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  • 151.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Saaed, Tarek Edrees
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Foundation assessment in different parts of Iraq using STAAD Pro v8i2013Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 273-281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Foundation is considered as one of the main parts of any structure such as buildings, railways, bridges, etc. The type of foundation used is highly dependent on the type and properties of soil. The design of foundations requires many factors that should be defined such as the load that the foundation is going to hold, geological conditions of the soil under the foundation, type of soil and the local building code criteria.There are number of differences in the geological and soil conditions in Iraq. As a consequence, these differences are reflected on the type of foundation to be used. Despite these differences, same materials and style of buildings are used all over Iraq. The main problems of Iraqi soil are high gypsum content, salinity and shallow water table depth. These factors that influence the foundations are the soil properties and the amount of loads that transmitted by the superstructure.The situation had been analysed through a case study which illustrated the link between soil and foundation types in three different parts of Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad and Basra). One building was analysed using STAAD. Pro software in these regions. It is evident that Iraqi designers and engineers require local code to define all the loads, materials and design of the foundation to be used. The use of local materials might be very effective from both engineering and economic perspectives.

  • 152.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hazardous wastes problems in Iraq: a suggestion for an environmental solution2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq passed through many destructive wars where the country infrastructures have been destroyed. Consequently, various types of hazardous wastes generated from 1991 and 2003 wars are exposed in different parts of Iraq without any aspect of human and environment considerations. Contaminants are found in the form of contaminated rubble with depleted uranium (DU). Landfill disposal is still an economical and vital solution that should serve between 500-1000 years for confining hazardous wastes like DU. The longevity of a hazardous waste landfill is mainly controlled by clay based liners. There are many factors affecting the performance of clay liners. These factors were discussed in this research. The main requirements of hazardous waste landfills were listed according to USEPA and German regulations. Finally, the main aspects of landfill siting criteria in Iraq were suggested.

  • 153.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hazardous wastes problems in Iraq:a suggestion for an environmental solution2013Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 81-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq passed through many destructive wars where the country infrastructures have been destroyed. Consequently, various types of hazardous wastes generated from 1991 and 2003 wars are exposed in different parts of Iraq without any aspect of human and environment considerations. Contaminants are found in the form of contaminated rubble with depleted uranium (DU). Landfill disposal is still an economical and vital solution that should serve between 300-1000 years for confining hazardous wastes like DU. The longevity of a hazardous waste landfill is mainly controlled by clay based liners. There are many factors affecting the performance of clay liners. These factors were discussed. The main requirements of hazardous waste landfills were listed according to USEPA and German regulations. Finally, the main aspects of landfill siting criteria in Iraq were suggested.

  • 154.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Proposed site selection criteria for hazardous waste disposal facilities in Iraq2012Ingår i: Waste Management and the Environment VI / [ed] V. Popov; H. Itoh; C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2012, s. 309-319Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazardous wastes in Iraq can be considered as a looming crisis due to its severe impact on health and environment after the 1991 and 2003 wars. The most dangerous type is depleted uranium waste. It is classified by EU and USEPA as Low-Level radioactive Waste and a simple and sufficiently safe way of isolating it from the biosphere is to turn it into a landfill confined within tight dikes. Selection of a disposal site requires a number of conditions to be fulfilled, like socio/economic, environmental and geotechnical criteria, which, in combination, determine where such landfills can be located. This is particularly obvious for Iraq, with its large desertic areas that are available for constructing landfills of hazardous waste. The climatic conditions are suitable and the deep groundwater level valuable for minimizing or avoiding contamination of the area. Heavy rain may occasionally fall requiring special measures to be taken for maintaining stability and tightness. This paper lists suitable site selection criteria for landfills of hazardous waste with special respect to Iraq. An example of a suitable disposal site is described and assessed.

  • 155.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite clays from Iraq with special respect to landfills of DU-contaminated waste2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills of material contaminated by depleted uranium and other low-level radioactive waste must be isolated from the biosphere for a sufficiently long time. This can be effectively made in desert climate by collecting contaminated waste in suitable areas confined by tight embankments and covering them with very tight clay liners protected from desiccation and erosion by suitably composed filters and coarse rock fill. Examples of design principles and construction are described in the paper. The clay liners are made of air-dry expanding clay that can be found in sufficient quantities in Iraq and that provide very good tightness at low cost. The construction technique is well known from various projects.

  • 156.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite clays from Iraq with special respect to landfills of DU-contaminated waste2013Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 109-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills of material contaminated by depleted uranium and other low-level radioactive waste must be isolated from the biosphere for a sufficiently long time. This can be effectively made in desert climate by collecting contaminated waste in suitable areas confined by tight embankments and covering them with very tight clay liners protected from desiccation and erosion by suitably composed filters and coarse rock fill. Examples of design principles and construction are described in the paper. The clay liners are made of air-dry expanding clay that can be found in sufficient quantities in Iraq and that provide very good tightness at low cost. The construction technique is well known from various projects.

  • 157.
    Alzeyadi, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A Novel Coating Method for Create Filter Media Capable to Remove Phosphate from Wastewater Effectively2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 443-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Filtration materials coating with metallic oxides represented a good method for phosphate sorption. However, most of the researchers utilize chemicals as a source of metallic oxides and heating process to set the chemicals over the filtration materials. This study is aimed to introduce the furnace bottom ash FBA as a source of metallic oxides; it is available free because it is dumped as a waste material from power generation plants. The method of creating new filter media involves coating the limestone and sand by FBA, and the ordinary Portland cement OPC utilized as binder to binding the mixture materials. The water is the factor which is responsible for activating the OPC. All factors such as mixed materials ratio, water content and age of reaction have subjected to optimization process. The results revealed that the optimal mixture for phosphate removal consists of 40% FBA, 5% OPC from dry weight of supporting material, 35% water ratio from the total weight of FBA and OPC, and 14 days are enough to complete the materials reaction. Limestone-furnace bottom ash LFBA indicated high capacity for phosphate sorption and possibility  of  efficiency  regenerate.  This  study  demonstrates  a  new  method  for coating the filtration materials more convenient with sustainability approach.

  • 158.
    Al-Zubaydi, Jaffar
    et al.
    Applied Geology Department, College of Science, University of Babylon.
    Alabidi, Abdulkadhim
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Janabi, Ali
    Applied Geology Department, College of Science, University of Babylon.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Engineering and Tectonic Study of Rocks Discontinuities in the Proposed Abo-Hederya Quarry Site, Missan SE Iraq2016Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 8, s. 525-534Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed field survey of discontinuity (fractures) was carried out in the proposed Abo-Hederya Quarry Site, 70 km east Missan city, south-east of Iraq, where Al-Mukdadiya Formation (Upper Miocene-Pliocene) is exposed. The discontinuity survey was carried out in 10 stations covering the study area. At each station notes were collected about beds (lithology, thickness and orientation) and discontinuities (orientation, density, spacing, persistence and aperture). The slope stability analysis suggests that there is no real hazard area that could affect the quarry in future. Tectonic analysis demonstrates that tension fractures are common in the study area, while shear fractures (okl, hko, hol and hkl) are the less. The maximum principal stress direction in the study area is N (15 - 40) E, which is compatible with the regional tectonic stress in the area.

  • 159.
    Al-Zuheri, Atiya
    et al.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Rashad, Haider
    Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Maliki, Ali A.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Hussain, Hassain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Determination of the chemical Structure of the Iraqi Oil Shale and its hydrocarbon Forms2018Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 7-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The global impact of shale oil has revolutionized the world’s energy markets, resulting in significantly lower oil prices, higher global gross domestic product, changing geopolitics and shifted business models for oil and gas companies. Further and developed research initiative is required to fill critical gaps in knowledge at the interface of shale oil development along with environmental protection, so countries can prepare better for its energy future. This paper explores the characterization of Iraqi originated oil shale using various analytical techniques, such as mass spectrometry (MS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrography (GC/MS). Based upon analytical results, it is found that the majority of chemical structure is in aliphatic hydrocarbon forms.

  • 160.
    Ameen, Ameen Mohammed Salih
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Ibrahim, Zainah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Othman, Faridah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Minimizing the Principle Stresses of Powerhoused Rock-Fill Dams Using Control Turbine Running Units: Application of Finite Element Method2018Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikel-id 1138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on improving the safety of embankment dams by considering theeffects of vibration due to powerhouse operation on the dam body. The study contains two ainparts. In the first part, ANSYS-CFX is used to create the three-dimensional (3D) Finite Volume (FV)model of one vertical Francis turbine unit. The 3D model is run by considering various reservoirconditions and the dimensions of units. The Re-Normalization Group (RNG) k-𝜀𝜀 turbulence modelis employed, and the physical properties of water and the flow haracteristics are defined in theturbine model. In the second phases, a 3D finite element (FE) numerical model for a rock-fill dam iscreated by using ANSYS®, considering the dam connection with its powerhouse represented by fourvertical Francis turbines, foundation, and the upstream reservoir. Changing the upstream watertable minimum and maximum water levels, standers earth gravity, fluid-solid interface, hydrostaticpressure, and the soil properties are onsidered. The dam model runs to cover all possibilities forturbines operating in accordance with the reservoir discharge ranges. In order to minimize stressesin the dam body and increase dam safety, this study optimizes the turbine operating system byintegrating turbine and dam models.

  • 161.
    Baby, Sultana Nasrin
    et al.
    Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Arrowsmith, Colin
    Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Application of GIS for Mapping Rainwater-Harvesting Potential: Case Study Wollert, Victoria: Application of GIS for Mapping Rainwater-Harvesting Potential: Case Study Wollert, Victoria2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 14-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a basic normal asset for supporting the condition of life. Accessible water assets are feeling the squeeze because of expanding demand. Soon wa- ter,  which  we  have  epended  upon  to  be  accessible  and  an  unconditional present of nature will turn into a rare roduct. Protection and conservation of water assets are desperately required. In many parts of Victoria, water supply to communities is limited. Rainwater harvesting systems can provide water ator near the point of demand. The systems can be owner and utility operated and  managed.  Rainwater  collected  using  existing  structures,  i.e.  rooftops, parking lots, playgrounds, parks, ponds, floodplains etc., has few negative en- vironmental impacts compared to other technologies for water resources de- velopment. Rainwater is relatively clean and the quality is usually acceptablefor many purposes with little or even no treatment. The physical and chemi- cal properties of rainwater are usually superior to sources of groundwater that may have been subjected to contamination. The present study was intended to measure the rooftop rainwater harvesting potential using GIS techniques. The GIS examination utilized in this investigation was basically an efficient assess- ment  of  rooftop  water  collecting  in  the  chose  Wollert  which  is  a  suburb  in Melbourne, Victoria. With the use of GIS it was conceivable to appraise the ag- gregate sum of water harvestable at the household level. It is very tedious work to assess the catchments available for rooftop rainwater harvesting. Here the roof surfaces are the catchments and GIS is employed to calculate the area of various  types  of  roofs  and  their  potential  for  planning  for  the  area  under study.  As  a  result  Eucalypt  Estate  Wollert  has  huge  potential  and  can  makeabove 179.11 litres water available per person per day throughout the year.

  • 162.
    Baby, Sultana Nasrin
    et al.
    School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Arrowsmith, Colin
    School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Spatial Decision Support System for CoastalZone Management under a ChangingClimate in Victoria, Australia2018Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 10, nr 10, s. 637-642, artikel-id 87732Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimate aim of using spatial  datasets and  spatial  data modelling is  fo- cused on enabling a sustainable environment by bringing the public policies into  practice.  The  consequence  will  be  sustainable  spatially  aware  strategic planning for  all  levels  of  Australian government.  Geographical  Information Systems (GIS) are the platform that can serve this aim provided that model, current process and spatial datasets are fit for purpose. To bring public policy into practice a broad range of knowledge from different disciplines is needed. Most decision making processes are pressured in terms of time and driving forces and also the process is beyond the knowledge of individuals in the var- ious  disciplines.  There  is  a  need  for  immediate  uptake  models  and  tools which are relevant to the target subject that will facilitate this decision making process. This paper focuses on realizing the utility in spatial data and spatial data handling in order to help climate change adaptation programs at local government level. Web-based mapping tools can assist planners prepare for the changing climate conditions in Bass Coast Shire Council. The GIS team has gathered data from various climate research organizations to understand projections of what different climate scenarios might look like over the next 100-year period. From this website demo it is hoped that the user will under- stand  how  the  tool  works,  background  information  on  different  GIS  plat- forms, access to interactive mapping, online geospatial analysis tools, videos, open source resource, sea level tools, modelling, 3D visualization and direct download access to various planning and natural resource data sets relating to environment  management.  Some  results  from  our  elevation  data  analysesthrough these Web map visualization tools are provided.

  • 163.
    Bhanbhro, Riaz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Frequent breaches in irrigation canals in Sindh Pakistan2014Ingår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 214-223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year a number of breach failures occur in Irrigation Canals in Sindh. Those failures cause displacement of thou-sands of people, destruction of properties, land, and damages costly crops worth millions rupees. In addition to that breach failures are also can cause water shortages when failure occurs during peak demand period. There are various causes of embankment failures that include overtopping, internal erosion, structural defects and piping. State of art for breach failures is presented in this paper and suggestions for prediction of breaches in context to canals in Sindh are discussed. Seepage and slope stability analyses are recommended for long term breach predictions.

  • 164.
    Bobaker, Aiman M.
    et al.
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya .
    Alakili, Intisar
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya .
    Sarmani, Sukiman B.
    School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bandar Baru Bangi, Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Determination and Assessment of the Toxic Heavy Metal Elements Abstracted from the Traditional Plant Cosmetics and Medical Remedies: Case Study of Libya2019Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 11, s. 1-14, artikel-id 1957Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Henna and walnut tree bark are widely used by Libyan women as cosmetics. They may contain lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As), which, in turn, pose a high risk to their health. This study aims to determine the levels of Pb, Cd and As in henna and walnut tree bark products sold in Libyan markets. The products were analyzed for their Pb, Cd and As content by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after a microwave acid digestion. The results showed a significant difference between the henna and walnut tree bark samples in terms of their heavy metals content (p < 0.05). The highest heavy metal concentrations were observed in the walnut tree bark samples whereas the lowest was observed in the henna samples. In addition, 60% of the henna and 90% of the walnut tree bark samples contained Pb levels and approximately 80% of the henna and 90% the walnut tree bark samples contained Cd levels, which are much higher than the tolerance limit. However, As concentrations in all the samples were lower. The results indicated that such cosmetics expose consumers to high levels of Pb and Cd and hence, to potential health risks. Thus, studying the sources and effects of heavy metals in such cosmetics is strongly recommended.

  • 165.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Kurdistan Institution for strategic studies and scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla Mustafa Muhamed
    Abdullah Mustafa Muhamed Al-Rawabdeh, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq; Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Final Cover Systems Design for Arid Areas Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in the Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 12, artikel-id 4568Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of selecting proper designs for landfills is to accommodate quantities of waste without having a negative effect on the surrounding environment and human health. The Babylon Governorate (province) in Iraq was taken as an example of an arid area with very shallow groundwater and where irregular waste disposal sites had developed that had not been subject to international standards when they were selected for landfill use. In the current study, the suggested design for landfills is a base liner and final cover system. In this suggested design, the final cover system allows for three scenarios. The first scenario considers an evapotranspiration soil cover (ET) (capillary barriers type), the second scenario is a modified cover design of “RCRA Subtitle D”, and the third scenario is a combination of the first and second scenarios. The HELP 3.95 D model was applied to the selected landfill sites in the governorate to check if there was any penetration of the leachate that might in future percolate from the landfill’s bottom barrier layer in arid areas. The results from the suggested landfill design showed that there was no leachate percolation from the bottom barrier layer using the second and third scenarios. For the first scenario, however, there was a small amount of leachate through the bottom barrier layer in the years 2013 and 2014.

  • 166.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Department of Dams and Water Resources Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul 41001, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa 51001, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Two Scenarios for Landfills Design in Special Conditions Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The sound design of landfills is essential in order to protect human health and the environment (air, water, and soil). The study area, Babylon Governorate, is situated in the middle of Iraq, and is distinguished by a hot climate and shallow groundwater. The governorate did not have landfill sites that meet international criteria; in addition, the groundwater depth in Babylon Governorate is commonly shallow. Previously, the most important criteria for the study area and GIS software were used to select the best sites for locating landfills in the major cities of the governorate. In this study, the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP 3.95D) model was applied in order to ensure that there was no leakage of the leachate that results from the waste in the selected landfill sites. It is the most commonly utilized model for landfill design, and it is used to estimate water inflow through the soil layers. For the present study, to avoid groundwater pollution by leachate from a landfill site due to the shallow groundwater depth, compacted waste was placed on the surface using two height scenarios (2 m and 4 m). This design was developed using the soil properties of the selected sites coupled with the weather parameters in Babylon Governorate (precipitation, temperature, solar, and evapotranspiration) for a 12-year period covering 2005 to 2016. The results from both of the suggested landfill designs showed an absence of leachate from the bottom liner.

  • 167.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Kamaleddin, Suhair
    Iraqi Ministry of Housing & Construction, National Center for Construction Laboratories and Research Babylon, Baghdad.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Soil Characteristics in Selected Landfill Sites in theBabylon Governorate, Iraq2017Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 348-363Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Babylon Governorate is situated in the middle of Iraq. It covers an area of 5,315 km

    2 and has 2,092,998 inhabitants distributed throughout its five major cities (Qadhaa). Presently, there is no landfill site in the governorate that meets the environmental criteria for the disposal of municipal and industrial waste. Consequently, GIS (geographic information system) and methods of multi-criteria decision making were used here to select the best sites in each city in the Babylon Governorate that would fulfil the environmental requirements. Two sites were chosen in each city. As the groundwater is very shallow in this area, the design should ensure against groundwater pollution by leachate from these sites. To avoid this problem, soil investigation was conducted at these sites so that the most suitable landfill design could be accomplished. The results of soil investigation in these sites include the soil profile, groundwater depth, chemical properties, allowable bearing capacity, Atterberg limits test results and material characteristics of the soil strata. From the research, it is believed that the best design is one that puts the landfill above ground.

  • 168.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    GIS-based assessment of combined AHP and SAW methods for selecting suitable sites for landfill in Al-Musayiab Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2017Ingår i: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 76, nr 5, artikel-id 209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting a landfill site is a difficult task because the process depends on many factors and restrictions. Landfill is an optimal solution for the disposal of solid waste in Al-Musayiab Qadhaa, which is located in the northern part of Babylon Governorate. At the moment, there is no landfill site in that area that follows the scientific selection site criteria. For this reason, in this research, fifteen variables were considered (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types; agriculture lands use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centers, villages and archeological sites) using geographic information system (GIS) to find out the best suitable landfill site. In addition, two methods of multi-criteria decision-making were used to derive weights for criterion’s maps on GIS to obtain potential landfill sites. The first method is analytical hierarchy process (AHP) which was used to identify the weight for each criterion from the matrix of pairwise comparisons. The second method was the simple additive weighting (SAW) which is a simple method to solve the problem of the selection landfill sites. After comparison of the results obtained based on combining two final maps resulted from methods of AHP and SAW using GIS environment to determine the pixels percentage of matching and non-matching for two maps, two suitable candidate landfill sites were identified that satisfy the requirements with an area of 7.965–5.952 km2. Area of these sites can accommodate the solid waste generated from the Qadhaa up to 2030.

  • 169.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Kufa University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Sites Selection Using AnalyticalHierarchy Process and Ratio ScaleWeighting: Case Study of Al-Mahawil,Babylon, Iraq2017Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 123-141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting a landfill site is an optimal solution for the disposal of solid waste inAl-Mahawil Qadhaa, both to fulfill the environmental and scientific requirements,and to comply with regulations and restrictions in this Qadhaa. Presently,there is no landfill site in the area that meets the scientific site selection criteria.Therefore, in this study, two methods of multi-criteria decision-makingand Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to produce a map ofcandidate sites for landfill. Fifteen criteria were entered within GIS: groundwaterdepth, rivers, soil types; agriculture lands use, land use, elevation, slope,gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centers, villagesand archaeological sites. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is the firstmethod that was applied to derive criteria weightings using the matrix of pairwisecomparisons. The second method was the Ratio Scale Weighting (RSW),which is based on experts’ opinion, in order to identify the criteria weightingsby giving a ratio score value for each criterion relative to the other criteria.Accuracy assessment (Kappa and Overall Assessment) methods were used tocompare the two raster maps which resulted from the two models, and to determinethe percentage value of matching pixels for the two maps. Two suitablecandidate sites for landfill were identified that satisfy the requirementswith an area of 2.218 km2 - 2.950 km2 in order to accommodate the solidwaste generated from the Qadhaa in the period 2020 to 2030.

  • 170.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Present Status of Solid Waste Management at Babylon Governorate, Iraq2015Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 5, nr 7, s. 408-423Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Babylon Governorate covers an area of 5315 km2 with a population that reaches about 1,974,490 inhabitants in the central part of Iraq. Iraq produced 31,000 tons/day solid waste in 2013. The Governorate of Babylon produces annual 483,221 tons of solid waste. Management of collection and disposal of waste in Babylon Governorate is done through open dumping of waste and poor collection process. These sites do not conform to the scientific and environmental criteria applied in the selection of landfill sites. To find out how much solid waste is expected in the future, two methods were used to calculate the population growth in Babylon Governorate to the year 2030. The results showed that the total waste in 2030 will be 761,104 tons and 943055 tons while the cumulated quantity of solid waste expected till 2030 was 12,494,521 tons and 14,095,437 tons according to the first and second methods respectively.

  • 171.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Sitting by Two Methods in Al-Qasim, Babylon, Iraq and Comparing Them Using Change Detection Method2017Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 8, s. 723-737Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The selecting of a site for landfill is considered as a difficult process because many criteria should be involved. The main aim of establishing a landfill is to protect the human and environment. Al-Qasim district is considered as the study area in this work. It is one of the main districts in Babylon Governorate, Iraq. There is no systematic site as landfill that fulfil the environmental and scientific criteria in this area. Therefore, the most important fifteen criteria that suited the environmental requirements were selected in the current study. These criteria are: groundwater depth, urban centers, rivers, villages, soil types, elevation, roads agricultural land use, slope, land use, archaeological sites, power lines, gas pipelines, oil pipelines and railways. Two methods of multi criteria decision making AHP (analytical hierarchy process) and SRS (straight rank sum) were applied to obtain the weights of criteria in dissimilar styles. The raster maps of the selected criteria were prepared and analyzed within the GIS software. Then, the change detection method was implemented to compare the two output raster maps resulted from AHP and SRS methods. Two appropriate candidate sites for landfill were selected to accommodate the cumulative solid waste until the year 2030 in Qasim district. The areas of these sites were 2.766 km2 and 2.055 km2 respectively.

  • 172.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, college of Engineering, U niversity of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq. .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hazim, Anwer
    Koya university, Koya, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of Change Detection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq2019Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill site`s selection represents a complicated process due to the large number of variables to be adopted. In this study, an arid area (Babylon Governorate as a case study) was selected. It is located in the middle region of Iraq. In this area, the  landfills do not satisfy the required  international criteria.  Fifteen  of the  most significant criterion were selected for this purpose. For suitable weight for each criterion, the multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were applied. These methods are AHP and RSW. In the GIS software 10.5, the raster maps of the chosen criterion were arranged and analysed. The method of change detection was implemented to determine the matching pixels and non-matching pixels. The final results showed that there are two candidate locations for landfills for each district in the governorate (ten sites). The areas of the selected sites were sufficient to contain the cumulative quantity of solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

  • 173.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill site selection using geographic information system and analytical hierarchy process: A case study Al-Hillah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2016Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 427-437Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Al-Hillah Qadhaa is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 908 km2 with a total population of 856,804 inhabitants. This Qadhaa is the capital of Babylon Governorate. Presently, no landfill site exists in that area based on scientific site selection criteria. For this reason, an attempt has been carried out to find the best locations for landfills. A total of 15 variables were considered in this process (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agricultural land use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centres, villages and archaeological sites) using a geographic information system. In addition, an analytical hierarchy process was used to identify the weight for each variable. Two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined that fulfil the requirements with an area of 9.153 km2 and 8.204 km2. These sites can accommodate solid waste till 2030

  • 174.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Siting Using GIS and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process): A Case Study Al-Qasim Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2016Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 5, s. 530-543Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The selection of a landfill site is considered as a complicated task because this process is based on many factors and restrictions. For Al-Qasim Qadhaa, which is situated in the southern part of the Babylon Governorate, Iraq, there is no landfill site in that area that conforms to the scientific criteria for selecting sites for landfill. For this reason, 15 criteria were adopted in this study (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agriculture lands use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centers, villages and archaeological sites) using GIS (geographic information system), which has a large ability to manage input data. In addition, the AHP (analytical hierarchy process) method was used to derive the relative weightings for each criterion using pair-wise comparison. To obtain the suitability index for candidate landfill sites, a weighted linear combination method was used. After combining these methods, two suitable candidate landfill sites, with areas of 2.766 km2 and 2.055 km2, respectively, were found to satisfy the scientific and environmental requirements. The area of these sites can accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030 based on the required area, which was 0.702 km2.

  • 175.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Combining GIS Applications and Method of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (AHP) for Landfill Siting in Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2017Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikel-id 1932Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill siting is a complex process. It is one of the major problems in waste management, where many factors should be taken into consideration when selecting a suitable site for landfill in any given area. At the present time, there are many random waste disposal sites distributed throughout Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa in Iraq. In this study, the Geographic Information System (GIS) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) were used to select the best sites for landfill. The process of selecting sites for landfill in Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa comprised two steps. First, fifteen different criteria were mapped and incorporated into overlay analyses within GIS software to produce the final suitability index map for the site. The second step comprises the exclusion of unsuitable areas from the final map to simplify identification of the candidate sites for landfill in the study area. The weightings of criteria were identified using AHP, and the weightings of the sub-criteria of each criterion were determined based on multiple factors. In order to accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030, two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined which fulfill the required area of 1.013 km2 with areas of 1.374 km2 and 1.288 km2 respectively.

  • 176.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussein, Hussein M.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfills Site Selection in Babylon, Iraq2017Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Babylon Governorate is located in the middle of Iraq and includes five major districts called Qadhaa. It occupies an area of 5315 km2 with population of 2,092,998 in 2015. The process of selecting landfill site is considered complicated task related to many factors and regulations. Currently, there is no landfill site in Babylon Governorate that fulfils the scientific and environmental criteria. Therefore, in this study fifteen of suitable criteria were selected. These criteria are: groundwater depth, urban canters, rivers, villages, soil types, elevation, agriculture, roads lands use slope, land use, archaeological sites, power lines, gas pipelines, oil pipelines and railways. Then these criteria were used in the GIS (geographic information system), which has a high ability to manage and analyse various data. In addition, the AHP (analytical hierarchy process) method was used to derive the weightings of criteria through using a matrix of pair-wise comparison. After that the weighted linear combination (WLC) method was used to obtain the suitability index map for candidate landfill sites. Ten suitable candidate sites for landfill were selected (two for each District), where all these sites satisfied the scientific and environmental criteria which were adopted in this study. The areas of the selected sites were adequate to accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

  • 177.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Application of the HELP Model for Landfill Design in AridAreas: Case Study Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 12, nr 12, s. 848-879Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The landfill design is necessary to be implemented in various regions to protect public human health and the factors ofenvironment. The suggested design of landfill was performed in the arid areas, where that Babylon Governorate, Iraq was selected as a case study. Babylon overnorate is located in the middle of Iraq. The suggested design for the selected sites for landfill in the arid areas was consisted of the base liner and final cover systems. The HELP 3.95D model was applied on both systems to check if there is any leakage by leachate from the suggested soil layers of landfill base on the water balance in Babylon Governorate for the years 2005-2016. The suggested design of final cover system was implemented based on weather parameters in the arid areas through storing water that coming from the surface within upper layers that have fine particles and over the top barrier without leakage into the waste body, thereby preventing leachate generation. This is  allowing to the stored water to evaporate from the surface of soil or transpire through vegetation due to the high temperature during the most months in the study area. The results showed there was no percolation of leachate through the base liner system. The design of final cover system was acted to reduce the runoff on the surface and increase theactual evaporation.

  • 178.
    Darwesh, Ali K.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maack Rasmussen, Thorkild
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Kicks controlling techniques efficiency in term of time2017Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 482-492Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Kicks are the result of under balance drilling operation. Time consumed to control the kicks will be different in depending on the controlling technique. Drilling fluid considered as a first barrier to control formation pressure and well kicks. Any advance in drilling fluids leads to more controlled operation in term of time. This paper will follow the general increasing profile of pressure before entering the reservoir. Both methods of well controlling technique; circulating techniques and non-circulating have been implemented in many oil blocks. The process of designing and casing selection, setting depth and many other issues is predominately dependent on the utilization of accurate values of formation pressure. Formation pressures used to design safe mud weights to overcome fracturing the formation and prevent well kicks. Hence the emphasis has been placed on the practical utilization of kicks pressure near the reservoir. The presented relationships will help the engineer to better understand lithological columns and reduce potential hole problems during the kick appearance. Selecting the best well controlling practical method can lead to not harming the reservoir and more production later. Changes in some drilling fluid properties have been proposed with increasing the depth without damaging the reservoir. Suggestions in relation to the casing setting point of the intermediate section are also proposed. Standard equations with proper modification for gases and safety margin have been proposed for the future drilling operation in oil fields above the reservoir.

  • 179.
    Darwesh, Ali K.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rasmussen, Thorkild Maack
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Time Optimizing near the Pay Zone2017Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 10, s. 848-858Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Well control techniques are used in oil and gas drilling operations to control bottom hole pressure and avoid any fluid influx from formation to the well. These techniques are highly important near the pay zone in term of time. Controlling formation fluid pressure and thereby the formations behavior in a predictable fashion will help toward more optimized environmental friendly drilling operation. Time consumed to control the formation fluid pressure will range between few hours to many days. This paper discusses hydrostatic pressure distribution and changes near the pay zone for one oil blocks in Kur- distan, in the northern part of Iraq. Obtaining homogeneous increase in some drilling fluid properties will help the engineer to better interpret sampling of the lithological columns and reduce potential hole problems and operationtime.

  • 180.
    Darwesh, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rasmussen, Thorkild Maack
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Limestone Interval in the Drilled Surface Section of Bn-1 Oil Well2016Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 8, s. 515-524Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The first exploration oil well in any oil block consumes in general more time and cost than the other wells in the same block. Evaluating the drilled wells serves to improve the future operations. This paper evaluates the drilled surface section through real field data for the first exploration oil well drilled in one of the oil blocks, in Kurdistan north of Iraq. The surface section of the well was drilled with the conventional method to penetrate many different geological formations with tight intervals. Drilling efficiency and the difficulties encountered are discussed and explained using various data sources. All daily drilling reports concerning a specific interval were studied. This includes weight on bit, string rotation, mud pump flow and penetration rate. Evaluation was carried out by analyzing the used controllable drilling parameters with the formations features. Penetration of the Pila Spi formation (Middle Eocene) was the most difficult formation in the drilled section. Microsoft Office 365 Pro Plus used in making graphs and Excel tables. Evaluations showed that the conventional technology used left many negative effects, like increase in None Productive Time NPT, cost and ground water pollution. Simultaneous Casing Drilling method proposed as an alternative method for the future campaign.

  • 181.
    Darwesh, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rasmussen, Thorkild Maack
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Wiper Trips Effect on Wellbore Instability Using Net Rising Velocity Methods2018Ingår i: Open Petroleum Engineering Journal, ISSN 1874-8341, Vol. 11, s. 14-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This paper discusses the wiper trip effects on well instability in shale formations.Objectives: Problematic shale interval sections have been studied for the time spent on the wiper trip operations. Lifting efficiency and well wall instability change with the time analyzed. Detailed drilling operation, formation heterogeneity, rheological and filtration characteristics of polymer water-based mud are discussed. Physical and chemical properties of the drilled formation and drilling fluid are also studied.Materials and Methods: Wiper trips are analyzed using a typical drawing program to find the relations between the most controllable parameters. For that, two calculation models have been implemented to find the net rising cutting particles velocity in the annular. The relation between the net rising velocity and wiper trips is analyzed. Laboratory works have been done to support the findings of field work.Results: Strong relations have been found between the wiper trip impacts and lithology types of the penetrated shale.Conclusion: A modified drilling program is proposed in relation to changes in casing setting depth and drilling fluid properties that make the operations more efficient in cost and time.

  • 182.
    Elias, Issa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Area-Storage Capacity curves for Mosul Dam, Iraq Using Empirical and Semi-Empirical Approaches2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The storage capacity of reservoirs is gradually depleted due to sediment accumulation that causes changes in the area-storage capacity curves (ASC). These curves are important for planners, designers and operators of dams. Many empirical and semi-empirical approaches have been suggested for establishing and predicting these curves. In this study four empirical and semi-empirical methods were evaluated and used to determine the ASC curves for Mosul dam reservoir (MDR), which is the biggest hydraulic structure on the River Tigris in northern Iraq. MDR started operating in 1986 with a storage capacity of 11.11 km3 and a water surface area 380 km2 at normal operation stage (330 m a.s.l.). The results obtained from these methods were evaluated using observed bathymetric survey data that had been collected in 2011 after 25 years of the operation of the dam. The evaluation results showed three methods presented more accurate results for estimating water depth or sedimentation depth at dam site with percentage error about 1.06% to 3.295%.

  • 183.
    Elias, Issa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Dams and Water Resources Engineering, University of Mosul, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sherwany, Govand
    Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Kurdistan Region.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation and modification of some empirical and semi-empirical approaches for prediction of area-storage capacity curves in reservoirs of dams2017Ingår i: International Journal of Sediment Research, ISSN 1001-6279, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 127-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The storage capacity of reservoirs is gradually reduced due to sediment accumulation that causes changes in the area-storage capacity (ASC) curves. Establishing these curves and predicting their future change is an important issue for planners, designers and operators of dams. Many empirical and semi-empirical approaches have been suggested for establishing and predicting the future changes for these curves. In this study four empirical and semi-empirical methods were evaluated and three of them were modified to be used for the prediction of changes in the ASC curves due to sedimentation, based on the existing sedimentation survey data for 11 reservoirs in the USA. For evaluation, these approaches were reviewed and used to determine sedimentation depth and establishing the ASC curves for the Mosul dam reservoir (MDR), which is the biggest hydraulic structure on the River Tigris in northern Iraq. MDR started operating in 1986 with a storage capacity of 11.11 km3 and a water surface area 380 km2 at normal operation stage (330 m a.s.l.). The results obtained from these methods were evaluated using observed bathymetric survey data that had been collected in 2011 after 25 years of the operation of the dam. The evaluation results showed three methods had presented more accurate results for estimating water depth or sedimentation depth at dam site with percentage error about 1.06–3.30%. Whilst for establishing ASC curves, one method presented good agreement result with survey data. Furthermore, ASC and sedimentation depths at dam site of MDR for periods 50, 75, 100 and 125 years were estimated using the modified approaches and the area reduction method. The results of the modified methods provided reasonable agreement when compared with the area reduction method proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the agreement became better with an increase in time period.

  • 184.
    Elias, Ziyad
    et al.
    Geomorphic Researcher, Celle, Germany.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Kurdistan University, Hewler.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    New Tectonic Activity within Zagros – Taurus belt: A case study from north Iraq using Region Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 51-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates fold growth and drainage evolution of the Duhok – Al-Qosh and Duhkan anticlines (Iraqi Kurdistan region) by means of structural and tectonic geomorphology using a geological map and SRTM remote sensing data (digital elevation model and satellite images). The implementation of geomorphic indicator will help understanding the mechanism between growth of fold and drainage pattern and also concluding the tectonic evolution in the study site. Fault has an impact on the width of the folds and also on the drainage basin in the study area. The Aspect ratio indicates that the folds in the study area are formed by thrust-cored or forced and buckling. The tributaries of the drainage basin are characterized by drainage parallel to the fold crest on the fold hinge, with less asymmetric and asymmetric forked networks. Perfect symmetry index (FSI) is represented by Al-Qosh fold. Higher value of front sinuosity can be in the first uplift fold and later exposed to erosion by stream basin on the limbs of folds for long time. The spacing ratio and basin shape show basin maturity.

  • 185.
    Elias, Ziyad
    et al.
    Geomorphic Researcher Hannover Germany.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler Iraq. Private Consultant Geologist Erbīl Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of the Tectonic Activity in Northwestern part of the Zagros Mountains, Northeastern Iraq by using Geomorphic Indices2019Ingår i: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tectonic Activity of regions with active tectonics can be assessed by using of the geomorphic indices. Six Geomorphic indices including stream-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), drainage basin shape (Bs), hypsometric integral (Hi), valley floor width-valley height ratio (Vf), and mountain-front sinuosity (Smf) were calculated using GIS technique in Kifri Chai Basin; northeast Iraq, which belongs to the Western Zagros Mountain. The basin was divided into eighteen sub-basins depending on the 4th, 5th and 6th stream orders of the drainage within Kirfi Basin. It was found that the SL, Af, Bs, Hi, Vf, and Smf (J) values are uniform and exhibit almost the same classes. However, few exceptions occur, especially in Bs values, but the exceptional values do not influence significantly on the acquired results, in each of the eighteen sub-basin. From these indices the relative active tectonics index value (Iat) was determined. The results of average Iat values (2.35) showed that the tectonic activity in the whole basin is Moderate. Moreover, an attempt was carried out to compare the regional Neotectonic activity with the relative tectonic activity in the basin. The results showed that there is a positive relation between the two comparatives; especially the subsidence amount and scored relative tectonic activity.

  • 186.
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    et al.
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Diwaniyah, Iraq.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Crop Water Requirements and Irrigation Schedules for Some Major Crops in Southern Iraq2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id 756Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate of Iraq is of the subtropical semi-dry type; however, the country was rich in water resources until a few decades ago. Climate change and the construction of many dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the neighboring countries have caused water shortages and poor water quality. Now, there is a need to decrease consumption, improve management of water resources, and determine the water requirements of the major crops because agriculture is the first consumer of water in Iraq. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) CROPWAT 8.0 simulation software and the CLIMWAT 2.0 tool attached to it have been used in this research for Dhi-Qar Province in southern Iraq to find the crop water requirements (CWRs) and irrigation schedules for some major crops. The CROPWAT Penman–Monteith method was used to calculate the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil conservation (S.C.) method was used to estimate the effective rainfall. The study results showed that ET0 varied from 2.18 to 10.5 mm/day and the effective rainfall varied from 0.0 to 23.1 mm. The irrigation requirements were 1142, 203.2, 844.8, and 1180 mm/dec for wheat, barley, white corn, and tomatoes, respectively. There is a higher water demand for crops during the dry seasons (summer and autumn) and a lower demand during the wet seasons (winter and spring). The total gross irrigation and the total net irrigation were 343.8 mm and 240.7 mm for wheat, 175.2 mm and 122.6 mm for barley, 343.8 mm and 240.7 mm for white corn, and 203.3 mm and 142.3 mm for tomatoes. This study proved that the CROPWAT model is useful for calculating the crop irrigation needs for the proper management of water resources.

  • 187.
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    et al.
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Footprint of Wheat in Iraq2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikel-id 535Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The water footprint (WF) is an indicator of indirect and direct fresh water use. In respect of

    facilitating decision-making processes,WF gives an excellent perspective on how and where fresh water is used in the supply chain. More than 39million people live in Iraq and,with a growing population, there is a water shortage and a rising demand for food that cannot be met in the future. In this study, theWF of wheat production is estimated for the year 2016–2017 for 15 Iraqi provinces. TheWF was calculated using the method ofMekonnen and Hoekstra (2011) and the CROPWAT and CLIMWAT softwares’ crop water requirement option. It was found that theWF in m 3/ton was 1876 m3/ton. The 15 provinces showed variations inWFs, which can be ascribed to the difference in climate and production values. The highest

    wheat WF was found in Nineveh province, followed by Muthanna, Anbar, and Basra. The last three provinces produce little and have a highWF so, in these provinces, wheat can be replaced with crops that need less water and provide more economic benefit. There is an opportunity to reduce the greenWF by increasing production from the 4 rain-fed provinces, which will reduce the need for production from the irrigated provinces and, therefore, reduce the use of blue water.

  • 188.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Application of SWAT Model to Estimate the Runoff and Sediment Load from the Right Bank Valleys of Mosul Dam Reservoir2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is the biggest hydraulic structure on the River Tigris in Iraq with 11.11 billion m3 storage capacity. The dam is a multipurpose project. It is used to store the water for irrigation, hydropower generation, and flood control. As in other dams in the world, this dam also have sedimentation problem. Sediment accumulation in its reservoir can effect the dam operation (pumping station, hydropower plants, and bottom outlets) and it will definitely shorten the life span of the dam. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) under Geographical Information System (GIS) was applied to simulate the yearly surface runoff and sediment load for the main three valleys on the right bank of Mosul Dam Reservoir. The simulation considered for the twenty one years begin from the dam operation in 1988 to 2008. The resultant values of the average annual sediment load are 35.6*103, 4.9*103, and 2.2*103 ton, while the average values of sediment concentration are 1.73, 1.65, and 2.73 kg/m3 for the considered valleys one, two and three respectively. This implies that significant sediment load enters the reservoir from these valleys. To minimize the sediment load entering the reservoir, a check dams is to be constructed in suitable sites especially for valley one. The check dam can store the runoff water and trap the sediment load, and then the flow can be released to the reservoir.

  • 189.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Estimating life span of rainwater harvesting reservoirs in Sinjar area, Iraq2016Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 24, s. 1-10, artikel-id 9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to water shortage in different places in Iraq especially for areas far away from main river flows (Tigris and Euphrates Rivers), rainwater harvesting reservoirs were suggested previously to store runoff water for different water supply purposes. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to estimate the sediment load yields from each watershed of a selected reservoir to estimate probable life based on resultant sediment load and trap efficiency. The results indicates that the annual sediment load varied from 40*103 to 4.4*103 ton depending on watershed area and other effective properties, while the sediment yield per unit area were ranged between 9.5 to 20 ton/km2. The estimated trap efficiency based on annual inflow and reservoir storage capacity were varied from a minimum of 96.5 to 100% due to high reservoir capacity in comparison to annual inflow. The resultant probable life of the reservoirs was greater than 100 years, indicating that the reservoir can economically accepted.

  • 190.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Runoff and sediment load from the right bank valleys of Mosul dam reservoir2012Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 6, nr 10, s. 1414-1419Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is a Multipurpose Project on the River Tigris in Iraq with 11.11 billion m3 storage capacity.. It is used to store the water for irrigation, hydropower generation, and flood control. As in other dams in the world, this dam also have sedimentation problem. Sediment accumulation in its reservoir can effect the dam operation (pumping station, hydropower plants, and bottom outlets) and it will definitely shorten the life span of the dam. In this study, the SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) under GIS (Geographical Information System) was applied to simulate the yearly surface runoff and sediment load for the main three valleys on the right bank of Mosul Dam Reservoir. The simulation considered for the twenty one years begin from the dam operation in 1988 to 2008. The resultant values of the average annual sediment load are 35.6x103, 4.9x103, and 2.2x103 ton, while the average values of sediment concentration are 1.73, 1.65, and 2.73 kg/m3 for the considered valleys one, two and three respectively. This implies that significant sediment load enters the reservoir from these valleys. To minimize the sediment load entering the reservoir, a check dam is to be constructed in suitable sites especially for valley one. The check dam can store the runoff water and trap the sediment load, and then the flow can be released to the reservoir.

  • 191.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sediment delivery from right bank valleys to Mosul reservoir, Iraq2012Ingår i: Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences / Bioinfo publications, ISSN 0976-9900, E-ISSN 0976-9919, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 50-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul dam reservoir is the biggest reservoir on the River Tigris with 11.11 billion m3 storage capacity located at the northern part of Iraq. The dam is used for irrigation, hydropower generationand flood control. Siltation of the reservoir and sediment delivery from the valleys to the reservoir was not measured since the operation of the dam in 1988. Sediment accumulation in its reservoir can effect the dam operation (pumping station, hydropower plantsand bottom outlets) and it will definitely shorten the life span of the dam. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) under Geographical Information System (GIS) was applied to simulate the yearly surface runoff and sediment load for the main three valleys on the right bank of Mosul am Reservoir for the period 1988-2008. The resultant values of the average annual sediment load are 42.7*103, ton. This implies that significant sediment load enters the reservoir from these valleys. Sediment accumulation can effect the dam operation (pumping station, hydropower plants and bottom outlets) and it will definitely shorten the life span of the dam. To minimize sediment effect, check dams are to be constructed specially on the first valley.

  • 192.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hassan, Rebwar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Ammar
    Department of Water Resources Engineering, Baghdad Universi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Watershed Sediment and Its Effect on Storage Capacity: Case Study of Dokan Dam Reservoir2018Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, nr 7, artikel-id 858Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dokan is a multipurpose dam located on the Lesser Zab River in the Iraq/Kurdistan region. The dam has operated since 1959, and it drains an area of 11,690 km2. All reservoirs in the world suffer from sediment deposition. It is one of the main problems for reservoir life sustainability. Sustainable reservoir sediment-management practices enable the reservoir to function for a longer period of time by reducing reservoir sedimentation. This study aims to assess the annual runoff and sediment loads of the Dokan Dam watershed using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to evaluate the relative contributions in comparison with the total values delivered from both watershed and Lesser Zab River and to identify the basins with a high sediment load per unit area. These help in the process of developing a plan and strategy to manage sediment inflow and deposition. The SUFI-2 program was applied for a model calibrated based on the available field measurements of the adjacent Derbendekhan Dam watershed, which has similar geological formations, characteristics and weather. For the calibration period (1961–1968), the considered statistical criteria of determination coefficients and Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency were 0.75 and 0.64 for runoff while the coefficients were 0.65 and 0.63 for sediment load, respectively. The regionalization technique for parameter transformation from Derbendekhan to Dokan watershed was applied. Furthermore, the model was validated based on transformed parameters and the available observed flow at the Dokan watershed for the period (1961–1964); they gave reasonable results for the determination coefficients and Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency, which were 0.68 and 0.64, respectively. The results of SWAT project simulation for Dokan watershed for the period (1959–2014) indicated that the average annual runoff volume which entered the reservoir was about 2100 million cubic meters (MCM). The total sediment delivered to the reservoir was about 72 MCM over the 56 years of dam life, which is equivalent to 10% of the reservoir dead storage. Two regression formulas were presented to correlate the annual runoff volume and sediment load with annual rain depth for the studied area. In addition, a spatial distribution of average annual sediment load was constructed to identify the sub basin of the high contribution of sediment load.

  • 193.
    Fikrat, Hassan
    et al.
    University of Baghdad.
    Salman, Jasim
    Babylon University.
    Al-Azawey, Atheer
    Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Quatlity, quantity and origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in lotic ecosystem of AL-Hilla river, Iraq2014Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 8, nr 8, s. 1026-1038Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality, quantity and the origin of Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) were studied in the water and sediment of Al-Hilla river (branch of the Euphrates river inside Iraq). In addition, some physical and chemical properties were studied at six sites along the studied area, for the period March, 2010 to February, 2011. Sixteen Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are listed by USEPA as priority pollutants ( Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Acenaphthene, Fluorene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, Fluoranthene, Pyrene, Benzo(a)Anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(b) Fluoranthene, Benzo(k) Fluoranthene, Benzo(a) Pyrene, Dibenzo(a,h) Anthracene, Benzo(ghi) Perylene and Indeno (1,2,3-cd) Pyrene) were detected in Al-Hilla river. High concentrations of PAHs were detected in the sediment relative to that within the water. The present study revealed that the origin of PAHs in water and sediment might be the Pyrogenic origin.

  • 194.
    Hashim, Bassim Mohammed
    et al.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Sultan, Maitham Abdullah
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Attyia, Mazin Najem
    Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al Maliki, Ali A.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Change Detection and Impact of Climate Changes to Iraqi Southern Marshes Using Landsat 2 MSS, Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel 2 MSI Data and GIS Applications2019Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 10, artikel-id 2016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Marshes represent a unique ecosystem covering a large area of southern Iraq. In a major environmental disaster, the marshes of Iraq were drained, especially during the 1990s. Since then, droughts and the decrease in water imports from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers from Turkey and Iran have prevented them from regaining their former extent. The aim of this research is to extract the values of the normalized dierence vegetation index (NDVI) for the period 1977–2017 from Landsat 2 MSS (multispectral scanner), Landsat 8 OLI (operational land imager) and Sentinel 2 MSI (multi-spectral imaging mission) satellite images and use supervised classification to quantify land and water cover change. The results from the two satellites (Landsat 2 and Landsat 8) are compared with Sentinel 2 to determine the best tool for detecting changes in land and water cover. We also assess the potential impacts of climate change through the study of the annual average maximum temperature and recipitation in dierent areas in the marshes for the period 1981–2016. The NDVI analysis and image classification showed the degradation of vegetation and water bodies in the marshes, as vast areas of natural vegetation and agricultural lands disappeared and were replaced with barren areas. The marshes were influenced by climatic change, including rising emperature and the diminishing amount of precipitation during 1981–2016.

  • 195.
    Hassan, Rebwar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Ammar A.
    College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Bathymetry and siltation rate for Dokan Reservoir, Iraq2017Ingår i: Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, ISSN 1320-5331, E-ISSN 1440-1770, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 179-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dokan Reservoir dam is a concrete cylindrical arch with gravity abutments, located on the Lesser Zab River about 60 km from the city of Sulaimani in north-eastern Iraq. A bathymetric survey was conducted in November 2014 for a period of 10 days, using an echo sounder of 200-kHz single beam. The survey results indicated an annual average sediment deposition of 3.8 million m3. Thirty-two sediment samples were collected from the reservoir bed. The ratio of gravel, sand, silt and clay was 15:14:48:23, respectively. The reservoir bed is covered mainly with silt. The sediments are composed of silty clay (77.6%), silty sandy clay (10%), sandy gravely silty clay (1.2%) and gravely sandy silty clay (1%).

  • 196.
    Hassan, Rebwar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Salahaddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.
    Ali, Ammar A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abdullah, Twana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Dukan Dam Reservoir Bed Sediment, Kurdistan Region, Iraq2016Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 9, s. 582-596Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dukan Dam Reservoir (DDR) in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq has been studiedto determine the characteristics and nature of the reservoir and the deposited sedimentson its bottom surface. This study was achieved by doing a field survey andgrain size analyses of the collected sediment samples at 32 locations representing thewhole reservoir area that had been created when the Lesser Zab River was dammedin 1959. The Dukan Dam, which is a multi-purpose concrete arch dam, was built onthe Lesser Zab River for controlling its flood during high rainfall seasons, irrigationand power generation. The catchment area is 11,690 km2. The surface area of the reservoiris 270 square kilometers and the volume is 6.870 × 106 m3 at normal operationlevel (El. 511.00 m. a.s.l.). The minimum drawdown level is at elevation 469 mabove sea level (a.s.l.). The live storage is 6.14 × 106 m3 while the remainder is deadstorage. The reservoir has a surface area that reaches 270 square kilometers and iscomposed of two sub-reservoirs connected by a narrow channel that has a length of 5kilometers. The relatively bigger reservoir is located in the north and has a triangularshape with a surface area approximately 250 square kilometers. The smaller sub-reservoiris located down south where the dam exists and it has irregular rectangularshape. Thirty-two sediment samples were collected from the bottom of Dukan reservoir.The bed of the reservoir is mainly composed of 15% gravel, 14% sand, 48%silt and 23% clay respectively. Most of the sediments are very fine grained, verypoorly sorted, strongly coarse skewed and mesokurtic.

  • 197.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Enhancement of Workability of Cement-Poor Concrete by Optimizing Paste Content2014Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 6, nr 13, s. 869-876, artikel-id 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the performance of concrete in fresh state, intended for sealing deep boreholes in the host rock of radioactive repositories. Set of different paste volumes, combinations of water-to-powder ratios and fine aggregate contents have been performed within the frame of this study. The main objective was to search for tendencies, logical connections and phenomena that occur for different combination of materials regarding the fluidity and segregation and mainly the effect from the (paste) or fine aggregate content. It shall be pointed out that this investigation is a suggestion on how concrete can be optimized using two simple test methods based on changing the paste content. The results highlighted the importance of having sufficient amounts of filler and cement paste for separate and carry larger particles, which gives the concrete good workability and fluidity at casting. It was concluded that the slump behaviors can be optimized based on the adjustments of the superplastisizer dosage.

  • 198.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Rheological properties of low pH cement-palygorskite injection grout2013Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, ISSN 2231-8844, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 167-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rheological properties of cementitious materials containing fine particles, such as mineral admixture were investigated using a Viso Star-L rheometer with cylindrical spindles. Selected features of the behavior of these materials are evaluated from a rheological perspective through literatures results for the past 30 years. One of the important factors that governs the ability of grout to penetrate fractures, channels and porous material is the rheology. The mineral admixture was clay palygorskite which can be used for early gelation because of its thixotropic properties as well as the powder quartz used as aggregate. The cementitious materials were designed and three recipes (MPG1, MPG2 and MPG3) were examined in this research by changing the mix proportions of the mineral admixture palygorskite and water content. For ensuring the accuracy of rheological measurement for the candidate’s grouts, necessary verification was been evaluated such as, influence of mixing time, stability and “time effect” to the accuracy of viscosity measurement, and yield stress as well as the physical properties at 3, 7 and 28 days. The results showed that grouts recipes with quartzite aggregate of different granulometry, are chemically compatible and fulfill the requirement of containing no organic matter. Candidate’s grouts found to satisfy the stable sedimentation criteria with sedimentation rates less than 5% after 2 hours. Furthermore, it was found that the grout recipe 3 followed by 1 showed lower yield stress and plastic viscosity which are (0.1 Pa and 0.269 Pas) and (0.288 Pa and 0.531 Pas) respectively.

  • 199.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Gburi, Majid
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Design of concrete mixes by systematic steps and ANN2012Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, ISSN 2231-8844, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 232-251Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current research caters for the possibility of arriving at a system for designing concrete mixeseasily using available materials locally by specified wide ranges of pre-requisites of three mainprescribed properties to cover a good variety of practical mixes, which are water, water-cement ratioand total aggregate-cement ratio. Using these three properties, a tri-linear form was constructed bygraphical technique manner based on absolute volume approach. This approach defines as asummation of absolute volume for each of these three materials individually water, cement andaggregate should be equal to the absolute volume of whole concrete mixture based on thesealtogether. A quad-form area which includes a wide range of mixes can be formed from thisrepresentation. This area should achieve all the prescribed properties aforementioned. Artificial neuralnetwork concept used in this study also to build easily and quickly system which can be translatedinto Excel sheet. This system predict proportions of concrete mixture and the compressive strengthusing the results designed by the quad-form area method in addition to the data from literature around500 mixes based on local materials used in Iraq. Six input parameters (water to cement ratio, theslump, % of fine to total aggregate content, maximum aggregate size, fineness modulus of fineaggregate and the compressive strength) were used in this system to get the outputs. In addition, nineinput parameters ((water, cement, sand and gravel contents) and the properties of the mix (Finenessmodulus, W/C ratio, the slump, % of fine to total aggregate and the M.A.S)) were used as basis ofcompressive strength model. The algorithm of this system aimed to reduce the high number of trailmixes error as well as saving the labors, cost and time. Results indicated that the concrete mix designand the compressive strength model can be predicted accurately by using graphical perspective andthe ANN approach.

  • 200.
    Hatem, Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Optimization of concrete by minimizing void volume in aggregate mixture system2012Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, ISSN 2231-8844, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 208-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavior of concrete is affected by the size, distribution of the voids, the porosity and of the granulometry of the aggregate mixture. As a consequence it necessary for engineers to consider in detail particle packing concepts and their influence on the physical performance of concrete. The present study included determination of the fineness modulus, cement paste volume based on slump test and the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. It also comprised a study of the applicability of two theoretical models Toufar’s and 4C-packing program for selecting suitable relative amounts of the concrete constituents, for obtaining a minimum void ratio. Comparison of the results was made from using these theoretical models literature-derived experimental data. The models gave similar results and suggest similar combinations of materials to give minimum void ratio. Optimization of the composition of the aggregate material in concrete is beneficial with respect to economy (low cement content), strength and durability. It was noted that minimizing the void ratio (V) tends to raise the stiffness and that the compressive strength (푓푐′) is closely related also to their molding (R) and fineness modules (FM). It was found that the compressive strength can be predicted by applying the formula;푓푐′=−2.1−63.8 푉+0.150 푅+10.4 퐹푀; R2=0.94, and two other relationships related to slump data and cement content.

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