levels in the dining room and playing halls were about 64 dB(A), with small differences between the investigated types of rooms and preschools. The hearing loss of the employees was significantly higher for the frequencies tested when compared with an unexposed control group in Sweden. Symptoms of tinnitus were reported among about 31% of the employees. Annoyance was rated as somewhat to very annoying. The voices of the children were the most annoying noise source. The dB(A) level and fluctuation of the noise exposure were significantly correlated to the number of children per department. The preschool sound environment is complex and our findings indicate that the sound environment is hazardous regarding auditory disorders. The fluctuation of the noise is of special interest for further research.

  • 1760.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Work related stress and stressors in the preschool environmentManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The study included six departments, with two employees at each department, characterized by high levels of stress and burnout and six departments, with two employees at each department, characterized by low levels of stress andburnout. A total of 24 females with a mean age of 43.5 years participated in the study. The employees rated stress at work and burnout by use of different questionnaires. Cortisol samples were collected at wake up, one hour afterwake up, at 11:00 am and at 09:00 pm. An observation study was made to create an overview of the interactionbetween the children and the personnel during periods described as overloading.

    More than 50% of the employees stated that all members of the staff did not have equal commitment to the work. About 8% considered this stressful to a high degree. More than half found their increased administrative work task as stressful to a high degree. Half of the personnel felt it stressful to a high degree, not being able to give all the children the attention they needed.

    The highest stressors regarding the organization of the work were when conflicts occurred among the personnel. The highest stressors regarding noise were the children´s voices closely followed by noise when changing the children´sclothes. The highest stressor regarding the constitution of the child group was when the personnel experienced that they had a child in the group they thought needed special support. In general, the high stress group rated all stressors as higher compared to the low stress group. Significant differences were pronounced among stressors regarding“organization of the work” and “work situations”. The results also indicate that individuals who are highly stressed by noise from the childrens activities rated their rewards as lower. The high stress group had more communications to and from the children, both before lunch and during lunch.

    An essential conclusion, is also that noise and noise sources, may impair the work situation of the employees fundamentally, thereby increasing the stress levels. It is assumed that noise exposures in the preschool, isolated or in combination with other stressor, plays a fundamental role in the building up acute as well as long term stress. One of the stand points of the study is that overloaded communication between the personnel and children might be a pronounced factor behind the situational and longterm stress.

  • 1761.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Landstrom, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Minimizing speech contribution using different microphone noise dosimeter positions2012Inngår i: Proceedings of BNAM 2012 / [ed] Peter Juhl, Odense: University of Southern Denmark , 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of noise dosimeter recordings in low sound level environments is often problematic due to the voice contribution from the carrier. The aim of the study was to find a microphone position with low speech contribution while still providing an accurate sound level recording. An experiment with different microphone positions was conducted in a low sound reverberation room. Two types of noise dosimeters were used (Brüel & Kjaer 4445 and Larson Davis Spark 706-Atex). In repeated measurements the carrier was instructed to read a text chapter during 60 seconds and at a speech of level about 60 dB(A), acquired by practice, with different background noise and noise levels. White noise and preschool noise was used at sound levels 50, 60, 70 and 80 dB(A). The voice contribution to the background noise level was then measured. Three microphone positions were tested; on the shoulder, above the ear and on the back of the head. The position with the microphone placed behind the head of the carrier had the lowest speech contribution, less than 2 dB(A) to the background noise at 70 dB(A). This compared to positions right above the ear 6 dB(A and on the shoulder 12 dB(A).

  • 1762.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Landstrom, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Tinnitus, noise and health effects in preschool environments2012Inngår i: Proceedings of BNAM 2012 / [ed] Peter Juhl, Odense: University of Southern Denmark , 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The study included 93 employees at 17 preschools in the county of Umeå located in northern part ofSweden. Personal daily noise dosimeter recordings were made at five representative work days.Stationary noise recordings were made during the same days at two departments of each preschool, in theplaying halls and in the dining rooms. Besides audiometric tests, the employees rated their experiences ofthe noise, hearing and tinnitus as well as well as different health effects, on validated questionnaires.Tinnitus was reported among 31 per cent of the participants. The study group was dichotomized intoemployees with or without tinnitus. Employees with tinnitus reported higher prevalence of subjectivehearing loss, higher experiences of elevated sound levels at work, anxiety of the noise at work, chestpressure/pain, burn out symptoms, depression and reduced sleep quality. Significant differences wereseen for shoulder tension/pain. No group differences were seen for the objective personal or stationarynoise measures or the number of children present at the department. The results of the study are discussedin terms of underlying causes and the way in which the symptom interfere with experiences and healtheffects of the employees.

  • 1763.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Sweden Mid University, Department of public health.
    Minimizing speech contribution using different microphone noise dosimeter positions2012Inngår i: Proceedings of BNAM 2012 / [ed] Peter Juhl, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of noise dosimeter recordings in low sound level environments is often problematic due to the voicecontribution from the carrier. The aim of the study was to find a microphone position with low speechcontribution while still providing an accurate sound level recording. An experiment with differentmicrophone positions was conducted in a low sound reverberation room. Two types of noise dosimeterswere used (Brüel & Kjaer 4445 and Larson Davis Spark 706-Atex). In repeated measurements the carrierwas instructed to read a text chapter during 60 seconds and at a speech of level about 60 dB(A), acquiredby practice, with different background noise and noise levels. White noise and preschool noise was usedat sound levels 50, 60, 70 and 80 dB(A). The voice contribution to the background noise level was thenmeasured. Three microphone positions were tested; on the shoulder, above the ear and on the back of thehead. The position with the microphone placed behind the head of the carrier had the lowest speechcontribution, less than 2 dB(A) to the background noise at 70 dB(A). This compared to positions rightabove the ear 6 dB(A and on the shoulder 12 dB(A).

  • 1764.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Sweden Mid University, Department of public health.
    Tinnitus, noise and health effects in preschool environments2012Inngår i: Proceedings of BNAM 2012 / [ed] Peter Juhl, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The study included 93 employees at 17 preschools in the county of Umeå located in northern part ofSweden. Personal daily noise dosimeter recordings were made at five representative work days.Stationary noise recordings were made during the same days at two departments of each preschool, in theplaying halls and in the dining rooms. Besides audiometric tests, the employees rated their experiences ofthe noise, hearing and tinnitus as well as well as different health effects, on validated questionnaires.Tinnitus was reported among 31 per cent of the participants. The study group was dichotomized intoemployees with or without tinnitus. Employees with tinnitus reported higher prevalence of subjectivehearing loss, higher experiences of elevated sound levels at work, anxiety of the noise at work, chestpressure/pain, burn out symptoms, depression and reduced sleep quality. Significant differences wereseen for shoulder tension/pain. No group differences were seen for the objective personal or stationarynoise measures or the number of children present at the department. The results of the study are discussedin terms of underlying causes and the way in which the symptom interfere with experiences and healtheffects of the employees.

  • 1765. Sjölander, P
    et al.
    Daerga, L
    Edin-Liljegren, A
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Musculoskeletal symptoms and perceived work strain among reindeer herders in Sweden2008Inngår i: Occupational Medicine, ISSN 0962-7480, E-ISSN 1471-8405, Vol. 58, nr 8, s. 572-579Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There is a shortage of knowledge on the extent of musculoskeletal symptoms in reindeer husbandry.

    Aims To investigate the prevalence and relative risk for musculoskeletal symptoms and perceived psychosocial work strain among reindeer herders.

    Methods The prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms during the last week and last year, respectively, were obtained from male reindeer herders (n = 74) of northern Sweden. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated using two reference groups-women of reindeer-herding families (n = 53) and men in blue-collar occupations (n = 194). Comparisons were made of perceived job strain between the study and reference groups. Associations between job strain factors and the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms from different body regions were analysed with regression statistics.

    Results The PRs for musculoskeletal symptoms from the hand/wrist (PR 3.48, 95% CI 1.86-6.50) and lower back (PR 1.44, 95% CI 1.06-1.95) were significantly higher among the reindeer herders in comparison with men working with other blue-collar occupations. The reindeer herders reported significantly higher work demands and decision latitude compared with both reference groups (P < 0.05). Significant associations were observed between demands and prevalence of symptoms from the lower back (OR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.0 1-2. 0 1) and from at least one body region (OR 1.58, 95 % CI 1.07-2.32).

    Conclusions The relative risk for musculoskeletal symptoms, particularly from the hands/wrists and lower back, was high among reindeer herders. It is suggested that musculoskeletal symptoms constitute a considerable health problem in modern reindeer husbandry, which calls for implementation of preventive measures addressing psychosocial, physical and socio-economic risk factors.

  • 1766.
    Sjölander, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Southern Lapland Research Department, Postgatan 7, SE-912 32 Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Daerga, Laila
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Edin-Liljegren, Anette
    Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, L.
    Division of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Musculoskeletal symptoms and perceived work strain among reindeer herders in Sweden2008Inngår i: Occupational Medicine, ISSN 0962-7480, E-ISSN 1471-8405, Vol. 58, nr 8, s. 572-579Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There is a shortage of knowledge on the extent of musculoskeletal symptoms in reindeer husbandry.

    Aims To investigate the prevalence and relative risk for musculoskeletal symptoms and perceived psychosocial work strain among reindeer herders.

    Methods The prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms during the last week and last year, respectively, were obtained from male reindeer herders (n574) of northern Sweden. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated using two reference groups—women of reindeer-herding families (n5 53) and men in blue-collar occupations (n 5 194). Comparisons were made of perceived job strain between the study and reference groups. Associations between job strain factors and the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms from different body regions were analysed with regression statistics.

    Results The PRs for musculoskeletal symptoms from the hand/wrist (PR 3.48, 95% CI 1.86–6.50) and lower back (PR 1.44, 95% CI 1.06–1.95) were significantly higher among the reindeer herders in comparison with men working with other blue-collar occupations. The reindeer herders reported significantly higher work demands and decision latitude compared with both reference groups (P , 0.05). Significant associations were observed between demands and prevalence of symptoms from the lower back (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.01–2.01) and from at least one body region (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.07–2.32).

    Conclusions The relative risk for musculoskeletal symptoms, particularly from the hands/wrists and lower back, was high among reindeer herders. It is suggested that musculoskeletal symptoms constitute a considerable health problem in modern reindeer husbandry, which calls for implementation of preventive measures addressing psychosocial, physical and socio-economic risk factors.

  • 1767.
    Sjölander, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Hassler, Sven
    Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden; Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Janlert, Urban
    epartment of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stroke and acute myocardial infarction in the Swedish Sami population: incidence and mortality in relation to income and level of education2008Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 84-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gender differences in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among the Sami have been reported previously. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of and mortality from stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Swedish Sami population between 1985 and 2002, and to analyse the potential impact of income and level of education on the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

    Methods: A Sami cohort of 15,914 persons (4,465 reindeer herding and 11,449 non-herding Sami) were followed from 1985 to 2002 with respect to incidence and mortality rates of AMI, stroke and SAH. Incidence and mortality ratios were calculated using a demographically matched non-Sami control population (DMC) as the standard (71,550 persons).

    Results: There was no elevated risk for developing AMI among the Sami compared with the DMC. However, the mortality ratio of AMI was significantly higher for Sami women. Higher incidence rates of stroke and SAH for both Sami men and women was observed, but no differences in mortality rates. Apart from the reindeer herding men who demonstrated lower levels of income and education, the income and education levels among Sami were similar to the DMC.

    Conclusions: High mortality rates from AMI rather than stroke explain the excess mortality for CVD previously shown among Sami women. The results suggest that the differences in incidence of stroke between herding and non-herding Sami men, and between Sami women and non-Sami women, are caused by behavioural and psychosocial risk factors rather than by traditional socioeconomic ones.

  • 1768.
    Sjölander, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Michaelson, Peter
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Surgery and Perioperative Sciences, Division of Sports Medicine, University of Umeå, Sweden; Department of Health Science, Physiotherapy Unit, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Jaric, Slobodan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Human Performance Laboratory, University of Delaware, DE, USA.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sensorimotor disturbances in chronic neck pain: range of motion, peak velocity, smoothness of movement, and repositioning acuity2008Inngår i: Manual Therapy, ISSN 1356-689X, E-ISSN 1532-2769, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 122-131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate sensorimotor functions in patients with chronic neck pain with objective and quantitative methods. A group of 16 patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain of insidious onset or whiplash associated disorders (WAD) was compared to an equally sized group of healthy subjects. Kinematics were investigated during voluntary head rotations by measuring range of motion, variability of range of motion (ROM-Variability), peak velocity, and smoothness of movement (jerk index). Repositioning acuity after cervical rotations was evaluated by analysing constant and variable error (VE). In comparison to the healthy subjects, the patients showed significantly larger jerk index, ROM-Variability and VE. No statistically significant differences were found between insidious neck pain and WAD. It is concluded that jerky and irregular cervical movements and poor position sense acuity are characteristic sensorimotor symptoms in chronic neck pain. The observed individuality in sensorimotor disturbances emphasizes the importance of developing specific rehabilitation programs for specific dysfunctions, and of using objective and quantitative methods for evaluation of rehabilitation.

  • 1769.
    Sjöström, Dick
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Proteomic study of microbiopsies from women with trapezius muscle pain and from healthy women2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Trapezius myalgia is a pain condition that usually develops in people with repetitive and stressful work tasks, which can lead to chronic widespread pain (CWP). This work compares protein expression levels in healthy women with those in women who have chronic widespread pain, including pain in the trapezius muscle, by using a proteomic approach.  Twodimensional gel electrophoresis and silver staining with a subsequent digital quantification of protein spots was used to detect spots which had significantly higher protein levels in either group. Preparative gels were made and stained with SYPRO Ruby, the protein spots that were significantly different between the groups were picked from the SYPRO Ruby gels and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF.

    The optical density of seven protein spots were significantly decreased in the trapezius muscle of the CWP subjects; however the standard deviations were notably high. Five of the seven proteins could be identified as desmin, creatine kinase B-type, serum albumin, heat shock protein beta-1 and slow skeletal muscle troponin T. Apart from serum albumin, all these proteins can possibly be responsible for pain in the trapezius muscle in CWP.

    In conclusion, this study demonstrates that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to identify potential biomarkers of musculoskeletal pain in subjects with CWP. The results may provide new insights into the mechanisms and patho-physiology of trapezius myalgia.

  • 1770. Sjöström, Mattias
    et al.
    Lewné, Marie
    Alderling, Magnus
    Willix, Pernilla
    Berg, Peter
    Gustavsson, Per
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    A job-exposure matrix for occupational noise: development and validation.2013Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 57, nr 6, s. 774-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for occupational noise in Sweden and to estimate its validity.

    METHODS: The JEM, developed by a group of experienced occupational hygienists, contains 321 job families with information regarding occupational noise from 1970 to 2004. The occupational noise information derives from measurements collected from different sources. The time period label has a 5-year scale starting in 1970. The estimated average 8h (TWA) noise level in decibel [dB(A)] for every 5-year period was coded either as <75 dB(A), 75-84 dB(A), or ≥85 dB(A) and the risk of peak level exposure assessed. The validity of the JEM is tested, using Svensson's non-parametric methods based on classification consensus, reached by a second group of occupational hygienists.

    RESULTS/DISCUSSION: Validation results show ~ 80% agreement and no systematic differences, in classification, between the two different groups of occupational hygienists, classifying the occupational noise exposure. However, classification of peak level exposure did show a systematic difference in relative position. The results will give more power to the JEM that it gives a good general estimate for the occupational noise levels in Sweden for different job families during 1970-2004. We, thus, intend to use it in further studies and also make it available to collaborators.

  • 1771. Skagert, Katrin
    et al.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Eklöf, Mats
    Ljung, Thomas
    Pousette, Anders
    Ahlborg, Gunnar
    Ledarskap och stress i politiskt styrd verksamhet: Balanserande förhållningssätt och strategier2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1772. Skagert, Katrin
    et al.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Håkansson, Kristina
    Resurser och hälsa: Ledares föreställningar om möjligheter och vägar att påverka anställdas hälsa och minska sjukskrivning2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1773. Skandfer, Morten
    et al.
    Talykova, Ljudmila
    Brenn, Tormod
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Vaktskjold, Arild
    Low back pain among mineworkers in relation to driving, cold environment and ergonomics2014Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, nr 10, s. 1541-1548Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We aimed to study the association between low back pain (LBP) and exposure to low temperature, wet clothes, heavy lifting and jobs that involve whole body vibration (WBV) in a population of miners. Methods: Health and personal data were collected in a population study by a questionnaire. A total of 3530 workers from four mines participated in the study. Results: 51% of the workers reported LBP within the last 12 months. The adjusted odds ratio for LBP was above unity for working with wet clothes (1.82), working in cold conditions (1.52), lifting heavy (1.54), having worked as a driver previously (1.79) and driving Toro400 (2.61) or train (1.69). Conclusion: Wet clothing, cold working conditions, heavy lifting, previous work as a driver and driving certain vehicles were associated with LBP, but vehicles with WBV levels above action value were not. For better prevention of LBP, improved cabin conditions and clothing should be emphasised. Practitioner Summary: To address risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in miners, a population study measured exposures and LBP. Cold work conditions, wet clothes and awkward postures appeared to be more strongly associated with LBP than exposure to whole body vibration from driving heavy vehicles. Prevention strategies must focus more on clothing and ergonomics.

  • 1774. Skerfving, Staffan
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lead2015Inngår i: Handbook on the toxicology of metals: Volume II: Specific metals / [ed] Gunnar F. Nordberg, Bruce A. Fowler, Monica Nordberg, Academic Press, 2015, 4, s. 911-967Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inorganic lead is the most extensively studied toxic agent. In addition to occupational exposure, there is widespread exposure in the general environment, although this has decreased dramatically after the ban of lead addition to gasoline. Toxic effects may occur in both the central and peripheral nervous systems; the blood (including inhibition of heme synthesis, which also affects all other cells); the kidney; the cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems; the gastrointestinal tract; and female and male reproduction. Lead passes into the placenta. Slight (but adverse) effects on the mental development of infants and children have repeatedly been reported at a mean blood lead concentration (B-Pb) of ≤ 0.25 μmol/L, without obvious threshold. Lead causes an increase in blood pressure at a mean B-Pb of ≤ 0.5 μmol/L. Lead is carcinogenic in animal experiments, but there is only limited evidence for carcinogenicity in humans. The organolead compounds tetraethyl- and tetramethyllead, earlier used in enormous quantities in leaded gasoline, are easily absorbed through inhalation and through the skin, and may cause acute encephalopathia.

  • 1775.
    Skillgate, Eva
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Unit of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Musculoskeletal and Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, Institute of Environmental Medicine; Naprapathögskolan - Scandinavian College of Naprapathic Manual Medicine.
    Pico-Espinosa, Oscar Javier
    Karolinska Institutet, Unit of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Musculoskeletal and Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, Institute of Environmental Medicine.
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Bohman, Tony
    Karolinska Institutet, Unit of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Musculoskeletal and Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, Institute of Environmental Medicine.
    Holm, Lena W.
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Epidemiology.
    Healthy lifestyle behavior and risk of long duration troublesome neck pain or low back pain among men and women: results from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort2017Inngår i: Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 1179-1349, E-ISSN 1179-1349, Vol. 9, s. 491-500Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The role of healthy lifestyle behavior (HLB) in terms of physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking, and diet put together has not yet been explored for the risk of low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP). Our aim was to study if an HLB is protective against the onset of long duration troublesome LBP and NP in men and women.

    Methods: Two cohorts from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort, free from LBP (n=12,483) and NP (n=10,539), respectively, in 2006, were surveyed with questionnaires. Baseline information about physical activity, alcohol intake, diet, and smoking were dichotomized into being healthy/not healthy and combined in a categorical variable according to the number of healthy behaviors present. Binomial regression analyses were used to evaluate the role of HLB for the outcomes 4 years later.

    Results: When men with three or four healthy lifestyles were compared to men with none or one, the risk ratio (RR) of LBP was 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-1.02). The corresponding RR for LBP in women was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.56-1.32). When men with three or four healthy lifestyles were compared to men with none or one, the RR for NP was 1.13 (95% CI: 0.74-1.71). The corresponding RR for NP in women was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.35-0.77).

    Conclusion: An HLB seems to be protective for long duration troublesome LBP in men, and for long duration troublesome NP in women.

  • 1776.
    Sköld, Bore
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Baltruszewicz, Marta
    Aall, Carlo
    Andersson, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Herrmann, Alina
    Amelung, Dorothee
    Barbier, Carine
    Nilsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Bruyère, Sébastien
    Sauerborn, Rainer
    Household Preferences to Reduce Their Greenhouse Gas Footprint: A Comparative Study from Four European Cities2018Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikkel-id 4044Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates households’ preferences to reduce their carbon footprint (CF) measured in carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e). It assumes that a substantial CF reduction of households is essential to reach the 1.5 ◦C goal under the Paris Agreement. Data was collected in four mid-size cities in France, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Quantitative data was obtained from 308 households using a CF calculator based on a questionnaire, and a simulation game. The latter investigated households’ preferences when being confronted with the objective to reduce their CF by 50 percent by 2030 in a voluntary and forced scenario. Our results show that the greater the CO2e-reduction potential of a mitigation action, the less willing a household was to implement that action. Households preferred actions with moderate lifestyle changes foremost in the food sector. Voluntarily, households reached a 25% footprint reduction by 2030. To reach a substantial reduction of 50 percent, households needed to choose actions that meant considerable lifestyle changes, mainly related to mobility. Given our results, the 1.5 ◦C goal is unlikely to be realizable currently, unless households receive major policy support. Lastly, the strikingly similar preferences of households in the four European cities investigated seem to justify strong EU and international policies.

  • 1777.
    Slezak, Julia K.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Clinical Chemistry, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ström, Jakob O.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län. Department of Neurology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Clinical Chemistry, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Testosterone-like immunoreactivity in hair measured in minute sample amounts - a competitive radioimmunoassay with an adequate limit of detection2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 17636Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of testosterone deposited in hair during hair growth may provide a retrospective reflection of the concentrations of bioactive testosterone in plasma. The objective of this study was to develop a radioimmunoassay with a sufficiently low limit of detection to measure the testosterone-like immunoreactivity in smaller hair samples (5 mg) than used in earlier studies, and to compare three different extraction procedures. The competitive radioimmunoassay consisted of a polyclonal antiserum (immunogen testosterone-7 alpha-BSA) and a radioligand synthesised from testosterone-3-CMO-histamine. The within-assay and total coefficients of variation in the working range was 3% and 4.5%, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.87 pg/mL, which is equivalent to 0.12 pg/mg testosterone in 5 mg of hair. The concentration of testosterone-like immunoreactivity in hair samples was 1.23 (SD 0.47) pg/mg in women and 2.67 (SD 0.58) pg/mg in men (pulverised hair). Significantly improved precision was found when pulverised hair was used compared to non-pulverised hair. Our data indicate that pulverisation of the hair prior to hormone extraction is crucial. Detection limits fit for the intended purpose are achievable with 5 mg samples of hair.

  • 1778.
    Slijper, Harm
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Over, E.
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Richter, Janneke
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Frens, Maarten
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Measuring computer use behavior: patterns of variability, within and across days and between different users2008Inngår i: Proceedings of Measuring Behavior 2008; 6th International Conference on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research / [ed] A.J. Spink, M.R. Ballintijn, N.D. Bogers, F. Grieco, L.W.S. Loijens, L.P.J.J. Noldus, G. Smit, and P.H. Zimmerman, Wageningen: Noldus , 2008, s. 111-112Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1779.
    Smedberg, Åsa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Sandmark, Hélène
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Dynamic Stress Management: Self-Help through Holistic System Design2012Inngår i: E-Health Communities and Online Self-Help Groups: Applications and Usage, IGI Global , 2012, s. 136-154Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Different kinds of applications for self-help are available on the Internet today. Some aim to intervene with users’ life patterns such as negative stress exposure. It is not always an easy task to manage stressful life situations and to develop and maintain healthy living. It involves learning how to balance perceived demands from working and personal life, and to question underlying thoughts and beliefs. E-health communities can assist in this process through continuous interactions between community members. However, previous studies have shown that combining knowledge of health experts and the experiences of peers can create a good synergy. The question is how these findings can be applied to the area of stress management. In this chapter, the authors present a web-based self-help system for stress management based on a holistic view of actors and their different types of support. The system offers the user information in the form of research and real life stories, practical exercises (both text- and video-based), and the opportunity to interact with health experts and peers, all in an integrated way

  • 1780.
    Smedje, Greta
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Mattsson, M
    Wålinder, Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Comparing mixing and displacement ventilation in classrooms: pupils' perception and health2011Inngår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 454-461Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have found that indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is often poor and may affect the health of the pupils. Building ventilation is a means to reduce pollutants indoors, but different designs should be evaluated for their effectiveness in different environments. In a field experiment performed at four classrooms in one school building, air was supplied either in the mixing or in the displacement mode, and we collected information on exposures, pupils' perception of IAQ and climate, and health symptoms and performed clinical examinations. The room temperature, relative humidity, concentration of CO(2) , and cat allergen were measured at the breathing height and were similar during each ventilation mode. The children perceived IAQ were similar in the two ventilation regimes, and there were few differences in symptom reports or clinical parameters. However, the pupils reported more eye symptoms during displacement ventilation. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Both mixing and displacement ventilation may be appropriate in school classrooms as long as the overall design, ventilation rates, and maintenance of systems are satisfactory.

  • 1781.
    Smith, Michael G.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Croy, Ilona
    Tech Univ Dresden, Dept Psychotherapy & Psychosomat Med, Dresden, Germany..
    Ogren, Mikael
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hammar, Oscar
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lindberg, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Lung- allergi- och sömnforskning.
    Waye, Kerstin Persson
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Physiological effects of railway vibration and noise on sleep2017Inngår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 141, nr 5, s. 3262-3269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the relative contribution of vibration and noise from railway on physiological sleep outcomes. Vibration from railway freight often accompanies airborne noise, yet is almost totally absent in the existing literature. In an experimental investigation, 23 participants, each sleeping for six nights in the laboratory, were exposed to 36 simulated railway freight pass-bys per night with vibration alone (a(Wd,max) = 0.0204 ms(-2)), noise alone (L-AF,L-max = 49.8 dB), or both vibration and noise simultaneously. A fourth exposure night involved 52 pass-bys with concurrent vibration and noise. Sleep was measured with polysomnography. Cardiac activity was measured with electro-cardiography. The probability of cortical arousals or awakenings was greater following all exposures, including vibration alone, than spontaneous reaction probability (p < 0.05). The effects of vibration exposure and noise exposure on changes of sleep stage and arousals were directly additive. Vibration and noise exposure both induced heart rate acceleration above spontaneously expected fluctuations at baseline. The results indicate that vibration and noise are processed in the brain separately yet in parallel, with both contributing towards the likelihood of sleep disruption. The findings show that vibration is of importance when considering the impact of railway freight on sleep.

  • 1782. Soderberg, Malin
    et al.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Lundgren, Ingela
    Hildingsson, Ingegerd
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Obstetrik & gynekologi.
    Women's attitudes towards fertility and childbearing - A study based on a national sample of Swedish women validating the Attitudes to Fertility and Childbearing Scale (AFCS)2015Inngår i: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 54-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A delay in childbearing has been reported in high-resource countries. Factors reported to impact postponement include being mature enough, completing studies, and receiving a good salary. Other reasons are the partner relationship, efficient forms of contraception, value changes, housing conditions, and economic uncertainty. The aim of the study was to validate the previously developed instrument Attitudes to Fertility and Childbearing Scale (AFCS) in a sample of Swedish women and to relate the components to the women's socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: Four hundred and twenty-four women, 20-30 years of age, who were not mothers answered and returned the questionnaire. Statistical analysis was conducted; construct validity using principal comwomen's background characteristics. ponent analysis (PCA), Student's t-test, and ANOVA was performed between the three components and women's background characteristics. Results: The two components with highest loadings were Importance for future and Hindrance at present, indicating a time conflict. The third component was Female identity. The youngest women, single women, students, and women living in large cities were more likely to score high with the component Hindrance at present. Women having a partner were more likely to score high on Importance for future and Female identity. Conclusion: In this population, age, occupation, residential area, and civil (marital) status play a role in the attitudes towards fertility and childbearing. Fertility in relation to individual differences and age needs to be informed and discussed in society as well as in sexual and reproductive health care.

  • 1783.
    Sommar, Johan Nilsson
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Ek, Alexandra
    Middelveld, Roelinde
    Bjerg, Anders
    Dahlén, Sven-Erik
    Janson, Christer
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Quality of life in relation to the traffic pollution indicators NO2 and NOx: results from the Swedish GA2LEN survey2014Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 1, s. e000039-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Asthma is a chronic disease that may affect daily activities and quality of life. Asthmatics have higher incidence of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and asthma is associated with sinonasal inflammation and nasal symptoms, that all impair quality of life. Worsening of asthma has been found associated with levels of nitrogen dioxide as traffic indicator.

    Aims The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of traffic pollution indicated by nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) on quality of life in asthmatic persons, individuals with CRS and controls.

    Methods Within the Swedish Ga2len (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network), 605 asthmatics with and without CRS, 110 individuals with CRS only and 226 controls from four cities were surveyed. The mini Asthma Quality of life Questionnaire (mAQLQ) and the Euro Quality of Life (EQ-5D) health questionnaire were used. Air pollution concentrations at the home address were modelled using dispersion models.

    Results Levels of NO2 (geometric mean 10.1 μg/m3 (95% CI 9.80 to 10.5) and NOx (12.1 μg/m3, 11.7 to 12.6) were similar among conditions (controls, asthmatics, individuals with CRS and asthmatics with CRS). The mAQLQ overall score was not found associated with levels of NO2 or NOx, with or without adjustments, and neither was scores within each of the four domains of mAQLQ: symptoms, activity limitations, emotional functions and effects of environmental stimuli. The mean EQ-5D index value, based on the five dimensions mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety depression, was also found unrelated to NO2 and NOx.

    Conclusions At moderate exposure levels traffic pollution appears not to affect quality of life.

  • 1784.
    Sommar, Johan Nilsson
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hedmer, Maria
    Lundh, Thomas
    Nilsson, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Investigation of lead concentrations in whole blood, plasma and urine as biomarkers for biological monitoring of lead exposure2014Inngår i: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 51-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead in blood is a major concept in biomonitoring of exposure but investigations of its alternatives are scarce. The aim of the study was to describe different lead biomarkers' variances, day-to-day and between individuals, estimating their fraction of the total variance. Repeated sampling of whole blood, plasma and urine were conducted for 48 lead-exposed men and 20 individuals under normal environmental lead exposure, in total 603 measurements. For lead workers, the fraction of the total variance attributed to differences between individuals was 91% for whole-blood lead (geometric mean 227 μg/l; geometric standard deviation (GSD): 1.55 μg/l); plasma 78% (0.57 μg/l; GSD: 1.84 μg/l); density-adjusted urine 82%; and unadjusted urine 75% (23.7 μg/l; GSD: 2.48 μg/l). For the individuals under normal lead exposure, the corresponding fractions were 95% of the total variance for whole blood (20.7 μg/l; GSD: 8.6 μg/l), 15% for plasma (0.09 μg/l; GSD: 0.04 μg/l), 87% for creatinine-adjusted urine and 34% for unadjusted (10.8 μg/l; GSD: 6.7 μg/l). Lead concentration in whole blood is the biomarker with the best ability to discriminate between individuals with different mean concentration. Urinary and plasma lead also performed acceptably in lead workers, but at low exposures plasma lead was too imprecise. Urinary adjustments appear not to increase the between-individual fraction of the total variance among lead workers but among those with normal lead exposure.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 27 February 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.4.

  • 1785. Song, Huan
    et al.
    Fang, Fang
    Tomasson, Gunnar
    Arnberg, Filip K.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mataix-Cols, David
    Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena
    Almqvist, Catarina
    Fall, Katja
    Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A.
    Association of Stress-Related Disorders With Subsequent Autoimmune Disease2018Inngår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), ISSN 0098-7484, E-ISSN 1538-3598, Vol. 319, nr 23, s. 2388-2400Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE Psychiatric reactions to life stressors are common in the general population and may result in immune dysfunction. Whether such reactions contribute to the risk of autoimmune disease remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To determine whether there is an association between stress-related disorders and subsequent autoimmune disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Population-and sibling-matched retrospective cohort study conducted in Sweden from January 1, 1981, to December 31, 2013. The cohort included 106 464 exposed patients with stress-related disorders, with 1 064 640 matched unexposed persons and 126 652 full siblings of these patients. EXPOSURES Diagnosis of stress-related disorders, ie, posttraumatic stress disorder, acute stress reaction, adjustment disorder, and other stress reactions. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Stress-related disorder and autoimmune diseaseswere identified through the National Patient Register. The Cox model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs of 41 autoimmune diseases beyond 1 year after the diagnosis of stress-related disorders, controlling for multiple risk factors. RESULTS The median age at diagnosis of stress-related disorders was 41 years (interquartile range, 33-50 years) and 40% of the exposed patients were male. During a mean follow-up of 10 years, the incidence rate of autoimmune diseases was 9.1, 6.0, and 6.5 per 1000 person-years among the exposed, matched unexposed, and sibling cohorts, respectively (absolute rate difference, 3.12 [95% CI, 2.99-3.25] and 2.49 [95% CI, 2.23-2.76] per 1000 person-years compared with the population-and sibling-based reference groups, respectively). Compared with the unexposed population, patients with stress-related disorders were at increased risk of autoimmune disease (HR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.33-1.40]). The HRs for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder were 1.46 (95% CI, 1.32-1.61) for any and 2.29 (95% CI, 1.72-3.04) for multiple (>= 3) autoimmune diseases. These associations were consistent in the sibling-based comparison. Relative risk elevations were more pronounced among younger patients (HR, 1.48 [ 95% CI, 1.42-1.55]; 1.41 [ 95% CI, 1.33-1.48]; 1.31 [ 95% CI, 1.24-1.37]; and 1.23 [95% CI, 1.17-1.30] for age at <= 33, 34-41, 42-50, and >= 51 years, respectively; P for interaction <.001). Persistent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during the first year of posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis was associated with attenuated relative risk of autoimmune disease (HR, 3.64 [95% CI, 2.00-6.62]; 2.65 [95% CI, 1.57-4.45]; and 1.82 [95% CI, 1.09-3.02] for duration <= 179, 180-319, and >= 320 days, respectively; P for trend =.03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this Swedish cohort, exposure to a stress-related disorder was significantly associated with increased risk of subsequent autoimmune disease, compared with matched unexposed individuals and with full siblings. Further studies are needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms.

  • 1786. Sonnek, Karin Mossberg
    et al.
    Martensson, Tomas
    Veiback, Ester
    Tunved, Peter
    Grahn, Hakan
    von Schoenberg, Pontus
    Brannstrom, Niklas
    Bucht, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Swedish Def Res Agcy, Div CBRN Def & Secur, Umea, Sweden.
    The impacts of a Laki-like eruption on the present Swedish society2017Inngår i: Natural Hazards, ISSN 0921-030X, E-ISSN 1573-0840, Vol. 88, nr 3, s. 1565-1590Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyse and discuss the possible impacts on the Swedish society of a volcanic eruption on Iceland, emitting ash particles and large quantities of sulphur dioxide. A scenario was developed, based on the historical Laki eruption of 1783-1784, to describe the content of a potential sulphur fog over time in Sweden. Due to its high complexity and the many uncertainties in the underpinning scientific data, the scenario was developed using a cross-disciplinary approach incorporating experts from different scientific fields. An analysis of the impacts of the hazard on human health, environment and technical equipment was then performed and, finally, representatives from national authorities assessed the overall societal challenges in responding to the consequences of a massive volcanic eruption. The analysis shows that it is the peak concentrations of sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid rather than the longer periods of moderate concentrations that contribute most to the negative consequences for human health and environment. Altogether, three societal challenges were identified: the ability to compile and disseminate relevant information fast enough, to perform continuous measurements of concentrations of different substances in affected areas and to meet the large demand for medical care.

  • 1787.
    Sonntag-Öström, Elisabet
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forest for rest: recovery from exhaustion disorder2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Exhaustion disorder (ED) is a common mental and behavioural disorder which often leads to severe negative consequences for the individual and the society. Natural environments have positive effects on mental, physiological and attentional recovery in stressed persons, which encouraged us to test if forest visits could improve recovery from ED. The main objective of the thesis was to study if visits to different kinds of forest environments have positive health effects on patients suffering from ED, and if forest visits can be utilized for rehabilitation.

    Methods Participants in the MiniRest study (n=20) and the Pilot study (n=6) (Papers I and II) were recruited from the Stress Rehabilitation Clinic (SRC) at the University Hospital in Umeå.  Participants in the randomised controlled study, ForRest (n=99) and the Interview study (n=19) (Papers III and IV) were recruited from both the SRC and the Swedish Social Insurance Agency in Umeå. The MiniRest study involved only female ED patients and focused on immediate mental, physiological and attention capacity effects in one urban and three forest environments. The Pilot study investigated the practical arrangements for the forthcoming ForRest study. Participants in the ForRest study were randomised into either a three-month forest rehabilitation group; A (forest visits twice a week/4 hours per day) or to a control condition; B. Both groups received Cognitive Behavioural Rehabilitation (CBR) at 24 occasions/once a week after the three-month study period. Preferences for forest environments, mental state and attention capacity were studied for group A only. Psychological health measurements and sick leave data were compared between the groups after (i) the forest rehabilitation and (ii) the CBR. The Interview study was conducted according to grounded theory methodology and consisted of 19 participants from group A to explore personal experiences from the forest rehabilitation. Data collection was implemented through questionnaires, medical records, physiological measurements, and interviews.

    Results Exposure to forest environments was associated with higher preference, more favourable mental state and physiological responses, and increased attention capacity compared to an urban environment (Paper I). Open and accessible forest environments were preferred (Papers I, II and III). Recovery from ED was found in both groups in the ForRest study, but there were no differences between the groups over time. In group A, positive effects on mental state and attention capacity were found during the forest visits. An interaction effect was found with more positive effects on mental state during spring compared to autumn (Paper III). Solitude, feelings of freedom and no demands were important for finding peace of mind during the forest visits. Moreover, easier access to peace of mind, reflective thinking and positive feelings were reported as the forest rehabilitation progressed (Papers II and IV).

    Conclusions Forest visits have restorative effects for ED patients through enhanced mental well-being, easier access to peace of mind, beneficial physiological reactions and increased attention capacity which support the use of forest environments in rehabilitation. However, forest rehabilitation tested in a randomised controlled trial did not improve recovery from ED. Potentially rehabilitation with CBR and forest visits integrated could be more effective and should be further investigated in nature-assisted rehabilitation for ED patients.

  • 1788.
    Sonntag-Öström, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dolling, Ann
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Lundell, Ylva
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Nilsson, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Can rehabilitation in boreal forests help recovery from exhaustion disorder?: the randomised clinical trial ForRest2015Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 30, nr 8, s. 732-748Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern society is faced with increasing incidence of mental and behavioural disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether visits to boreal forests can be utilised for rehabilitation from exhaustion disorder (ED). This randomised controlled trial comprised of a forest rehabilitation group (n = 35) and a waiting list group (control group) (n = 43) with subsequent cognitive behavioural rehabilitation (CBR) for all participants in both groups. The recovery from ED was compared between the forest rehabilitation and the control group at baseline, after the forest rehabilitation (3 months), and at the end of the CBR (1 year). Both groups had enhanced recovery from ED after the 3-month intervention period and at the end of the CBR (1 year), and there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of psychological health measures. Mental state, attention capacity and preferences for different forest environments were studied during the forest visits. Mental state was improved, but it showed some seasonal differences. A significant effect on attention capacity was found for single forest visits, but there was no effect found for the rehabilitation period as a whole. The most popular forest environments contained easily accessible, open and bright settings with visible water and/or shelter. Forest rehabilitation did not enhance the recovery from ED compared to the control group, but the participants’ well-being was improved after single forest visits.

  • 1789.
    Sonntag-Öström, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundell, Ylva
    Dolling, Ann
    Wiklund, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Karlsson, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Restorative effects of visits to urban and forest environments in patients with exhaustion disorder2014Inngår i: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 344-354Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study investigated differences in perceived restorativeness, mood, attention capacity and physiological reactions when visiting city and forest environments. Twenty female patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder visited three different forest environments and one city environment in randomized order. They performed a standardized 90-min test procedure in each of these environments. Evaluation of the environments and psychological effects in mood were studied with self-administered questionnaires. Attention capacity was studied with Necker Cube Pattern Control task. Physiological responses were measured with regularly scheduled controls of heart rate and blood pressure, and a single test of heart rate recovery. Visits to the forest environments were perceived as significantly more restorative, enhancing mood and attention capacity compared to the city. This also applies to the results of heart rate and to some extent to the results of the diastolic blood pressure. The results from this experimental study support our hypothesis that short visits to forest environments enhance both psychological and physiological recovery and that visits to forest environments are likely to be beneficial when suffering from exhaustion disorder. 

  • 1790.
    Sonntag-Öström, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundell, Ylva
    Brännström, Rigmor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Dolling, Ann
    Can the boreal forest be used for rehabilitation and recovery from stress-related exhaustion? A pilot study.2011Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 245-256Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that humans suffering from mental exhaustion recover better in environments that do not demand directed attention. Hence, we hypothesized that forests have restorative effects and examined whether the boreal forest in northern Sweden can be used for rehabilitation from stress-related exhaustion in a pilot study. Six participants suffering from stress-related exhaustion were offered visits twice a week, for 11 weeks, in six different forest settings: pine forest, mixed forest, spruce forest, forest by the lake, the forest with a small stream and rock outcrops. The participants chose one forest setting prior to each visit, and the mental state of each participant was evaluated before and after each visit. Interviews focusing on the experience of the forest were conducted after the 22 visits. Solitude and forest settings with light were identified as positive factors for recovery. Despite the limited amount of data, the results showed that the forest visits had significant positive effects on the participants' mental state. The interviews also indicated that the concept is suitable for use in larger randomized studies and that it is important to provide various forest settings to meet individual preferences of the participants and to offer the possibility of solitude.

  • 1791.
    Sonntag-Öström, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Stenlund, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundell, Ylva
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Annchristine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Dolling, Ann
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    “Nature's effect on my mind”: patients’ qualitative experiences of a forest-based rehabilitation programme2015Inngår i: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 607-614Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the personal experiences and perceived effects on mind from visits to forest environments in a subset of patients with severe exhaustion disorder (ED), who participated in a randomized controlled trial for evaluation of forest-based rehabilitation.

    Participants: A subsample of 19 patients with diagnosed ED, who completed the three-month forest-based rehabilitation programme in the ForRest project, was interviewed. Method: The forest-based rehabilitation consisted of repeated forest visits with the main objective of spending time in rest and solitude in a chosen forest setting. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and analysed using Grounded Theory.

    Result: A core category and five subcategories were set up to describe the patients’ experiences and development during the forest-based rehabilitation. As patients mostly reported that they strove to achieve peace of mind during the forest visits, Striving for serenity was chosen to be the core category. At first the patients were frustrated when left alone with their own thoughts in an unfamiliar forest environment. They gradually became familiar with the forest environments and also found their favourite places where they experienced peace of mind. They were then able to rest and begin reflective thinking about their life situation, which led to ambitions to change it.The preferred forest environments were characterised by openness, light and a good view, and were felt to be undemanding, peaceful and stimulating.

    Conclusion: Visits to the forest provided favourite places for rest, were experienced as restorative, seemed to improved reflection and may have contributed to starting the coping process for these patients. However, forest visits, as the only treatment option, are not sufficient as rehabilitation from severe and long-term ED. We suggest that forest visits should be integrated with cognitive behavioural therapy to further improve the recovery and enhance coping in daily life for these patients.

  • 1792.
    Sonntag-Öström, Elisabet
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Stenlund, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundell, Ylva
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Dolling, Ann
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    "Nature's effect on my mind". Patients' experiences of nature based rehabilitation: a qualitative inquiry.2015Inngår i: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 607-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1793. Sorensen, Julie A
    et al.
    Jenkins, Paul L
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Earle-Richardson, Giulia B
    May, John J
    The social marketing of safety behaviors: a quasi-randomized controlled trial of tractor retrofitting incentives2011Inngår i: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 101, nr 4, s. 678-684Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. We assessed the effect of social marketing incentives on dispositions toward retrofitting and retrofitting behavior among farmers whose tractors lacked rollover protective structures.

    Methods. From 2006 to 2007, we conducted a quasi-randomized controlled trial with 391 farm owners in New York and Pennsylvania surveyed before and after exposure to 1 of 3 tractor retrofitting incentive combinations. These combinations were offered in 3 trial regions; region 1 received rebates; region 2 received rebates, messages, and promotion and was considered the social marketing region; and region 3 received messages and promotion. A fourth region served as a control.

    Results. The social marketing region generated the greatest increases in readiness to retrofit, intentions to retrofit, and message recall. In addition, postintervention stage of change, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control levels were higher among farmers who had retrofitted tractors.

    Conclusions. Our results showed that a social marketing approach (financial incentives, tailored messages, and promotion) had the greatest influence on message recall, readiness to retrofit tractors, and intentions to retrofit tractors and that behavioral measures were fairly good predictors of tractor retrofitting behaviors.

  • 1794.
    Sovio, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
    Jones, Rebecca
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
    Dos Santos Silva, Isabel
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Birth size and survival in breast cancer patients from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Study2013Inngår i: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 24, nr 9, s. 1643-1651Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Previous studies suggest that larger birth size is associated with a higher breast cancer incidence, but studies on birth measures and mortality in breast cancer cases are scarce. This study investigates survival of women after breast cancer diagnosis (n = 437) in the Uppsala Birth Cohort born in 1915–1929.

    Methods

    Cox regression was used to analyze mortality from any cause after a breast cancer diagnosis. Birth measures including gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), BW for GA, birth length, and ponderal index (PI) were converted to standard deviation (SD) scores, and all analyses were adjusted for age and calendar time at diagnosis. Analyses were performed with and without adjustment for other birth measures, reproductive history, and adult socioeconomic position.

    Results

    In fully adjusted analyses, one SD increase in GA was associated with 17 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 6–26 %] lower mortality and one SD increase in BW was associated with 29 % (7–56 %) higher mortality. PI showed a weaker trend in the same direction: hazard ratio = 1.16 (95 % CI 1.03–1.30).

    Conclusions

    Our results bring in new evidence that both high GA and low BW predict a better survival in breast cancer cases. Further studies need to investigate mediation of these associations.

  • 1795.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Sit-stand desks with reminder prompts and semi-automated position changes2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1796.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Cantu, Hiram
    Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University.
    Cote, Julie
    Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University.
    Fatigue-induced increase in movement variability does not come at a cost of worse performance in a repetitive pointing task2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuromuscular strategies employed in multijoint movements during repetitive motion-induced fatigue are still unclear, and movement variability may present a novel way to understand the compensatory control mechanisms that occur during fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess changes in shoulder and elbow joint kinematic variabilities and shoulder-elbow coordination variability associated with neck-shoulder fatigue, and whether these changes affected the spatio-temporal aspects of task performance. Nineteen healthy young adults continuously performed a repetitive pointing task between two targets placed in front of them at shoulder height at 1 Hz until fatigue (Borg CR10 rating of 8). Shoulder and elbow kinematics were recorded and used to compute shoulder abduction-adduction and elbow flexion-extension joint angles, and fingertip trajectories were used to compute the movement time and 3D spatial coordinates of the endpoint in each repetitive pointing movement cycle. Cycle-to-cycle movement variability of the shoulder and elbow joint angles from 15 consecutive forward pointing movements and cycle-to-cycle variability of continuous relative phase between the shoulder and elbow joint angles were compared between the first (baseline) and last (fatigue-terminal) minutes of performance. Shoulder kinematic variability and shoulder-elbow coordination variability were found to significantly increase with fatigue (by 60% and 30% of their respective baseline values). However, movement timing errors and spatial variability of the endpoint were found to be unchanged with fatigue. Results suggest that fatigue-related increase in shoulder variability may have been compensated by changes in shoulder-elbow coordination with an overall task performance objective and associated hierarchical control mechanisms.

  • 1797.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Motor variability in occupational health and performance2012Inngår i: Clinical Biomechanics, ISSN 0268-0033, E-ISSN 1879-1271, Vol. 27, nr 10, s. 979-993Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent reviews have reported that 'repetitive movements' is a risk factor for occupational musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the neck, shoulder and arm regions. More variation in biomechanical exposure is often suggested as an effective intervention in such settings. Since increasing variation using extrinsic methods like job rotation may not always be possible in an industrial context, the intrinsic variability of the motor system may offer an alternative opportunity to increase variation. Motor variability (MV) refers to the natural variation in postures, movements and muscle activity observed to different extents in all tasks. The current review discusses relevant MV research appearing in motor control, sports sciences and occupational biomechanics literature to answer whether MV is important to consider in an occupational context, and if yes, whether it can be manipulated by training the worker or changing the working conditions so as to increase biomechanical variation without jeopardizing production

  • 1798.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Motor variability – an important issue in occupational life2012Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, nr Suppl. 1, s. 2527-2534Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent reviews have reported that ‘repetitive movements’ is a risk factor for occupational musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the neck, shoulder and arm regions. More variation in biomechanical exposure is often suggested as an effective intervention in such settings. While increasing variation using extrinsic methods like job rotation may not always be possible in an industrial context, the intrinsic variability of the motor system may offer an alternative opportunity to increase variation. Motor variability (MV) refers to the natural variation in postures, movements and muscle activity observed to different extents in all tasks. The current review explores the state of the art in MV research from motor control, sports and occupational biomechanics literature to answer whether MV is important to consider in an occupational context, and if yes, whether this literature stimulates further studies to test if MV can be manipulated as a deliberate intervention for increasing biomechanical variation without jeopardizing production.

  • 1799.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The consistency across days of motor variability in repetitive pipetting2013Inngår i: Eighth International Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders; Abstracts, 2013, s. 56-57Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1800.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The effect of combining physical and cognitive loads on motor variability in a standardised repetitive precision task2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne 9-14 August, 2015 / [ed] Gitte Lindgaard & Dave Moore, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
33343536373839 1751 - 1800 of 2165
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