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  • 1701.
    Virta, Sari
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Media Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC). Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Företagsekonomi. University of Tampere, Finland.
    Lowe, Gregory Ferrell
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Crossing Boundaries for Innovation: Content Development for PSM at Yle2016Inngår i: Crossing borders and boundaries in public service media / [ed] Gregory Ferrell Lowe & Nobuto Yamamoto, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2016, s. 229-246Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors explain the crucial importance of crossing boundaries to achieve innovation in PSM content development. The reasons are explained with reference to creative organisation and innovation theories, and demonstrated in practice via analysis of an empirical case from Yle, the Finnish Broadcasting Corporation. The chapter focuses on characteristic challenges and practices in boundary crossing at three levels: organisational, group (or team) and individual. Key findings include lessons about the complexity of building and maintaining a creative media organisation in practice, especially in relation to designing structures, organisational arrangements and tools to make it happen, i.e. the move from ideation to realisation. Internal politics, organisational resistance, and managerial complications are confounding factors. The chapter demonstrates how and why nurturing collaboration across boundaries is a complex task that requires a particular and special skills set for media managers.

  • 1702.
    Virta, Sari
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Media Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC). University of Tampere, Finland.
    Lowe, Gregory Ferrell
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Managing Dependencies and Tensions in Value Networks Development: Case Mediapolis in Finland2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Media organisations face growing demands for co-operation. Achieving innovation that is vital requires collaborative arrangements based on creative interaction. Collaboration is often realized in networked operations between media organisations (e.g. Baumann, 2013), media clusters as one example. At the same time, competition in the media field intensifies. It is here that the concept and theory of value networks becomes useful (e.g. de Man, Berends, Lammers, van Raaij & van Weele 2008; Bathelt, Malmberg & Maskell, 2004). Also, the intensity, i.e. the frequency and range of interactions in clusters of media companies becomes a central factor for consideration (Picard, 2008). In this reality, managerial challenges, especially, in relation to interaction, collaboration and co-opetition are considerable, and respective competences need to be developed and utilized for success.

    Collaborative production is typical for innovation-intensive industries (Nohria & Eccles, 1992), and media firms are no different in this respect. However, the configuration of collaborative relationships in and between media organisations in networks is a complex managerial task, especially in the rapidly changing environment of diminishing resources. Media managers must be competent in handling various dependencies in value networks for shared value creation (e.g. Bilton, 2007), and especially the related tensions. To be useful, co-operative relationships need to be created and built, and the network development happens in stages (Büchel & Raub, 2002).

    The empirical case of the paper is Mediapolis (http://mediapolis.fi/en/) in Tampere, Finland. It is a new media centre and a cluster, an ecosystem and a network for content production and digital industries with a vision ”Mediapolis is a centre for storytelling and digital industries, where interdisciplinary innovations are born”. The Mediapolis campus was launched in the autumn 2014, although the planning started some years before. It is an interesting case for analysis, because its viability depends on the creation and management of a creative value network.

    Mediapolis development illustrates challenges and tensions of simultaneous collaboration and competition, i.e. co-opetition in a value network aiming for innovation. Especially, the managerial challenges in creating and developing the Mediapolis operational model have been significant, and continue to be so. The paper explores the first years of Mediapolis, providing a unique access to the forming stage of a creative media cluster development and its management. Thus, the paper contributes directly to the conference theme by developing understanding about creative collaboration and coopetition aiming at achieving media innovation, especially focusing on the complexity of interactions and tensions between Mediapolis partners.

    The empirical research material consists of semi-structured interviews, including the main Mediapolis partners’ management representatives as interviewees. The interviews have been conducted in different stages of Mediapolis development, e.g. in the early stages of planning and after the campus launch. Also, Mediapolis documentation has been collected from open sources (e.g. websites) and acquired from partner organisations. The study utilizes a qualitative case study approach (Stake, 1995), suitable for analysing unique cases in detail to create understanding about a phenomenon. Document analysis (Bowen, 2009) and qualitative thematic coding with ‘factual’ approach (e.g. Patton, 2002; Alastalo & Åkerman, 2010) are used as methodological approaches, and Atlas.ti software is utilized for analysis.

    In conclusion, the purpose of the paper is to discuss and elaborate on the various managerial and organisational dependencies and tensions in creating Mediapolis. Further, a central focus will be on the managerial competences required to deal with the new realities of value networks successfully in the media industry. The methodological approach is qualitative, with the aim of creating new knowledge on the scholarly field of media management for both academic and practical purposes. In media management, value networks have been scarcely researched, but the topic is highly timely and worthy of scholarly attention.

  • 1703.
    Virta, Sari
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Media Management and Transformation Centre (MMTC). Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Informatik. University of Tampere, Finland.
    Maijanen-Kyläheiko, Päivi
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Managing Exploration and Exploitation in a Media Organisation: A Capability Approach to Ambidexterity2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question and theoretical approach

    Currently, media managers face extensive challenges in combining the constant demands for operational and organisational change, innovation and creative development with the requirements for higher efficiency and refinements for greater streamlining of the on-going production. In attempts to understand this complex phenomenon, this paper offers a strategic management approach by applying the concepts of ambidexterity and organizational capabilities.

    Ambidexterity refers to an ability to simultaneously exploit current assets and mature markets profitably as well as to explore developmental possibilities for competing in new technologies and markets, utilizing environmental changes and organizational resources to capture new opportunities (O’Reilly & Tushman, 2011; O’Reilly & Tushman 2013; see also March 1991). Achieving both at the same time, i.e. being truly ambidextrous in practice, should enable continuous successful development, but achieving that is difficult and inevitably leads to various tensions and paradoxes on different organisational levels (O’Reilly & Tushman, 2004; Andriopoulos & Lewis, 2009; Raisch, Birkinshaw, Probst & Tushman, 2009). This presents a challenge for media managers aiming at adapting their organisations to both optimize and to innovate (see Küng, 2007). However, there is a lack of theoretical understanding about how the conscious management of ambidexterity actually happens in organisations (O’Reilly & Tushman, 2008; O’Reilly & Tushman, 2011). Media organizations are exceptionally relevant and fruitful cases for discussing ambidexterity, because they do not traditionally separate on-going production, understood as exploitation, and innovative development, approached as exploration, but aim at achieving both simultaneously and effectively.

    The concept of organizational capabilities offers an insightful way to analyse ambidextrous tensions during strategic change. As applied in strategy research, capabilities can be divided hierarchically into operational and dynamic capabilities (Zollo & Winter, 2002; Hine, Parker, Pregelj &Verreynne, 2013). Operational capabilities exploit the existing resources for incremental innovations whereas so called higher-order dynamic capabilities explore new technologies and other resources for radical innovations. In our study, dynamic capabilities are defined as organization’s capacity to sense and seize new opportunities and reconfigure its resource base to address the changing environment (Teece, Pisano & Shuen, 1997; Helfat, Finkelstein, Mitchell, Peteraf, Singh, Teece & Winter, 2007; Teece, 2007). The senior management abilities and competence are crucial in relation to resource allocation and in orchestrating “the complex trade-offs that the simultaneous pursuit of exploration and exploitation requires” (O’Reilly & Tushman, 2011, p. 6). The development of capabilities and managing the inherent tensions is a central, but at the same time a complex executive leadership responsibility in ambidextrous organizations (O’Reilly & Tushman, 2008; O’Reilly & Tushman, 2011).

    Research design

    Empirically, the paper analyses what is characteristic to ambidextrous tensions and their management (prerequisites and requirements) in relation to organizational capabilities on the basis of an empirical case from Yle, the public service broadcaster of Finland. The empirical research material consists of 20 semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with Yle senior management during winter 2013/14. At the time Yle was taking strategic actions in relation to digitalization of its content production, structures and customer relationship.

    In the interviews, managers were asked about the difficulties, challenges and tensions they have faced during the change process. They were also asked about how they understand the need for change, how they scan the changing media market and make decisions. The analysis approach is qualitative, and the transcribed interviews are analysed according to a thematic analysis and coding method (e.g. Patton, 2002; Miles, Huberman, & Saldaña, 2014) using Atlas.ti data analysis software. The preliminary analysis shows that managers are continuously balancing between exploitation and exploration. Also, ambidextrous tensions seem to underlie strategic thinking and managerial processes and practices on an everyday basis.

    Contributions and managerial implications

    The reasonably new research area around ambidexterity is evolving and growing (e.g. Raisch & Birkinshaw, 2008; Lavie, Stettner & Tushman, 2010). However, in relation to media organisations or media management it has hardly been applied (for a rare example, see Järventie-Thesleff, Moisander & Villi, 2014). The operationalization of ambidexterity with operational and dynamic capabilities offers a fresh and insightful approach for analysing media management in the face of digitalization. The theoretical approach will provide media managers with new insights and practical understanding of e.g. how managing change relates to capabilities and competencies that either exploit and support continuity or explore and create discontinuity, and especially of the ways to tackle the related ambidextrous tensions between exploitation and exploration.

  • 1704.
    Viscovi, Dino
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Gustafsson, Malin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Dirty Work: Why Journalists Shun Reader Comments2013Inngår i: Producing the Internet: Critical Perspectives of Social Media / [ed] Tobias Olsson, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2013, s. 85-101Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1705. von Feilitzen, Cecilia
    et al.
    Findahl, Olle
    Dunkels, Elza
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Hur farligt är internet? Resultat från den svenska delen av den europeiska undersökningen EU Kids Online.2011Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1706.
    von Schantz, Miriam
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The Doc, the Mock and the What?: Events of Realing, Mockumentalities and the Becoming-Political of the Viewing Subject2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at making inquiry into what happens when a viewing subject encounters a film where it proves difficult to recognize if it is factual or fictional. In order to meet this aim the dissertation offers an experimental approach of both theoretical and methodological nature. Drawing on materialist-affective theory and Deleuzian philosophy a method assemblage for mediamateriality is suggested. This offers a set of conceptual keys that makes it possible to trace the unfolding of actual encounters with blurred boundaries between the factual and the fictional. By performing a reception study whereby six data-producers engage with Exit Through the Giftshop, (Banksy 2010), I’m Still Here (Affleck 2010) and Catfish (Joost and Schulman 2010), a three-fold data is produced. Making this resonate through the method assemblage, the series of events of spectating is seen to have functioned as an event of destabilization of the relationship between the viewing subject and the discourse of factuality, what is called an event of realing. This functions as a challenge to the existential territory of the viewing subject-asspectator, bringing forth a certain mockumentality that can give cause to practices of a becoming-political of the viewing subject, notably by serving as a reconfiguration of the regime of truth. However, as will be guarded against, mockumentality may potentially bring about practices that both flatten as well as hierarchize relations of power. Following this, the dissertation will end with a suggestion that the method assemblage for mediamateriality, besides as a tool for the analytic endeavour and an ethical practice for the viewing subject (inside or outside of academia), can also be put to work in a pedagogical aim, as a moving-image-pedagogics.

  • 1707.
    von Wachenfeldt, Paula
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    I fiktionens gömmor döljer sig en modeskatt2013Inngår i: Parnass, ISSN 1104-0548, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Paula von Wachenfeldts artikel, I fiktionens gömmor döljer sig en modeskatt, är en av flera artiklar som på olika sätt berör hur kläder och utseende ger liv och karaktär åt litterära gestalter och hur författare genom historien har använt sig av mode för att definiera sina påhittade figurers sociala ställning, deras personlighet och deras politiska och estetiska värderingar.

  • 1708.
    Vonderau, Patrick
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Industry Proximity2014Inngår i: Media Industries Journal, ISSN 2373-9037Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As John Thornton Caldwell recently argued, industrial proximity today is both unavoidable and obligatory for media industries research. For scholars researching digital media infrastructures and the complex on/offline ecologies of media, however, the imperative of getting "close" or "inside" the field often poses more challenges than opportunities. While today's content providers, delivery pipelines, and data centers arguably have become what telecommunication networks once were to communication scholars, traditional media industries research seems barely suited to cope with this development. This essay argues for a form of "reverse engineering" that builds on insights outside of media industries studies' own orthodox methodologies, and for interventionist formats of digital media research.

  • 1709.
    Vonderau, Patrick
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    The Politics of Content Aggregation2014Inngår i: Television and New Media, ISSN 1527-4764, E-ISSN 1552-8316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the streaming of online video, along a line of comparison to the music industry. Based on qualitative empirical research conducted in Sweden and other European countries, the article focuses on one particular aspect of streamed media, aggregation, since aggregation is central for how streaming is economically, technically, and socially organized. Developing its argument at the intersection of critical media industry studies and economic anthropology, the article argues that online aggregators have contributed to a process of devaluation that their services were designed to fight.

  • 1710.
    Vonderau, Patrick
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier.
    Video2014Inngår i: The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media / [ed] Marie-Laure Ryan, Lori Emerson & Benjamin J. Robertso, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, s. 497-499Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1711. Voniati, Christiana
    et al.
    Doudaki, Vaia
    Carpentier, Nico
    The methodology of mapping community media organisations2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1712.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Journalistik. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Agonism or antagonism? Divide in the Ukrainian media community in the times of crisis2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ukrainian media community since 2013 is undergoing a painful process of continuously adjusting to and counteracting the circumstances of conflict, with external and internal propaganda, economic pressure being a consequence of the more general crisis, and guidelines coming from the state institutions, such as the Ministry of Information Policy (MIP) (e.g. Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016, Pantti 2016, Nygren & Hök 2016). Nygren et al. (2016), based on content analysis and interviews with journalists, conclude that one of the main challenges for the Ukrainian journalists today is a conflict between the ideal of neutrality in coverage and favoring of “patriotic journalism” in practice. According to Ukrainian scholars, there are today three groups of journalists: patriotism-charged, who give up standards for the sake of fighting propaganda; supporters of universal standards; and a mixed group (Dutsyk 2017). 

    In order to highlight the role of professional journalism organizations in this divide, this paper focuses on a specific case: project “Two countries – one profession” initiated and supported by the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media. Being based on the dialogue between Ukrainian and Russian professional journalism organizations around professional standards and safety of journalists, the project is perceived as contradictory and provocative by a part of the Ukrainian media community who suggest that it is “non-patriotic” and “anti-Ukrainian”. 

    The paper is based on analysis of observations of meetings between the National Union of Journalists of Ukraine and the Russian Union of Journalists, interviews with representatives of these and other media organizations and experts in Ukraine, focus groups with the journalists involved in the project, and negative and positive reactions to this project by the Ukrainian media community. It uses Hanitzsch’s model of deconstruction of journalism culture (Hanitzsch 2007, Nygren et al 2016) and Mouffe’s (2013, p.7) conceptualization of agonistic vs. antagonistic struggle.

  • 1713.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
    Between Two Democratic Ideals: Gendering in the Russian Culture of Political Journalism2014Inngår i: Women in Politics and Media: Perspectives from Nations in Transition / [ed] Maria Raicheva-Stover & Elza Ibroscheva, New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014, s. 115-130Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on the attitudes of Russian journalists toward media representations of women politicians. It seeks to answer the following questions: How does the culture of political journalism influence gendering of women politicians? And what makes the Russian culture of political journalism unique when it comes to the coverage women politicians get? The chapter addresses the journalists’ interpretations of the low number of women politicians in media content, and turns to the journalists’ reasoning behind gender spotlighting and stereotyping. Highlighting the contradictions between the ideas, practices, and ideals present in the culture of the ‘quality’ political journalism in Russia, the chapter discusses how journalists envision the future of media representations of women politicians and how this relates to the problem of gender inequality in the political realm.

  • 1714.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES). Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Constructing gendered politicians: Russian and Swedish journalists about media representations of female and male politicians and the process of their production2012Inngår i: ECREA 2012 Conference Proceedings, ECREA: European Communication Research and Education Association , 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1715.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Journalistik.
    Crisis and journalism culture transformation: The case of Ukraine2017Inngår i: Nordmedia conference 2017: 23rd Nordic Conference on Media and Communication Research Tampere, 17–19 August 2017, Abstracts, Division 2, Journalism, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Journalism culture is described by scholars as “one of the resources journalists draw upon to coordinate their activities as reporters, photographers, and editors” (Zelizer 2005, p. 204). Importantly, journalism cultures should be analyzed not only in connection to the contexts, but also in and as processes (Voronova 2014, p. 221). While most journalism cultures in the world face similar challenges, such as commercialization and digitalization, some of them are challenged by more radical challenges, such as war conflicts. Ukrainian journalism culture since 2013 is undergoing a painful process of continuously adjusting to and counteracting the circumstances of conflict, with external and internal propaganda (e.g. coming from the so-called “people’s republics” of Donetsk and Luhansk), economic pressure being a consequence of the more general crisis, and guidelines coming from the state institutions, such as the Ministry of Information Policy (MIP) (e.g. Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016, Pantti 2016, Nygren & Hök 2016). 

    Nygren et al. (2016), based on content analysis and interviews with journalists, conclude that one of the main challenges for the Ukrainian journalists today is a conflict between the ideal of neutrality in coverage and favoring of “patriotic journalism” in practice. This paper takes this discussion further and suggests to look at how the professional journalism organizations in Ukraine reflect upon this conflict, which journalists themselves define as a split between journalists and “Glory-to-Ukraine-journalists” (Sklyarevskaya 2016, October 20th). How does the participation of Ukrainian journalism organizations in the discussion of objectivity vs. patriotism look like on different levels – international, regional, national and local? Is there a possibility to retain a national culture of journalism in the situation of crisis, or does it inevitably end up in splitting to many journalism cultures that have their own rules, beliefs and ideals? 

    Using Hanitzsch’s model of deconstruction of journalism culture (Hanitzsch 2007, Nygren et al 2016), and focusing specifically on the dimension of epistemological beliefs, this paper analyzes a specific case: project ”Two countries – one profession” initiated and supported by the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media. The project consists of regular round tables where senior representatives from Ukrainian and Russian professional journalism organizations meet to discuss ways to improve professional standards and safety of journalists, as well as collaborative projects between young journalists from the two countries. The project is perceived as contradictory and provocative by a part of the Ukrainian media community (e.g. Rudenko 2016, December 15th). The paper is based on analysis of observations of meetings between the National Union of 

    Journalists of Ukraine and the Russian Union of Journalists, interviews with representatives of these and other media organizations and experts in Ukraine, focus groups with the young journalists involved in the project, and negative and positive reactions to this project by the Ukrainian media community.

  • 1716.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    From gendering to intersectional labelling. Russian and Swedish political journalists' perspective on discriminating and promoting mechanisms in the media content2015Inngår i: Communication Papers. Media Literacy & Gender Studies, ISSN 2014-6752, Vol. 4, nr 7, s. 64-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests to study the phenomena of gendering in political journalism from intersectionality perspective (Davis, 2008; McCall, 2005) in order to understand gendering in the framework of other discriminatory and promoting mechanisms in political news. Gendering is understood as the perceived imprint of gender on the media portrayal of politics and politicians, as well as the processes whereby gendered media representations materialize ( V oronova, 2014). The paper is based on forty semi-structured interviews with political journalists working for the quality press in Russia and Sweden. The choice of the countries is driven by the wish to explore the difficulties and similarities of the journalists’ conceptualizations of gendering and other discriminatory and promoting mechanisms in two very different political and cultural contexts. The paper shows that the journalists in both countries highlight the importance of not only gender mainstreaming, but diversity in the content as a democratic value, where gender stands in the same row with other difference-making categories (such as ethnicity, sexuality etc.). The paper highlights the difficulties and contradictions the Russian and Swedish political journalists face trying to achieve their diversity ideal. The paper suggests a definition of intersectional labelling in political journalism, and proposes that it is an ambiguous process, which can be either discriminatory or promoting, depending on its manifestations. Moreover, its application is contextual, and is related to the journalists’ vision of ethics, commercial benefits of the media organization, and press freedom. 

  • 1717.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora, Media- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    From gendering to intersectional labelling. Russian and Swedish political journalists' perspective on discriminating and promoting mechanisms in the media content2015Inngår i: Communication Papers. Media Literacy & Gender Studies, ISSN 2014-6752, Vol. 4, nr 7, s. 64-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests to study the phenomena of gendering in political journalism from intersectionality perspective (Davis, 2008; McCall, 2005) in order to understand gendering in the framework of other discriminatory and promoting mechanisms in political news. Gendering is understood as the perceived imprint of gender on the media portrayal of politics and politicians, as well as the processes whereby gendered media representations materialize ( V oronova, 2014). The paper is based on forty semi-structured interviews with political journalists working for the quality press in Russia and Sweden. The choice of the countries is driven by the wish to explore the difficulties and similarities of the journalists’ conceptualizations of gendering and other discriminatory and promoting mechanisms in two very different political and cultural contexts. The paper shows that the journalists in both countries highlight the importance of not only gender mainstreaming, but diversity in the content as a democratic value, where gender stands in the same row with other difference-making categories (such as ethnicity, sexuality etc.). The paper highlights the difficulties and contradictions the Russian and Swedish political journalists face trying to achieve their diversity ideal. The paper suggests a definition of intersectional labelling in political journalism, and proposes that it is an ambiguous process, which can be either discriminatory or promoting, depending on its manifestations. Moreover, its application is contextual, and is related to the journalists’ vision of ethics, commercial benefits of the media organization, and press freedom. 

  • 1718.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Journalistik.
    Gender politics of the ‘war of narratives’: Russian TV-news in the times of conflict in Ukraine2017Inngår i: Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies, ISSN 1757-1898, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 217-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the gender politics of the news broadcast on the Russian state-controlled TV channels – Channel One (Pervyj kanal), Russia-1 (Rossiya-1), Russia-24 (Rossiya-24), NTV and RT (formerly Russia Today) – from January to September 2015, a period when the TV news closely followed the conflict in Ukraine and the growing tensions between Russia and Europe. The study shows that the news on the state-controlled TV channels interpret the state politics in only one possible way – ascribing the most traditional and essentialist characteristics to the country, prioritizing male actors and military activities and suggesting no alternatives to ‘(re)masculinization’ of the image of Russia in the situation of the conflict on the territory of another state, despite the alleged disengagement of the country in it. The article concludes that the state-controlled TV channels use essentialist gendering as a part of nation-branding and nation-building strategies, with an aim to construct the gendered and intersectionalized ideology of the ‘Russian world’ that would target both internal and external audiences and go beyond the borders of the Russian Federation.

  • 1719.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    ”Gender v politicheskoj zhurnalistike kak vopros demokratii: rossijskie i shvedskie zhurnalisty o svobode pechati i gendernom ravenstve” [Gender in political journalism as a democracy issue: Russian and Swedish journalists on press freedom and gender equality]2015Inngår i: Zhurnalistika v 2014 godu: SMI kak faktor obschestvennogo dialoga [Journalism in 2014: Media as a factor of public dialogue], Collection of theses of international scientific and practical conference Journalism 2014, Moscow: MediaMir, Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University, Moscow: MediaMir, Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University, 2015, s. 116-117Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [ru]

    Гендер в политической журналистике как вопрос демократии: российские и шведские журналисты о свободе печати и гендерном равенстве

    Воронова Людмила Александровна, PhD, преподаватель кафедры медиа-исследований университета Седерторн (Стокгольм, Швеция)

    Гендерные медиа-исследователи часто обсуждают гендерные стереотипы как проблему демократии. Так, Китцингер (Kitzinger 1998) понимает политическую журналистику как «гендер-политику», дискурсивную практику, несущую в себе потенциал как для продвижения демократического идеала гендерного равенства, так и для воспроизведения традиционных стереотипов и утверждения существующей гендерной иерархии. Калламар (Callamard 2006) предлагает считать гендерные стереотипы в СМИ особым видом цензуры, которая, как правило, действует в пользу мужчин, сокращая для женщин возможность быть объективно представленными в медиа-дискурсе. Более того, гендерное равенство, по мнению исследователей, практически рифмуется со свободой печати, причем равенство мужчин и женщин воспринимается ими как «показатель реализации настоящей и зрелой демократии» (Hermes 2013).

    Проведя интервью с сорока журналистами, работающими в качественных изданиях России и Швеции (интервью проводились в 2011-12 гг.), мы выяснили, что российские и шведские журналисты воспринимают свободу печати и гендерное равенство как непременные атрибуты демократии. Тем не менее, между их представлениями о балансе этих двух идеалов есть существенные различия. Так, российские журналисты находят свободу прессы гораздо более ценным элементом демократии, чем гендерное равенство, и готовы поступиться принципом продвижения последнего, если это необходимо для выполнения роли «сторожевой собаки» власти. Гендерные стереотипы, хоть и идут вразрез с демократическими идеалами качественной прессы, могут становиться одним из инструментов критики политиков. Более того, по мнению российских журналистов, политики могут использовать гендерную повестку для «обуздания» свободной прессы.

    Шведские журналисты не видят никакого противоречия между идеалами гендерного равенства и свободы печати, считая естественной ситуацию, когда в продвижении гендерного равенства одинаково заинтересованы и качественные издания, и власть, что позволяет им вступать в гармоничный диалог. Хотя шведские журналисты крайне критично настроены по отношению к каким-либо ограничениям относительно контента, вводимым извне, они признают необходимость тщательной проработки внутренних ограничений: так, к примеру, они внимательно прислушиваются к гендерной критике контента, поступающей не только от читателей, но и от политиков.

    Таким образом, и российские, и шведские журналисты считают гендер в политической журналистике вопросом демократии. Несмотря на бóльшую критичность российских журналистов по отношению к ограничениям свободы печати, их позиция защиты более уязвима, чем позиция их шведских коллег: оправдывая использование гендерных стереотипов в прессе, они поощряют и традиционное представление о гендерной иерархии в обществе, где власть воспринимается как мужчина и доминанта, а пресса как зависимая женщина. Тем не менее, позиция шведских журналистов тоже неоднозначна: воспринимая шведскую политическую и медийную систему как воплощение демократии, они перестают критически воспринимать исчезновение гендерного равенства как темы в журналистской повестке дня – факт, отмечаемый гендерными экспертами и активистами (Rönngren 2014).

  • 1720.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Gender v politicheskoj zhurnalistike Rossii i Shvetsii: sravnitelnyj analiz transformiruyuschikhsya media-kul’tur dvukh stran Baltijskogo regiona (Gender in political journalism in Russia and Sweden: a comparative analysis of transforming media cultures of the two countries in Baltic region)2012Inngår i: Mass Media after Post-Socialism: Trends of 2000s: Extended abstracts’ collection / [ed] Vartanova, Elena, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, MSU , 2012, s. 110-114Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1721.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES). Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Gendering in political journalism behind the curtains: journalists’ perspective2014Inngår i: Gender in Focus: (New) Trends in Media / [ed] Cabecinhas, Rosa et al., Braga: University of Minho , 2014, s. 88-88Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960-s, when gender media studies originated, a special attention of gender media scholars has been paid to the different aspects of political communication. “Gendered mediation” (Gidengil and Everitt 1999), or “gendering”, of politicians and politics is considered to have a crucial influence both on the voter recognition of female and male candidates, and political participation of women and men. Scholars have provided potential reasons, which can explain the way women and men politicians, as well as the problem of the gender imbalance in political sphere are covered in political journalism (e.g. Braden 1996, Ross 2002, Falk 2008). Despite the media institution (its logic, organization, and individual characteristics of the media producers) being defined as the key “guilty party” of the patterns revealed by the scholars, journalists have remained silent producers of the assumed “gendered mediation”.

    This paper turns to the political journalists’ vision of the (gendered) media portrayal of politicians and politics. Its aim is to explore the reasons of gendering in quality press, as they are conceptualized by political journalists. The study focuses on journalists working in two different cultural and political contexts – in Russia and in Sweden. The choice of the cases is driven by the wish to define the similar and different elements in the journalists’ conceptions of the reasons of gendering in different political and cultural contexts, where the two cases work as an illustration of the global tendency of mediatization of politics.

    Based on the analytical framework suggested by Hanitzsch (2007), the paper turns to the journalists’ conceptions of gendering in relation to their concern of the professional norms and ethical standards, institutional roles, and epistemological beliefs. The concluding discussion links gendering as a component of the national culture of political journalism and the global tendency of mediatization of politics.

  • 1722.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Gendering in political journalism in the framework of other “ing-s”: Russian and Swedish political journalists about gender, ethnicity and sexual identity as politicians’ characteristics and political categories2015Inngår i: On conference website, 2015, s. -30Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores gendering in political journalism – the perceived imprint of gender on the media portrayal of politics and politicians, as well as the processes whereby gendered media representations materialize. Gendering here is understood as an ambiguous process, which can be either discriminatory or promoting, depending on its manifestations (e.g. gender stereotypes or counter-stereotypes, gender-spotlighting or gender-aware story). Moreover, this paper suggests to study this phenomena from intersectionality perspective (Davis 2008, McCall 2005) in order to understand gendering in the framework of other discriminatory and promoting mechanisms in political news.

    The paper is based on forty semi-structured interviews with political journalists working for the quality press in Russia and Sweden. The choice of the countries is driven by the wish to explore the difficulties and similarities of the journalists’ conceptualizations of gendering in two very different political and cultural contexts. The paper shows that the journalists in both countries highlight the importance of not only gender mainstreaming, but diversity in the content in general as a democratic value, where gender stands in the same row with other difference-making categories (such as ethnicity, sexuality etc.). The paper highlights the difficulties and contradictions the Russian and Swedish political journalists face trying to achieve their diversity ideal. As such, the paper discusses the reasons for the “double othering” of foreign women politicians in the Russian press and the ridiculing of Russian male politicians in the Swedish press, the attempts of the Russian journalists to remain gender-neutral in the current homophobic context and their Swedish colleagues’ striving for keeping gender as an issue on the media agenda when it is being replaced from the political agenda by the discussions of race and ethnicity issues.

  • 1723.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES).
    Gendering in political journalism: manifestation of media power or political strategy? Swedish and Russian press-people about gender dimension of media–politics interactions2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1724.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Gendering in political journalism: modes of origin2014Inngår i: Communication for Empowerment: Citizens, Markets, Innovations : 5th European Communication Conference : book of abstracts, Lissabon, Portugal: ECREA , 2014, s. 169-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960-s, when gender media studies originated, a special attention of gender media scholars has been paid to the different aspects of political communication. “Gendered mediation” (Gidengil and Everitt 1999), or “gendering”, of politicians and politics is considered to have a crucial influence both on the voter recognition of female and male candidates, and political participation of women and men. Scholars have provided potential reasons, which can explain the way women and men politicians, as well as the problem of the gender imbalance in political sphere are covered in political journalism (e.g. Braden 1996, Ross 2002, Falk 2008). Despite the media institution (its logic, organization, and individual characteristics of the media producers) being defined as the key “guilty party” of the patterns revealed by the scholars, journalists have remained silent producers of the assumed “gendered mediation”.

    This paper turns to the political journalists’ vision of the (gendered) media portrayal of politicians and politics. Its aim is to explore the reasons of gendering in quality press, as they are conceptualized by political journalists. The study focuses on journalists working in two different cultural and political contexts – in Russia and in Sweden. The choice of the cases is driven by the wish to define the similar and different elements in the journalists’ conceptions of the reasons of gendering in different political and cultural contexts, where the two cases work as an illustration of the global tendency of mediatization of politics. The study is based on forty semi-structured interviews with political and international reporters, department- and chief-editors working for the quality press in the two countries.

    Based on the analytical framework suggested by Hanitzsch (2007), the paper turns to the journalists’ conceptions of gendering in relation to their concern of the professional norms and ethical standards, institutional roles, and epistemological beliefs. The concluding discussion links gendering as a component of the national culture of political journalism and the global tendency of mediatization of politics.

  • 1725.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES).
    Gendernye Problemy V Politicheskoj Zhurnalistike Rossii I Shvetsii (Gender Problems In Political Journalism In Russia And Sweden)2013Inngår i: Zhurnalistika v 2012 godu: sotsialnaya missija i professija. (Journalism in 2012: Social Mission and Profession : Collection of materials of the International scientific and practical conference), Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2013, s. 384-385Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1726.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES). Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Gendernye reprezentatsii kak instrument privlecheniya chitatelej i reklamodatelej (na primere kachestvennoj pressy Rossii i Shvetsii) [Gender representations as a tool for attracting readers and advertisers: Russian and Swedish quality press]2014Inngår i: Гендер и СМИ [Gender and Media] / [ed] Olga Smirnova, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2014, s. 117-129Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on gendered media representations as an instrument of getting economicbenefits and a tool of interaction with readers. Based on interviews with Russian and Swedish quality press’ employees, this study shows that gendered media representations are one of the resources of the quality press’ competitiveness on the media-market. However, the choice of the gendered representations, which attract both the audiences and advertisers, is strictly context-dependent.

  • 1727. Voronova, Liudmila
    Images of women–politicians in the media of Sweden and Russia2009Inngår i: Nordic Media: Concepts and Current Issues / [ed] Elena Vartanova & Marina Pavlikova, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1728.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Journalistik.
    Local, national, transnational: shifting audiences in Ukraine2017Inngår i: IAMCR 2017: Post-Socialist, Post-Authoritarian Working Group, Abstracts of papers presented at the annual conference of the International Association for Media and Communication Research, IAMCR, Cartagena, Colombia 16-20 July 2017, 2017, artikkel-id 14730Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2013, scholars have been discussing events happening in Ukraine from the perspective of the “war of narratives” (Khaldarova and Pantti 2016). In this war, information has become one of the main weapons (Hoskins and O’Loughlin 2010), and fight for the publics has crossed the borders of the ordinary economic and political struggles. Previous research has mainly focused on the attempts of the Russian mainstream state-controlled media and other actors (e.g. trolls on social media) to influence the Russian-speaking audiences in Ukraine, Russia and elsewhere by spreading pro-Kremlin propaganda (see Pantti 2016). Less attention has been given to the Ukrainian media community and the internal processes in it in the period of crisis (Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016). Being a part of the research project ”From nation branding to information war”, this paper focuses on the visions of the publics by the Ukrainian media community today. How do representatives of the media community imagine and perceive their audiences? What are the changes that have occurred along with the territorial changes – loss of Crimea to Russia and establishment of selfproclaimed ”people’s republics” in the East of the country? And which language do media producers choose today to speak to their audiences? Through the prism of “imagined audiences” (e.g. Litt and Hargitai 2016, boyd 2008) and “imagined communities” (Anderson 2006), this paper discusses several aspects of the changes in the visions of the audiences by the Ukrainian media community. First, it focuses on the visions of the audiences by the journalists who due to the crisis had to move geographically and, thus, work for a different audience today. As such, it takes up the cases of journalists who moved from Crimea and the socalled LPR and DPR to Kyiv or other Ukrainian regions. Another case is journalists from Russia who moved to Ukraine for ideological reasons. Second, the paper discusses the reactions of the media community to the need for reaching out to the audiences in Crimea and so-called DPR/LPR, the technological and ideological challenges of this communication. Third, it focuses on a serious challenge and change concerning the language, in which the audiences are addressed. Due to new legislative proposals and, according to some media experts, economic reasons, Ukrainian language is becoming more and more dominant both in broadcast and printed media. Yet, simultaneously Ukraine is one of successful producers of transnational entertainment products in Russian language (e.g. popular travel show “Oryol i Reshka” by TeenSpirit Production which is broadcast in Ukraine, Russia and Kazakhstan).

  • 1729.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES). Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Media Representation of Women Politicians: Myths and Anti-myths2011Inngår i: World of Media 2011: Yearbook of Russian media and journalism studies / [ed] Vartanova, Elena, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2011, s. 114-127Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 1730.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Ot gendera k intersektsional'nosti: o neobkhodimosti ispol'zovaniya matritsy kategoriy v media-issledovaniyakh: From gender to intersectionality: On the need of using the matrix of categories in media studies2016Inngår i: Zhurnalistika v 2015 godu. Informatsionnyj potentsial obschestva i resursy mediasistemy: Journalism in 2015: Informational potential of the society and the media system resources / [ed] Vartanova, E. L. & Zassoursky, Y. N., Moscow: MediaMir, Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [ru]

    В то время как гендерные исследования СМИ стали признанной областью медиа-исследований, использование т.н. интерсекционального подхода (Davis, 2008; McCall, 2005) встречается редко. Интерсекциональный подход предполагает, что вместо отдельной категории «гендер» исследователь обращает внимание на всю «матрицу доминирования» (Collins, 2000) - пересечение таких категорий, как гендер, класс, этническая и расовая принадлежность, религиозные взгляды, сексуальные предпочтения, физическая и умственная полноценность и т.д. Это позволяет исследователю лучше понять дискриминационные механизмы и механизмы продвижения определенных акторов и групп. Матрица доминирования может использоваться как в исследованиях медиа-контента (например, для получения представлений о стереотипах, присутствующих в новостном или развлекательном контенте), так и в исследованиях медиа-организаций (для того, чтобы понять, какие группы имеют доступ к производству медиа и на основании чего в разных контекстах выстраивается «стеклянный потолок», который не позволяет представителям определенных групп продвигаться по карьерной лестнице в медиа-индустрии).

    Как показало основанное на интервью исследование процесса гендеринга в политической журналистике в качественной прессе России и Швеции (который характеризуется присвоением гендерных категорий политикам и политическим процессам - см. Voronova, 2014), сами журналисты в обоих контекстах заявляют о неотрывности категории гендера от других категорий (этническая и расовая принадлежность, класс, сексуальные предпочтения, религиозные взгляды и т.д.), которые могут быть задействованы в производстве новостей. Как и гендеринг, акцентирование других категорий может носить как дискриминационный, так и позитивный характер. Российские журналисты отмечали, что высказывания зарубежных женщин-политиков часто подаются как особенно чуждые в связи с пересечением двух категорий (гендер и национальность), а шведские журналисты говорят о высмеивании российских мужчин-политиков в прессе Швеции, связанным с несоответствием их характеристик мужественности тем, что приняты в Швеции. Журналисты, работающие в качественной прессе, в обеих странах сталкиваются с проблемой несоответствия их убеждений о демократической роли СМИ с реалиями медиа-ландшафта. Если в российском контексте разнообразие (diversity) в медиа-контенте и обсуждение разнообразия как общественной задачи зачастую не считается выгодным с точки зрения рекламных продаж и конкуренции на медиа-рынке («стереотипы продаются лучше»), в Швеции гендерная проблематика сегодня вытесняется обсуждением вопросов, связанных с категориями этнической и расовой принадлежности, что неоднозначно воспринимается журналистами: разнообразие важно, но ведь и гендерное равенство все еще не достигнуто. Более того, медиа-контент во многом является, по мнению журналистов, отражением интерсекциональной иерархии в медиа-организации, которая также должна стать более открытой и неоднородной.

    Таким образом, с точки зрения журналистов, для борьбы со стереотипами в медиа-контенте и преодоления дискриминационных механизмов в медиа-индустрии, необходимо обращать внимание не только на категорию гендера, но на всю «матрицу доминирования». Этот же подход, несмотря на методологические сложности (см. Lünenborg and Fürsich, 2014), можно рекомендовать для рассмотрения и медиа-исследователям, особенно в пост-советском пространстве, где включение категории социального класса традиционно считается важным.

  • 1731.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora, Media- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Ot gendera k intersektsional'nosti: o neobkhodimosti ispol'zovaniya matritsy kategoriy v media-issledovaniyakh: From gender to intersectionality: On the need of using the matrix of categories in media studies2016Inngår i: Zhurnalistika v 2015 godu. Informatsionnyj potentsial obschestva i resursy mediasistemy: Journalism in 2015: Informational potential of the society and the media system resources / [ed] Vartanova, E. L. & Zassoursky, Y. N., Moscow: MediaMir, Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [ru]

    В то время как гендерные исследования СМИ стали признанной областью медиа-исследований, использование т.н. интерсекционального подхода (Davis, 2008; McCall, 2005) встречается редко. Интерсекциональный подход предполагает, что вместо отдельной категории «гендер» исследователь обращает внимание на всю «матрицу доминирования» (Collins, 2000) - пересечение таких категорий, как гендер, класс, этническая и расовая принадлежность, религиозные взгляды, сексуальные предпочтения, физическая и умственная полноценность и т.д. Это позволяет исследователю лучше понять дискриминационные механизмы и механизмы продвижения определенных акторов и групп. Матрица доминирования может использоваться как в исследованиях медиа-контента (например, для получения представлений о стереотипах, присутствующих в новостном или развлекательном контенте), так и в исследованиях медиа-организаций (для того, чтобы понять, какие группы имеют доступ к производству медиа и на основании чего в разных контекстах выстраивается «стеклянный потолок», который не позволяет представителям определенных групп продвигаться по карьерной лестнице в медиа-индустрии).

    Как показало основанное на интервью исследование процесса гендеринга в политической журналистике в качественной прессе России и Швеции (который характеризуется присвоением гендерных категорий политикам и политическим процессам - см. Voronova, 2014), сами журналисты в обоих контекстах заявляют о неотрывности категории гендера от других категорий (этническая и расовая принадлежность, класс, сексуальные предпочтения, религиозные взгляды и т.д.), которые могут быть задействованы в производстве новостей. Как и гендеринг, акцентирование других категорий может носить как дискриминационный, так и позитивный характер. Российские журналисты отмечали, что высказывания зарубежных женщин-политиков часто подаются как особенно чуждые в связи с пересечением двух категорий (гендер и национальность), а шведские журналисты говорят о высмеивании российских мужчин-политиков в прессе Швеции, связанным с несоответствием их характеристик мужественности тем, что приняты в Швеции. Журналисты, работающие в качественной прессе, в обеих странах сталкиваются с проблемой несоответствия их убеждений о демократической роли СМИ с реалиями медиа-ландшафта. Если в российском контексте разнообразие (diversity) в медиа-контенте и обсуждение разнообразия как общественной задачи зачастую не считается выгодным с точки зрения рекламных продаж и конкуренции на медиа-рынке («стереотипы продаются лучше»), в Швеции гендерная проблематика сегодня вытесняется обсуждением вопросов, связанных с категориями этнической и расовой принадлежности, что неоднозначно воспринимается журналистами: разнообразие важно, но ведь и гендерное равенство все еще не достигнуто. Более того, медиа-контент во многом является, по мнению журналистов, отражением интерсекциональной иерархии в медиа-организации, которая также должна стать более открытой и неоднородной.

    Таким образом, с точки зрения журналистов, для борьбы со стереотипами в медиа-контенте и преодоления дискриминационных механизмов в медиа-индустрии, необходимо обращать внимание не только на категорию гендера, но на всю «матрицу доминирования». Этот же подход, несмотря на методологические сложности (см. Lünenborg and Fürsich, 2014), можно рекомендовать для рассмотрения и медиа-исследователям, особенно в пост-советском пространстве, где включение категории социального класса традиционно считается важным.

  • 1732.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES).
    Politika i zhurnalistika: tango pod gendernyj akkompanement [Politics and journalism: tango to the gender accompaniment]2013Inngår i: Гендер и СМИ [Gender and Media] / [ed] Smirnova, Olga, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2013, s. 205-220Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1733.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap. Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES).
    Politiki protiv zhurnalistov: boi (ne)gendernogo znacheniya (Politicians vs. journalists: a struggle of a (not-only) gender significance)2013Inngår i: Zhurnalistika i mediarynok, nr 7-8, s. 74-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 1734. Voronova, Liudmila
    Representatsiya zhenschin-politikov v SMI: puteshestvie v vydumanniy mir2009Inngår i: Mediaalmanakh, ISSN 1992-4631, nr 1, s. 48-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1735.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Journalistik.
    Russian Journalists Moving to Ukraine: Russophone Journalism Culture, ‘Imagined Communities’ and Challenges of Adjusting2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2013, scholars have been discussing events happening in Ukraine from the perspective of the “war of narratives” (Khaldarova and Pantti 2016). In this war, information has become one of the main weapons (Hoskins and O’Loughlin 2010), and fight for the publics has crossed the borders of the ordinary economic and political struggles. Previous research has mainly focused on the attempts of the Russian mainstream state-controlled media to influence the Russian-speaking audiences in Ukraine, Russia and elsewhere by spreading pro-Kremlin propaganda (see Pantti 2016). Less attention has been given to the Ukrainian media community and the internal processes in it in the period of crisis (Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016). Being a part of the research project ”From nation branding to information war”, this paper focuses on a very particular group of the representatives of the Ukrainian media community – Russian journalists who moved to Ukraine and work for Ukrainian audiences. This paper applies the theoretical prism of “imagined audiences” (e.g. Litt and Hargitai 2016, boyd 2008) and “imagined communities” (Anderson 2006). The analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with seven journalists conducted in 2017. What are the motivations behind their choice of the new geographic location and place of work? What are the challenges that they face adjusting to the new journalism culture and how do they see their role in the “war of narratives”? How do they imagine and perceive their audiences? And how do they relate to the language issue, as Ukrainian language is becoming more and more dominant both in broadcast and printed media?

  • 1736. Voronova, Liudmila
    The image of female national leaders in Russian and Swedish mass media2008Inngår i: 4th Nordic Readings: Nordic Media in Terms of Glocalisation / [ed] Pavlikova, M.M., Kushnarenko, G.D., 2008, s. 45-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1737.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora, Media- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    The mediated “Russian world”: gender perspective2016Inngår i: Baltic Rim Economies, ISSN 1459-9759, nr 1, s. 60-60, artikkel-id 1948Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 1738.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES). Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Tsennostnye i normativnye predstavleniya sotrudnikov pressy Rossii i Shvetsii o reprezentatsiyakh zhenschin-politikov2012Inngår i: Zhurnalistika v 2011 godu: Tsennosti sovremennogo obshchestva i sredstva massovoj informatsii (Abstracts collection) / [ed] Vartanova, Elena; Zassoursky, Yassen, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2012, s. 372-373Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1739.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Ultimate Gendering of the Image of Russia: Political Journalism in the Times of Conflict in Ukraine2015Inngår i: 15th Annual Aleksanteri Conference: Culture and Russian Society, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Army marching towards the European capitals, missiles with sarcastic yellow smileys on their boards, arrows depicting the distance between Moscow and the potential targets of Russia's "friendly" invasion – the TV news cast by the national Pyatyj channel of the Russian television (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SemPHeiamBo) raised a broad discussion both inside and outside of the Russian borders. Should this and similar messages be read as an outright threat to the West, a mockery, or as populist flirting with the Russian citizens (see Schreck 2015)? From the perspective of gender media studies, understanding political journalism as "gender-politics" in itself (Kitzinger 1998), such messages can be viewed as an ultimate case of gendering in political journalism (Voronova 2014). Represented by thousands of male soldiers, Russia appears as a man, or even the Man – ready to penetrate and explode, come and take, enter and appropriate. This paper explores political news broadcast on the Russian state-controlled TV-channels – Pervyj, Rossiya-1, Rossiya-24, Russia Today and NTV starting from January 2015. Year 2015 is chosen due to two reasons. First, the news constantly follow the continuing conflict in Ukraine and escalation of the tensions between Russia and Europe. The conflict here is viewed as an accelerator for masculinization of the image of the country. Second, this year sees the 70th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War, which becomes yet another reason for discussions of the military image of Russia. The news are analyzed with the use of multimodal discourse analysis (Wildfeuer 2014) and some elements of feminist critical discourse analysis (Lazar 2005). The study applies intersectional perspective (Davis 2008; McCall 2005) and observes a broader tendency in the Russian political news of constructing a homogeneous image of Russia as a Slavic, heterosexual, orthodox Christian man.

  • 1740.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora, Media- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Ultimate Gendering of the Image of Russia: Political Journalism in the Times of Conflict in Ukraine2015Inngår i: 15th Annual Aleksanteri Conference: Culture and Russian Society, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Army marching towards the European capitals, missiles with sarcastic yellow smileys on their boards, arrows depicting the distance between Moscow and the potential targets of Russia's "friendly" invasion – the TV news cast by the national Pyatyj channel of the Russian television (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SemPHeiamBo) raised a broad discussion both inside and outside of the Russian borders. Should this and similar messages be read as an outright threat to the West, a mockery, or as populist flirting with the Russian citizens (see Schreck 2015)? From the perspective of gender media studies, understanding political journalism as "gender-politics" in itself (Kitzinger 1998), such messages can be viewed as an ultimate case of gendering in political journalism (Voronova 2014). Represented by thousands of male soldiers, Russia appears as a man, or even the Man – ready to penetrate and explode, come and take, enter and appropriate. This paper explores political news broadcast on the Russian state-controlled TV-channels – Pervyj, Rossiya-1, Rossiya-24, Russia Today and NTV starting from January 2015. Year 2015 is chosen due to two reasons. First, the news constantly follow the continuing conflict in Ukraine and escalation of the tensions between Russia and Europe. The conflict here is viewed as an accelerator for masculinization of the image of the country. Second, this year sees the 70th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War, which becomes yet another reason for discussions of the military image of Russia. The news are analyzed with the use of multimodal discourse analysis (Wildfeuer 2014) and some elements of feminist critical discourse analysis (Lazar 2005). The study applies intersectional perspective (Davis 2008; McCall 2005) and observes a broader tendency in the Russian political news of constructing a homogeneous image of Russia as a Slavic, heterosexual, orthodox Christian man.

  • 1741. Voronova, Liudmila
    Zhenschiny-politiki v SMI: mify i antimify (Women politicians in the mass media: myths and anti-myths)2009Inngår i: Mediascope, ISSN 2074-8051, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [ru]

    В статье сравниваются образы женщин-политиков в качественной прессе России и Швеции. Образные системы в СМИ двух стран автор представляет как системы мифов и антимифов, способствующих укреплению традиционных стереотипов и, напротив, разрушающих привычное представление о месте женщины в обществе.

  • 1742.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Journalistik.
    Интерсекциональный подход в журналистике и научных исследованиях [Intersectional approach in journalism and research]: Рефлексия о многообразии [Reflection on diversity]2016Inngår i: Гендер и СМИ [Gender and Media] / [ed] Olga Smirnova, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2016, s. 197-222Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1743.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Journalistik.
    Украинские медиаорганизации и журналисты о вызовах информационной войны [Ukrainian media organizations and journalists on challenges of information war]2017Inngår i: Творчество, профессия, индустрия [Creativity, profession, industry]: Материалы Международной научно-практической конференции "Журналистика-2016" [Materials of International scientific-practical conference "Journalism-2016"] / [ed] Elena Vartanova, Yasen Zassoursky, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University, MediaMir , 2017, s. 249-250Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [ru]

    Понятие «информационная война» используется сегодня все чаще как в медийных, так и в академических дискурсах. Под информационной войной понимают конфликт, в котором информация становится одним из основных видов оружия (напр., Pantti 2016, Hoskins and O’Loughlin 2010), а т.н. информационный менеджмент – техники распространения дезинформации и попытки влияния на медиа – является одним из основных измерений конфликта (Tumber & Webster 2006). Украинский кризис – события, происходящие в стране с 2013 года: протесты в Киеве («Евромайдан»), смена правительства, присоединение Крыма к Российской Федерации, продолжающееся военное противостояние на востоке страны, - сегодня все чаще становится объектом международных исследований, рассматривающих происходящее как один из ярких примеров «войны нарративов» (Khaldarova and Pantti 2016). Трудности с верификацией информации, пристрастность информационных источников, вовлеченность в конфликт сторонних интересов поставили журналистов, освещающих события на Украине (как украинских, так и представителей других стран), перед вызовом (Pantti 2016).

    Проблема, которую отмечают при этом некоторые исследователи, - фиксация международного академического сообщества на российских медиа как источнике информационного менеджмента или даже пропаганды (см. Pantti 2016). Лишь немногие исследования предлагают анализ информационного менеджмента внутри Украины (Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016). Между тем, даже предварительный взгляд на это медиа-пространство выявляет его неоднородность. Украинское медиа-сообщество оказалось расколото: приверженцы глобальных и «вечных» журналистских идеалов не находят понимания у сторонников «патриотической журналистики». Первые обвиняют вторых в само-цензуре и следовании интересам институтов власти, а вторые первых – в сотрудничестве с «вражескими агентами».

    Данный исследовательский проект на различных примерах (запрет на определенные российские медиа-продукты; радикальная инициатива по поиску «пособников террористов» среди журналистов – «Миротворец» и др.) рассматривает проблему, с которой столкнулось украинское медиа-сообщество, как частный случай общей тенденции. Эта тенденция может быть обозначена как идеологизация СМИ, что с одной стороны, является результатом, а с другой стороны, благодатной почвой для информационной войны. Этой тенденции противостоят различные инициативы, направленные на сохранение приверженности журналистского сообщества профессиональным принципам и стандартам: например, проект ОБСЕ «Две страны – одна профессия», где Союз журналистов России и Национальный союз журналистов Украины обсуждают противодействие языку вражды, или критикуемое внутри страны сотрудничество между украинскими и зарубежными корреспондентами при освещении событий в зоне АТО на востоке Украины.

  • 1744. Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    Artyukhova, Kseniya
    Put’ v politiku: osobennosti stanovleniya gendernogo ravenstva v Rossii i Shvetsii2008Inngår i: Obraz zhenschiny v kulture i mass-media: Vzglyad iz Severnoy Evropy i Rossii (Women in Nordic Countries and Russia: Media and Cultural Approaches) / [ed] E.L. Vartanova, M.M. Pavlikova, Tampere: University of Tampere, Department of Journalism and Mass Communication , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1745.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Kalinina, Ekaterina
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    To joke off-the-cuff is men’s job?: A multilayered analysis of Russian infotainment TV programs Projectorparishilton and Devchata2012Inngår i: Acting-Up: Gender and Television Comedy : A Day Symposium at Northumbria University, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In a time when neo-conservative tendencies in gender representations are acquiring more and more popularity in the media worldwide – and the domain of humour is certainly no exception (e.g. the US show The Talk) – are there parallel trends to be detected in countries where feminism never has received widespread recognition, as in the case of Russia? What can we learn about gender stereotypes from contemporary Russian infotainment TV shows? This paper will explore these questions by studying two popular shows, Projectorparishilton (“The Paris Hilton’ Projector”) and Devchata (“The Girls”). These weekly ironic-analytical programmes are broadcast prime time on the national channels Channel One and Rossiya-1 and somewhat resembling the format of programmes like Loose Women and The View. With its four male anchors, Projectorparishilton aimed to attract a younger and more progressive audience of both genders and from the beginning ignored any specific gender orientation. By contrast, Devchata – with its female anchors – was explicitly launched with a female audience as their target group, producing a type of humour recognized by essentialists as “female”.Applying a critical perspective, we study verbal and non-verbal constituents of the programmes (including music, gestures, etc.), the interior of the studio, the appearance, behaviour (and jokes!) of the anchors, in order to study how gender, age, culture and nationality are encoded/signified. Based on Laura Mulvey’s term “male gaze”, we introduce the notion of “male humour”, which is implicit not only in the way the anchors appear as subjects and objects of jokes; but also in the position taken by the viewer, regardless of gender. At heart, we question the gendered nature of humour in general and the creation of “women’s space” in the media, which in fact is a reinforcement of traditional gender (and other) stereotypes.

  • 1746.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES). Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Kalinina, Ekaterina
    Södertörns högskola, Centrum för Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning (CBEES). Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    ”Where men and women make a jest, a problem lies concealed” : A multilayered analysis of Russian infotainment TV-programs Projectorparishilton and Devchata2011Inngår i: Gender and Media – 2010: Annual book. / [ed] Smirnova, Olga, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University , 2011, s. 105-133Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1747.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Journalistik.
    Voronova, Olga
    Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University.
    Printed media for Russophone diaspora: typological models2017Inngår i: Migration and Communication Flows: Rethinking borders, conflict and identity through the digital, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In eighty countries of the world (excluding Russia), there are produced around 3,5 thousand media in Russian language for 30 million Russian speakers (Astafyev 2012). Russophone diaspora is specific, as it has a multilayered (different waves of migration) and multiethnic character (see Pivovar 2008, 2010). The printed media of the three first waves of the Russian emigration are thoroughly studied (e.g., Bogomolov 1994, 2004; Esin 2003; Mikhalev 2009; Suomela 2014; Zhirkov 2003). There are as well several studies on the online space of the “Russian abroad” (e.g., Morgunova 2014; Reut and Teterevleva 2014). Yet, the currently existing printed Russian-language media remain somewhat of a blind spot on the map of the diaspora studies and media studies alike, despite the scale of this media segment.

    This study focuses on the printed media segment of the Russophone media abroad. The study is based on a twelve-year long monitoring of Russian-language press that consisted of a basic content analysis of 65 printed media and survey of 64 journalists working for 50 outlets. The materials were collected during the trainings for these journalists organized by the Universal Association of Russian Press (VARP) and Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University.

    The study maps the space of the Russian-language press abroad, describes the tendencies characteristic for it, and highlights the typological models within this segment. On the one hand, the Russian-language media abroad are influenced by global processes, which lead to their commercialization, standardization, concentration and integration with non-established media online. On the other hand, these media are oriented at specific audiences, united by the language and culture. The current challenges of these media are related to the political events (such as Ukrainian conflict), as well as the broader problem of self-identification of the Russophone diaspora.

  • 1748.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Widestedt, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gendering the country’s image: Russian and Swedish political journalism in the times of conflict2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Army marching towards the European capitals, missiles with sarcastic yellow smileys on their boards, arrows depicting the distance between Moscow and the potential targets of Russia’s “friendly” invasion – the TV news cast by the national Pyatyj channel of the Russian television (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SemPHeiamBo) raised a broad discussion both inside and outside of the Russian borders. Should this and similar messages be read as an outright threat to the West, a mockery, or as populist flirting with the Russian citizens (see Schreck 2015)? At the same time, in Sweden, the media turn to the discussion of gender mainstreaming as a “weapon” that a “feminine” country like Sweden can use for handling the conflict situations with more “masculine” countries like Saudi Arabia (http://sverigesradio.se/sida/avsnitt/522139?programid=1300).

    From the perspective of gender media studies, understanding political journalism as “gender-politics” in itself (Kitzinger 1998), such messages created in the times of external conflict or confrontation can be viewed as ultimate cases of gendering in political journalism (Voronova 2014). Represented by thousands of male soldiers, Russia appears as a man – ready to penetrate and explode, come and take, enter and appropriate, while Sweden appears as a woman – educating, caring, encouraging and using manipulative power rather than force.

    This paper explores Russian and Swedish political journalism constructing gendered images of the countries in the time of external conflict or confrontation. The chosen period is year 2015 that provides possibility for analyzing two different conflictual situations that are viewed as accelerators for gendering of the images of the countries involved: the war conflict in Ukraine that Russia is directly involved in, and the diplomatic conflict between Sweden and Saudi Arabia.

  • 1749.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora, Media- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Widestedt, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gendering the country’s image: Russian and Swedish political journalism in the times of conflict2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Army marching towards the European capitals, missiles with sarcastic yellow smileys on their boards, arrows depicting the distance between Moscow and the potential targets of Russia’s “friendly” invasion – the TV news cast by the national Pyatyj channel of the Russian television (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SemPHeiamBo) raised a broad discussion both inside and outside of the Russian borders. Should this and similar messages be read as an outright threat to the West, a mockery, or as populist flirting with the Russian citizens (see Schreck 2015)? At the same time, in Sweden, the media turn to the discussion of gender mainstreaming as a “weapon” that a “feminine” country like Sweden can use for handling the conflict situations with more “masculine” countries like Saudi Arabia (http://sverigesradio.se/sida/avsnitt/522139?programid=1300).

    From the perspective of gender media studies, understanding political journalism as “gender-politics” in itself (Kitzinger 1998), such messages created in the times of external conflict or confrontation can be viewed as ultimate cases of gendering in political journalism (Voronova 2014). Represented by thousands of male soldiers, Russia appears as a man – ready to penetrate and explode, come and take, enter and appropriate, while Sweden appears as a woman – educating, caring, encouraging and using manipulative power rather than force.

    This paper explores Russian and Swedish political journalism constructing gendered images of the countries in the time of external conflict or confrontation. The chosen period is year 2015 that provides possibility for analyzing two different conflictual situations that are viewed as accelerators for gendering of the images of the countries involved: the war conflict in Ukraine that Russia is directly involved in, and the diplomatic conflict between Sweden and Saudi Arabia.

  • 1750.
    Voronova, Olga
    et al.
    Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University.
    Voronova, Liudmila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Journalistik.
    Russian-language media space: features, tendencies and typology2017Inngår i: IAMCR 2017: Diaspora and Media Working Group, Abstracts of papers presented at the annual conference of the International Association for Media and Communication Research, IAMCR Cartagena, Colombia 16-20 July 2017, 2017, artikkel-id 15625Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are more than 30 million Russian speakers living outside of the current borders of the Russian Federation. “Russian abroad” can partly be viewed as diaspora (e.g. Cohen 1997, Hoyle 2013, Safran 1991, Sheffer 2003, Vertovec 1999) and partly as a cultural macro-social group. Its specificity is its multilayered (different waves of migration) and multiethnic character (see Pivovar 2008, 2010). “Russian abroad” consists of two groups: Russian migrants who left the country in different periods and their descendants, and Russian-speakers who found themselves abroad after the collapse of the USSR. In eighty countries of the world, there are published around 3.5 thousand media in Russian language. The printed media of the three first waves of the Russian emigration are thoroughly studied (e.g., Bogomolov 1994, 2004; Esin 2003; Mikhalev 2009; Suomela 2014; Zhirkov 2003). There are as well several studies on the online space of the “Russian abroad” (e.g., Morgunova 2014; Reut and Teterevleva 2014). Yet, the currently existing printed Russian-language media, their role, political orientation, functions, professional views of the journalists, diapason of influence, audiences - remain somewhat of a blind spot on the map of the diaspora studies and media studies alike, despite the scale of this media segment. Empirical studies of these media are challenged by the fact that not all of these media have their online versions and absence of a common catalogue (see O. Voronova 2016). The existing studies are either country-based or focus on the linguistic aspects exclusively. This study focuses on the printed media segment and suggests a typology of the Russian-language press abroad. The study is based on a twelve-year long monitoring of Russian-language press that consisted of a basic content analysis of 65 printed media and survey of 64 journalists working for 50 outlets. The materials were collected during the trainings for these journalists organized by the Universal Association of Russian Press (VARP) and Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University. The study maps the space of the Russian-language press abroad, describes the tendencies characteristic for it, and highlights the typological models within this segment. On the one hand, the Russian-language media abroad are influenced by global processes, which lead to their commercialization, standardization, concentration and integration with non-established media online. On the other hand, these media are oriented at specific audiences, united by the Russian language, culture, traditions; for the post-Soviet countries – by the common experience of living in the same state. These media have features of both global and national media, as their audiences are influenced by at least two cultures. Being spread in the world, these media have the same language, similar functions and, often, a common agenda. The current challenges of these media are related to the political events (such as Ukrainian conflict), as well as the broader problem of self-identification of the Russian-language diaspora. The study suggests viewing the Russian-language media abroad as a cultural phenomenon that should be analyzed in dynamics and in the context of the geopolitical changes and challenges.

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