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  • 1751. Takahashi, Hannah
    et al.
    Cornish, Alex J.
    Sud, Amit
    Law, Philip J.
    Kinnersley, Ben
    Ostrom, Quinn T.
    Labreche, Karim
    Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.
    Armstrong, Georgina N.
    Claus, Elizabeth B.
    Il'yasova, Dora
    Schildkraut, Joellen
    Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.
    Olson, Sara H.
    Bernstein, Jonine L.
    Lai, Rose K.
    Schoemaker, Minouk J.
    Simon, Matthias
    Hoffmann, Per
    Nöthen, Markus M.
    Joeckel, Karl-Heinz
    Chanock, Stephen
    Rajaraman, Preetha
    Johansen, Christoffer
    Jenkins, Robert B.
    Melin, Beatrice S.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Wrensch, Margaret R.
    Sanson, Marc
    Bondy, Melissa L.
    Turnbull, Clare
    Houlston, Richard S.
    Mendelian randomisation study of the relationship between vitamin D and risk of glioma2018Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 2339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine for a causal relationship between vitamin D and glioma risk we performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels using Mendelian randomisation (MR), an approach unaffected by biases from confounding. Two-sample MR was undertaken using genome-wide association study data. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with 25(OH) D levels were used as instrumental variables (IVs). We calculated MR estimates for the odds ratio (OR) for 25(OH) D levels with glioma using SNP-glioma estimates from 12,488 cases and 18,169 controls, using inverse-variance weighted (IVW) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) methods. A non-significant association between 25(OH) D levels and glioma risk was shown using both the IVW (OR = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90-1.62, P = 0.201) and MLE (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.98-1.48, P = 0.083) methods. In an exploratory analysis of tumour subtype, an inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and glioblastoma (GBM) risk was identified using the MLE method (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.43-0.89, P = 0.010), but not the IVW method (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.37-1.04, P = 0.070). No statistically significant association was shown between 25(OH) D levels and non-GBM glioma. Our results do not provide evidence for a causal relationship between 25(OH) D levels and all forms of glioma risk. More evidence is required to explore the relationship between 25(OH) D levels and risk of GBM.

  • 1752. Takala, Esa-Pekka
    et al.
    Pehkonen, Irmeli
    Forsman, Mikael
    Hansson, G. Å.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Neuman, P.
    Sjøgaard, Gisela
    Veiersted, K. B.
    Westgaard, R.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the IEA2009 conference, Beijing, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1753.
    Takala, Esa-Pekka
    et al.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pehkonen, Irmeli
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland,.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Neumann, W Patrick
    Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
    Sjøgaard, Gisela
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Veiersted, Kaj Bo
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Westgaard, Rolf H
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Winkel, Jørgen
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden and National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work2010Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 3-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This systematic review aimed to identify published observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures in occupational settings and evaluate them with reference to the needs of different users.

    Methods: We searched scientific databases and the internet for material from 1965 to September 2008. Methods were included if they were primarily based on the systematic observation of work, the observation target was the human body, and the method was clearly described in the literature. A systematic evaluation procedure was developed to assess concurrent and predictive validity, repeatability, and aspects related to utility. At least two evaluators independently carried out this evaluation.

    Results: We identified 30 eligible observational methods. Of these, 19 had been compared with some other method(s), varying from expert evaluation to data obtained from video recordings or through the use of technical instruments. Generally, the observations showed moderate-to-good agreement with the corresponding assessments made from video recordings; agreement was the best for large-scale body postures and work actions. Postures of wrist and hand as well as trunk rotation seemed to be more difficult to observe correctly. Intra- and inter-observer repeatability were reported for 7 and 17 methods, respectively, and were judged mostly to be moderate or good.

    Conclusions: With training, observers can reach consistent results on clearly visible body postures and work activities. Many observational tools exist, but none evaluated in this study appeared to be generally superior. When selecting a method, users should define their needs and assess how results will influence decision-making

  • 1754. Takaoka, M
    et al.
    Lindgren, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Lundgren, H
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Digestive functional symptoms among ground employees in an airline company in relation to diet, insomnia and lifestyle factors2016Inngår i: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 8, nr 11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: There are some epidemiological studies on pilots and cabin staff, but we found few health studies on aviation ground employees. The aim was to study associations between digestive symptoms in airline ground employees and diet, insomnia and lifestyle factors.

    METHODS: A standardized questionnaire was mailed to all Stockholm ground employees in a Scandinavian airline company, 201 service agents (ticketing and gate service) and 564 office workers from the same company participated. Associations were analysed by multiple logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Of the service agents, 13.8% reported poor appetite, 17.5%% heartburn, 14.1%, diarrhea, 51.7% bloating, 18.8% constipation and 15.40% epigastralgia. Service agents reported more bloating (OR=1.56; p<0.01), and poor appetite (OR=2.33; p<0.01) than office workers. The prevalence of insomnia was 77.7% among service agents and 63.1% among office workers (p<0.001). In service agents, insomnia was related to poor appetite (OR=2.49; p<0.01), heartburn (OR=2.14; p<0.01), diarrhea (OR=3.62; p<0.001) bloating (OR=1.62; p<0.01), constipation (OR=2.74; p<0.01) and epigastralgia (OR=3.44; p<0.001). In office workers, there were no associations between insomnia and digestive symptoms. In the total material of ground employees (N=765), higher body mass index (BMI) was related to diarrhea and females suffered from more constipation and epigastralgia. Older age was related to heartburn and bloating. Smoking was related to poor appetite, more heartburn and epigastralgia and less constipation. The number of years employed at the airline company was negatively associated with heartburn, diarrhea and bloating. Frequent fast food consumption was associated with more bloating and heartburn. Frequent vegetables consumption was associated with less heartburn.

    CONCLUSION: Insomnia and digestive symptoms were more common among service agents than office workers in the same airline company, possible partly due to stress. Besides insomnia, BMI, smoking, female gender, age, and diet were associated with digestive symptoms.

  • 1755. Takaoka, M
    et al.
    Suzuki, K
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    The home environment of junior high school students in Hyogo, Japan: Associations with asthma, respiratory health and reported allergies2016Inngår i: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 81-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations between home environment factors and respiratory symptoms, and reported allergiesamong junior high school students in Kobe, Japan (N¼1048) were investigated in the present study.These were mutually adjusted for age, sex, type of school (private/local) and their significant exposuresto the environment. Totally 13.4% of students reported to have doctor’s diagnosed asthma, 9.9% hadwheeze and 50.1% had attacks of daytime breathlessness during past 12 months, 25.7% of studentsreported that they had pollen allergy, 8.8% had cat allergy and 6.1% had dog allergy. Totally 29.4% ofstudents were living in a wooden house and during past 12 months, 18% of students reported that theirhomes had signs of dampness, 38.2% of homes had window condensation in winter and 7.8% of homeshad indoor painting. Window condensation was associated with wheeze (odds ratio (OR)¼1.54; 95%confidence interval (CI) 1.01–2.34), daytime breathlessness (OR¼2.02; 95% CI 1.56–2.63), airway infec-tion during past 12 months (OR¼1.66; 95% CI 1.17–2.37), cat allergy (OR¼1.63; 95% CI 1.05–2.54);mould allergy (OR¼1.84; 95%CI 1.08–3.12) and pollen allergy (OR¼1.54; 95% CI 1.15–2.06). Recentindoor painting was associated with daytime breathlessness (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.12–3.00), dog allergy(OR¼2.23; 95% CI 1.02–4.85) and mould allergy (OR¼2.43; 95% CI 1.14–5.17). Living in a wooden housewas associated with dog allergy (OR¼2.17; 95% CI 1.18–4.00) and mould allergy (OR¼1.98; 95% CI1.04–3.76). In conclusion, in Japanese homes, the window condensation in winter, recent indoor paint-ing and living in a wooden house could contribute to the increased risk of respiratory symptoms andallergies for young Japanese school children.

  • 1756. Takaoka, Motoko
    et al.
    Suzuki, Kyoko
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Sick Building Syndrome Among Junior High School Students in Japan in Relation to the Home and School Environment2015Inngår i: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 165-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE

    There is an increasing concern about sick building syndrome (SBS), especially in Asia. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between SBS and the home, school environment and personal factors among Japanese junior high school students.

    METHODS

    We investigated students in four junior high schools in Hyogo in Kansai area, Japan. A questionnaire study was performed among students (n=1056), 12-15 years old. Temperature and relative air humidity was measured in the classrooms and dust was collected from the classroom floors and air and was analysed for cat and dog allergens. Associations were analysed by multi-level logistic regression.

    RESULTS

    Mucosal symptoms (45.4%), general symptoms (38.9%) and skin symptoms (22.6%) were common. Totally 8.8% reported cat allergy, 6.1% dog allergy, 6.0% mold allergy and 25.7% pollen allergy. Atopy, window pane condensation, floor dampness and odor at home and high relative air humidity in the classrooms were associated with SBS.

    CONCLUSION

    The prevalence of SBS symptoms was high and associated with both home and school environment. Window pane condensation and floor dampness at home can increase the risk for SBS symptoms in students. Moreover high relative air humidity at school may increase the risk for SBS.

  • 1757. Tang, Hongwei
    et al.
    Wei, Peng
    Duell, Eric J
    Risch, Harvey A
    Olson, Sara H
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Gallinger, Steven
    Holly, Elizabeth A
    Petersen, Gloria M
    Bracci, Paige M
    McWilliams, Robert R
    Jenab, Mazda
    Riboli, Elio
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Panico, Salvatore
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Peeters, Petra H M
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Amos, Christopher I
    Li, Donghui
    Genes-environment interactions in obesity- and diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer: a GWAS data analysis2014Inngår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 98-106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes are potentially alterable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Genetic factors that modify the associations of obesity and diabetes with pancreatic cancer have previously not been examined at the genome-wide level. METHODS: Using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) genotype and risk factor data from the Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium, we conducted a discovery study of 2,028 cases and 2,109 controls to examine gene-obesity and gene-diabetes interactions in relation to pancreatic cancer risk by using the likelihood-ratio test nested in logistic regression models and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). RESULTS: After adjusting for multiple comparisons, a significant interaction of the chemokine signaling pathway with obesity (P = 3.29 × 10(-6)) and a near significant interaction of calcium signaling pathway with diabetes (P = 1.57 × 10(-4)) in modifying the risk of pancreatic cancer were observed. These findings were supported by results from IPA analysis of the top genes with nominal interactions. The major contributing genes to the two top pathways include GNGT2, RELA, TIAM1, and GNAS. None of the individual genes or single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) except one SNP remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Notably, SNP rs10818684 of the PTGS1 gene showed an interaction with diabetes (P = 7.91 × 10(-7)) at a false discovery rate of 6%. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations in inflammatory response and insulin resistance may affect the risk of obesity- and diabetes-related pancreatic cancer. These observations should be replicated in additional large datasets. IMPACT: A gene-environment interaction analysis may provide new insights into the genetic susceptibility and molecular mechanisms of obesity- and diabetes-related pancreatic cancer.

  • 1758. Taris, T.
    et al.
    Beckers, D.
    Dahlgren, Anna
    Stockholm University.
    Geurts, S.
    Tucker, P.
    Overtime work and well-being: Prevalence, conceptualization and effects of working overtime2007Inngår i: Occupational Health Psychology: European Perspectives on Research, Education and Practice / [ed] J. Houdmont, ISMAI Publishers , 2007, s. 21-41Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1759. Tawatsupa, Benjawan
    et al.
    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara
    Kjellström, Tord
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke
    Seubsman, Sam-Ang
    Sleigh, Adrian
    Association between Heat Stress and Occupational Injury among Thai Workers: Findings of the Thai Cohort Study2013Inngår i: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 34-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming will increase heat stress at home and at work. Few studies have addressed the health consequences in tropical low and middle income settings such as Thailand. We report on the association between heat stress and workplace injury among workers enrolled in the large national Thai Cohort Study in 2005 (N=58,495). We used logistic regression to relate heat stress and occupational injury separately for males and females, adjusting for covariate effects of age, income, education, alcohol, smoking, Body Mass Index, job location, job type, sleeping hours, existing illness, and having to work very fast. Nearly 20% of workers experienced occupational heat stress which strongly and significantly associated with occupational injury (adjusted OR 2.12, 95%CI 1.87-2.42 for males and 1.89, 95%CI 1.64-2.18 for females). This study provides evidence connecting heat stress and occupational injury in tropical Thailand and also identifies several factors that increase heat exposure. The findings will be useful for policy makers to consider work-related heat stress problems in tropical Thailand and to develop an occupational health and safety program which is urgently needed given the looming threat of global warming.

  • 1760. Temam, Sofia
    et al.
    Burte, Emilie
    Adam, Martin
    Antó, Josep M
    Basagaña, Xavier
    Bousquet, Jean
    Carsin, Anne-Elie
    Galobardes, Bruna
    Keidel, Dirk
    Künzli, Nino
    Le Moual, Nicole
    Sanchez, Margaux
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Bono, Roberto
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Heinrich, Joachim
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Jarvis, Debbie
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nadif, Rachel
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Pin, Isabelle
    Siroux, Valérie
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Socioeconomic position and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure in Western Europe: a multi-city analysis2017Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 101, s. 117-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and outdoor air pollution have been reported in Europe, but methodological differences prevent any direct between-study comparison.

    OBJECTIVES: Assess and compare the association between SEP and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure as a marker of traffic exhaust, in 16 cities from eight Western European countries.

    METHODS: Three SEP indicators, two defined at individual-level (education and occupation) and one at neighborhood-level (unemployment rate) were assessed in three European multicenter cohorts. NO2 annual concentration exposure was estimated at participants' addresses with land use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE; http://www.escapeproject.eu/). Pooled and city-specific linear regressions were used to analyze associations between each SEP indicator and NO2. Heterogeneity across cities was assessed using the Higgins' I-squared test (I(2)).

    RESULTS: The study population included 5692 participants. Pooled analysis showed that participants with lower individual-SEP were less exposed to NO2. Conversely, participants living in neighborhoods with higher unemployment rate were more exposed. City-specific results exhibited strong heterogeneity (I(2)>76% for the three SEP indicators) resulting in variation of the individual- and neighborhood-SEP patterns of NO2 exposure across cities. The coefficients from a model that included both individual- and neighborhood-SEP indicators were similar to the unadjusted coefficients, suggesting independent associations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed for the first time using homogenized measures of outcome and exposure across 16 cities the important heterogeneity regarding the association between SEP and NO2 in Western Europe. Importantly, our results showed that individual- and neighborhood-SEP indicators capture different aspects of the association between SEP and exposure to air pollution, stressing the importance of considering both in air pollution health effects studies.

  • 1761.
    Ten Donkelaar, Hans J.
    et al.
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Broman, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelning för neurobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Neumann, Paul E.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Puelles, Luis
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Riva, Alessandro
    University of Cagliari, Italy.
    Shane Tubbs, R.
    Seattle Science Fdn, WA 98122 USA.
    Kachlik, David
    Charles University of Prague, Czech Republic.
    Towards a Terminologia Neuroanatomica2017Inngår i: Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y. Print), ISSN 0897-3806, E-ISSN 1098-2353, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 145-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with a recent revision of the terminology of the Sections Central Nervous System (CNS; Systema nervosum centrale) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS; Systema nervosum periphericum) of the Terminologia Anatomica (TA, 1998) and the Terminologia Histologica (TH, 2008). These sections were extensively updated by the Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology (FIPAT) Working Group Neuroanatomy of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA). After extensive discussions by FIPAT, and consultation with the IFAA Member Societies, these parts were merged to form a Terminologia Neuroanatomica (TNA). After validation at the IFAA Executive Meeting, September 22, 2016, the TNA has been placed on the open part of the FIPAT website () as the official FIPAT Terminology. This article outlines the major differences between the TNA and the TA. Clin. Anat. 30:145-155, 2017. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 1762.
    Tengelin, Ellinor
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Creating proactive boundary awareness - Observations and feedback on lowerlevel health care managers’ time commitments and stress2012Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of this thesis was to deepen the knowledge concerning health care managers’ everyday work experiences and their handling of stress and balance.

    Background. Health care managers’ work is characterized by daily hassles, conflicting perspectives, and unclear boundary setting. They could therefore use support in boundary and stress management.

    Methods. A qualitatively driven mixed methods approach was used. Qualitative interviews, focus groups and workplace observations were used for data collection in Study I. Physiological stress indicators, stress self-assessments, workplace observations and interviewing were used in Study II. Analyses were mainly carried out on the interview data, using grounded theory methodology (Study I) and conventional content analysis (Study II).

    Results. Paper I shows that a first step in managers’ boundary setting is to recognize areas at work with conflicting expectations and inexhaustible needs. Strategies can then be formed through proactive, continuous negotiating of their time commitments. These strategies, termed ‘boundary approaches’, are more or less strict regarding the boundary setting at work. Paper II shows that nonnormative, interactive feedback sessions could encourage understanding and meaningfulness of previous stress experiences through a two-step appraisal process. In the first appraisal in the study, feedback was spontaneously reacted on, while in phase two it was made sensible and given meaning. However, during the sessions, some obstacles appeared to managers’ learning about their stress, preventing a second appraisal of the feedback.

    Conclusions. Awareness and continuous negotiation regarding boundary dilemmas can be effective as a proactive stress management tool among managers. Further, non-normative feedback on stress indicators may initiate key 3 processes of sensemaking which can aid managers’ stress management by increasing awareness and supporting learning about their stress. Proactive boundary awareness is a concept leading to better understanding of lower-level managers’ management of their time commitments and stress, which can be supported by continuous reflection, feedback situations and a supportive context.

  • 1763.
    Tengelin, Ellinor
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Arman, Rebecka
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Wikström, Ewa
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Regulating time commitments in healthcare organizations: Managers’ boundary approaches at work and in life2011Inngår i: Journal of Health Organisation & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 578-599Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore managers' boundary setting in order to better understand their handling of time commitment to work activities, stress, and recovery during everyday work and at home.

    Design/methodology/approach: The paper has qualitatively-driven, mixed method design including observational data, individual interviews, and focus group discussions. Data were analyzed according to Charmaz' view on constructivist grounded theory.

    Findings: A first step in boundary setting was to recognize areas with conflicting expectations and inexhaustible needs. Second, strategies were formed through negotiating the handling of managerial time commitment, resulting in boundary-setting, but also boundary-dissolving, approaches. The continuous process of individual recognition and negotiation could work as a form of proactive coping, provided that it was acknowledged and questioned.

    Research limitations/implications: These findings suggest that recognition of perceived boundary challenges can affect stress and coping. It would therefore be interesting to more accurately assess stress, coping, and health status among managers by means of other methodologies (e.g. physiological assessments).

    Practical implications: In regulating managers' work assignments, work-related stress and recovery, it seems important to: acknowledge boundary work as an ever-present dilemma requiring continuous negotiation; and encourage individuals and organizations to recognize conflicting perspectives inherent in the leadership assignment, in order to decrease harmful negotiations between them. Such awareness would benefit more sustainable management of healthcare practice.

    Originality/value: This paper highlights how managers can handle ever-present boundary dilemmas in the healthcare sector by regulating their time commitments in various ways.

  • 1764.
    Tengelin, Ellinor
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Arman, Rebecka
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Wikström, Ewa
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Regulating time commitments in healthcare organizations: Managers’ boundary approaches at work and in life2011Inngår i: Journal of Health Organisation & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 578-599Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore managers' boundary setting in order to better understand their handling of time commitment to work activities, stress, and recovery during everyday work and at home. Design/methodology/approach: The paper has qualitatively-driven, mixed method design including observational data, individual interviews, and focus group discussions. Data were analyzed according to Charmaz' view on constructivist grounded theory. Findings: A first step in boundary setting was to recognize areas with conflicting expectations and inexhaustible needs. Second, strategies were formed through negotiating the handling of managerial time commitment, resulting in boundary-setting, but also boundary-dissolving, approaches. The continuous process of individual recognition and negotiation could work as a form of proactive coping, provided that it was acknowledged and questioned. Research limitations/implications: These findings suggest that recognition of perceived boundary challenges can affect stress and coping. It would therefore be interesting to more accurately assess stress, coping, and health status among managers by means of other methodologies (e.g. physiological assessments). Practical implications: In regulating managers' work assignments, work-related stress and recovery, it seems important to: acknowledge boundary work as an ever-present dilemma requiring continuous negotiation; and encourage individuals and organizations to recognize conflicting perspectives inherent in the leadership assignment, in order to decrease harmful negotiations between them. Such awareness would benefit more sustainable management of healthcare practice. Originality/value: This paper highlights how managers can handle ever-present boundary dilemmas in the healthcare sector by regulating their time commitments in various ways.

  • 1765.
    Tengelin, Ellinor
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Kilman, Alma
    Eklöf, Mats
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Chefskap i sjukhusmiljö: Avgränsning och kommunikation av egen stress2011Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the development of health promoting hospital organizations, 1st line managers hold a key position through their closeness to practice and integrated response-bility for practice, economy and staff. The purpose of this report is to contribute to the development of sustainable supportive structures that can strengthen managers’ own working conditions and their opportunities to balance their commitment and stress at work. The two studies describes managers’ (a) approaches to demarcations in manager practice, (b) perceived opportunities to communicate stress and problems in their organization, and (c) suggestions regarding how managers’ stress can be handled and how early signs of stress can be guarded in health care organizations. Each study started with qualitative interviews (n=10, n=6). Thereafter, the results were discussed with 1st line managers (n=71) in 13 focus groups, regarding interventions and changes.

    Study 1. Strategies for demarcations between work tasks and life spheres were more or less flexible, firm, or permeable. They were characterized by different level of controlling and adapting to the present situation, others’ needs or one’s own needs. These strategies were seldom outspoken. Further, they were resulting mainly from personal experience, which made the managers ask for increased external support in boundary-setting regarding working conditions that were constantly changing and difficult to demarcate.

    Study 2. Communication of stress within the organization was hindered be-cause the system was perceived to oppress problem descriptions. Fear was expressed that the higher levels in the organization considered lower level managers’ communication about their stress a failure. That could risk losing one’s reputation and career possibilities. One’s nearest manager was seen as the most important channel for meeting and managing stress. Surveys and other stress measuring methods require an open climate to handle the information received, and that actions are taken to address potential problems.Focus groups. Supportive structures that can improve managers’ own working conditions and their opportunities to balance commitment and stress at work concern:

    • Possibilities for communicating stress and problem descriptions through elaborated “manager to manager”-dialogues; rewarding communication of problem descriptions in the line organization; dialogue-based development projects to influence values and culture; and an overview over the recruiting process in practice
    • Efforts to increase one’s self-awareness and handling strategies through supervision; room for recurrent dialogues with manager colleagues; and health status dialogues with occupational health service that address individual sustainability in the manager work
    • Clarity regarding responsibility, resources and guidelines for manager responsibility in the organization; increased direct support by resource functions; and a recruitment process permeated by a health promoting perspective

    Results from this report can be used as knowledge base when formulating policies and plans for actions in order to prevent, discover, and adjust stress and exhaust-tion among managers in public health care organizations.

  • 1766.
    Tengelin, Ellinor
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Kilman, Alma
    Eklöf, Mats
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Chefskap i sjukhusmiljö: Avgränsningar och kommunikation av egen stress2011Inngår i: Arbete och Hälsa, ISSN 0346-7821, Vol. 45, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1767.
    Tengmo, Matilda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    Flexibelt arbete och stress: En kvantitativ enkätstudie på universitetsanställda2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Ett flexibelt arbete innebär att arbetet är flexibelt gällande tid och rum där arbetstagarna får ett stort inflytande över när, var och hur länge de ska utföra sitt arbete. Flexibiliteten kan innebära att gränserna mellan arbete och privatliv suddas ut, där det föreligger individuella skillnader i såväl förmågan att sätta gränser mellan domänerna arbete och privatliv som preferenser gällande gränssättande, där vissa föredrar att hålla arbetet på arbetet medan andra trivs med att blanda samman arbetet med privatliv.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka om obalans mellan beteende och preferenser inom ett flexibelt arbete visade samband med stress hos undervisande och forskande personal på ett universitet. Studien kontrollerade även för relevanta variabler.

    Metod: Designen var en tvärsnittsstudie där en enkät skickades ut till 1271 undervisande och forskande personal på ett universitet. För att mäta gränslöst beteende, preferenser gällande gränssättande och stress användas tre stycken etablerade formulär; Work interrupting nonwork behaviors scale, Workplace segmentation preferences och COPSOQ II. Svarsfrekvensen var 39,7% och två hierarkiska multipla regressionsanalyser genomfördes med stress som utfallsvariabel, arbetsbelastning och undervisningsfördelning som förväxlingsvariabler och prediktorn utgjordes i analys 1 av Obalans – Beteende, seg. (n=218) och i analys 2 av Obalans – Beteende, integ. (n=303).

    Resultat: I analys 1 förelåg det ett negativt samband mellan stress och Obalans – Beteende, seg. När förväxlingsvariablerna kontrollerades förklarade Obalans – Beteende, seg. 4,4% av variationen i stress. I analys 2 förelåg det ett positivt samband mellan stress och Obalans – Beteende, integ. När förväxlingsvariablerna kontrollerades förklarade Obalans – Beteende, integ. 9,3% av variationen i stress.

    Slutsats: Föreliggande studie indikerar på att obalans mellan beteende och preferenser både är en faktor som kan genera i ökad och minskad stress, där studiens resultat tyder på att obalansen värderas olika vilket i sin tur skulle kunna bero på att segregation respektive integration är olika svårt att uppnå.

  • 1768.
    Tennstedt, Frida
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Ortopedteknisk plattform.
    Mastoraki Karlsson, Linnea
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Ortopedteknisk plattform.
    Barns intryck av omgivningen på en ortopedteknisk avdelning: -      En kvalitativ studie om hur barn uppfattar miljön och mötet på en ortopedteknisk avdelning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: För att uppnå en god barnanpassad vård inom ortopedteknik krävs information om hur barn uppfattar mötet på en ortopedteknisk avdelning. Genom att ta del av barns tankar, åsikter och förslag kan verksamheter i framtiden lättare argumentera för exempelvis hur lokaler bör inredas och hur man bör bemöta barn.

     

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur barn upplever mötet på en ortopedteknisk avdelning i avseendet vårdmiljö och möte med ortopedingenjören.

     

    Metod: En kvalitativ metod där deltagarna får rita och berätta kallad “Draw and tell” och åtta intervjuer med barn mellan 6 till 12 år om deras upplevelse efter besöket hos en ortopedingenjör genomfördes. Intervjuerna transkripterades och en innehållsanalys genomfördes.

     

    Resultat: Vissa gemensamma faktorer hittades i intervjuerna så som att det ansågs att det samtalades för mycket utan att engagera barnet samt att aktiviteter som fanns sågs som bra då det kunde bli lite väntan under besöket. Det fanns flera förslag på andra aktiviteter som önskades under väntan och speglade barnens egna intressen så som datorspel och böcker.

     

    Slutsats: Denna studie visar att det som ortopedingenjören är viktigt att engagera barnen vid mötena samt att aktiviteter finns till hands under långa väntetider.

     

    Nyckelord: Barns upplevelser, ortopedteknik, ortopedingenjör, bemötande, miljö

  • 1769.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Bohman, M.
    Södersten, M.
    Loud speech over noise: Some spectral attributes, with gender differences2006Inngår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 119, nr 3, s. 1648-1665Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In seeking an acoustic description of overloaded voice, simulated environmental noise was used to elicit loud speech. A total of 23 adults, 12 females and 11 males, read six passages of 90 s duration, over realistic noise presented over loudspeakers. The noise was canceled out, exposing the speech signal to analysis. Spectrum balance (SB) was defined as the level of the 2-6 kHz band relative to the 0.1-1 kHz band. SB averaged across many similar vowel segments became less negative with increasing sound pressure level (SPL), as described in the literature, but only at moderate SPL. At high SPL, SB exhibited a personal saturation point, above which the high-band level no longer increased faster than the overall SPL, or even stopped increasing altogether, on average at 90.3 dB WO cm) for females and 95.5 dB for males. Saturation occurred 6-8 dB; below the personal maximum SPL, regardless of gender. The loudest productions were often characterized by a relative increase in low-frequency energy, apparently in a sharpened first formant. This suggests a change of vocal strategy when the high spectrum can rise no further. The progression of SB with SPL was characteristically different for individual subjects.

  • 1770.
    Thelin, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och klinisk epidemiologi.
    Holmberg, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och klinisk epidemiologi.
    Farmers and retirement: a longitudinal cohort study2010Inngår i: Journal of Agromedicine, ISSN 1059-924X, E-ISSN 1545-0813, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 38-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Studies report low prevalence of several health problems among farmers. Health status and psychosocial factors are generally assumed to impact on retirement age and the ability to stay in work.

    Objectives

    To study retirement in a male rural population and to test the hypothesis that farmers retire later than nonfarmers thanks to better health status and advantageous psychosocial factors.

    Method

    The study design was a longitudinal cohort study on farmers and rural nonfarmers with data assessment at two surveys 12 years apart. Analyses were performed with multiple logistic regression models.

    Results

    Among subjects 64 years or younger at survey 2, 93% of the farmers were still working (full or part time) as compared with 76% of the employed nonfarmers. Among those 65 years or older, 64% of the farmers, 33% of nonfarming entrepreneurs, and 6% of employed nonfarmers were still occupationally active. Significant differences in reported diseases and psychosocial factors were found between farmers and nonfarmers, but in the fully adjusted model these variables did not modify the low odds ratios of retirement found for farmers. The farmers adjusted risk (OR) for premature retirement (64 or younger) was 0.30 (95% CI 0.16–0.55) and for standard retirement (65 or older) 0.01 (95% CI 0.00–0.05).

    Conclusions

    Farmers continue to work full or part time around retirement age to a much larger extent than employees. The employment status of farmers may only partly explain this. Health status and psychosocial factors did not impact on the results.

  • 1771.
    Theorell, Tores
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Jood, Katarina
    Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Jarvholm, Lisbeth Slunga
    Umeå University.
    Vingard, Eva
    Uppsala University.
    Perk, Joep
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Ostergren, Per Olov
    Lund University.
    Hall, Charlotte
    Swedish Council Hlth Technol & Social Assessment, Stockholm.
    A systematic review of studies in the contributions of the work environment to ischaemic heart disease development2016Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 470-477Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is need for an updated systematic review of associations between occupational exposures and ischaemic heart disease (IHD), using the GRADE system. Methods: Inclusion criteria: (i) publication in English in peer-reviewed journal between 1985 and 2014, (ii) quantified relationship between occupational exposure (psychosocial, organizational, physical and other ergonomic job factors) and IHD outcome, (iii) cohort studies with at least 1000 participants or comparable case-control studies with at least 50 + 50 participants, (iv) assessments of exposure and outcome at baseline as well as at follow-up and (v) gender and age analysis. Relevance and quality were assessed using predefined criteria. Level of evidence was then assessed using the GRADE system. Consistency of findings was examined for a number of confounders. Possible publication bias was discussed. Results: Ninety-six articles of high or medium high scientific quality were finally included. There was moderately strong evidence (grade 3 out of 4) for a relationship between job strain and small decision latitude on one hand and IHD incidence on the other hand. Limited evidence (grade 2) was found for iso-strain, pressing work, effort-reward imbalance, low support, lack of justice, lack of skill discretion, insecure employment, night work, long working week and noise in relation to IHD. No difference between men and women with regard to the effect of adverse job conditions on IHD incidence. Conclusions: There is scientific evidence that employees, both men and women, who report specific occupational exposures, such as low decision latitude, job strain or noise, have an increased incidence of IHD.

  • 1772.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Stress reduction programmes for the workplace2012Inngår i: Handbook of occupational health and wellness / [ed] Robert J. Gatchel, Izabela Z. Schultz, Boston: Springer, 2012, s. 383-403Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1773.
    Theorell, Töres
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University Hospital, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Träskman Bendz, Lil
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Grape, Tom
    South Health Care Centre, Sweden.
    Hogstedt, Christer
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Skoog, Ingmar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hall, Charlotte
    Swedish Council Health Technology Assessment, Sweden.
    A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and depressive symptoms2015Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, nr 738Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depressive symptoms are potential outcomes of poorly functioning work environments. Such symptoms are frequent and cause considerable suffering for the employees as well as financial loss for the employers. Accordingly good prospective studies of psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms are valuable. Scientific reviews of such studies have pointed at methodological difficulties but still established a few job risk factors. Those reviews were published some years ago. There is need for an updated systematic review using the GRADE system. In addition, gender related questions have been insufficiently reviewed. Method: Inclusion criteria for the studies published 1990 to June 2013: 1. European and English speaking countries. 2. Quantified results describing the relationship between exposure (psychosocial or physical/chemical) and outcome (standardized questionnaire assessment of depressive symptoms or interview-based clinical depression). 3. Prospective or comparable case-control design with at least 100 participants. 4. Assessments of exposure (working conditions) and outcome at baseline and outcome (depressive symptoms) once again after follow-up 1-5 years later. 5. Adjustment for age and adjustment or stratification for gender. Studies filling inclusion criteria were subjected to assessment of 1.) relevance and 2.) quality using predefined criteria. Systematic review of the evidence was made using the GRADE system. When applicable, meta-analysis of the magnitude of associations was made. Consistency of findings was examined for a number of possible confounders and publication bias was discussed. Results: Fifty-nine articles of high or medium high scientific quality were included. Moderately strong evidence (grade three out of four) was found for job strain (high psychological demands and low decision latitude), low decision latitude and bullying having significant impact on development of depressive symptoms. Limited evidence (grade two) was shown for psychological demands, effort reward imbalance, low support, unfavorable social climate, lack of work justice, conflicts, limited skill discretion, job insecurity and long working hours. There was no differential gender effect of adverse job conditions on depressive symptoms Conclusion: There is substantial empirical evidence that employees, both men and women, who report lack of decision latitude, job strain and bullying, will experience increasing depressive symptoms over time. These conditions are amenable to organizational interventions.

  • 1774.
    Thomée, Sara
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Department of Work Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults: A qualitative study2010Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prospective associations have been found between high use of information and communication technology (ICT) and reported mental symptoms among young adult university students, but the causal mechanisms are unclear. Our aim was to explore possible explanations for associations between high ICT use and symptoms of depression, sleep disorders, and stress among young adults in order to propose a model of possible pathways to mental health effects that can be tested epidemiologically. Methods: We conducted a qualitative interview study with 16 women and 16 men (21-28 years), recruited from a cohort of university students on the basis of reporting high computer (n = 28) or mobile phone (n = 20) use at baseline and reporting mental symptoms at the one-year follow-up. Semi-structured interviews were performed, with open-ended questions about possible connections between the use of computers and mobile phones, and stress, depression, and sleep disturbances. The interview data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and summarized in a model. Results: Central factors appearing to explain high quantitative ICT use were personal dependency, and demands for achievement and availability originating from the domains of work, study, social life, and individual aspirations. Consequences included mental overload, neglect of other activities and personal needs, time pressure, role conflicts, guilt feelings, social isolation, physical symptoms, worry about electromagnetic radiation, and economic problems. Qualitative aspects (destructive communication and information) were also reported, with consequences including vulnerability, misunderstandings, altered values, and feelings of inadequacy. User problems were a source of frustration. Altered ICT use as an effect of mental symptoms was reported, as well as possible positive effects of ICT on mental health. Conclusions: The concepts and ideas of the young adults with high ICT use and mental symptoms generated a model of possible paths for associations between ICT exposure and mental symptoms. Demands for achievement and availability as well as personal dependency were major causes of high ICT exposure but also direct sources of stress and mental symptoms. The proposed model shows that factors in different domains may have an impact and should be considered in epidemiological and intervention studies.

  • 1775.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Gini, Gianluca
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mobbning och att försvara utsatta för mobbning: Betydelsen av elevers moraliska emotioner och moraliska disengagemang2014Inngår i: Independent in the heard: Inclusion and exclusion as social processes. Proceedings from the 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 2014 / [ed] Robert Thornberg & Tomas Jungert, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014, s. 109-123Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning har visat att moraliskt disengagemang och moraliska emotioner sammanhänger med både mobbning och att försvara personer som är utsatta för mobbning. Vad vi dock inte vet är om var och en av dessa två faktorer fortfarande bidrar till att förklara variationen av dessa beteenden när båda inkluderas i samma modell. Syftet med studien var därför att undersöka hur moraliskt disengagemang och moraliska emotioner är associerade med mobbning och försvararbeteende bland skolbarn i en och samma modell. Vi ville även undersöka om det förelåg en interaktionseffekt mellan dessa två moraliska faktorer och som ytterligare bidrar till att förklara variationen i mobbning och försvararbeteende. 561 elever i årskurs 5 och 6 från 28 grundskolor besvarade anonymt och under skoltid en enkät. Resultatet visade att medan moraliskt disengagemang var positivt associerat med mobbning och negativt associerat med försvararbeteende, så var moraliska emotioner negativt associerade med mobbning och positivt associerade med försvararbeteende. Vidare visade resultatet att elever som uppvisade hög nivå av moraliska emotioner var mindre benägna att mobba oavsett deras nivå av moraliskt disengagemang. I kontrast till detta var moraliskt disengagemang negativt associerat med försvarbeteende vid låga nivåer av moraliska emotioner men inte när nivån av moraliska emotioner var högt.

  • 1776. Thorsson, S
    et al.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Konarska, J
    Lindberg, F
    Holmer, B
    Dousset, B
    Rayner, D
    Mean Radiant temperature - A predictor of heat related mortality2014Inngår i: Urban Climate, ISSN 2212-0955, E-ISSN 2212-0955, Vol. 10, s. 332-345Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1777. Thrift, Aaron P.
    et al.
    Gong, Jian
    Peters, Ulrike
    Chang-Claude, Jenny
    Rudolph, Anja
    Slattery, Martha L.
    Chan, Andrew T.
    Esko, Tonu
    Wood, Andrew R.
    Yang, Jian
    Vedantam, Sailaja
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär epidemiologi.
    Pers, Tune H.
    Baron, John A.
    Bezieau, Stephane
    Kuery, Sebastien
    Ogino, Shuji
    Berndt, Sonja I.
    Casey, Graham
    Haile, Robert W.
    Du, Mengmeng
    Harrison, Tabitha A.
    Thornquist, Mark
    Duggan, David J.
    Le Marchand, Loic
    Lemire, Mathieu
    Lindor, Noralane M.
    Seminara, Daniela
    Song, Mingyang
    Thibodeau, Stephen N.
    Cotterchio, Michelle
    Win, Aung Ko
    Jenkins, Mark A.
    Hopper, John L.
    Ulrich, Cornelia M.
    Potter, John D.
    Newcomb, Polly A.
    Schoen, Robert E.
    Hoffmeister, Michael
    Brenner, Hermann
    White, Emily
    Hsu, Li
    Campbell, Peter T.
    Mendelian randomization study of height and risk of colorectal cancer2015Inngår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 662-672Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: For men and women, taller height is associated with increased risk of all cancers combined. For colorectal cancer (CRC), it is unclear whether the differential association of height by sex is real or is due to confounding or bias inherent in observational studies. We performed a Mendelian randomization study to examine the association between height and CRC risk. Methods: To minimize confounding and bias, we derived a weighted genetic risk score predicting height (using 696 genetic variants associated with height) in 10 226 CRC cases and 10 286 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for associations between height, genetically predicted height and CRC. Results: Using conventional methods, increased height (per 10-cm increment) was associated with increased CRC risk (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.02-1.15). In sex-specific analyses, height was associated with CRC risk for women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.05-1.26), but not men (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.92-1.05). Consistent with these results, carrying greater numbers of (weighted) height-increasing alleles (per 1-unit increase) was associated with higher CRC risk for women and men combined (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01-1.14) and for women (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01-1.19). There was weaker evidence of an association for men (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.96-1.15). Conclusion: We provide evidence for a causal association between height and CRC for women. The CRC-height association for men remains unclear and warrants further investigation in other large studies.

  • 1778.
    Thulesius, Olav
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Waddell, William J
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY USA.
    Human exposures to acrylamide are below the threshold for carcinogenesis2004Inngår i: Human and Experimental Toxicology, ISSN 0960-3271, E-ISSN 1477-0903, Vol. 23, nr 7, s. 357-358Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dose-response calculations for a threshold of carcinogenesis in animal studies do not support the notion that acrylamide (ACR) with the present status of consumption in food is carcinogenic for humans. This is in agreement with the recent reassuring epidemiological studies which have shown a lack of correlation between exposure to ACR in food and the incidence of cancer. © Arnold 2004.

  • 1779. Thun, Eirunn
    et al.
    Bjorvatn, Bjørn
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Moen, Bente Elisabeth
    Waage, Siri
    Molde, Helge
    Pallesen, Ståle
    Trajectories of sleepiness and insomnia symptoms in Norwegian nurses with and without night work and rotational work2016Inngår i: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 480-489Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous cross-sectional studies report high prevalence rates of sleepiness and insomnia in shift workers, but few longitudinal studies exist. We investigated trajectories of sleepiness and insomnia symptoms in a sample of Norwegian nurses across four measurements, spanning a total of four years (sleepiness) and five years (insomnia). The participants completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Bergen Insomnia Scale at each measurement instance. Latent growth curve models were used to analyse the data. Separate models examined night work (night work, entering and leaving night work) and rotational work (rotational work, entering and leaving rotational work) as predictors for trajectories of sleepiness and insomnia symptoms, respectively. Baseline values of sleepiness and insomnia were higher among rotational shift workers than among workers with fixed shifts (day or night). The results showed that night work throughout the period and entering night work during the period were not associated with different trajectories of sleepiness or insomnia symptoms, compared to not having night work. The same results were found for rotational work and entering rotational work, compared to not having rotational work. Leaving night work and leaving rotational work were associated with a decrease in sleepiness and insomnia symptoms, compared to staying in such work.

  • 1780. Thurston, George D
    et al.
    Kipen, Howard
    Annesi-Maesano, Isabella
    Balmes, John
    Brook, Robert D
    Cromar, Kevin
    De Matteis, Sara
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Frampton, Mark W
    Grigg, Jonathan
    Heederik, Dick
    Kelly, Frank J
    Kuenzli, Nino
    Laumbach, Robert
    Peters, Annette
    Rajagopalan, Sanjay T
    Rich, David
    Ritz, Beate
    Samet, Jonathan M
    Sandstrom, Thomas
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Brunekreef, Bert
    A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? An analytical framework2017Inngår i: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 49, nr 1, artikkel-id 1600419Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have documented effects of air pollution on other organ systems, such as on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In addition, many new biomarkers of effects have been developed and applied in air pollution studies.This current report seeks to integrate the latest science into a general framework for interpreting the adversity of the human health effects of air pollution. Rather than trying to provide a catalogue of what is and what is not an adverse effect of air pollution, we propose a set of considerations that can be applied in forming judgments of the adversity of not only currently documented, but also emerging and future effects of air pollution on human health. These considerations are illustrated by the inclusion of examples for different types of health effects of air pollution.

  • 1781.
    Thörnquist, Annette
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen.
    The Swedish Occupational Safety and Health Model Lost in Transition?2008Inngår i: OSH & Developments, ISSN 1653-5766, s. 43-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1782. Tian, Lin
    et al.
    Inthavong, Kiao
    Lidén, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Shang, Yidan
    Tu, Jiyuan
    Transport and Deposition of Welding Fume Agglomerates in a Realistic Human Nasal Airway2016Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 60, nr 6, s. 731-747Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Welding fume is a complex mixture containing ultra-fine particles in the nanometer range. Rather than being in the form of a singular sphere, due to the high particle concentration, welding fume particles agglomerate into long straight chains, branches, or other forms of compact shapes. Understanding the transport and deposition of these nano-agglomerates in human respiratory systems is of great interest as welding fumes are a known health hazard. The neurotoxin manganese (Mn) is a common element in welding fumes. Particulate Mn, either as soluble salts or oxides, that has deposited on the olfactory mucosa in human nasal airway is transported along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb within the brain. If this Mn is further transported to the basal ganglia of the brain, it could accumulate at the part of the brain that is the focal point of its neurotoxicity. Accounting for various dynamic shape factors due to particle agglomeration, the current computational study is focused on the exposure route, the deposition pattern, and the deposition efficiency of the inhaled welding fume particles in a realistic human nasal cavity. Particular attention is given to the deposition pattern and deposition efficiency of inhaled welding fume agglomerates in the nasal olfactory region. For particles in the nanoscale, molecular diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism. Therefore, Brownian diffusion, hydrodynamic drag, Saffman lift force, and gravitational force are included in the model study. The deposition efficiencies for single spherical particles, two kinds of agglomerates of primary particles, two-dimensional planar and straight chains, are investigated for a range of primary particle sizes and a range of number of primary particles per agglomerate. A small fraction of the inhaled welding fume agglomerates is deposited on the olfactory mucosa, approximately in the range 0.1-1%, and depends on particle size and morphology. The strong size dependence of the deposition in olfactory mucosa on particle size implies that the occupation deposition of welding fume manganese can be expected to vary with welding method.

  • 1783. Tian, Liting
    et al.
    Zheng, Guang
    Sommar, Johan Nilsson
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Liang, Yihuai
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundh, Tomas
    Broberg, Karin
    Lei, Lijian
    Guo, Weijun
    Li, Yulan
    Tan, Mingguang
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Jin, Taiyi
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lead concentration in plasma as a biomarker of exposure and risk, and modification of toxicity by delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase gene polymorphism2013Inngår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 221, nr 2, s. 102-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1784. Timm, Signe
    et al.
    Frydenberg, Morten
    Janson, Christer
    Campbell, Brittany
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Holm, Mathias
    Jogi, Rain
    Omenaas, Ernst
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe2016Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 93-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945-1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8%) than subjects growing up in inner cities (11%) (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57-0.91), and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02). An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population.

  • 1785. Timm, Signe
    et al.
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Janson, Christer
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Johannessen, Ane
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Jogi, Rain
    Omenaas, Ernst
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Torén, Kjell
    Holm, Mathias
    Bråbäck, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    Place of upbringing in early childhood as related to inflammatory bowel diseases in adulthood: a population-based cohort study in Northern Europe2014Inngår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 429-437Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The two inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, has increased rapidly during the twentieth century, but the aetiology is still poorly understood. Impaired immunological competence due to decreasing biodiversity and altered microbial stimulation is a suggested explanation.

    Objective Place of upbringing was used as a proxy for the level and diversity of microbial stimulation to investigate the effects on the prevalence of IBD in adulthood.

    Methods Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) III is a postal follow-up questionnaire of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) cohorts established in 1989-1992. The study population was 10,864 subjects born 1945-1971 in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia, who responded to questionnaires in 2000-2002 and 2010-2012. Data were analysed in logistic and Cox regression models taking age, sex, smoking and body mass index into consideration.

    Results Being born and raised on a livestock farm the first 5 years of life was associated with a lower risk of IBD compared to city living in logistic (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.94) and Cox regression models (HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.98). Random-effect meta-analysis did not identify geographical difference in this association. Furthermore, there was a significant trend comparing livestock farm living, village and city living (p < 0.01). Sub-analyses showed that the protective effect was only present among subjects born after 1952 (OR 0.25, 95 % CI 0.11; 0.61).

    Conclusion This study suggests a protective effect from livestock farm living in early childhood on the occurrence of IBD in adulthood, however only among subjects born after 1952. We speculate that lower microbial diversity is an explanation for the findings.

  • 1786.
    Tinc, Pamela J.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Northeast Center for Occupational Health and Safety: Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing, Cooperstown, New York.
    Gadomski, Anne
    Sorensen, Julie A.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Jenkins, Paul
    Lindvall, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Adapting the T0-T4 implementation science model to occupational health and safety in agriculture, forestry, and fishing: A scoping review2018Inngår i: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 61, nr 1, s. 51-62Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite much research to develop life-saving innovations for the agriculture, forestry, and fishing workforce, these populations continue to face the highest fatal and non-fatal injury rates in the United States, as many of these solutions are not fully adopted.

    Methods: A scoping review was conducted to provide an overview of research to practice efforts in this field. The language used to describe these initiatives, the utility of the NIH T0-T4 model, and the progress along the research to practice continuum were examined.

    Results: Fourteen eligible references demonstrated that progress in implementation science is lacking and that there is little consistency in how researchers apply the T0-T4 model; thus, a new model is presented.

    Conclusions: Researchers in this field face several challenges when moving from research to practice. While some challenges are addressed with the proposed model, additional resources and infrastructure to support such initiatives are necessary.

  • 1787.
    Tinghög, Petter
    et al.
    Department of Bioscience and Nutrition, Karolinska institutet, Huddinge.
    Carstensen, John
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping.
    Kaati, Gunnar
    Department of Bioscience and Nutrition, Karolinska institutet, Huddinge.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Sjöström, Michael
    Department of Bioscience and Nutrition, Karolinska institutet, Huddinge.
    Bygren, Lars Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Migration and mortality trajectories: a study of individuals born in the rural community of Överkalix, Sweden2011Inngår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 73, nr 5, s. 744-751Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration may result in exposure to factors that are both beneficial and harmful for good health. How the act of migration is associated with mortality, or whether the socio-economic condition of migrants prior to migration influences their mortality trajectory, is not well understood. In the present study, a cohort of 413 randomly selected individuals born in the rural community of Överkalix, Sweden, between 1890 and 1935 were followed from birth to either death or old age. Around 50% of the study-population moved away from Överkalix at one time or another. To adjust for a potential bias resulting from self-selection among the migrants, the father’s occupational status was used together with parents’ and grandparents’ longevity. Overall, migration could not be shown to predict mortality when the backgrounds of the migrants were taken into account. Nonetheless, socio-economic background conditions appeared to moderate the association, decreasing the mortality rates for migrants with relatively good pre-migratory socio-economic conditions, while increasing it for migrants with poorer pre-migratory conditions. However, further scrutiny revealed that this effect modification mainly affected the female migrants’ mortality. In conclusion, the study suggests that there is no general association between migration and mortality, but that migrants with better socio-economic resources are more likely to improve their mortality trajectories than migrants with poorer resources. Better pre-migratory conditions hence appear to be important for avoiding health-adverse circumstances and gaining access to health beneficial living conditions when moving to foreign environments – especially for women.

  • 1788. Tischer, Christina
    et al.
    Zock, Jan-Paul
    Valkonen, Maria
    Doekes, Gert
    Guerra, Stefano
    Heederik, Dick
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Norbäck, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Olivieri, Mario
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Taubel, Martin
    Thiering, Elisabeth
    Verlato, Giuseppe
    Hyvarinen, Anne
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Predictors of microbial agents in dust and respiratory health in the Ecrhs2015Inngår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine, ISSN 1471-2466, E-ISSN 1471-2466, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dampness and mould exposure have been repeatedly associated with respiratory health. However, less is known about the specific agents provoking or arresting health effects in adult populations. We aimed to assess predictors of microbial agents in mattress dust throughout Europe and to investigate associations between microbial exposures, home characteristics and respiratory health. Methods: Seven different fungal and bacterial parameters were assessed in mattress dust from 956 adult ECRHS II participants in addition to interview based home characteristics. Associations between microbial parameters and the asthma score and lung function were examined using mixed negative binomial regression and linear mixed models, respectively. Results: Indoor dampness and pet keeping were significant predictors for higher microbial agent concentrations in mattress dust. Current mould and condensation in the bedroom were significantly associated with lung function decline and current mould at home was positively associated with the asthma score. Higher concentrations of muramic acid were associated with higher mean ratios of the asthma score (aMR 1.37, 95% CI 1.17-1.61). There was no evidence for any association between fungal and bacterial components and lung function. Conclusion: Indoor dampness was associated with microbial levels in mattress dust which in turn was positively associated with asthma symptoms.

  • 1789.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Social Determinants of Stroke as Related to Stress at Work among Working Women: A Literature Review2012Inngår i: Stroke Research and Treatment, ISSN 2090-8105, E-ISSN 2042-0056, Vol. 2012, artikkel-id 873678Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In adult life, many of the social determinants of health are connected to working life. Yet, our knowledge of the role of work-related factors for the risk of stroke is fairly limited. In contemporary occupational health research, the Demand-Control Model (DCM) is frequently used to measure work stress. Previous literature reviews of the association of work stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD) do not include stroke as a specific outcome. Results regarding work stress and the risk of CVD are less evident in working women. With the focus on working women, the purpose of the present paper was to review the current research into the DCM in relation to stroke and to scrutinize potential gender differences. A literature search was performed and eight studies from three countries were identified. Based on the reviewed studies, there is some evidence that high psychological demands, low job control, and job strain are associated with increased stroke risk in women as well as in men. Any major reduction in deaths and disability from stroke is likely to come from decreasing social inequalities in health, and reducing work stress has a potential to contribute to a reduced risk of stroke in working populations.

  • 1790.
    Toledano, Mireille B.
    et al.
    MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK; National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Health Impact of Environmental Hazards, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Auvinen, Anssi
    School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland.
    Tettamanti, Giorgio
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län. Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Feychting, Maria
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahlbom, Anders
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fremling, Karin
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heinävaara, Sirpa
    Finnish Cancer Registry, Mass Screening Registry, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kojo, Katja
    Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland.
    Knowles, Gemma
    MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, UK; National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Health Impact of Environmental Hazards, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Smith, Rachel B.
    MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, UK; National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Health Impact of Environmental Hazards, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Schüz, Joachim
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Section of Environment and Radiation, Lyon, France.
    Johansen, Christoffer
    Oncology clinic, Finsen Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; The Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo
    The Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Deltour, Isabelle
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Section of Environment and Radiation, Lyon, France.
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Kromhout, Hans
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Elliott, Paul
    MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, UK.
    Hillert, Lena
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An international prospective cohort study of mobile phone users and health (COSMOS): Factors affecting validity of self-reported mobile phone use2018Inngår i: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 221, nr 1, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates validity of self-reported mobile phone use in a subset of 75 993 adults from the COSMOS cohort study. Agreement between self-reported and operator-derived mobile call frequency and duration for a 3-month period was assessed using Cohen's weighted Kappa (κ). Sensitivity and specificity of both self-reported high (≥10 calls/day or ≥4h/week) and low (≤6 calls/week or <30min/week) mobile phone use were calculated, as compared to operator data. For users of one mobile phone, agreement was fair for call frequency (κ=0.35, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.36) and moderate for call duration (κ=0.50, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.50). Self-reported low call frequency and duration demonstrated high sensitivity (87% and 76% respectively), but for high call frequency and duration sensitivity was lower (38% and 56% respectively), reflecting a tendency for greater underestimation than overestimation. Validity of self-reported mobile phone use was lower in women, younger age groups and those reporting symptoms during/shortly after using a mobile phone. This study highlights the ongoing value of using self-report data to measure mobile phone use. Furthermore, compared to continuous scale estimates used by previous studies, categorical response options used in COSMOS appear to improve validity considerably, most likely by preventing unrealistically high estimates from being reported.

  • 1791. Tomassen, P.
    et al.
    Jarvis, D.
    Newson, R.
    Van Ree, R.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Howarth, P.
    Janson, C.
    Kowalski, M. L.
    Krämer, U.
    Matricardi, P. M.
    Middelveld, R. J. M.
    Todo-Bom, A.
    Toskala, E.
    Thilsing, T.
    Brożek, G.
    Van Drunen, C.
    Burney, P.
    Bachert, C.
    Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin-specific IgE is associated with asthma in the general population: a GA2LEN study2013Inngår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 68, nr 10, s. 1289-1297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Specific IgE to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins (SE-IgE) has been associated with asthma. In the general population, we aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for serum SE-IgE and to examine the association with asthma.

    METHODS: A postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of adults in 19 centers across Europe. A random sample of respondents was invited for clinical examination upon which they answered a questionnaire, underwent skin prick tests (SPTs) for common aeroallergens, and provided blood for measurement of total IgE and SE-IgE. Risks were analyzed within centers using weighted logistic regression, and overall estimates calculated using fixed-effects meta-analysis.

    RESULTS: 2908 subjects were included in this analysis. Prevalence of positive SE-IgE was 29.3%; no significant geographic variation was observed. In contrast to positive skin prick tests, SE-IgE was more common in smokers (<15 pack-year: OR 1.11, P = 0.079, ≥15 pack-year: OR 1.70, P < 0.001), and prevalence did not decrease in older age-groups or in those with many siblings. Total IgE concentrations were higher in those with positive SE-IgE than in those with positive SPT. SE-IgE was associated with asthma (OR 2.10, 95% confidence interval [1.60-2.76], P = 0.001) in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was independent of SPT result and homogeneous across all centers.

    CONCLUSIONS: We report for the first time that SE-IgE is common in the general population throughout Europe and that its risk factors differ from those of IgE against aeroallergens. This is the first study to show that SE-IgE is significantly and independently associated with asthma in the general population.

  • 1792.
    Toms, Leisa Maree
    et al.
    School of Clinical Sciences and Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia .
    Thompson, Jack
    Queensland Health Scientific Services, Brisbane, Australia .
    Rotander, Anna
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia .
    Hobson, Peter
    Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology, Taringa, Australia .
    Calafat, Antonia
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States .
    Kato, K.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States .
    Ye, X.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States .
    Broomhall, S.
    Department of the Environment, Canberra, Australia.
    Harden, F.
    School of Clinical Sciences and Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia .
    Mueller, J. F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Brisbane, Australia .
    Decline in perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate serum concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 to 20112014Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 71, s. 74-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Some perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have become widespread pollutants detected in human and wildlife samples worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess temporal trends of PFAS concentrations in human blood in Australia over the last decade (2002-2011), taking into consideration age and sex trends.

    Pooled human sera from 2002/03 (n=26); 2008/09 (n=24) and 2010/11 (n=24) from South East Queensland, Australia were obtained from de-identified surplus pathology samples and compared with samples collected previously from 2006/07 (n=84). A total of 9775 samples in 158 pools were available for an assessment of PFASs. Stratification criteria included sex and age: <. 16. years (2002/03 only); 0-4 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 5-15 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 16-30; 31-45; 46-60; and >. 60. years (all collection periods). Sera were analyzed using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in the highest concentrations ranging from 5.3-19.2. ng/ml (2008/09) to 4.4-17.4. ng/ml (2010/11). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was detected in the next highest concentration ranging from 2.8-7.3. ng/ml (2008/09) to 3.1-6.5. ng/ml (2010/11). All other measured PFASs were detected at concentrations <. 1. ng/ml with the exception of perfluorohexane sulfonate which ranged from 1.2-5.7. ng/ml (08/09) and 1.4-5.4. ng/ml (10/11). The mean concentrations of both PFOS and PFOA in the 2010/11 period compared to 2002/03 were lower for all adult age groups by 56%. For 5-15. year olds, the decrease was 66% (PFOS) and 63% (PFOA) from 2002/03 to 2010/11. For 0-4. year olds the decrease from 2006/07 (when data were first available for this age group) was 50% (PFOS) and 22% (PFOA).

    This study provides strong evidence for decreasing serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 through 2011. Age trends were variable and concentrations were higher in males than in females. Global use has been in decline since around 2002 and hence primary exposure levels are expected to be decreasing. Further biomonitoring will allow assessment of PFAS exposures to confirm trends in exposure as primary and eventually secondary sources are depleted.

  • 1793.
    Tondel, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Blomqvist, Anna
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Persson, Bodil
    Thomée, Sara
    Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Elolyckor kan ge skador som visar sig efter lång tid - Det akuta omhändertagandet kan vara avgörande på sikt.2016Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Immediate and delayed outcomes after electrical injury. A guide for clinicians In Sweden about 300 electrical injuries are recorded each year at the Swedish National Electrical Safety Board. Most of our knowledge of the health consequences of these arise from clinical case series. Severe electrical injuries have direct thermal effects and may result in ventricular fibrillation, skin burns, as well as muscular and nerve affection. Long-term consequences include pain, vascular symptoms, cognitive and neurological symptoms and signs. These sequelae may occur even though the initial symptoms were relatively modest. Mechanisms are better understood for the immediate symptoms, compared to long-term and delayed non-thermal medical consequences. Attention to and treatment of patients with electrical injury needs to be improved to minimize long-term consequences. Good medical care in the acute phase and early multidisciplinary follow-up of severe cases will likely reduce associated morbidity. Each electrical injury should result in an inquiry to identify the cause of the accident in order to suggest actions to prevent new incidents.

  • 1794.
    Tondel, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Smärt- och yrkesmedicinskt centrum, Yrkes- och miljömedicinskt centrum.
    Lindgren, P
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Smärt- och yrkesmedicinskt centrum, Yrkes- och miljömedicinskt centrum.
    Hjalmarsson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Smärt- och yrkesmedicinskt centrum, Yrkes- och miljömedicinskt centrum.
    Hardell, L.
    Department of Oncology, Örebro, Sweden.
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Smärt- och yrkesmedicinskt centrum, Yrkes- och miljömedicinskt centrum.
    Increased cancer incidence in north Sweden-an early promoting effect caused by the chernobyl accident.2003Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, Vol. 14, nr 5 Suppl., s. S94-S94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In Sweden the ground gamma radiation, due to uranium containing granite, contribute to the population's total radiation dose. After the Chemobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986 as much as five percent of the released caesium-137 was deposited in Sweden, especially in the Northern part of the country. Our hypothesis was that this radiation caused increased cancer incidence, after adjustment by ground gamma radiation exposure.

    Methods: The study base included the population of eight counties with the highest fallout after the Chernobyl accident, but also with unaffected areas in these counties serving as the reference. Each person 0-60 years of age living in the same parish at 31 December 1985 and 31 December 1987 were included in a cohort. With the coordinate of each person's dwelling from the National Land Survey of Sweden a total of 1 137 106 individuals could be given 1) ground gamma radiation exposure from the digital map of the Swedish Geological Agency and 2) caesium-137 exposure from a similar map created by Swedish Radiation Protection Institute. Accuracy of the dwelling coordinate was 100 metres and for the radiation exposures 200 metres as done by aeroplane measurements. Three time periods were analysed 1988-1991, 1992-1995 and 1988-1999.

    Results: Population density, lung cancer incidence 1988-1999 and total cancer incidence 1986-1987 was risk factors for total cancer outcome in 1988-1999. Age adjusted ERR per 100 nGy/h for ground gamma radiation and total cancer incidence did not show any significant dose response measured, either in each three years time intervals or in the total period of 1988-1999. For caesium the ERR per 100 nGy/h (adjusted by population density, lung cancer incidence, total cancer incidence 1986-1987 and ground gamma radiation) was significant in 1988-1991 followed by a decline in risk 1992-1995 and then a slight but not complete return in risk. The ERR of 0.042 (95% CL 0.001;0.084) per 100 nGy/h for caesium exposure 1988-1999 is therefore dependent on the first three years increase, and to less extent by the following six years.

    Conclusion: We have found an early effect of the Chernobyl fallout in Northern Sweden. However, even in the ERR of 0.101 per 100 nGy/h is relatively low in 1988-1991, it is stable in a stepwise regression, and therefore indicating a true effect. An interpretation of our results could be that the sudden exposure of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl might have acted as a late stage general promotor for cancer. Such an early effect can hitherto been overlooked in previous studies.

  • 1795.
    Tondel, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Rääf, Christopher
    Wålinder, Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Mamour, Afrah
    Isaksson, Mats
    Estimated lifetime effective dose to hunters and their families in the three most contaminated counties in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986: A pilot study2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 177, s. 241-249Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hunters and their families were one of the most exposed subpopulations in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. In this pilot study we used existing registries and whole-body measurements to develop algorithms to calculate lifetime effective doses and collective doses to some hunters in Sweden. Ten hunters and their family members were randomly selected from each of the three most contaminated counties in Sweden (Västernorrland, Uppsala, Gävleborg) using the register for hunting weapons from the Police Authority in 1985. Hence, this design can be regarded as a closed cohort only including hunters and their family members living in these three counties at the time of the accident. Statistics Sweden matched these individuals (n = 85) with their dwelling coordinates onto the digital map produced by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority after aerial measurements of 137Cs (kBq m-2). Internal effective doses were estimated using aggregated transfer factors from ground deposition to in-vivo body concentration for 134Cs and 137Cs in hunters (Bq kg-1). External effective doses were also calculated on the dwelling coordinate for 134Cs, 137Cs and short-lived nuclides in these three counties. Annual effective doses for external and internal doses were then cumulated up to a life expectancy of 80 years for men and 84 years for women, respectively. The total lifetime effective doses to the members of the hunter families in this cohort were on average 8.3 mSv in Västernorrland, 4.7 mSv in Uppsala and 4.1 mSv in Gävleborg. The effective dose to men were about 40% higher than in women. In all counties the internal dose was about 75% of the total lifetime effective dose. The collective dose for all hunters with family members, in total about 44,000 individuals, in these three counties could be approximated at about 256 manSv. This study shows it is possible to use register data to develop algorithms for calculating lifetime effective dose commitments for hunters with relatively accuracy.

  • 1796.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bratt Carlström, Margareta
    Avonova Hälsa Stockholm AB.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    A good working life for everyone2012Inngår i: Occupational Physiology / [ed] Toomingas A, Mathiassen SE, Wigaeus Tornqvist E, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2012, s. 271-284Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1797.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bratt Carlström, Margareta
    Avonova Hälsa Stockholm AB.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Ett gott arbetsliv för alla2008Inngår i: Arbetslivsfysiologi / [ed] Allan Toomingas, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Ewa Wigaeus Tornqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2008, s. 347-361Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1798. Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Heiden, Marina
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Variation between seated and standing/walking postures among male and female call centre operators2012Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, nr 154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The dose and time-pattern of sitting has been suggested in public health research to be an important determinant of risk for developing a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to assess the time-pattern of seated and standing/walking postures amongst male and female call centre operators, on the basis of whole-shift posture recordings, analysed and described by a number of novel variables describing posture variation.

    Methods: Seated vs. standing/walking was recorded using dichotomous inclinometers throughout an entire work shift for 43 male and 97 female call centre operators at 16 call centres. Data were analysed using an extensive set of variables describing occurrence of and switches between seated and standing/walking, posture similarity across the day, and compliance with standard recommendations for computer work.

    Results: The majority of the operators, both male and female, spent more than 80% of the shift in a seated posture with an average of 10.4 switches/hour between seated and standing/walking or vice versa. Females spent, on average, 11% of the day in periods of sustained sitting longer than 1 hour; males 4.6% (p = 0.013). Only 38% and 11% of the operators complied with standard recommendations of getting an uninterrupted break from seated posture of at least 5 or 10 minutes, respectively, within each hour of work. Two thirds of all investigated variables showed coefficients of variation between subjects above 0.5. Since work tasks and contractual break schedules were observed to be essentially similar across operators and across days, this indicates that sedentary behaviours differed substantially between individuals.

    Conclusions: The extensive occurrence of uninterrupted seated work indicates that efforts should be made at call centres - and probably in other settings in the office sector - to introduce more physical variation in terms of standing/walking periods during the work day. We suggest the metrics used in this study for quantifying variation in sedentary behaviour to be of interest even for other dichotomous exposures relevant to occupational and public health, for instance physical activity/inactivity.

  • 1799.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Occupational & Environmental Medicine University of Gothenburg.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Westergren, Karl Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ADULT.
    Incidence and risk factors for symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users2012Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, nr Supplement 1, s. 3560-3562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal computers are used by a majority of the working population in their professions. Little is known about risk-factors for incident symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users. The aim was to study the incidence and risk-factors for symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users. This study is a part of a comprehensive prospective follow-up study of factors associated with the incidence of symptoms among professional computer users. 1531 computer users of different professions at 46 companies were invited, whereof 1283 answered a baseline questionnaire (498 men; 785 women) and 1246 at least one of 10 monthly follow-up questionnaires. The computer work-station and equipment were generally of a good standard. The majority used CRT displays. During the follow-up period 329 subjects reported eye symptoms. The overall incidence rate in the whole study group was 0.38 per person-year, 0.23 in the subgroup of subjects who were symptom free at baseline and 1.06 among subjects who reported eye symptoms at baseline. In the bivariate analyses significant associations were found with all explanatory variables, except BMI. The reduced multivariate model showed significant associations with extended computer work, visual discomfort (dose-response), eye symptoms at baseline (higher risk), sex (women=higher risk) and nicotine use. The incidence of eye problems among professional computer users is high and related to both individual and work-related factors.

  • 1800.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Occupational & Environmental Medicine University of Gothenburg.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Westergren, Karl Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Incidence and risk factors for symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users2012Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, nr Suppl. 1, s. 3560-3562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal computers are used by a majority of the working population in their professions. Little is known about risk-factors for incident symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users. The aim was to study the incidence and risk-factors for symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users. This study is a part of a comprehensive prospective follow-up study of factors associated with the incidence of symptoms among professional computer users. 1531 computer users of different professions at 46 companies were invited, whereof 1283 answered a baseline questionnaire (498 men; 785 women) and 1246 at least one of 10 monthly follow-up questionnaires. The computer work-station and equipment were generally of a good standard. The majority used CRT displays. During the follow-up period 329 subjects reported eye symptoms. The overall incidence rate in the whole study group was 0.38 per person-year, 0.23 in the subgroup of subjects who were symptom free at baseline and 1.06 among subjects who reported eye symptoms at baseline. In the bivariate analyses significant associations were found with all explanatory variables, except BMI. The reduced multivariate model showed significant associations with extended computer work, visual discomfort (dose-response), eye symptoms at baseline (higher risk), sex (women=higher risk) and nicotine use. The incidence of eye problems among professional computer users is high and related to both individual and work-related factors.

33343536373839 1751 - 1800 of 2017
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