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  • 1601.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lu, Yue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A TASM-based requirements validation approach for safety-critical embedded systems2014Inngår i: 19th International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, Ada-Europe 2014, 2014, s. 43-57Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements validation is an essential activity to carry out in the system development life cycle, and it confirms the completeness and consistency of requirements through various levels. Model-based formal methods can provide a cost-effective solution to requirements validation in a wide range of domains such as safety-critical applications. In this paper, we extend a formal language Timed Abstract State Machine (TASM) with two newly defined constructs Event and Observer, and propose a novel requirements validation approach based on the extended TASM. Specifically, our approach can: 1) model both functional and non-functional (e.g. timing and resource consumption) requirements of the system at different levels and, 2) perform requirements validation by utilizing our developed toolset and a model checker. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of our approach in real world usage through an industrial case study of a Brake-by-Wire system.

  • 1602.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    The Observer-based Technique for Requirements Validation in Embedded Real-time Systems2014Inngår i: Proceedings of 1st International Workshop on Requirements Engineering and Testing (RET), 2014, s. 47-54Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based requirements validation is an increasingly attractive approach to discovering hidden flaws in requirements in the early phases of systems development life cycle. The application of using traditional methods such as model checking for the validation purpose is limited by the growing complexity of embedded real-time systems (ERTS). The observer-based technique is a lightweight validation technique, which has shown its potential as a means of validating the correctness of model behaviors. In this paper, the novelty of our contributions is three-fold: 1) we formally define the observer constructs for our formal specification language namely the Timed Abstract State Machine (TASM) language and, 2) we propose the Events Monitoring Logic (EvML) to facilitate the observer specification and, 3) we show how to execute observers to validate the requirements describing the functional behaviors and non-functional properties (such as timing) of ERTS. We also illustrate the applicability of the extended TASM language through an industrial application of a Vehicle Locking-Unlocking system.

  • 1603.
    Zhou, Jiale
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Group, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Volvo Group, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Liwång, Bo
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Towards Feature-Oriented Requirements Validation for Automotive Systems2014Inngår i: 2014 IEEE 22nd International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2014 - Proceedings, 2014, s. 428-436Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the modern automotive industry, feature models have been widely used as a domain-specific requirements model, which can capture commonality and variability of a software product line through a set of features. Product variants can thus be configured by selecting different sets of features from the feature model. For feature-oriented requirements validation, the variability of feature sets often makes the hidden flaws such as behavioral inconsistencies of features, hardly to avoid. In this paper, we present an approach to feature-oriented requirements validation for automotive systems w.r.t both functional behaviors and non-functional properties. Our approach first starts with the behavioral specification of features and the associated requirements by following a restricted use case modeling approach, and then formalizes such specifications by using a formal yet literate language for analysis. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach through an industrial application of a Vehicle Locking-Unlocking system

  • 1604.
    Zhou, Y.
    et al.
    East China University of Science and Technology.
    Li, S.
    East China University of Science and Technology.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Improved Vine Copula-Based Dependence Description for Multivariate Process Monitoring Based on Ensemble Learning2019Inngår i: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 58, nr 9, s. 3782-3796Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a boosting vine copula-based dependence description (BVCDD) method for multivariate and multimode process monitoring. The BVCDD aims to improve the standard vine copula-based dependence description (VCDD) method by establishing an ensemble of submodels from sample directions based on a boosting strategy. The generalized Bayesian inference-based probability (GBIP) index is introduced to assess the degrees of a VCDD model (submodel) to depict different samples, which means how likely an observation is under the probabilistic model for the system. Every sample is weighted individually according to the depiction degree. The weights are then used to choose a certain number of samples for each succeeding submodel. In this way, the samples with large error in the preceding model can be selected for training the next submodel. Moreover, the number of submodels as well as the number of training samples chosen for every submodel are determined adaptively in the ensemble learning process. The proposed BVCDD method can not only solve weak sample problems but also remove redundant information in samples. To examine the performance, empirical evaluations have been conducted to compare the BVCDD method with some other state-of-the-art methods in a numerical example, the Tennessee Eastman (TE) process, and an acetic acid dehydration process. The results show that the developed BVCDD models are superior to those obtained by the counterparts on weak samples in both accuracy and stability. 

  • 1605.
    Zhu, Kaiqian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Limited Preemptive Earliest Deadline First Scheduling of Real-Time Tasks on Multiprocessors2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time systems are employed in many areas, such as aerospace and defenses. In real-time systems, especially in hard real-time systems, it is important to meet the associated time requirements. With the increasing demand for high speed processing capabilities, the requirement for high computing power is becoming more and more urgent. However, it is no longer possible to increase processor speeds because of thermal and power constraints. Consequently, industry has focused on providing more computing capabilities using more number of processors.As to the scheduling policies, they can be classified into two categories, preemptive and non-preemptive. Preemptive scheduling allows preemptions arbitrarily, whereas it implies prohibitively high preemption related overheads. On the contrary, the non-preemptive scheduling which do not allow preemption at all, will not have such overheads, but suffers due to the block time on high priority tasks. Limited preemptive scheduling, that builds on the best of preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling, benefits from the limited number of preemptions without a major effect on real-time properties. It is proved that limited preemptive scheduling dominates preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling on uniprocessors under fixed priority. However, less work has been done on multiprocessor limited preemptive scheduling, especially under Earliest Deadline First (EDF). On a multiprocessor, limited preemptively scheduling real-time tasks imply an additional challenge with respect to determining which of the running task to preempt. On one extreme, the scheduler can preempt the lowest priority running task and this is referred to as Adaptive Deferred Scheduling (ADS). On the other hand, the scheduler can preempt any lower priority running task that becomes pre-emptible. Such a scheduler is referred to as Regular Deferred Scheduling (RDS)In this work, we empirically investigate the performance of ADS and RDS, and compare it with the global preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling, in the context of an EDF based scheduler. Our empirical investigation revealed that the number of preemptions under ADS is less compared to RDS, at runtime. This is due to the fact that by delaying preemptions, the higher priority tasks that are released subsequently will run in priority order thereby avoiding the need for more preemptions. Also, by delaying preemptions, the possibility of one or more processors becoming available increases. Experiments investigating the schedulability ratio shows that ADS and RDS performs almost equally well, but better than fully non-preemptive scheduling.

  • 1606.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Stegräknar-appar för att främja folkhälsan - men mäter de rätt?2013Inngår i: Medicinteknikdagarna 2013, Stockholm, Sweden, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1607.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hellstrom, Per Anders Rickard, Per
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Steps measured in relation to different amount of physical activity2015Inngår i: 4th International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement ICAMPAM 2015, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1608.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Koshmak, Gregory
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Johansson, A.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Heart rate measurement as a tool to quantify sedentary behavior2015Inngår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 211, 2015, s. 105-110Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedentary work is very common today. The aim of this pilot study was to attempt to differentiate between typical work situations and to investigate the possibility to break sedentary behavior, based on physiological measurement among office workers. Ten test persons used one heart rate based activity monitor (Linkura), one pulse oximeter device (Wrist) and one movement based activity wristband (Fitbit Flex), in different working situations. The results showed that both heart rate devices, Linkura and Wrist, were able to detect differences in heart rate between the different working situations (resting, sitting, standing, slow walk and medium fast walk). The movement based device, Fitbit Flex, was only able to separate differences in steps between slow walk and medium fast walk. It can be concluded that heart rate measurement is a promising tool for quantifying and separating different working situations, such as sitting, standing and walking. 

  • 1609.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Evaluation of different kind of pedometers measuring walking steps at different speeds2013Inngår i: International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement: 3rd International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of different kind of pedometers measuring walking steps at different speeds Anna Åkerberg and Maria Lindén The School of Innovation, Design & Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden INTRODUCTION: A common method to measure physical activity is with a pedometer, which counts number of steps taken. The pedometer is seen as an acceptable tool by both researchers and the public, although, research shows that traditional pedometers are capable of both over- and underestimate steps taken. It is now common that pedometers are integrated in other devices, such as cell phones, which enables measurements by a product already worn by a huge part of the population. To assess the potential of pedometers in cell phones, and to contribute to increase physical activity and a better health, they need to be evaluated and compared with traditional pedometers. PURPOSE: to evaluate the measurement accuracy of a pedometer cell phone application compared to traditional pedometers, measuring walking steps at different speeds. METHODS: Walking steps was measured by two pedometers and one pedometer cell phone application, on one individual (Female, 38 y, BMI: 30) walking on a motorized treadmill (Attract), at 7% slope. Equipment: Yamax LS2000 (Y) (Yamax, Japan)on the right hip, Omron Walking Style X (O) (Omron Health Care, Japan) in the left chest pocket and an iPhone 4S (Apple Inc., California, USA. SW: iOS6.0.1), in the right chest pocket, using the Pedometer Ultimate GPS+ (A) (Arawella Corp., V: 3.3.2) (walking sensitivity medium level). All pedometers were carried according to the manufacturers’ recommendations, and in the same position of all measurements. 200 walking steps were performed ten times at five speeds; 0.6, 1.2, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0 mph and the steps were also counted manually. The right target speed was held from the beginning of the measurement, and the pace of the steps was held with help of a metronome (Korg Micrometro MCM-1). Mean values and standard deviation was calculated. RESULTS: The steps were severely underestimated for all three pedometers at 0.6 mph (A=3.5±1.4, O=0.0±0.0 and Y=5.8±1.8) and 1.2 mph (A=5.2±3.1, O=137.4±39.5 and Y=21.2±17.7). The measurements could be regarded as good for both A (197.0± 7.7) and O (198.6±1.0) at 2.5 mph, where Y still underestimates (112.9±58.5). The same result at 3.0 mph (A=203.8±5.4, O= 199.2±1.9 and Y= 154.4±24.6). All pedometers measured about the same at 4.0 mph (A=170.3±15.7, O=185.7±6.4 and Y=171.7±20.2). CONCLUSION: The study shows that the evaluated pedometers cannot perform acceptable measurements in all five walking speeds, ranging from very slow to fast normal walking speed. However, both A and O, produce accurate measurements at speeds considered to be medium-fast. This limited study shows that A and O performs more accurate measurements compared to Y. Supported by: NovaMedTech

  • 1610.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    The relevence of the user perspective in a project within health technology2017Inngår i: Medicinteknikdagarna 2017 MTD 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1611.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Pedometer cell phone applications and future trends in measuring physical activity2013Inngår i: Information Systems and Technologies for Enhancing Health and Social Care, IGI Global , 2013, s. 324-339Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A huge proportion of the world population is suffering from lifestyle related and preventable welfare diseases. Physical activity is one important means of achieving beneficial health impacts and of reducing the risk of chronic disease. Pedometers are often used to measure physical activity. Nowadays, cell phones are very common, and pedometer applications enable measurements to be made by a device that is already owned. This chapter presents a study of the measurement accuracy of pedometer cell phone applications. The results show that only one combination of pedometer application and cell phone provided high accuracy when tested by different test persons. In some cases, the measurements indicate that the orientation of the cell phone used during measurement might be relevant. In addition, it would be valuable to gain knowledge about the overall and everyday physical activity pattern, which would be very valuable in contributing to a healthier population.

  • 1612.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Accuracy in pedometers: Dependent on the technology for measurement?2014Inngår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 2014, Vol. 200, s. 173-175Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are a variety of pedometers available based on different technologies. The aim of this study was to investigate step measurement accuracy regarding two different pedometer technologies, spring-suspended lever arm and accelerometers, in six walking environments, compared to a reference method. Descriptive data indicates that the spring-suspended lever arm pedometer had the largest SD and underestimated the steps in five out of six walking environments. The ANOVA showed that both pedometer technologies performed accurate measurements in one of the walking environments. However, none of the pedometer technologies performed accurate step measurements in all six walking environments.

  • 1613.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Evaluation of a Selected Pedometer Cell Phone Application for iPhone2014Inngår i: International conference on health and social welfare and coproduction HW2014, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1614.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Investigation of the validity and reliability of a smartphone pedometer application2016Inngår i: European Journal of Physiotherapy, ISSN 2167-9169, E-ISSN 2167-9177, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 185-193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and measurement agreement of a smartphone pedometer application and a traditional pedometer, both compared to manual step count, in six environments. The study also examined the relative reliability of two positions of the smartphone pedometer application in the six environments. Twenty participants carried two smartphones (iPhone 4S) with the same pedometer application (Pedometer FREE GPSþ) in two device positions together with a traditional pedometer (Yamax LS2000) while walking in six environments. The pedometer application in the chest position (app chest) differed significantly from the manual step count when walking uphill (p¼0.003), the application in the trouser (pants) position (app pants) differed for downhill (p¼0.001) and the traditional pedometer (trad ped) differed upstairs (p¼0.007). The measurement agreement was high for app pants uphill, app chest downhill and trad ped downstairs. The relative reliability was fair for app chest, but poor for app pants. In conclusion, the pedometer application and traditional pedometer were valid for step self-monitoring in some environments, and the measurement agreement compared to manual step count was mainly medium to high. The relative reliability for the smartphone pedometer application was partly acceptable. Smartphones could be useful in some environments for physical activity self-monitoring.

  • 1615.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Technologies for physical activity self-monitoring: a study of differences between users and non-users2017Inngår i: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 8, s. 17-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Different kinds of physical activity (PA) self-monitoring technologies are used today to monitor and motivate PA behavior change. The user focus is essential in the development process of this technology, including potential future users such as representatives from the group of non-users. There is also a need to study whether there are differences between the groups of users and non-users. The aims of this study were to investigate possible differences between users and non-users regarding their opinions about PA self-monitoring technologies and to investigate differences in demographic variables between the groups. Materials and methods: Participants were randomly selected from seven municipalities in central Sweden. In total, 107 adults responded to the Physical Activity Products Questionnaire, which consisted of 22 questions. Results: Significant differences between the users and non-users were shown for six of the 20 measurement-related items: measures accurately (p = 0.007), measures with high precision (p = 0.024), measures distance (p = 0.020), measures speed (p = 0.003), shows minutes of activity (p = 0.004), and shows geographical position (p = 0.000). Significant differences between the users and non-users were also found for two of the 29 encouragement items: measures accurately (p = 0.001) and has long-term memory (p = 0.019). Significant differences between the groups were also shown for level of education (p = 0.030) and level of physical exercise (p = 0.037). Conclusion: With a few exceptions, the users and the non-users in this study had similar opinions about PA self-monitoring technologies. Because this study showed significant differences regarding level of education and level of physical exercise, these demographic variables seemed more relevant to investigate than differences in opinions about the PA self-monitoring technologies.

  • 1616.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    The development and usability evaluation of an interactive health technology solution for the encouragement of physical activity in inactive adults - based on the user perspectiveManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical inactivity is increasing worldwide. Technology shows good evidence forhaving a good impact on health. Successful behaviour change regarding physical activity requires user involvement and the integration of relevant behaviour change techniques into the technology. The aim of this study was, based on the user perspective, to develop and later evaluate the usability of an interactive health technology solution that can encourage physically inactive adults to physical activity. A mixed methods design with a user-centred approach was used. The data collection included a brainstorming workshop, a user workshop, technical development and a usability evaluation (effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction) involving 35 participants. From the brainstorming workshop, four themes were identified: focus, platform, characteristics and content. A schematic model of a first prototype was presented at the user workshop, and the feedback was positive. A behaviour change application was developed (App&Move), with a focus on encouraging functions. App&Move, which measures physical activity in minutes per day, has integrated behaviour change techniques, is based on available physical activity recommendations, relies on scientific evidence and is strongly based on the user perspective. The usability evaluation of App&Move showed that effectiveness was acceptable, efficiency was (with one exception) high, and satisfaction was medium. The results from this study contributes to the development of a first model of a behaviour change application that aims to encourage physically inactive adults to physical activity. In conclusion, the usability evaluation of App&Move showed promising usability, and the application seemed to encourage physical activity to some extent.

  • 1617.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Utvärdering av en stegräknarapplikation; mätnoggrannhet i olika mätmiljöer och positioner2014Inngår i: Medicinteknikdagarna 2014 MTD10, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 1618.
    Åkerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Åkerlind, Charlotta
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    How can technology promote physical activity? Opinions from physically inactive non-users of self-monitoring technologiesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To achieve a more physically active and healthier population, the opinions of potential future users of physical activity self-monitoring technologies need further investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of physically inactive non-users of physical activity self-monitoring technologies, regarding how and when technology possibly could measure and encourage physical activity. METHODS: Two focus group interviews were performed, consisting of 11 physically inactive persons who had no previous experience with regular use of physical activity self-monitoring technology. The focus groups were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The transcripts of the two focus groups resulted in 17 subcategories and five categories, which formed two themes: measurement complexity and performance and basic qualities. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the physically inactive non-users of physical activity self-monitoring technologies had positive, innovative and mainly similar opinions about how technology could promote physical activity. Since the concept of encouragement permeates the results, it can be concluded that the physical activity technology for this particular target group should primarily be based on encouraging features and functions. Further, the study indicated that it is preferable to integrate physical activity self-monitoring technology into already existing technology that the user already owns.

  • 1619.
    Åsberg, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Synthesis and Synchronization Support for Hierarchically Scheduled Real-Time Systems2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A piece of software, that we define as a software system, can consist of anything from a few lines of program code or the entire software stack in a vehicle. Software systems can be divided into smaller and partially independent parts called subsystems/partitions (we use the words partition and subsystem interchangeably). The non-functional isolation of subsystems, that appears when the software system is hierarchically divided, has great advantages when it comes to preventing fault propagation between subsystems. The hierarchical division, that we refer to as hierarchical scheduling, has other advantages as well. It facilitates re-usability and it makes timing analysis of software systems easier. Hierarchical scheduling has been shown to be a useful tool in counteracting the verification challenges that comes from the growing complexity in software. For example, the avionics-specification ARINC653 and the safety-critical operating systems seL4 and PikeOS safely divide resources for independent safety-critical applications by using hierarchical scheduling.

    Hierarchical scheduling can be implemented in many different ways, depending on what resource that is supposed to be shared among applications. The resource could be the CPU, memory, network etc. The work in this thesis is focused on the practical aspects of timing isolation among subsystems, i.e., sharing of the CPU resource. Hence, this work elaborates on how to adapt and extend the operating-system task-scheduler to support hierarchical scheduling. We have focused on both independent and semi-dependent subsystems. Independent subsystems only share general resources such as the CPU and memory. Semi-independent subsystems share not only the general resources, but also other logical resources that can only be accessed in a mutually exclusive way, i.e., by one subsystem at a time. An example of such a resource could be a shared memory-space, e.g., a database, a memory-mapped device etc.

    This thesis has two main parts related to hierarchical scheduling: scheduler synthesis, and synchronization.

    Scheduler synthesis is related to implementation and design strategies when adding support for hierarchical scheduling in an operating system. We have focused on various operating systems that were lacking the feature of hierarchical scheduling. The two most interesting operating systems that we worked on was Linux and seL4. These two operating systems represent two extremes, where Linux is more focused towards soft real-time systems and seL4 towards pure hard real-time (safety-critical) systems. Linux-based systems have in general less strict demands on correctness and more requirements on usability. Usability implies less installation efforts and less limitations in the usage of the available Linux functionality. The usability aspect is especially important for Linux systems since kernel updates occur much more frequently compared to any other operating system. Hence, extending/modifying the functionality of Linux must be done in a way that does not require any modifications to the kernel. seL4 on the other hand has strict requirements on safety, i.e., functional and non-functional correctness, but also performance efficiency. Guaranteeing correctness implies a potential loss of performance due to the added overhead that the verified software can bring. The correctness aspect includes strategies on how to verify hierarchical schedulers, but also how to minimize the scheduler overhead and achieve as good run-time performance as possible. Conclusively, there are many challenges when it comes to scheduler synthesis. There are requirements on performance, usability, correctness etc. The contribution in the synthesis part includes a scheduler framework called ExSched (External Scheduler). We have also contributed with a novel approach to verify hierarchical schedulers, and a code generator called TAtoC (Timed Automata to C) which contributes to the effective run-time performance of synthesized timed-automata models.

    The second part of this thesis, synchronization, is an important general aspect of hierarchically scheduled systems since the isolation of subsystems makes resource sharing among subsystems more challenging. We have advanced the state-of-the-art in this research area by introducing a new synchronization protocol called RRP (Rollback Resource Policy) that improves on the robustness and run-time performance compared to the existing protocols. We have also conducted a large scale experimental evaluation of all existing protocols that we have implemented in the widely used real-time operating system VxWorks.

  • 1620.
    Åstrand, Elaine
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A continuous time-resolved measure decoded from EEG oscillatory activity predicts working memory task performance2018Inngår i: Journal of Neural Engineering, ISSN 1741-2560, E-ISSN 1741-2552, Vol. 15, nr 3, artikkel-id 036021Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Working memory (WM), crucial for successful behavioral performance in most of our everyday activities, holds a central role in goal-directed behavior. As task demands increase, inducing higher WM load, maintaining successful behavioral performance requires the brain to work at the higher end of its capacity. Because it is depending on both external and internal factors, individual WM load likely varies in a continuous fashion. The feasibility to extract such a continuous measure in time that correlates to behavioral performance during a working memory task remains unsolved. Approach. Multivariate pattern decoding was used to test whether a decoder constructed from two discrete levels of WM load can generalize to produce a continuous measure that predicts task performance. Specifically, a linear regression with L2-regularization was chosen with input features from EEG oscillatory activity recorded from healthy participants while performing the n-back task, n is an element of [1, 2]. Main results. The feasibility to extract a continuous time-resolved measure that correlates positively to trial-bytrial working memory task performance is demonstrated (r = 0.47, p < 0.05). It is furthermore shown that this measure allows to predict task performance before action (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). We show that the extracted continuous measure enables to study the temporal dynamics of the complex activation pattern of WM encoding during the n-back task. Specifically, temporally precise contributions of different spectral features are observed which extends previous findings of traditional univariate approaches. Significance. These results constitute an important contribution towards a wide range of applications in the field of cognitive brain-machine interfaces. Monitoring mental processes related to attention and WM load to reduce the risk of committing errors in high-risk environments could potentially prevent many devastating consequences or using the continuous measure as neurofeedback opens up new possibilities to develop novel rehabilitation techniques for individuals with degraded WM capacity.

  • 1621.
    Åstrand, Elaine
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Wardak, Claire
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Baraduc, Pierre
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Ben Hamed, Suliann
    Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.
    Direct Two-Dimensional Access to the Spatial Location of Covert Attention in Macaque Prefrontal Cortex.2016Inngår i: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, nr 13, s. 1699-1704Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct access to motor cortical information now enables tetraplegic patients to precisely control neuroprostheses and recover some autonomy. Incontrast, explicit access to higher cortical cognitive functions, such as covert attention, has been missing. Indeed, this cognitive information, known only to the subject, can solely be inferred by an observer from the subject's overt behavior. Here, we present direct two-dimensional real-time access to where monkeys are covertly paying attention, using machine-learning decoding methods applied to their ongoing prefrontal cortical activity. Decoded attention was highly predictive of overt behavior in a cued target-detection task. Indeed, monkeys had a higher probability of detecting a visual stimulus as the distance between decoded attention and stimulus location decreased. This was true whether the visual stimulus was presented at the cued target location or at another distractor location. In error trials, in which the animals failed to detect the cued target stimulus, both the locations of attention and visual cue were misencoded. This misencoding coincided with a specific state of the prefrontal cortical population in which the shared variability between its different neurons (or noise correlations) was high, even before trial onset. This observation strongly suggests a functional link between high noise-correlation states and attentional failure. Overall, this real-time access to the attentional spotlight, as well as the identification of a neural signature of attentional lapses, open new perspectives both to the study of the neural bases of attention and to the remediation or enhancement of the attentional function using neurofeedback.

  • 1622.
    Ödman, Torbjörn
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Wireless measurement systems for health and safety2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis presents an advanced wireless system, built on a single hardware platform, for applications in medicine and health. In order to design a single system, adaptable for different context, an accurate system specification is required.

    The technical requirements are authenticated by actual tests in the environment where the system is intended to be used. The results of these measurements give an understanding of the possibilities of designing a real system but also acts as a base for deriving the empirical formulas to be used as the basis of the development and verification.

    In summary, this work has included a larger measurement campaign and a verification of subsystems to support the development of wireless systems on a single hardware platform. This can be used for different measurements in medical healthcare and rescue work.

    Previous systems for endurance tests have limitations in that they are not adapted to different sizes of mammals and they also have shortcomings in the quantification of data and scalability.

    The developed system was validated on mice and humans. On mice the measurement parameters was the hormone dopamine and locomotion. For humans it was measured time for given distances. Both validation tests showed high correlation with the respective reference methods. The correlation coefficients of mice between the developed system and the former system ranged from 0.916 to 0.967. In the validation with humans, runners were clocked by the system clock and a manual stop watch. The lowest correlation coefficient was 0.864. Advantages with the developed system is that it is scalable and measures the activity level quantitatively in the unit meters and it can also be used for different sizes of mammals in different environments.

    In tracking devices for rescue it is important that the transmitted signal can be detected at distances as large as possible. A support in the design work is to simulate path loss. This requires a path loss exponent, which was calculated after the measurement campaign. The results showed that the exponent of the height dependency decreases with antenna height above water. For the frequency 200 MHz, the exponent for the antenna height is 0.4 (vertical polarization) and 1.5 (horizontal polarization). For the distance dependency, the exponent was 3.59 (vertical polarization) and 3.22 (horizontal polarization). The path loss exponent is 2 for both the free space- and the ground reflection model.

    An antenna’s physical dimension is to a large extent dependent on the lowest frequency. The research’s aim was to reduce the physical size by introducing a resonance frequency. The physical length was from the beginning 0.43 meter given by the lowest frequency used (0.7 GHz) and the antenna was reduced in size to 0.22 meter. 

  • 1623.
    Ödman, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Saab Electronic Defense Systems, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Larsson, C.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden. Saab Dynamics, Linköping, Sweden .
    Reflection/transmission study of two fabrics with microwave properties2014Inngår i: Stud. Health Technol. Informatics, 2014, s. 95-100Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the transmission and reflection of two conductive fabrics are investigated in the frequency range from 2 to 18 GHz. One of the fabrics is a non-woven polypyrrole, and the other consists of a polyethylene warp with steel threads in the weft. Reflection and transmission measurements are performed in order to characterize the electromagnetic properties of the materials. Reflection measurements are performed for two polarizations at normal, 0°, and 60° incident angles. Transmission measurements are also done for two polarization directions at normal incidence. The results show that the fabric with the steel filler reflects most of the incident radiation, and has very low transmission with some polarization dependence. The polypyrrole non-woven fabric, on the other hand, has reflection and transmission properties that show that it is absorbing the incident radiation. Wearable on-body sensors that in addition are comfortable to wear can be integrated in the textile of clothes. These sensors can e.g., be used to monitor health or analyze gait. The fabrics have the potential to be used in health applications when designing on-body sensors, e.g. for movement analysis.

  • 1624.
    Ödman, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Saab Electronic Defence Systems, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Welinder, J.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Andersson, N.
    Södra Älvsborgs Hospital, Borås, Sweden .
    Otterskog, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ödman, N.
    Larsson, C.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    A study of different fabrics to increase radar cross section of humans2015Inngår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 211, 2015, s. 201-206Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This purpose of the study was to increase the visibility on radar for unprotected pedestrians with the aid of conducting fabric. The experiment comprised measurements of four types of fabric to determine the radio frequency properties, such as radar cross section (RCS) for the vehicle radar frequency 77 GHz and transmission (shielding) in the frequency range 3-18 GHz. Two different thicknesses of polypyrrole (PPy) nonvowen fabric were tested and one thickness for 30 % and 40 % stainless steel fabrics respectively. A jacket with the thinner nonvowen material and one with 40 % steel were tested and compared to an unmodified jacket in the RCS measurement. The measurement showed an increase in RCS of 4 dB for the jacket with the 40 % steel lining compared to the unmodified jacket. The transmission measurement was aimed at determining the fabric with the highest transmission of an incoming radio wave. The 30 % steel fabric and the two thicknesses of the nonvowen fabrics were tested. One practical application is for example the use of radar reflective material in search and rescue (SAR) clothes. The study showed that the 30 % steel fabric was the best candidate for further RCS measurements.

  • 1625.
    Ödman, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Saab Combitech, Sweden.
    Ödman, N
    Södra Älvsborgs sjukhus, Sweden.
    Rabotchi, E
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Åkervall, s
    Södra Älvsborgs sjukhus, Sweden.
    Comparison between Two Exercise Systems for Rodents2014Inngår i: IFMBE Proceedings Volume 41, 2014, Springer , 2014, s. 1575-1578Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a comparison between two measurement systems for medical endurance test for rodents, a new running wheel system and an old system named ADEA. The ADEA test chamber system has been criticized because it is cumbersome and involves a lot of manual work which therefore limits the number of test cells that can be run simultaneously. Comparison between the systems has been done via measurements of dopamine levels and thereafter calculating correlation factor. The running wheel system has shown to provide at least as good physical strain as the well tested ADEA system.

  • 1626.
    Ödman, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ödman, Natalia
    Södra Älvsborgs sjukhus, Borås, Sweden.
    Rabotchi, Eugeni
    Ericsson AB, Borås, Swede.
    Åkervall, Sigvard
    Södra Älvsborgs Sjukhus, Borås, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Development and Validation of a Universal Measurement System for Measuring the Performance of Mammals2014Inngår i: International journal of system dynamics applications, ISSN 2160-9772, Vol. 3, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise wheels for mammals are commonly used as test systems in many medical research areas. Studies may be related to many different areas such as vitamins, hormones (as dopamine), and physical endurance. As research develops the scope and size of the studies increase and the requirements of the test system might change. In order to conduct the experiments effectively, there is a need to increase the number of test stations, and the test station may also be required to handle physically larger mammals. This study presents and validates a wireless system for endurance tests. The system was validated on mice and humans. It is scalable, and can be expandable up to 254 test stations. In the case of the exercise wheel with mice, the ADEA system was used as a reference. The initial validation was done by comparing the activity measured by both systems in mice with different hormone dopamine levels. The correlation coefficients between the systems estimated activity levels were in the range from 0.916 to 0.967. The new system enables quantitative measurements of the activity level using standard SI units (meters and seconds, respectively). In the validation with humans, runners were clocked by the system and manually. The lowest correlation coefficient obtained during these measurements was 0.864. Thus, both applications showed a high correlation with conventional methods.

  • 1627.
    Čaušević, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Appreciate the journey not the destination - Using video assignments in software testing education2018Inngår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073, E-ISSN 1613-0073, Vol. 2066, s. 4-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Courses related to software testing education, at the university level, in most cases have a learning outcome requiring from students to understand and apply a set of test design techniques upon completing the course. The problem, however, remains on how to both effectively and efficiently evaluate if a student has accomplished the stated outcome. By purely looking at the final resulting set of the test cases provided by a student, it is not evident which, if any, test design technique was used to derive them. In this paper, we are presenting a rather simple but effective method of collecting video assignment submissions from students instead of a traditional source code and tests solution. This way, the teacher could rather quickly and in detail gather evidence that student indeed obtained the knowledge needed for passing the stated learning outcome. 

  • 1628.
    Čaušević, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Quality of Test Design in Test Driven Development2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most emphasised software testing activities in an Agile environment is the usage of the Test Driven Development (TDD) approach. TDD is a development activity where test cases are created by developers before writing the code, and all for the purpose of guiding the actual development process. In other words, test cases created when following TDD could be considered as a by-product of software development. However, TDD is not fully adopted by the industry, as indicated by respondents from our industrial survey who pointed out that TDD is the most preferred but least practised activity.

    Our further research identified seven potentially limiting factors for industrial adoption of TDD, out of which one of the prominent factor was lack of developers’ testing skills. We subsequently defined and categorised appropriate quality attributes which describe the quality of test case design when following TDD. Through a number of empirical studies, we have clearly established the effect of “positive test bias”, where the participants focused mainly on the functionality while generating test cases. In other words, there existed less number of “negative test cases” exercising the system beyond the specified functionality, which is an important requirement for high reliability systems. On an average, in our studies, around 70% of test cases created by the participants were positive while only 30% were negative. However, when measuring defect detecting ability of those sets of test cases, an opposite ratio was observed. Defect detecting ability of negative test cases were above 70% while positive test cases contributed only by 30%.

    We propose a TDDHQ concept as an approach for achieving higher quality testing in TDD by using combinations of quality improvement aspects and test design techniques to facilitate consideration of unspecified requirements during the development to a higher extent and thus minimise the impact of potentially inherent positive test bias in TDD. This way developers do not necessarily focus only on verifying functionality, but they can as well increase security, robustness, performance and many other quality improvement aspects for the given software product. An additional empirical study, evaluating this method, showed a noticeable improvement in the quality of test cases created by developers utilising TDDHQ concept. Our research findings are expected to pave way for further enhancements to the way of performing TDD, eventually resulting in better adoption of it by the industry.

  • 1629.
    Čaušević, Adnan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Land, Rikard
    Maximatecc AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sellin, Ola
    Bombardier Transportation, Väserås, Sweden.
    Automated Regression Test Generation Using Record & Replay Approach: A Case Study on Train Control Management System2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations tend to limit their investment in test automation due to the lack of information on the actual tests reuse and when will automated tests really pay off. However, to perform efficient regression testing of software systems, it is expected from a development team to posses a certain level of test automation infrastructure in place, where at the minimum the test execution is scripted and automated. In this paper we are proposing the usage of record & replay approach to observe the functional usage of a component under test, while its being invoked as part of the whole system or only in a certain portion of it. Afterwords, executable tests are automatically derived, containing both test inputs and test verdict, allowing its later usage as part of a regression testing. With as minimal effort as one manual test execution, developers are provided with automated tests, minimizing any concerns on the investment in automation. A case study from Bombardier Transportation is provided showing how the proposed approach substantially reduced the test effort needed when performing regression testing of the train control management system for the Stockholm C30 metro train.

  • 1630.
    Čaušević, Aida
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Formal Approaches for Behavioral Modeling and Analysis of Design-time Services and Service Negotiations2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decade service-orientation has become a popular design paradigm, offering an approach in which services are the functional building blocks. Services are self-contained units of composition, built to be invoked, composed, and destroyed on (user) demand. Service-oriented systems (SOS) are a collection of services that are developed based on several design principles such as: (i) loose coupling between services (e.g., inter-service communication can involve either simple data passing or two or more connected services coordinating some activity) that allows services to be independent, yet highly interoperable when required; (ii) service abstraction, which emphasizes the need to hide as many implementation details as possible, yet still exposing functional and extra-functional capabilities that can be offered to service users; (iii) service reusability provided by the existing services in a rapid and flexible development process; (iv) service composability as one of the main assets of SOS that provide a design platform for services to be composed and decomposed, etc. One of the main concerns in such systems is ensuring service quality per se, but also guaranteeing the quality of newly composed services. To accomplish the above, we consider two system perspectives: the developer's and the user's view, respectively. In the former, one can be assumed to have access to the internal service representation: functionality, enabled actions, resource usage, and interactions with other services. In the second, one has information primarily on the service interface and exposed capabilities (attributes/features). Means of checking that services and service compositions meet the expected requirements, the so-called correctness issue, can enable optimization and possibility to guarantee a satisfactory level of a service composition quality. In order to accomplish exhaustive correctness checks of design-time SOS, we employ model-checking as the main formal verification technique, which eventually provides necessary information about quality-of-service (QoS), already at early stages of system development. ~As opposed to the traditional approach of software system construction, in SOS the same service may be offered at various prices, QoS, and other conditions, depending on the user needs. In such a setting, the interaction between involved parties requires the negotiation of what is possible at request time, aiming at meeting needs on demand. The service negotiation process often proceeds with timing, price, and resource constraints, under which users and providers exchange information on their respective goals, until reaching a consensus. Hence, a mathematically driven technique to analyze a priori various ways to achieve such goals is beneficial for understanding what and how can particular goals be achieved.

    This thesis presents the research that we have been carrying out over the past few years, which resulted in developing methods and tools for the specification, modeling, and formal analysis of services and service compositions in SOS. The contributions of the thesis consist of: (i)constructs for the formal description of services and service compositions using the resource-aware timed behavioral language called REMES; (ii) deductive and algorithmic approaches for checking correctness of services and service compositions;(iii) a model of service negotiation that includes different negotiation strategies, formally analyzed against timing and resource constraints; (iv) a tool-chain (REMES SOS IDE) that provides an editor and verification support (by integration with the UPPAAL model-checker) to REMES-based service-oriented designs;(v) a relevant case-study by which we exercise the applicability of our framework.The presented work has also been applied on other smaller examples presented in the published papers.

  • 1631.
    Šljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Facilitating Reuse of Safety Case Artefacts Using Safety Contracts2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     Safety-critical systems usually need to comply with a domain-specific safety standard, which often require a safety case in form of an explained argument supported by evidence to show that the system is acceptably safe to operate in a given context. Developing such systems to comply with a safety standard is a time-consuming and costly process. Reuse within development of such systems is used to reduce the cost and time needed to both develop the system and the accompanying safety case. Reuse of safety-relevant components that constitute the system is not sufficient without the reuse of the accompanying safety case artefacts that include the safety argument and the supporting evidence. The difficulties with reuse of the such artefacts within safety-critical systems lie mainly in the nature of safety being a system property and the lack of support for systematic reuse of such artefacts.

    In this thesis we focus on developing the notion of safety contracts that can be used to facilitate systematic reuse of safety-relevant components and their accompanying artefacts. More specifically, we explore the following issues: in which way such contracts should be specified, how they can be derived, and in which way they can be utilised for reuse of safety artefacts. First, we characterise the contracts as either “strong” or “weak” to facilitate capturing different behaviours reusable components can exhibit in different systems. Then, we present methods for deriving safety contracts from failure analyses. As the basis of the safety-critical systems development lies in the failure analyses and identifying which malfunctions eventually can lead to accidents, we deem that the basis for specifying the safety contracts lies in capturing information identified by such failure analyses within the contracts. Finally, we provide methods for generative reuse of the safety case artefacts by utilising the safety contracts. Moreover, we define a safety contracts development process as guidance for systematic reuse based on the safety contracts. We use a real-world case to demonstrate the proposed process. 

  • 1632.
    Šljivo, Irfan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lisova, Elena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Agent-centred Approach for Assuring Ethics in Dependable Service Systems2017Inngår i: 13th IEEE World Congress on Services SERVICES 2017, 2017, s. 51-58, artikkel-id 8036721Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the world enters the information era, more and more dependable services controlling and even making our decisions are moved to the ubiquitous smart devices. While various standards are in place to impose the societal ethical norms on decision-making of those devices, the rights of the individuals to satisfy their own moral norms are not addressed with the same scrutiny. Hence, the right of the individuals to reason on their own and evaluate morality of certain decisions is at stake, as many decisions are outsourced from the user to the service providers and third party stakeholders without the user's full awareness of all the aspects of those decisions. In this work we propose an agent-centred approach for assuring ethics in dependable technological service systems. We build upon assurance of safety and security and propose the notion of ethics assurance case as a way to assure that individual users have been made aware of all the ethically challenging decisions that might be performed or enabled by the service provider. We propose a framework for identifying and categorising ethically challenging decisions, and documenting the ethics assurance case. We apply the framework on an illustrative example.

  • 1633. Šurković, A.
    et al.
    Hanić, D.
    Lisova, Elena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Causevic, Adnan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Wenslandt, D.
    Knightec AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Falk, C.
    Knightec AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Incorporating attacks modeling into safety process2018Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11094, s. 31-41Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems of systems (SoS) are built as a collection of systems capable of fulfilling their own function, as well as contributing to other functionalities. They are expected to increase production efficiency and possibly decrease human involvement in harmful environments, and in many cases such systems are safety-critical. For SoS it is a paramount to provide both safety and security assurance. It is not sufficient to analyze and provide assurance of these properties independently due to their mutual connection. Hence, a joint effort addressing safety and security that provides joint guarantees on both properties, is required. In this paper we provide a safety and security assurance argument by incorporating an adversary point of view, and identify potential failures coming from the security domain that might lead to an already identified set of hazards. In this way system assets, vulnerabilities and ways to exploit them can be assessed. As an outcome mitigation strategies coming from security considerations can be captured by the safety requirements. The approach is illustrated on an autonomous quarry.

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