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  • 1751.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Törner, Marianne
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Risk and safety communication in small enterprises: how to support a lasting change towards safety priority2006Inngår i: Proceedings of New Perspectives on Risk communication, a Multi-Disciplinary International Research Conference, 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1752.
    Steele, Hannah Steele
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Sambandet mellan transaktionellt– och transformellt ledarskap, hälsa och produktivitet: En kvantitativ enkätstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:I takt med att konkurrensen på arbetsmarknaden ökat, har även ohälsa och sjukfrånvaron bland medarbetare blivit högre. The Full Range Leadership Model består av ledarskapsstilarna transaktionellt och transformellt ledarskap. Forskning har visat att chefers ledarskapsbeteende har ett samband med medarbetarnas hälsa vilket gör det viktigt att kartlägga betydelsen av olika ledarskapsbeteenden för att bibehålla och öka medarbetarnas hälsa.Arbetsmiljön är en viktig aspekt att ta hänsyn till vid produktionsbortfall eftersom upplevda arbetsmiljöproblem kan påverka medarbetarnas prestation negativt. Sambandet mellan transaktionellt- och transformellt ledarskap och produktionsbortfall på grund av arbetsmiljöproblem är ännu inte kartlagt.

    Syfte:Syftet med studien var att undersöka sambandet mellan transaktionellt och transformellt ledarskap och hälsa samt produktionsbortfall på grund av arbetsmiljöproblem. 

    Metod:Designen var en tvärsnittsstudie och datainsamlingen skedde via en elektronisk enkät. Totalt besvarade 101 individer enkäten. För att mäta hälsa användes en fråga om allmän hälsa ur SF36. Produktionsbortfall på grund av arbetsmiljöproblem mättes med två frågor. Ledarskapsstil mättes med en modifierad version av Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Initialt gjordes en korrelationsanalys med Pearson produktmomentskoefficent för att se vilka oberoende och bakomliggande variabler som hade ett linjärt samband med hälsa respektive produktionsbortfall på grund av arbetsmiljöproblem.En linjär multipel regressionsanalys användes för att besvara första frågeställningen. 

    Resultat:Transformellt ledarskap hade ett samband med hälsa (b= 0,34, p = 0.02)men inte transaktionellt ledarskap. Transformellt ledarskap var den enda variabeln som hade ett linjärt samband med produktionsbortfall på grund av arbetsmiljöproblem. Däremot var den inte statistiskt signifikant när alfanivån sänktes till 0,05. 

    Slutsats:Resultatet indikerar på att en ledare bör praktisera ett transformellt ledarskap för att främja medarbetarnas hälsa. 

  • 1753.
    Stenberg, Berndt
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Edvardsson, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Sjuka hus-syndromet och kroniska hälsoproblem: en studie i varför vissa blir långvarigt sjuka och arbetsoförmögna av dålig inomhusluft2012Inngår i: Byggnadsrelaterad ohälsa i Kvarkenregionen: nio delprojekt om miljökänslighet, luftkvalitet och sjuka hus ur ett tvärvetenskapligt perspektiv : slutrapport för projektet Kompetenscentrum Byggnad - Luftkvalitet - Hälsa 2 (KLUCK 2) / [ed] Martina Österberg, Vasa: Yrkeshögskolan Novia , 2012, s. 45-51Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I västvärlden vistas människor inomhus eller inne i olika transportfordon under större delen av dygnet, vilket innebär att inomhusmiljön kan ha en betydande inverkan på människors hälsa, välbefinnande och arbetsförmåga. Ett hälsoproblem som kan uppkomma i miljöer med dålig luftkvalitet brukar benämnas sjuka hus-syndromet eller SBS efter det engelska uttrycket Sick Building Syndrome. Vår undersökning inom KLUCK 2 fokuserade på patienter som remitterats till Norrlands Universitetssjukhus på grund av symptom som har samband med sjuka hus. Vi ville veta hur det går för patienterna i ett längre perspektiv och förstå varför vissa patienter utvecklar kroniska besvär.

  • 1754. Stenholm, Sari
    et al.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Salo, Paula
    Hyde, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Head, Jenny
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Age-related trajectories of physical functioning in work and retirement: the role of sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and disease2014Inngår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 68, nr 6, s. 503-509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Loss of physical functioning is an early marker of declining health in older people. The objective of this study was to examine the age-related trajectories of physical functioning among those in full-time work and retirement. Methods Based on the Health and Retirement Study, participants who were working full-time or were in full-time retirement and 65-85 years of age during the follow-up period from 1992 to 2010 were included (n=17 844, n of observations from repeated measures in full-time work 5891 and in retirement 57 117). Details of physical functioning were asked about at all study phases and 10 items related to mobility and activities of daily living were summed to obtain a physical functioning score (0-10). Results The number of physical functioning difficulties increased every 10 years by 0.17 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.29) when in full-time work and by 0.46 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.50) in retirement after adjusting for age, sex, race, education, total wealth, Body Mass Index, smoking, physical activity and number of diseases. Factors that were associated with a significantly greater increase in number of physical functioning difficulties in full-time work and retirement include lifestyle-related risks and chronic conditions. Conclusions Physical functioning declines faster in retirement than in full-time work in employees aged 65 years or older and the difference is not explained by absence of chronic diseases and lifestyle-related risks.

  • 1755.
    Stenlund, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Burell, Gunilla
    Knutsson, Anders
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Medicin.
    Birgander, Lisbeth Slunga
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Patients with burnout in relation to gender and a general population2007Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 35, nr 5, s. 516-523Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aims of this study were to describe gender differences in patients with burnout and compare these patients with a general population with respect to physical, psychosocial and work variables. Methods: Data were collected from a total of 136 patients (96 women and 40 men, 41,6 ± 7,4 years), diagnosed with stress-related disease and burnout at the Stress Clinic, University Hospital of Umeå. Data on burnout, physical, psychosocial and work characteristics were compared with similar data from a geographical and age-matched population based survey, the 2004 Northern Sweden MONICA study. The survey sample included a total of 573 participants (283 women and 290 men, 40,7 ± 8,5 years). Results: Women with burnout reported a higher rate of impaired awakening, lower job control, greater proportion of unpaid work and worked to a greater extent ``with people'' compared to men. Men with burnout had a more restricted social network and reported working more overtime than women. Patients with burnout reported a higher rate of unemployment, a more restricted social network and higher work demands compared to a general population. Women with burnout reported less emotional support, a more sedentary work situation, high job strain and worked to a greater extent ``with people'' than women from the general population. Conclusions: There are some differences in working conditions and social network between women and men with burnout. Patients with burnout differ from a general population regarding individual and social factors as well as work-related factors.

  • 1756.
    Stenlund, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Burell, Gunilla
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, University of Uppsala.
    Steinholtz, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Edlund, Curt
    Nilsson, Leif
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University.
    Slunga Birgander, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Cognitively oriented behavioral rehabilitation in combination with Qigong for patients on long-term sick leave because of burnout: REST - a randomized clinical trial2009Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 294-303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Despite an increase in the occurrence of burnout, there is no agreement on what kind of rehabilitation these patients should be offered.

    Purpose

    Primary aim of this study was to evaluate effects on psychological variables and sick leave rates by two different group rehabilitation programs for patients on long-term sick leave because of burnout. Rehabilitation program A (Cognitively oriented Behavioral Rehabilitation (CBR) and Qigong) was compared with rehabilitation program B (Qigong only).

    Method

    In a randomized clinical trial, 96 women and 40 men with a mean age of 41.6 ± 7.4 years were allocated to one of the two rehabilitation programs.

    Results

    A per-protocol analysis showed no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the groups. Both groups improved significantly over time with reduced levels of burnout, self-rated stress behavior, fatigue, depression, anxiety, obsessive–compulsive symptoms, and sick leave rates. In an intention-to-treat analysis, patients in program A had fewer obsessive–compulsive symptoms and larger effect sizes in self-rated stress behavior and obsessive–compulsive symptoms compared to patients in program B.

    Conclusion

    This study showed no differences in effect between CBR and Qigong compared with Qigong only in a per-protocol analysis. Both rehabilitation programs showed positive effect for patients with burnout.

  • 1757.
    Stenlund, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Järvholm, Lisbeth Slunga
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Effects of rehabilitation programmes for patients on long-term sick leave for burnout: A 3-year follow-up of the REST study.2012Inngår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 44, nr 8, s. 684-690Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term effects of two different rehabilitation programmes for patients on long-term sick leave for burnout. Design: Three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial with two 1-year group programmes: (A) cognitively oriented behavioural rehabilitation in combination with Qigong; and (B) Qigong alone. Patients: A total of 107 patients with burnout (78 women and 29 men), who all completed the 1-year rehabilitation programme per-protocol, were asked to participate in the follow-up. Methods: At the 3-year follow-up, data on psychological measures, sick leave and use of medication were compared between the programmes. Results: Patients in programme A reported being significantly more recovered from their burnout (p = 0.02), reported lower levels of burnout (p = 0.035), used more cognitive tools learned from the programme (p < 0.001), and had reduced their use of medication for depression (p = 0.002). No significant differences were found between the groups in terms of sick leave rates; both groups had improved. Conclusion: A multimodal rehabilitation including cognitively oriented behavioural rehabilitation and Qigong showed positive effects 3 years after the end of intervention. The results indicate that, for many burnout patients on sick-leave, it takes time to implement cognitive tools and to establish new behaviours.

  • 1758. Stigell, Erik
    et al.
    Schantz, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm SE-114 86, Sweden .
    Active commuting behaviors in a Nordic metropolitan setting in relation to modality, gender, and health recommendations2015Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, nr 12, s. 15626-15648Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interestingsource of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviorsis meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm,Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjustedmaps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in menand women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) anddual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observedin trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met theminimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-modepedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physicalactivity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year, whereas the single-mode cyclists did so onlyduring spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 230–390) adds tothe value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, bothwalking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year.

  • 1759. Stijnen, Pieter
    et al.
    Tuand, Krizia
    Varga, Tibor V.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Genet & Mol Epidemiol Unit, Malmo, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp Malmo, Malmo, Sweden; Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Aertgeerts, Bert
    Creemers, John W. M.
    RE: "The Association of Common Variants in PCSK1 With Obesity: A HuGE Review and Meta-Analysis" REPLY2015Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 181, nr 9, s. 733-735Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1760. Stijnen, Pieter
    et al.
    Tuand, Krizia
    Varga, Tibor V.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Aertgeerts, Bert
    Creemers, John W. M.
    The Association of Common Variants in PCSK1 With Obesity: A HuGE Review and Meta-Analysis2014Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 180, nr 11, s. 1051-1065Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Congenital deficiency of the proprotein convertase subtilisine/kexin type 1 gene (PCSK1), which encodes proprotein convertase 1/3, causes a severe multihormonal disorder marked by early-onset obesity. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs6232 and rs6234-rs6235 in PCSK1 have been associated with obesity. However, case-control studies carried out in populations of different ethnicities have only partly replicated this association. Moreover, these SNPs have only weakly been associated with body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) at a genome-wide level of significance. To investigate this discrepancy, we conducted a systematic search for studies published before December 2013 and extracted relevant data. Pooled estimates were calculated for overall and subgroup analyses. This meta-analysis confirmed the association of PCSK1 SNPs with obesity and provides the first evidence that the association between PCSK1 rs6232 and obesity is stronger for childhood obesity than for adult obesity. Moreover, we identified weak associations with body mass index and significantly stronger associations with waist circumference for rs6234-rs6235. No difference was found in the association with different obesity grades, and no association of PCSK1 rs6234-rs6235 with obesity was identified in Asian populations. This systematic Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) review showed convincingly that the SNPs rs6232, rs6234, and rs6235 in PCSK1 are associated with obesity in Caucasians.

  • 1761.
    Stjernbrandt, Albin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Björ, Bodil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Liljelind, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Neurovascular hand symptoms in relation to cold exposure in northern Sweden: a population-based study2017Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 90, nr 7, s. 587-595Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To describe the self-reported ambient cold exposure in northern Sweden and to relate the level of cumulative cold exposure to the occurrence of sensory and vascular hand symptoms. We hypothesize that cold exposure is positively related to reporting such symptoms.

    METHODS: A questionnaire about cold exposure and related symptoms was sent out to 35,144 subjects aged 18-70 years and living in northern Sweden.

    RESULTS: A total of 12,627 out of 35,144 subjects returned the questionnaire (response rate 35.9%). Subjects living in the rural alpine areas reported more extensive cold exposure both during work and leisure time compared to the urbanized coastal regions. Frostbite in the hands was present in 11.4% of men and 7.1% of women, cold sensitivity was present in 9.7 and 14.4%, and Raynaud's phenomenon was present in 11.0% of men and 14.0% of women. There was a positive association between cumulative cold exposure and neurovascular hand symptoms.

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that the cold environment in northern Sweden might be an underestimated health risk. Our hypothesis that cold exposure is positively related to reporting of neurovascular hand symptoms was supported by our findings. In addition, such symptoms were common not only in conjunction with an overt cold injury. Our results warrant further study on pathophysiological mechanisms and suggest the need for confirmatory prevalence studies to support national public health planning.

  • 1762.
    Stjernbrandt, Albin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Björ, Bodil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Liljelind, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Kyla och hälsa i Norrland: deskriptiva data från enkätundersökning februari - maj 20152015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1763.
    Stjernbrandt, Albin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Carlsson, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Pettersson, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Liljelind, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Cold sensitivity and associated factors: a nested case–control study performed in Northern Sweden2018Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, nr 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To identify possible risk factors for cold sensitivity, by comparing cases to controls with regard to demographic and anthropometric characteristics, previous illnesses and injuries as well as ambient exposures.

    Methods Through a questionnaire responded to by the general population (n=12,627) cold sensitivity cases (n=502) and matched controls (n=1,004) were identified and asked to respond to a second questionnaire with focus on different aspects of cold sensitivity, hereditary factors, previous diseases, medication, tobacco use as well as exposure to ambient cold climate and hand-arm vibration (HAV).

    Results In total, 997 out of 1506 study subjects answered the second questionnaire, 374 cases and 623 match controls. Identified risk factors among the cases were frostbite of the hands Odds Ratio (OR) 10.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.5-19.3), rheumatic disease OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.7-5.7), upper extremity nerve injury OR 2.0 (95% CI 1.3-3.0), and vascular disease OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.9). Sex differences in risk factors were HAV exposure for men and cold exposure for women increased the risk of cold sensitivity. Rheumatic diseases and migraine increased the risk of cold sensitivity among women but not among men.

    Conclusions The present study shows that cold sensitivity is associated with both inherent factors, acquired conditions and external exposures. Among acquired conditions, frostbite, vascular disease, nerve injury, joint disorders and migraine are significantly related to the reporting of cold sensitivity. Among external exposures, both cold climate and HAV exposure are significantly associated to cold sensitivity, and thus suitable targets for primary preventive measures. There was a difference in risk factors related to sex. HAV exposure for men and cold exposure for women increased the risk of cold sensitivity.

  • 1764.
    Stocks, Tanja
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Urologi och andrologi.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Urologi och andrologi.
    [Healthy life style seems to reduce the risk of cancer. New support for the hypothesis that overweight and high blood glucose increase the cancer risk]2007Inngår i: Lakartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 104, nr 51-52, s. 3867-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1765. Storaas, Torgeir
    et al.
    Zock, Jan-Paul
    Morano, Ana Espinosa
    Holm, Mathias
    Bjørnsson, Eythor
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Janson, Christer
    Norback, Dan
    Omenaas, Ernst
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    Torén, Kjell
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Incidence of rhinitis and asthma related to welding in Northern Europe2015Inngår i: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 46, nr 5, s. 1290-1297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Welding-related asthma is well recognised but less is known about rhinitis in relation to welding. The aim here, was to study associations between welding, rhinitis and asthma in a general population sample, and factors influencing selection into and out of a welding occupation.Adult-onset asthma and non-infectious rhinitis were investigated in the international multicentre population-based Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) study, including 16 191 responders aged 26-54 years. Ever welding (n=2181), welding >25% of working time (n=747), and welding in stainless steel >6 months (n=173) were assessed by questionnaire. Subjects with rhinitis or asthma onset when aged <18 years were excluded. Incidence rates for asthma and rhinitis were calculated from year of disease onset, and start and end of welding job. Cox's proportional hazard models adjusting for age, sex, parental education and study centre, and Kaplan-Meier curves were used.Rhinitis incidence was higher among welders (hazard ratio (HR) 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), consistent in men and women, and across centres (pheterogeneity=0.4). In men, asthma incidence was higher among welders (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.04-1.97). Quitting welding was indicated higher after adult-onset rhinitis (HR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3).Adult-onset rhinitis and asthma was higher among welders, consistent across population samples from Northern Europe. No pre-employment selection was found, whereas selection out of welding jobs was suggested.

  • 1766.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Sit-stand desks and sedentary behavior in Swedish call centre workers2012Inngår i: Be active 2012, 2012, s. S94-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Adults spend approximately 8 to 9 hours of the day in sedentary behavior and much of this is gathered at work. The rising level of occupational sedentary behavior is both a public health and occupational health concern due to the emerging evidence regarding the deleterious effect that sedentary behavior has on health, independent of physical activity. In the occupational setting, sit-stand desks have been purported to offer a means of reducing sedentariness. This study aimed to investigate whether or not use of sit-stand desks and awareness of the importance of postural variation and breaks are associated with the pattern of sedentary behavior in call centre workers.

    Method: The data came from a cross-sectional observation study of fifteen Swedish call centres, carried out in 2002–2003. Ten operators were randomly selected from each of the call centres and invited to participate. Inclinometers recorded ‘seated’ or ‘standing/walking’ episodes of the operators over a full work shift. Differences in sedentary behavior based on desk type (categorized as ‘sit-stand’ or ‘sit’) and awareness of the importance of posture variation and breaking up seated computer work within those using a sit-stand desk were assessed by non-parametric analyses.

    Results: Four operators declined to participate and 15 operators had inclinometer recordings that were not of sufficient quality. Of the remaining 131 operators, 90 (68.7%) worked at a sit-stand desk. Working at a sit-stand desk, as opposed to a sit desk, was associated with a modest reduction in the time seated (78.5 vs 83.8%, p = 0.010), and less time taken to accumulate 5 minutes of standing/walking (36.2 vs 46.3 minutes, p = 0.022), but no significant difference to sitting episode length or the number of switches between sitting and standing/walking per hour. Ergonomics awareness had no significant association with any sedentary behavior pattern variable among those using a sit-stand desk.

    Conclusion: Use of sit-stand desks was associated with better sedentary behavior in call centre workers, however ergonomics awareness did not enhance the effect. The growing number of people in occupations dominated by sedentary work and the clear evidence of the importance of sedentary behavior as a key lifestyle risk factor support the need to develop effective interventions. Sit-stand desks may be an important remedy in this endeavor, particularly in office settings, while ergonomics awareness may be able to contribute to further changes in sedentary behavior if improved and supported by the work organization.

  • 1767.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy, Curtin University, Perth.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sit-stand desks, ergonomics awareness and sedentariness in Swedish call centres2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1768.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Teaching our children to sit or be active? Sedentary behavior, light activity and moderate/vigorous activity at and away from school2012Inngår i: 4th International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, National Sports Injury Prevention Conference Abstracts, 2012, s. S280-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sedentary behavior in children is associated with poor health whilst moderate/vigorous activity is associated with better health. The school setting may be an opportunity to reduce sedentariness and enhance physical activity, yet concerns have been raised that children may be more sedentary at school. This paper examined activity patterns, including both sedentary time and time in health enhancing physical activity, in children across their typical week.

    Methods: Sixty-six 10–12 year old children were recruited from 48 schools in the Perth metropolitan area as part of a randomized controlled study (Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 12609000279224) investigating the effects of electronic games on physical activity. The data for this paper come from their baseline assessment, which all occurred during school term time. Children wore an Actical accelerometer on their hip for one week. Time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activity was assessed. School day and weekend day activity patterns were examined along with activity patterns both in (school time) and out of school (non-school-time) on school days.

    Results: Valid (at least 4 days) accelerometer data were available on 53 children (28 girls). The average time of accelerometer recording per day was 822 ± 71 minutes (13.7 hours). Accumulated time in sedentary behavior was similar on school days and weekend days (mean [SD]: 64.4%[5.3] vs 64.9%[9.0], p = 0.686). Children were more likely to reach physical activity guidelines on school days than at the weekend (47.7% v 22.2%, p < 0.001) and spend more time in brief–less than 5 minutes–bursts of activity of any intensity (35.3%[5.1] vs 32.6%[6.9], p = 0.002). However, children spent a higher proportion of time in sedentary behavior (66.8%[7.3] vs 62.4%[5.2], p < 0.001), and significantly more time in extended sedentariness–sedentary for more than thirty minutes or more (75.6mins[45.8] vs 45.0 mins[26.8], p < 0.002)–within school time compared to non-school time.

    Discussion: Children spent a considerable proportion of their school or non-school day in sedentary behavior, and routinely spent over two hours of each day in extended sedentary behavior. School should be a place where children learn healthful habits, and whilst it appears to be associated with better moderate/vigorous physical activity exposure it was associated with poorer extended sedentary exposure. Increasing moderate/vigorous physical activity and reducing time spent in sedentary behavior both in and out of school remains an important challenge.

  • 1769.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth.
    Hall, Caitlin
    The University of Queensland, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, Brisbane.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
    Huijsmans, Maaike
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Gilson, Nicholas
    The University of Queensland, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, Brisbane.
    Blue‐collar worker sedentary exposure at work and non‐work: systematic review of studies using objective measurement2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1770.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    The Goldilocks Principle: Innovative work design for improved health2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1771.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy, Curtin University of Technology, Perth Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Increased physical work loads in modern work - a necessity for better health and performance?2009Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 52, nr 10, s. 1215-1225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifting workforce proportions to sedentary occupations and technology developments in traditionally physically demanding occupations have resulted in low physical workloads for many workers. Insufficient physical stress is known to have detrimental short- and long-term effects on health and physical capacity. It is argued herein that many modern workers are at risk of insufficient physical workload. Further, it is argued that the traditional physical ergonomics paradigm of reducing risk by reducing physical loads ('less is better') is not appropriate for many modern occupations. It is proposed that a new paradigm is required, where 'more can be better'. The potential for work to be seen as an arena for improving physical health and capability is discussed and the types of changes to work that may be required are outlined. The paper also discusses challenges and responsibilities presented by this new paradigm for ergonomists, employers, health and safety authorities and the community. The majority of workers in affluent communities now face the significant threat to health of insufficient physical workload. Ergonomics can design work to a prescription that can not only reduce injury risk but enhance health and capacity. However, this will require a change in paradigm.

  • 1772.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The ‘Goldilocks Principle’: designing physical activity at work to be ‘just right’ for promoting health2018Inngår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, nr 13, s. 818-819Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1773. Strandell, Johanna
    et al.
    Caster, Ola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Hopstadius, Johan
    Edwards, I. Ralph
    Noren, G. Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    The Development and Evaluation of Triage Algorithms for Early Discovery of Adverse Drug Interactions2013Inngår i: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942, Vol. 36, nr 5, s. 371-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Around 20 % of all adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are due to drug interactions. Some of these will only be detected in the postmarketing setting. Effective screening in large collections of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) requires automated triages to identify signals of adverse drug interactions. Research so far has focused on statistical measures, but clinical information and pharmacological characteristics are essential in the clinical assessment and may be of great value in first-pass filtering of potential adverse drug interaction signals. Objective The aim of this study was to develop triages for adverse drug interaction surveillance, and to evaluate these prospectively relative to clinical assessment. Methods A broad set of variables were considered for inclusion in the triages, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity, explicit suspicions of drug interactions as noted by the reporter, dose and treatment overlap, and a measure of interaction disproportionality. Their unique contributions in predicting signals of adverse drug interactions were determined through logistic regression. This was based on the reporting in the WHO global ICSR database, VigiBase (TM), for a set of known adverse drug interactions and corresponding negative controls. Three triages were developed, each producing an estimated probability that a given drug-drug-ADR triplet constitutes an adverse drug interaction signal. The triages were evaluated against two separate benchmarks derived from expert clinical assessment: adverse drug interactions known in the literature and prospective adverse drug interaction signals. For reference, the triages were compared with disproportionality analysis alone using the same benchmarks. Results The following were identified as valuable predictors of adverse drug interaction signals: plausible CYP metabolism; notes of suspected interaction by the reporter; and reports of unexpected therapeutic response, altered therapeutic effect with dose information and altered therapeutic effect when only two drugs had been used. The new triages identified reporting patterns corresponding to both prospective signals of adverse drug interactions and already established ones. They perform better than disproportionality analysis alone relative to both benchmarks. Conclusions A range of predictors for adverse drug interaction signals have been identified. They substantially improve signal detection capacity compared with disproportionality analysis alone. The value of incorporating clinical and pharmacological information in first-pass screening is clear.

  • 1774.
    Strandmark K, Margaretha
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Rahm, GullBritt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Rystedt, Ingrid
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Preventive Strategies and Processes to Counteract Bullying in Health Care Settings: Focus Group Discussions.2016Inngår i: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 113-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore preventive strategies and processes to counteract bullying in workplaces. Data were collected by individual interviews and focus group discussions at one hospital and two nursing home wards for elderly, a total of 29 participants. In the analysis of the interviews we were inspired by constructivist grounded theory. Persistent work with a humanistic value system by supervisor and coworkers, raising awareness about the bullying problem, strong group collaboration, and conflict management, along with an open atmosphere at the workplace, appears to be imperative for accomplishing a policy of zero tolerance for bullying.

  • 1775.
    Stratimirovic, Dj.
    et al.
    Faculty of Stomatology, Department of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro.
    Milosevic, S.
    Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro.
    Blesic, S.
    Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory for Neurophysiology, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro.
    Ljubisavljevic, M.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wavelet transform analysis of time series generated by the stimulated neuronal activity2007Inngår i: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 374, nr 2, s. 699-706Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the stimulated discharge dynamics of fusimotor neurons by applying the wavelet transform technique and by adopting that the neuronal discharge dynamics is manifested by the random time series of interspike intervals. We found two different power-law type behaviors along interspike intervals (ISI) time scale (which implies existence of two different types of neuronal noise), which are separated by a crossover region. Our results reveal that complex neuronal dynamics, in the presence of external stimulation, is manifested with long-range correlated noise in the region before the crossover, on the ISI time scale.

  • 1776. Stridsman, Caroline
    et al.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Eklund, Britt-Marie
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Adolescent girls with asthma have worse asthma control and health-related quality of life than boys-A population based study2017Inngår i: Pediatric Pulmonology, ISSN 8755-6863, E-ISSN 1099-0496, Vol. 52, nr 7, s. 866-872Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies investigating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among asthmatic adolescents are rare. Further, among subjects with asthma, HRQoL may be affected by asthma control and severity.

    AIM: To investigate HRQoL in relation to asthma control and asthma severity among adolescents.

    METHOD: As a part of the population-based OLIN pediatric study, 266 adolescents with current asthma (14-15 yr) were identified. N = 247 completed the DISABKIDS HRQoL asthma module, including the domains impact and worry. The Asthma Control Test (ACT) was used and a disease severity score was calculated based on symptoms and medicine use.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of current asthma was 11%. Well-controlled asthma was reported by 15% of the adolescents, and 53% had partly controlled asthma. The prevalence of uncontrolled asthma was significantly higher among girls than boys (38% vs 25%), and girls also reported lower HRQoL scores. There was a fairly strong correlation between the ACT and DISABKIDS scores. Independent risk factors for low HRQoL impact (a score <67) were female sex (OR 4.66, 95%CI 1.82-9.54) and decreased ACT scores (1.38, 1.18-1.62). Risk factors for low HRQoL worry (a score <70) were female sex (3.33, 1.41-7.86), decreased ACT scores (1.35, 1.16-1.57), severe asthma (6.23, 1.46-16.50), and having current eczema (2.68, 1.00-7.24).

    CONCLUSION: Only a minority of the asthmatic adolescents reported well-controlled asthma, and poor asthma control and female sex were risk factors for low HRQoL. Our results demonstrate that evaluation of asthma control is of great importance for asthma management.

  • 1777. Stridsman, Caroline
    et al.
    Dahlberg, Elisabeth
    Zandrén, Karin
    Hedman, Linnéa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Asthma in adolescence affects daily life and school attendance: two cross-sectional population-based studies 10 years apart2017Inngår i: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 143-148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to study the impact of asthma on daily life, school absenteeism and physical education. In addition, to describe asthma triggers at school.

    DESIGN: Two cross-sectional population-based studies ten years apart.

    METHOD: Within the OLIN-studies, in 2003 (n = 3,327) and in 2013 (n = 2,345) adolescents (14-15 years) answered an expanded ISAAC questionnaire. Of these, 8% and 11%, respectively with current asthma participated in this study.

    RESULTS: Between the years 2003-2013, the proportion of adolescents reporting that asthma interfered with daily life had increased, in 2013, girls were significantly more affected than boys. The proportion reporting a worsening of asthma at school had decreased, but it was still over a quarter. The proportion of absenteeism from school and from physical education was at the same level both years. Asthma triggers were described to be poor air quality, poorly cleaned environment, allergens, strong fragrance, rebuilding projects, physical education and stress.

  • 1778. Stridsman, Caroline
    et al.
    Skär, Lisa
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Fatigue affects health status and predicts mortality among subjects with COPD: report from the population-based OLIN COPD study2015Inngår i: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1541-2555, E-ISSN 1541-2563, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 199-206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: COPD is associated to increased fatigue, decreased health status and mortality. However, these relationships are rarely evaluated in population-based studies. Aims: To describe the relationship between health status, respiratory symptoms and fatigue among subjects with and without COPD. Further, to evaluate whether fatigue and/or health status predicts mortality in these groups. Methods: Data were collected in 2007 from the population-based OLIN COPD study. Subjects participated in lung function tests and structured interviews, and 434 subjects with and 655 subjects without COPD were identified. Fatigue was assessed by FACIT-Fatigue and health status by the generic SF-36 questionnaire including physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) components. Mortality data until February 2012 were collected. Results: Fatigue greatly impacts the physical and mental dimensions of health status, both among subjects with and without COPD. Among subjects with clinically significant fatigue, COPD subjects had significantly lower PCS-scores compared to non-COPD subjects. Fairly strong correlations were found between FACIT-F, SF-36 PCS and MCS, respectively. In multivariate models adjusting for covariates, increased fatigue, decreased physical and mental dimensions of health status were all associated to mortality in subjects with COPD (OR 1.06, CI 1.02-1.10, OR 1.04, CI 1.01-1.08 and OR 1.06, CI 1.02-1.10), but not in non-COPD. Conclusions: Fatigue and decreased health status were closely related among subjects with and without COPD. Not only physical health status, but also fatigue and mental health predicted mortality among subjects with COPD. Fatigue assessed by FACIT-F, can be a useful instrument of prognostic value in the care of subjects with COPD.

  • 1779.
    Strinnholm, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Winberg, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    West, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Food hypersensitivity is common in Swedish schoolchildren, especially oral reactions to fruit and gastrointestinal reactions to milk2014Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 103, nr 12, s. 1290-1296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study examined the prevalence, symptom expression and risk factors for food hypersensitivity among Swedish schoolchildren.

    METHODS: Parents of 2585 (96% of invited) children aged 7-8 years completed a questionnaire regarding food hypersensitivity and allergic diseases. A random sample of 1700 children (90% of invited) also participated in skin prick testing with ten airborne allergens.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of reported food hypersensitivity to milk, egg, fish, wheat, soya, fruits and, or, nuts was 21%, with symptoms caused by milk (9%) being the most common. The most frequently reported symptoms were oral symptoms (47.4%), mainly caused by fruit, and gastrointestinal symptoms (45.7%), mainly caused by milk. Factors associated with any food hypersensitivity were female sex, allergic heredity and a positive skin prick test. Eczema was consistently associated with symptoms caused by milk, egg, fish, wheat, soya, fruits and nuts. Rhinitis was associated to the same foods, except milk.

    CONCLUSION: Reported food hypersensitivity was common among Swedish schoolchildren. The most frequent symptom expressions were oral symptoms triggered by fruits and gastrointestinal symptoms triggered by milk. The high prevalence of reported symptoms should be validated by clinical examinations to provide a diagnosis.

  • 1780. Stroh, Emilie
    et al.
    Rittner, Ralf
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Ardö, Jonas
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Björk, Jonas
    Tinnerberg, Håkan
    Measured and modeled personal and environmental NO2 exposure2012Inngår i: Population Health Metrics, ISSN 1478-7954, E-ISSN 1478-7954, Vol. 10, nr 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Measured or modeled levels of outdoor air pollution are being used as proxies for individual exposurein a growing number of epidemiological studies. We studied the accuracy of such approaches, in comparison withmeasured individual levels, and also combined modeled levels for each subject’s workplace with the levels at theirresidence to investigate the influence of living and working in different places on individual exposure levels.

    Methods: A GIS-based dispersion model and an emissions database were used to model concentrations of NO2atthe subject’s residence. Modeled levels were then compared with measured levels of NO2. Personal exposure wasalso modeled based on levels of NO2at the subject’s residence in combination with levels of NO2at theirworkplace during working hours.

    Results: There was a good agreement between measured façade levels and modeled residential NO2levels (rs = 0.8,p > 0.001); however, the agreement between measured and modeled outdoor levels and measured personalexposure was poor with overestimations at low levels and underestimation at high levels (rs = 0.5, p > 0.001 andrs = 0.4, p > 0.001) even when compensating for workplace location (rs = 0.4, p > 0.001).

    Conclusion: Modeling residential levels of NO2 proved to be a useful method of estimating façade concentrations.However, the agreement between outdoor levels (both modeled and measured) and personal exposure was,although significant, rather poor even when compensating for workplace location. These results indicate thatpersonal exposure cannot be fully approximated by outdoor levels and that differences in personal activity patternsor household characteristics should be carefully considered when conducting exposure studies. This is an importantfinding that may help to correct substantial bias in epidemiological studies.

  • 1781.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    MTM, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Kukucka, Petr
    RECETOX, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. MTM, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Kärrman, Anna
    MTM, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    A method for analysis of marker persistent organic pollutants in low-volume plasma and serum samples using 96-well plate solid phase extraction2018Inngår i: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1546, s. 18-27, artikkel-id S0021-9673(18)30253-XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a 96-well plate solid phase extraction method for analysis of 23 lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in low-volume plasma and serum samples which is applicable for biomonitoring and epidemiological studies. The analysis of selected markers for internal exposure: 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and polybrominated diphenylether 47 (BDE 47) was evaluated by comparing two SPE sorbents and GC-HRMS or GC-MS/MS detection. The final method extracted 23 POPs from 150 μL of serum and plasma using a 96-well extraction plate containing 60 mg Oasis HLB sorbent per well prior to GC-HRMS magnetic sector analysis. The extraction method was applied to 40 plasma samples collected for an epidemiological study. The recovery of selected POPs ranged from 31% to 63% (n = 48), and detection limits ranged from 2.2 to 45 pg/mL for PCBs, 4.2 to 167 pg/mL for OCPs, 7.8 pg/mL for OCDD and 6.1 pg/mL for BDE 47. This method showed good precision with relative standard deviations of selected POP concentrations in quality control samples (n = 48) ranging from 11% to 25%. The trueness was determined with standard reference material serum (n = 48) and the deviation from certified values ranged from 1 to 27%. Of the 23 POPs analyzed, 18 were detected in 43% to 100% of plasma samples collected for the epidemiological study. The method showed good robustness with low inter-well plate variation (11-31%) determined by twelve 96-well plate extractions, and can extract 96 samples, including quality controls and procedural blanks in 2-3 days. Comparison with GC-MS/MS analysis showed that similar concentrations (within 0.5% to 30%) of most POPs could be obtained with GC-APCI-MS/MS. Larger deviations were observed for PCB 194 (60%) and trans-nonachlor (43%). The developed method produces accurate concentrations of low-level marker POPs in plasma and serum, providing a suitable high-throughput sample preparation procedure for biomonitoring and epidemiological studies involving large sample size and limited sample volume. GC-HRMS was chosen over GC-MS/MS, however the latter showed promising results, and could be used as an alternative to GC-HRMS analysis for most POPs.

  • 1782.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Medical Sciences and Science for Life Laboratory, Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Longitudinal changes in persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from 2001 to 2009 in a sample of elderly Swedish men and women2018Inngår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 165, s. 193-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Prospective cohort studies evaluating the temporal trends of background-level persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their potential negative health effects in humans are needed.

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to examine the five year longitudinal trend in chlorinated and brominated (Cl/Br) POP concentrations in a sample of elderly individuals and to investigate the relationship between gender, changes in body weight, plasma lipid levels and POP concentrations.

    METHODS: In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, plasma samples were collected from the same individuals over a 5 year period. Originally 992 subjects (all aged 70) were sampled between 2001 and 2004 and 814 returning subjects (all aged 75) were sampled again from 2006 to 2009. Plasma concentrations of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and one polybrominated diphenylether (BDE 47) were determined using high-throughput 96-well plate solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS).

    RESULTS: During the 5-year follow-up, plasma concentrations of all POPs significantly decreased (p < 0.00001). Median reductions ranged from 4% (PCB105) to 45% (PCB 99), with most reductions being in the 30-40% range. For most POPs, a larger decline was seen in men than in women. The relationship between the weight change and change in POP concentrations was generally negative, but a positive relationship between lipid levels and POP concentrations when expressed as wet-weight was observed. In general, similar changes in POP concentrations and their relationships to body weight were observed regardless of using either wet-weight (pg/mL) or lipid-normalized (ng/g lipid) concentrations.

    CONCLUSION: In this longitudinal cohort study, gender and minor, but varying changes in body weight and lipid levels greatly influenced the individual-based changes in POP concentrations. In general, our findings suggest that men and women with larger decreases in body weight and greater increases in lipid levels have the slowest decline in body burden of POPs. Based on the results from this study, either wet-weight or lipid normalized concentrations can be used to determine the percent change in POP concentrations and their relationships to physiological changes and differences.

  • 1783.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, 70182 Örebro, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär epidemiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    van Bavel, Bert
    MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, 70182 Örebro, Sweden; Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, 0349 Oslo, Norway.
    Kärrman, Anna
    MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, 70182 Örebro, Sweden.
    Changes in serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances during a 10-year follow-up period in a large population-based cohort2016Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 95, s. 86-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of man-made fluorinated chemicals which have, at background levels, been associated with negative health effects in humans. Thus far, most human biomonitoring studies have evaluated the general change in PFAS concentration over time by continuously testing various individuals. This is one of the few studies to report the longitudinal trend of a range of PFAS concentrations in humans. In addition, this is the first known longitudinal study to include a large background level exposed cohort of both men and women with the same age and location who were repeatedly sampled from 2001 to 2014. The longitudinal change in concentration of eight PFASs detected in serum collected from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort were determined and compared to results from general population studies. The sex-dependent changes in PFAS concentrations over time were also assessed. Serum was sampled from the same individuals at ages 70 (collection period 2001-2004), 75 (2006-2009) and 80 (2011-2014,). Eight (C6-11) of fourteen (C4-13) analyzed PFASs were usually detected in over 75% of individuals and assessed using a random effects (mixed) model. In the 579 individuals attending all three examinations, PFOSA and PFOS concentrations significantly decreased, while the remaining six PFASs significantly increased between ages 70 and 75. However, between ages 75 and 80 all PFAS concentrations significantly decreased. Overall from age 70 to 80, concentrations of PFHxS, PFUnDA, PFNA, and PFDA showed a significant increase (7% to 34%), whereas concentrations of PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOS, and PFOA (-75% to -27%) significantly decreased. Over time PFHxS concentrations increased more among women, while PFHpA concentrations showed a greater decrease among men. From age 70 to age 80, spanning from 2001-2004 to 2011-2014, the PIVUS cohort showed decreases in circulating levels of some PFASs phased out of production with the exception of PFHxS and C>8 PFASs. Contrary to other studies, PFHxS concentrations showed the greatest overall increase, which is likely attributed to a local drinking water contamination incident.

  • 1784.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo, Norway.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Changes in serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances during a 10-year follow-up period in a large population-based cohort2016Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 95, s. 86-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of man-made fluorinated chemicals which have, at background levels, been associated with negative health effects in humans. Thus far, most human biomonitoring studies have evaluated the general change in PFAS concentration over time by continuously testing various individuals. This is one of the few studies to report the longitudinal trend of a range of PFAS concentrations in humans. In addition, this is the first known longitudinal study to include a large background level exposed cohort of both men and women with the same age and location who were repeatedly sampled from 2001 to 2014.

    The longitudinal change in concentration of eight PFASs detected in serum collected from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort were determined and compared to results from general population studies. The sex-dependent changes in PFAS concentrations over time were also assessed.

    Serum was sampled from the same individuals at ages 70 (collection period 2001-2004), 75 (2006-2009) and 80 (2011-2014,). Eight (C6-11) of fourteen (C4-13) analyzed PFASs were usually detected in over 75% of individuals and assessed using a random effects (mixed) model.

    In the 579 individuals attending all three examinations, PFOSA and PFOS concentrations significantly decreased, while the remaining six PFASs significantly increased between ages 70 and 75. However, between ages 75 and 80 all PFAS concentrations significantly decreased. Overall from age 70 to 80, concentrations of PFHxS, PFUnDA, PFNA, and PFDA showed a significant increase (7% to 34%), whereas concentrations of PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOS, and PFOA (-75% to -27%) significantly decreased. Over time PFHxS concentrations increased more among women, while PFHpA concentrations showed a greater decrease among men.

    From age 70 to age 80, spanning from 2001-2004 to 2011-2014, the PIVUS cohort showed decreases in circulating levels of some PFASs phased out of production with the exception of PFHxS and C>8 PFASs. Contrary to other studies, PFHxS concentrations showed the greatest overall increase, which is likely attributed to a local drinking water contamination incident.

  • 1785.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, 70182 Örebro, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär epidemiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Dunder, Linda
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    McCleaf, Philip
    Uppsala Vatten och Avfall AB, Box 1105, 754 141 Uppsala.
    Eurén, Karin
    Uppsala Vatten och Avfall AB, Box 1105, 754 141 Uppsala.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Gerda Nilssons väg 5, 756 51 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    van Bavel, Bert
    MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, 70182 Örebro, Sweden.; Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, 0349 Oslo, Norway.
    Kärrman, Anna
    MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, 70182 Örebro, Sweden.
    The effect of drinking water contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances on a 10-year longitudinal trend of plasma levels in an elderly Uppsala cohort2017Inngår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 159, s. 95-102, artikkel-id S0013-9351(17)30897-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, drinking water contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), foremost perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) at levels over 20ng/L and 40ng/L, respectively, was confirmed in Uppsala, Sweden.

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed how a longitudinally sampled cohort's temporal trend in PFAS plasma concentration was influenced by their residential location and determined the plausible association or disparity between the PFASs detected in the drinking water and the trend in the study cohort.

    METHODS: The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort provided plasma samples three times from 2001 to 2014. Individuals maintaining the same zip code throughout the study (n = 399) were divided into a reference (no known PFAS exposure), low, intermediate and high exposure area depending on the proportion of contaminated drinking water received. Eight PFASs detected in the majority (75%) of the cohort's plasma samples were evaluated for significant changes in temporal PFAS concentrations using a random effects (mixed) model.

    RESULTS: PFHxS plasma concentrations continued to significantly increase in individuals living in areas receiving the largest percentage of contaminated drinking water (p < 0.0001), while PFOS showed an overall decrease. The temporal trend of other PFAS plasma concentrations did not show an association to the quality of drinking water received.

    CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of contaminated drinking water had a direct effect on the trend in PFHxS plasma levels among the different exposure groups, resulting in increased concentrations over time, especially in the intermediate and high exposure areas. PFOS and the remaining PFASs did not show the same relationship, suggesting other sources of exposure influenced these PFAS plasma trends.

  • 1786.
    Ståhl, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. HELIX Competence Centre, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Seing, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Fair or square? Experiences of introducing a new method for assessing general work ability in a sickness insurance context2017Inngår i: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To study social validity and perceived fairness of a new method for assessing general work ability in a sickness insurance context. Assessments are based on self-reports, combined with examinations by physicians, and, if needed, occupational therapists, physiotherapists and/or psychologists.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interviews with 36 insurance officials, 10 physicians, and 36 sick-listed persons, which were analysed through a qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: Insurance officials and physicians considered the method useful and that it facilitated benefit decisions. The experiences of persons who had undergone the assessment differed, where the dialog with insurance officials seemed to have had an influence on experiences of the assessment and the decisions it led to.

    CONCLUSIONS: The perceived fairness and social validity of the assessment depended on how it was carried out; organisational conditions and priorities; communication skills; and decision outcomes. Professionals have an important pedagogical task in explaining the purpose and procedure of the assessment in order for the sick-listed to perceive it as fair rather than square, i.e., too standardised and not considering individual conditions. If the assessment could be used also for rehabilitative purposes, it could possibly be perceived as more acceptable also in cases where it leads to denied benefits. Implications for rehabilitation The perceived fairness of work ability assessments is dependent on procedures for the assessment, communication with the person, and the outcome. What is considered fair differs between assessing professionals and persons being assessed. Professionals may influence the perceptions of fairness through their way of communication. Assessments need to be coupled with rehabilitation measures in order to perceived as relevant and acceptable.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2018-11-16 02:57
  • 1787. Ståhl, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin.
    Jansson, Sven-Arne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Svensson, Klas
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Löfdahl, Claes-Göran
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Health-related quality of life is related to COPD disease severity.2005Inngår i: Health and quality of life outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 3, s. 56-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between health-related quality of life (HRQL) and disease severity using lung function measures. METHODS: A survey was performed in subjects with COPD in Sweden. 168 subjects (70 women, mean age 64.3 years) completed the generic HRQL questionnaire, the Short Form 36 (SF-36), the disease-specific HRQL questionnaire; the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and the utility measure, the EQ-5D. The subjects were divided into four severity groups according to FEV1 per cent of predicted normal using two clinical guidelines: GOLD and BTS. Age, gender, smoking status and socio-economic group were regarded as confounders. RESULTS: The COPD severity grades affected the SGRQ Total scores, varying from 25 to 53 (GOLD p = 0.0005) and from 25 to 45 (BTS p = 0.0023). The scores for SF-36 Physical were significantly associated with COPD severity (GOLD p = 0.0059, BTS p = 0.032). No significant association were noticed for the SF-36, Mental Component Summary scores and COPD severity. Scores for EQ-5D VAS varied from 73 to 37 (GOLD I-IV p = 0.0001) and from 73 to 50 (BTS 0-III p = 0.0007). The SGRQ Total score was significant between age groups (p = 0.0047). No significant differences in HRQL with regard to gender, smoking status or socio-economic group were noticed. CONCLUSION: The results show that HRQL in COPD deteriorates with disease severity and with age. These data show a relationship between HRQL and disease severity obtained by lung function.

  • 1788. Sun, Q.
    et al.
    Xia, J.
    Foster, J.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, H.
    Pursuing Precise Vehicle Movement Trajectory in Urban Residential Area Using Multi-GNSS RTK Tracking2017Inngår i: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 25, s. 2361-2376Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Close-to-reality vehicle movement trajectory data can be useful in many transport and geography studies when precise vehicle localization or timing is required in the application. Vehicle kinematic tracking by GPS (Global Positioning System) varies in the data accuracy depending on some factors such as the receiver capability, satellites availability. Nevertheless, advanced positioning techniques offer possibilities to enhance the tracking data quality. In this paper, the high performance of multi-GNSS (multiple Global Navigation Satellite Systems) with Real-time Kinematic (RTK) solution was investigated aiming to pursue precise vehicle movement trajectory in an urban residential area of Australia. We systematically compared vehicle kinematic recordings between different positioning solutions by multi-GNSS and GPS-only approaches. Different elevation cut-off angles ranging from 5 - 35° were applied to simulate satellites' availability in different sky view conditions. The results showed that the multi-GNSS approach outperformed conventional GPS positioning in availability and positioning accuracy, and RTK solution at 10Hz generated ideal vehicle movement trajectory suitable for driving behaviours studies.

  • 1789. Sundbom, F
    et al.
    Lindberg, E
    Bjerg, A
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Franklin, Karl
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Gunnbjörnsdottir, M
    Middelveld, R
    Torén, K
    Janson, C
    Asthma symptoms and nasal congestion as independent risk factors for insomnia in a general population: results from the GA (2) LEN survey2013Inngår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 68, nr 2, s. 213-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and rhinitis have been related to insomnia. The aim of this study was to further analyse the association between asthma, nasal symptoms and insomnia and to identify risk factors for sleep disturbance among patients with asthma, in a large population-based set of material.

    METHOD: In 2008, a postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 45 000 adults in four Swedish cities. The questionnaire included questions on insomnia, asthma, rhinitis, weight, height, tobacco use and physical activity.

    RESULTS: Twenty-five thousand six hundred and ten subjects participated. Asthma was defined as either current medication for asthma or at least one attack of asthma during the last 12 months, and 1830 subjects (7.15%) were defined as asthmatics. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was significantly higher among asthmatics than non-asthmatics (47.3% vs 37.2%, <0.0001). In the subgroup reporting both asthma and nasal congestion, 55.8% had insomnia symptoms compared with 35.3% in subjects without both asthma and nasal congestion. The risk of insomnia increased with the severity of asthma, and the adjusted OR for insomnia was 2.65 in asthmatics with three symptoms compared with asthmatics without symptoms. Nasal congestion (OR 1.50), obesity (OR 1.54) and smoking (OR 1.71) also increased the risk of insomnia.

    CONCLUSION: Insomnia remains a common problem among asthmatics. Uncontrolled asthma and nasal congestion are important, treatable risk factors for insomnia. Lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity, are also risk factors for insomnia among asthmatics.

  • 1790.
    Sundelius, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Introduction - Actions Applicable to CBRN Prevention, Detection, And Response: From Interblocking Stovepipes to Interlocking Networks2013Inngår i: Biosecurity and bioterrorism, ISSN 1538-7135, E-ISSN 1557-850X, Vol. 11, nr S1, s. S258-S259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1791.
    Sundling, Vibeke
    et al.
    Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Fac Hlth & Social Sci, Dept Optometry Radiog & Lighting Design, Natl Ctr Opt Vis & Eye Care, Kongsberg, Norway.;Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Fac Hlth & Social Sci, Sci Ctr Hlth & Technol, Drammen, Norway.;Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Fac Hlth & Social Sci, Dept Nursing Sci, Drammen, Norway..
    Sundler, Annelie J.
    Univ Boras, Fac Caring Sci Work Life & Social Welf, Boras, Sweden..
    Holmström, Inger K.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning. Mälardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Västerås, Sweden..
    Kristensen, Dorte Vesterager
    Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Fac Hlth & Social Sci, Dept Nursing Sci, Drammen, Norway..
    Eide, Hilde
    Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Fac Hlth & Social Sci, Sci Ctr Hlth & Technol, Drammen, Norway.;Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Fac Hlth & Social Sci, Dept Nursing Sci, Drammen, Norway..
    Mindfulness predicts student nurses' communication self-efficacy: A cross-national comparative study2017Inngår i: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 100, nr 8, s. 1558-1563Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare student nurses' communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness across two countries, and to analyse the relationship between these qualities. Methods: The study had a cross-sectional design. Data was collected from final year student nurses in Norway and Sweden. Communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness were reported by questionnaires; Clear-cut communication with patients, Jefferson Scale of Empathy, and Langer 14 items mindfulness scale. Results: The study included 156 student nurses, 94 (60%) were Swedish. The mean communication self-efficacy score was 119 (95% CI 116-122), empathy score 115 (95% CI 113-117) and mindfulness score 79 (95% CI 78-81). A Mann-Whitney test showed that Swedish students scored significantly higher on communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness than Norwegian students did. When adjusted for age, gender, and country in a multiple linear regression, mindfulness was the only independent predictor of communication self-efficacy. Conclusion: The Swedish student nurses in this study scored higher on communication self-efficacy, empathy, and mindfulness than Norwegian students did. Student nurses scoring high on mindfulness rated their communication self-efficacy higher. Practice implications: A mindful learning approach may improve communication self-efficacy and possibly the effect of communication skills training.

  • 1792.
    Sundström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Managing Epstein-Barr virus and other risk factors in MS-Future perspectives2017Inngår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 136, s. 31-33Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we discuss the rationale and feasibility of treatment directed against the modifiable risk factors in multiple sclerosis. The established environmental risk factors vitamin D insufficiency, cigarette smoke exposure, adolescence overweight, and Epstein-Barr virus infection are reviewed. Already available measures to target these risk factors are discussed.

  • 1793.
    Sunnevang, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi. Autoliv Res, Vargarda, Sweden.
    Rosén, Erik
    Bostrom, Ola
    Real-life fatal outcome in car-to-car near-side impacts--implications for improved protection considering age and crash severity.2009Inngår i: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 10, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown that current side airbags, protecting head and chest, are saving lives in near-side impacts (Kahane 2007; McCartt and Kyrychenko 2007). The aim of this study was to analyze NASS/CDS real-life data on fatal trauma in near-side car-to-car crashes, stratified by age into non-senior and senior occupants. Furthermore, a hypothetical model explaining side airbag effectiveness as a function of lateral delta-v was presented. The model together with the field data was then used to demonstrate further enhancement of side airbag restraint performance.

    METHOD: Weighted NASS/CDS data from 1994 to 2006 for front seat occupants in near-side car-to-car impacts was used to calculate the exposure, incidence, and risk of fatal trauma with respect to lateral delta-v. The dataset was also divided into non-senior (10-59 years) and senior (age > or = 60 years) occupants. The hypothetical model was created to adjust the NASS/CDS data to represent a car fleet fully equipped with current side airbag protection. The model was then used to evaluate the increase in effectiveness of improved side airbag protection achieved by increasing the lateral delta-v in the range where the airbag have most mitigating effect, increasing the airbag protection level within the delta-v range currently tested, and a combination of the two approaches.

    RESULTS: From the NASS/CDS data, the median delta-v for fatal injury was 37 km/h for the total sample. When stratified with respect to age, the median delta-v for fatal injury was 41 km/h for non-seniors and 28 km/h for senior occupants. The exposures for both age groups were similar. However, the fatal incidence showed a difference in delta-v range between non-senior and senior occupants. Applying the airbag model increased the median delta-v to 40 km/h for the total sample and 47 and 30 km/h for non-seniors and seniors, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Current side airbag systems offer very good protection for non-senior occupants up to delta-v 40 km/h. Though still high, the protection for senior occupants is lower. To enhance side airbag protection, the side airbag performance should be maximized where the fatal incidence is high. Therefore, to further reduce non-senior fatalities, the test speed should be increased. To further reduce senior fatalities, the protection level within severities currently tested should be increased. A combination of the two approaches would result in about a 40 percent increase of the side airbag effectiveness.

  • 1794.
    Susanna, Toivanen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Ökar lågt beslutsutrymme i arbetet risken för stroke?2007Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037 833X, Vol. 84, nr 6, s. 478-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykosocial arbetsmiljöforskning har en lång tradition i Sverige. Redan på 80-talet visade svenska studier att psykosociala belastningar såsom höga psykologiska krav och/eller lågt beslutsutrymme ökar risken för hjärtinfarkt. Ifall psykosociala arbetsmiljöbelastningar även ökar risken för stroke (slaganfall) vet vi däremot mindre om eftersom mycket få studier har fokuserat på detta. I denna totalpopulationsstudie baserad på registerdata undersöktes om graden av beslutsutrymme i arbetet påverkar risken att drabbas av stroke. Resultaten tyder på att lågt beslutsutrymme kan öka risken för stroke (hjärninfarkt eller hjärnblödning). Dessutom tycks kvinnor med lågt beslutsutrymme ha en högre risk för hjärnblödning än män.

  • 1795. Svanes, Cecilie
    et al.
    Koplin, Jennifer
    Skulstad, Svein Magne
    Johannessen, Ane
    Bertelsen, Randi Jakobsen
    Benediktsdottir, Byndis
    Bråbäck, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Elie Carsin, Anne
    Dharmage, Shyamali
    Dratva, Julia
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Holm, Mathias
    Janson, Christer
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Jögi, Rain
    Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne
    Lindberg, Eva
    Macsali, Ferenc
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Omenaas, Ernst
    Waatevik Saure, Eirunn
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Skorge, Trude Duelien
    Svanes, Øistein
    Torén, Kjell
    Torres, Carl
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    Gomez Real, Francisco
    Father's environment before conception and asthma risk in his children: a multi-generation analysis of the respiratory health in northern Europe study2017Inngår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 235-245Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Whereas it is generally accepted that maternal environment plays a key role in child health, emerging evidence suggests that paternal environment before conception also impacts child health. We aimed to investigate the association between children’s asthma risk and parental smoking and welding exposures prior to conception. Methods: In a longitudinal, multi-country study, parents of 24 168 offspring aged 2–51 years provided information on their life-course smoking habits, occupational exposure to welding and metal fumes, and offspring’s asthma before/after age 10 years and hay fever. Logistic regressions investigated the relevant associations controlled for age, study centre, parental characteristics (age, asthma, education) and clustering by family. Results: Non-allergic early-onset asthma (asthma without hay fever, present in 5.8%) was more common in the offspring with fathers who smoked before conception {odds ratio [OR] = 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18–2.41]}, whereas mothers’ smoking before conception did not predict offspring asthma. The risk was highest if father started smoking before age 15 years [3.24 (1.67–6.27)], even if he stopped more than 5 years before conception [2.68 (1.17–6.13)]. Fathers’ pre-conception welding was independently associated with non-allergic asthma in his offspring [1.80 (1.29–2.50)]. There was no effect if the father started welding or smoking after birth. The associations were consistent across countries. Conclusions: Environmental exposures in young men appear to influence the respiratory health of their offspring born many years later. Influences during susceptible stages of spermatocyte development might be important and needs further investigation in humans. We hypothesize that protecting young men from harmful exposures may lead to improved respiratory health in future generations.

  • 1796. Svanes, Oistein
    et al.
    Skorge, Trude Duelien
    Johannessen, Ane
    Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen
    Bratveit, Magne
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gislason, Thorarin
    Holm, Mathias
    Janson, Christer
    Joegi, Rain
    Macsali, Ferenc
    Norback, Dan
    Omenaas, Ernst Reidar
    Real, Francisco Gomez
    Schlunssen, Vivi
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Zock, Jan-Paul
    Aasen, Tor
    Dratva, Julia
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Respiratory Health in Cleaners in Northern Europe: Is Susceptibility Established in Early Life?2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 7, artikkel-id e0131959Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale There is some evidence that maternal smoking increases susceptibility to personal smoking's detrimental effects. One might question whether early life disadvantage might influence susceptibility to occupational exposure. Objectives In this cross-sectional study we investigated respiratory symptoms, asthma and self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as related to working as a cleaner in Northern European populations, and whether early life factors influenced susceptibility to occupational cleaning's unhealthy effects. Methods The RHINE III questionnaire study assessed occupational cleaning in 13,499 participants. Associations with respiratory symptoms, asthma and self-reported COPD were analysed with multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for sex, age, smoking, educational level, parent's educational level, BMI and participating centre. Interaction of occupational cleaning with early life disadvantage (maternal smoking, severe respiratory infection < 5 years, born during winter months, maternal age at birth > 35 years) was investigated. Main Results Among 2138 ever-cleaners the risks of wheeze (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), adult-onset asthma (1.5 [1.2-1.8]) and self-reported COPD (1.7 [1.3-2.2]) were increased. The risk increased with years in occupational cleaning (adult-onset asthma: <= 1 year 0.9 [0.7-1.3]; 1-4 years 1.5 [1.1-2.0]; >= 4 years 1.6 [1.2-2.1]). The association of wheeze with cleaning activity >= 4 years was significantly stronger for those with early life disadvantage than in those without (1.8 [1.5-2.3] vs. 1.3 [0.96-1.8]; pinteraction 0.035). Conclusions Occupational cleaners had increased risk of asthma and self-reported COPD. Respiratory symptom risk was particularly increased in persons with factors suggestive of early life disadvantage. We hypothesize that early life disadvantage may increase airway vulnerability to harmful exposure from cleaning agents later in life.

  • 1797. Svanes, Oistein
    et al.
    Skorge, Trude Duelien
    Johannessen, Ane
    Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen
    Bratveit, Magne
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Gislason, Thorarin
    Holm, Mathias
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Joegi, Rain
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Macsali, Ferenc
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Omenaas, Ernst Reidar
    Real, Francisco Gomez
    Schlunssen, Vivi
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Wieslander, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Zock, Jan-Paul
    Aasen, Tor
    Dratva, Julia
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Respiratory Health in Cleaners in Northern Europe: Is Susceptibility Established in Early Life?2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 7, artikkel-id e0131959Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale There is some evidence that maternal smoking increases susceptibility to personal smoking's detrimental effects. One might question whether early life disadvantage might influence susceptibility to occupational exposure. Objectives In this cross-sectional study we investigated respiratory symptoms, asthma and self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as related to working as a cleaner in Northern European populations, and whether early life factors influenced susceptibility to occupational cleaning's unhealthy effects. Methods The RHINE III questionnaire study assessed occupational cleaning in 13,499 participants. Associations with respiratory symptoms, asthma and self-reported COPD were analysed with multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for sex, age, smoking, educational level, parent's educational level, BMI and participating centre. Interaction of occupational cleaning with early life disadvantage (maternal smoking, severe respiratory infection < 5 years, born during winter months, maternal age at birth > 35 years) was investigated. Main Results Among 2138 ever-cleaners the risks of wheeze (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), adult-onset asthma (1.5 [1.2-1.8]) and self-reported COPD (1.7 [1.3-2.2]) were increased. The risk increased with years in occupational cleaning (adult-onset asthma: <= 1 year 0.9 [0.7-1.3]; 1-4 years 1.5 [1.1-2.0]; >= 4 years 1.6 [1.2-2.1]). The association of wheeze with cleaning activity >= 4 years was significantly stronger for those with early life disadvantage than in those without (1.8 [1.5-2.3] vs. 1.3 [0.96-1.8]; pinteraction 0.035). Conclusions Occupational cleaners had increased risk of asthma and self-reported COPD. Respiratory symptom risk was particularly increased in persons with factors suggestive of early life disadvantage. We hypothesize that early life disadvantage may increase airway vulnerability to harmful exposure from cleaning agents later in life.

  • 1798. Svanes, Øistein
    et al.
    Bertelsen, Randi J.
    Lygre, Stein H. L.
    Carsin, Anne E.
    Antó, Josep M.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    García-García, José M.
    Gullón, José A.
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Holm, Mathias
    Kogevinas, Manolis
    Urrutia, Isabel
    Leynaert, Bénédicte
    Moratalla, Jesús M.
    Le Moual, Nicole
    Lytras, Theodore
    Norbäck, Dan
    Nowak, Dennis
    Olivieri, Mario
    Pin, Isabelle
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Skorge, Trude D.
    Villani, Simona
    Jarvis, Debbie
    Zock, Jan P.
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction2018Inngår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 197, nr 9, s. 1157-1163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale: Cleaning tasks may imply exposure to chemical agents with potential harmful effects to the respiratory system, and increased risk of asthma and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaners and in persons cleaning at home has been reported. Long-term consequences of cleaning agents on respiratory health are, however, not well described.

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate long-term effects of occupational cleaning and cleaning at home on lung function decline and airway obstruction.

    Methods: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) investigated a multicenter population-based cohort at three time points over 20 years. A total of 6,235 participants with at least one lung function measurement from 22 study centers, who in ECRHS II responded to questionnaire modules concerning cleaning activities between ECRHS I and ECRHS II, were included. The data were analyzed with mixed linear models adjusting for potential confounders.

    Measurements and Main Results: As compared with women not engaged in cleaning (ΔFEV1 = −18.5 ml/yr), FEV1 declined more rapidly in women responsible for cleaning at home (−22.1; P = 0.01) and occupational cleaners (−22.4; P = 0.03). The same was found for decline in FVC (ΔFVC = −8.8 ml/yr; −13.1, P = 0.02; and −15.9, P = 0.002; respectively). Both cleaning sprays and other cleaning agents were associated with accelerated FEV1 decline (−22.0, P = 0.04; and −22.9, P = 0.004; respectively). Cleaning was not significantly associated with lung function decline in men or with FEV1/FVC decline or airway obstruction.

    Conclusions: Women cleaning at home or working as occupational cleaners had accelerated decline in lung function, suggesting that exposures related to cleaning activities may constitute a risk to long-term respiratory health.

  • 1799.
    Svartengren, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Medical Science, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Marsh, Gary
    Center for Occupational Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, United States.
    Buchanich, Jeanine
    Center for Occupational Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, United States.
    Zimmerman, Sarah
    Center for Occupational Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, United States.
    Kennedy, Kathleen
    Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago IL, United States.
    Esmen, Nurtan
    Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago IL, United States.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Cancer Incidence Among Hardmetal Production Workers: The Swedish Cohort2017Inngår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, nr 12, s. e365-e373Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The cancer incidence was determined for 3713 workers from three plants from 1958 to 2011. The exposure measures were ever/never exposed, duration, cumulative, and mean cobalt concentrations.The incidence of all malignant neoplasms was increased at one plant, but standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 0.96 for all workers. Lung cancer incidence was increased for all workers, SIR 1.38 (1.01 to 1.85). The lung cancer incidence was associated with shorter employment time and showed no exposure-response. There was decreased incidence for skin cancer. Increased lip cancer incidence found at one of the production plants might be related to diagnostic intensity.Lung cancer incidence showed no correlation to cobalt exposure based on internal comparison. The increased SIR for all workers might be associated with other factors.

  • 1800.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Division of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Time pressure and sleep problems due to thoughts about work as risk factors for future sickness absence2018Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study investigated whether time pressure or sleep problems due to thoughts about work are associated with future sickness absence (SA) among women and men employed in different sectors, also when adjusting for confounders including familial factors (genetics and shared environment).

    METHODS: The study sample included 16,127 twin individuals (52% women), aged 19-47 years who in 2005 participated in an online survey including questions regarding time pressure, sleep, work and health. Register data on SA (> 14 days) were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency and individuals were followed from date of survey response until 12/31/2013. Associations between time pressure, sleep problems due to thoughts about work and future SA were investigated using logistic regression analyses to assess odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: In total 5723 (35%) individuals had an incident SA spell during follow-up. Sleep problems due to thoughts about work were associated with SA in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.22, CI 1.10-1.36). Stratified by sector, the highest estimate was found for state employees (OR 1.54, CI 1.11-2.13). Familial factors did not seem to influence the associations. We found no statistically significant associations between time pressure and SA. No sex differences were found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that sleep problems due to thoughts about work is a risk factor for future SA. This follows previous research showing that sleep length and sleep disturbances, regardless of reason, are associated with SA. But, experiences of work-related time pressure seem to have no effect on SA.

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