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  • 151.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Hederos Eriksson, Karin
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    IQ and Family Background: Are Associations Strong or Weak?2010Ingår i: The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, E-ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 10, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For the purpose of understanding the underlying mechanisms behind intergenerational associations in income and education, recent studies have explored the intergenerational transmission of abilities. We use a large representative sample of Swedish men to examine both intergenerational and sibling correlations in IQ. Since siblings share both parental factors and neighbourhood influences, the sibling correlation is a broader measure of the importance of family background than the intergenerational correlation. We use IQ data from the Swedish military enlistment tests. The correlation in IQ between fathers (born 1951-1956) and sons (born 1966-1980) is estimated to 0.347. The corresponding estimate for brothers (born 1951-1968) is 0.473, suggesting that family background explains approximately 50% of a person's IQ. Estimating sibling correlations in IQ, we thus find that family background has a substantially larger impact on IQ than has been indicated by previous studies examining only intergenerational correlations in IQ.

  • 152.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Hederos Eriksson, Karin
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Children of Unknown Fathers: Prevalence and Outcomes in Sweden2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 153.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, M.
    Solon, G.
    Nature and Nurture in the Intergenerational Transmission of Socioeconomic Status: Evidence from Swedish Children and Their Biological and Rearing Parents2007Ingår i: The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, Vol. 7, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 154.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Country case study Sweden2013Ingår i: The Great Recession and the distribution of household income / [ed] Stephen J Jenkins, Andrea Brandolini, John Micklewright and Brian Nolan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, s. 153-175Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 155.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    How important is family background for labor-economic outcomes?2012Ingår i: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 465-474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses Swedish register data to examine four classical outcomes in empirical labor economics: IQ noncognitive skills, years of schooling and long-run earnings. We estimate sibling correlations - and the variance components that define the sibling correlation - in these outcomes. We also estimate correlations for MZ-twins, who share all genes. We also extend the variance-component decomposition by accounting for birth order. We find that conventional intergenerational approaches severely underestimate the role of family background, and that future research should follow a more multidimensional approach to the study of family background.

  • 156.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Intergenerational income mobility and the role of family background2009Ingår i: The Oxford Handbook of Economic Inequality, 2009, s. 491-521Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 157.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Intergenerational mobility, intergenerational effects, sibling correlations, and equality of opportunity: a comparison of four approaches2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and discusses four different approaches to the study of how individuals’ income and education during adulthood are related to their family background. The most well-known approach, intergenerational mobility, describes how parents’ and offspring’s income or education are related to each other. The intergenerational-effect literature addresses the question how an intervention that changes parental income or education causally affects their children’s outcome. The sibling-correlation approach estimates the share of total inequality that is attributed to factors shared by siblings. This share is generally substantially higher than what is revealed by intergenerational mobility estimates. Finally, the equality-of-opportunity approach is looking for a set of factors, in the family background and otherwise, that are important for children’s outcomes and that children cannot be held accountable for. We argue that all four approaches are most informative and that recent research has provided insightful results. However, by comparing results from the different approaches, it is possible to paint a more nuanced picture of the role of family background. Thus, we recommend that scholars working in the four subfields pay more attention to each other’s research.

  • 158.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    SNS Välfärdsrapport 2011.: Inkomstfördelningen i Sverige2011Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 159.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nybom, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Parental education gradients over the life cycle2012Ingår i: From Parents to Children: The Intergenerational Transmission of Advantage / [ed] Ermisch, John; Jäntti, Markus; Smeeding, Timothy, Russell Sage Foundation , 2012, s. 422-440Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 160.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nybom, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU), Sweden.
    The Contribution of Early-life Versus Labour Market Factors to Intergenerational Income Persistence: A Comparison of the UK and Sweden2017Ingår i: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 127, s. F71-F94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore whether differences in intergenerational income mobility between the UK and Sweden show up early in life, finding stronger associations between parental income and birthweight, height and school performance in the UK. We investigate whether these differentials can account for the country difference in income mobility. While differences in the associations in birthweight and height are too weak to matter, school performance does account for a substantial part of this difference. However, country differences in the earnings returns to these skills are at least as important as the differences in the link between parental income and skills.

  • 161.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Roemer, John E.
    Equality of opportunity and the distribution of long-run income in Sweden2012Ingår i: Social Choice and Welfare, ISSN 0176-1714, E-ISSN 1432-217X, Vol. 39, nr 2-3, s. 675-696Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Equality of opportunity is an ethical goal with almost universal appeal. The interpretation taken here is that a society has achieved equality of opportunity if it is the case that what individuals accomplish, with respect to some desirable objective, is determined wholly by their choices and personal effort, rather than by circumstances beyond their control. We use data for Swedish men born between 1955 and 1967 for whom we measure the distribution of long-run income, as well as several important background circumstances, such as parental education and income, family structure and own IQ before adulthood. We address the question: in Sweden, given its present constellation of social policies and institutions, to what extent is existing income inequality due to circumstances, as opposed to 'effort'? Our results suggest that several circumstances, importantly both parental income and own IQ, are important for long-run income inequality, but that variations in individual effort account for the most part of that inequality.

  • 162.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    What More Than Parental Income, Education and Occupation? An Exploration of What Swedish Siblings Get from Their Parents: (Contributions), Article 1022010Ingår i: B. E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 10, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sibling correlations are broader measures of the impact of family and community influences on individual outcomes than intergenerational correlations. Estimates of such correlations in income show that more than half of the family and community influences that siblings share are uncorrelated with parental income. We employ a data set with rich family information to explore what factors in addition to traditional measures of parents' socio-economic status can explain sibling similarity in long-run income. Measures of family structure and social problems account for very little of sibling similarities beyond that already accounted for by income, education and occupation. However, when we add indicators of parental involvement in schoolwork, parenting practices and maternal attitudes, the explanatory power of our variables increases from about one-quarter (using only traditional measures of parents' socio-economic status) to nearly two-thirds.

  • 163. Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Sund, Krister
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Family background and school performance during a turbulent era of school reforms2003Ingår i: Swedish economic policy review, ISSN 1400-1829, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 111-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 164.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Roine, Jesper
    SITE, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Intergenerational top income mobility in Sweden: Capitalist dynasties in the land of equal opportunity?2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents new evidence on intergenerational mobility in the top of the income and earnings distribution. Using a large dataset of matched father-son pairs in Sweden, we find that intergenerational transmission is very strong in the top, more so for income than for earnings. In the extreme top (top 0.1 percent) income transmission is remarkable with an IG elasticity above 0.9. We also study potential transmission mechanisms and find that sons’ IQ, non-cognitive skills and education are all unlikely channels in explaining this strong transmission. Within the top percentile, increases in fathers’ income are, if anything, negatively associated with these variables. Wealth, on the other hand, has a significantly positive association. Our results suggest that Sweden, known for having relatively high intergenerational mobility in general, is a society where transmission remains strong in the very top of the distribution and that wealth is the most likely channel.

  • 165.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Roine, Jesper
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Intergenerational top income mobility in Sweden: Capitalist dynasties in the land of equal opportunity?2012Ingår i: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 96, nr 5-6, s. 474-484Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents new evidence on intergenerational mobility at the top of the income and earnings distributions. Using a large dataset of matched father-son pairs in Sweden, we find that intergenerational transmission is very strong at the top, more so for income than for earnings. At the extreme top (top 0.1%) income transmission is remarkable with an intergenerational elasticity of approximately 0.9. We also study potential transmission mechanisms and find that IQ, non-cognitive skills and education of the sons are all unlikely channels in explaining the strong transmission. Within the top percentile, increases in the income of the fathers, if they are related at all, are negatively associated with these variables. Wealth, on the other hand, has a significantly positive association. Our results suggest that Sweden, known for having relatively high intergenerational mobility in general, is a society in which transmission remains strong at the very top of the distribution and wealth is the most likely channel.

  • 166.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Salvanes, Kjell G.
    Education and Family Background:  Mechanisms and Policies2011Ingår i: Handbook of the Economics of Education / [ed] Eric A. Hanushek, Stephen Machin, Ludger Woessmann, The Netherlands: North-Holland, Elsevier B.V. , 2011, 3, s. 201-247Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 167.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Parental Separation and Children's Educational Attainment: A Siblings Analysis on Swedish Register Data2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 168. Bloomfield, K.
    et al.
    Rossow, I.
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Changes in Alcohol-Related Harm after Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark2009Ingår i: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 224-231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This paper examines changes in alcohol-related harm in Denmark between 2003 and 2005 after changes in alcohol policies were introduced between 2003 and 2005. Methods: Interrupted time series analysis was performed with data on violent assaults and hospitalisations for acute alcohol intoxication from 2003 through 2005. Results: A 26% increase in the number of acute alcohol intoxication hospitalisations among people aged 15 years and younger was detected after the tax reduction on spirits. No significant increase in violent assaults and acute intoxication among adults was found. Conclusions: Even modest alcohol price policies can affect more vulnerable population sub-groups such as under-age youth. Policy makers should consider such consequences when forming economic policies that also have public health implications.

  • 169. Blumberg, Boris F.
    et al.
    Pfann, Gerard A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Roads Leading to Self-Employment: Comparing Transgenerational Entrepreneurs and Self-Made Start-Ups2016Ingår i: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 335-357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies the event history of business foundation. Three theoretical conceptshuman, financial, and social capitalare linked to investigate how entry into self-employment varies over time. Data from a cohort of Dutch inhabitants born in 1939/1940 who have been interviewed three times during their lives (in 1952, 1983, and 1993) allows for testing hypotheses that state clear differences between two different roads toward business ownership. Empirical results show that the baseline hazard decreases with time for transgenerational entrepreneurs with self-employed parents, but increases for self-made start-ups. Social capital is a better predictor for starting an enterprise than human capital.

  • 170.
    Boguslaw, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Svensk invandringspolitik under 500 år: 1512-20122012 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 171.
    Boguslaw, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Appendix till kapitel 2. Humanisterna och den svenska arbetsmarknaden2011Ingår i: Humanisterna och framtidssamhället., Stockholm: Institutet för framtidsstudier , 2011, s. 153-178Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 172.
    Boguslaw, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Integration och integrationspolitik i Sverige2014Ingår i: Innvandring og Arbeidsmarkedsintegrering i Norden / [ed] Anne Britt Djuve och Anne Skevik Grødem, Oslo: NordMod2030, Fafo , 2014, s. 39-56Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 173.
    Boguslaw, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Invandrad arbetskraft2011Ingår i: Invandrare & Minoriteter, ISSN 1404-6857, Vol. 38, nr 4-5, s. 10-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 174.
    Boguslaw, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vilka var humanisterna? Humanisterna och den svenska arbetsmarknaden2011Ingår i: Humanisterna och framtidssamhället, Stockholm: Institutet för framtidsstudier , 2011, s. 25-75Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 175. Bonnier, Evelina
    et al.
    Dreber, Anna
    Hederos, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sandberg, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Dressed for Success? The effects of Half-Naked Women on Economic Behavior2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 176. Borghans, Lex
    et al.
    Golsteyn, Bart H. H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Default options and training participation2014Ingår i: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 1417-1428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes whether defaults affect the choice for courses followed at work. In addition, we analyze whether the size of the default effect varies with employees' personality and skill-deficiencies. We perform an experiment in which workers are hypothetically offered three courses which they can accept or exchange for other courses. Randomizing the default package of courses, we identify the default effect. Default courses are chosen approximately three times more often than other courses. They are chosen more often if people have skill-deficiencies in these courses, suggesting that people consider the default to be an advice. Women choose default courses more often than men. Women with less self-confidence and men with lower cognitive skills choose the default courses more often.

  • 177. Borghans, Lex
    et al.
    Golsteyn, Bart H. H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Job Mobility in Europe, Japan and the United States2012Ingår i: British Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0007-1080, E-ISSN 1467-8543, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 436-456Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence about job mobility outside the United States is scarce and difficult to compare cross-nationally because of non-uniform data. We document job mobility patterns of college graduates in their first three years in the labour market, using unique uniform data covering 11 European countries and Japan. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we replicate the information in this survey to compare the results with the United States. We find that (a) US graduates hold more jobs than European graduates, (b) contrasting conventional wisdom, job mobility in Japan is only somewhat lower than the European average, and (c) there are large differences in job mobility within Europe.

  • 178. Borghans, Lex
    et al.
    Golsteyn, Bart H. H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Susceptibility to default training options across the population2015Ingår i: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 117, s. 369-379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the tendency of people to choose default options when offered courses to acquire job related skills. We ask a random sample of Dutch people aged 6-80 which three skills are most important in their (future or past) jobs. Further on in the survey, we randomly select one of the skills the respondent indicated and (hypothetically) offer the respondent a course regarding this skill. The respondent can accept this offer, but can also exchange it for a course regarding one of the two other skills indicated. Our findings indicate that people generally have a strong tendency to choose the default option. This effect is similar across gender and education level. It appears that the effect of the default option is less strong around age 30 and declines after age 60.

  • 179.
    Borghans, Lex
    et al.
    Maastricht University.
    Golsteyn, Bart H. H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Heckman, James
    University of Chicago.
    Humphries, John Eric
    University of Chicago.
    Identification Problems in Personality Psychology2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses and illustrates identification problems in personality psychology. The measures used by psychologists to infer traits are based on behaviors, broadly defined. These behaviors are produced from multiple traits interacting with incentives in situations. In general, measures are determined by these multiple traits and do not identify any particular trait unless incentives and other traits are controlled for. Using two data sets, we show, as an example, that substantial portions of the variance in achievement test scores and grades, which are often used as measures of cognition, are explained by personality variables.

  • 180. Borghans, Lex
    et al.
    Golsteyn, Bart H. H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Does Expert Advice Improve Educational Choice?2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 12, artikel-id e0145378Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports evidence that an individual meeting with a study counselor at high school significantly improves the quality of choice of tertiary educational field, as self-assessed 18 months after graduation from college. To address endogeneity, we explore the variation in study counseling practices between schools as an instrumental variable (IV). Following careful scrutiny of the validity of the IV, our results indicate a significant and positive influence of study counseling on the quality of educational choice, foremost among males and those with low educated parents. The overall result is stable across a number of robustness checks.

  • 181. Borghans, Lex
    et al.
    Golsteyn, Bart H. H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Zölitz, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Parental Preferences for Primary School Characteristics2015Ingår i: The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, E-ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 85-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Free school choice has often been argued to be a tide that lifts school quality through increased competition. This paper analyzes the underlying assumption that school quality is an important choice criterion for parents. Using a large and representative data set of over 15,000 Dutch primary school starters, we estimate models of school demand that incorporate heterogeneity in school preferences. Our results show that traditional measures for school quality matter, but other characteristics, such as school denomination and educational philosophy, are more important predictors of choice. Preferences for these school characteristics are strongly heterogeneous across parents.

  • 182. Borghans, Lex
    et al.
    Golsteyn, Bart H.H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Heckman, James
    Humphries, John Eric
    Identification problems in personality psychology2011Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 315-320Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses and illustrates identification problems in personality psychology. The measures usedby psychologists to infer traits are based on behaviors, broadly defined. These behaviors are producedfrom multiple traits interacting with incentives in situations. In general, measures are determined bythese multiple traits and do not identify any particular trait unless incentives and other traits are controlledfor. Using two data sets, we show, that substantial portions of the variance in achievement testscores and grades, which are often used as measures of cognition, are explained by personality variables. 

  • 183.
    Bos, Marieke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Accept or Reject: Do Immigrants Have LessAccess to Bank Credit?Evidence from Swedish Pawnshop Customers2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies to what extent immigrants have less access to main-stream credit than their native counterparts. For this purpose I use a large,unique data set with a panel of Swedish pawnshop customers. The data al-low me to investigate to what extent pawnshop customers actively apply formainstream bank credit and how successful they are by comparing credit ap-plications from immigrants and natives and the corresponding bank decisions.I do not Önd that immigrants have a di§erent propensity to apply for main-stream bank credit. However, I do Önd that banks have a lower propensity togrant loans to immigrants from African descent compared to their Nordic-borncounterparts. Robustness tests based on data from recent immigrants onlysuggest that the demand for credit varies with the duration of residence whiledi§erences in loan-granting rates are enduring.

  • 184.
    Bos, Marieke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Essays on Household Finance2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of three self-contained essays on household finance.

     “Pawn Credit and the Importance of Financial Exclusion” explores the importance of access to regular credit to the demand for pawn credit. I find that the rejection of one's loan application by a regular bank increases the probability that one will take pawn credit, on average, by 9 percent, relative to individuals whose loan application has been granted. However, of all pawn credit borrowers, 73 percent do not even try to get regular bank credit first. For these borrowers, I find that 93 percent are implicitly excluded from regular bank credit at the time they decide to take pawn credit.

    “Should Credit Remark Be Forgotten? Evidence from a Legally Mandated Removal” (with Leonard Nakamura) analyzes what happens when Swedish law mandates the removal of credit remarks from credit reports after three years. We find that removal induces an abrupt improvement in individuals' credit scores, an improvement that is not reversed in the long run. Further, the excess loan applications caused by the boost in creditworthiness translate into significant access to new credit. We find evidence that only a minority of the individuals who received a credit remark may be inherently high risk which suggests that credit remark removal is welfare enhancing.

    “Accept or Reject: Do Immigrants Have Less Access to Bank Credit? Evidence from Swedish Pawnshop Customers” asks if immigrants have less access to mainstream credit than their Swedish born counterparts. I find that immigrants are six percent less likely to be accepted when applying for mainstream credit, relative to Swedish born. This holds in particular for immigrants of African descent, who are 15 percent less likely. This effect disappears for second-generation immigrants with African parents. Immigrant pawnshop borrowers that do not apply for mainstream credit before they take pawn credit are found to make well-informed decisions.

  • 185.
    Boschini, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lika lön kräver fast ingångslön och en ny föräldraförsäkring2017Ingår i: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 26 novemberArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 186.
    Boschini, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Olika kön, olika lön – en ESO-rapport om diskriminering på arbetsmarknaden2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige är ett av världens mest jämställda länder med högt kvinnligt arbetskraftsdeltagande och kvinnor utbildar sig sedan länge mer än män. Ändå tjänar kvinnor mindre än män – även efter att hänsyn tagits till individuella val som till exempel utbildning, yrke och arbetstid. Varför är det så? I den här rapporten till ESO studerar Anne Boschini utvecklingen av det så kallade könslönegapet i Sverige och diskuterar olika typer av diskriminering som kan förekomma. Hon finner att löneskillnaderna förvisso har minskat över tid, men att ett oförklarat lönegap mellan män och kvinnor kvarstår. För att ge kvinnor och män mer likartade förutsättningar på arbetsmarknaden föreslår Anne fasta inträdeslöner för nyutexaminerade och reformering av den svenska föräldraförsäkringen.

  • 187.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Dreber, Anna
    von Essen, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Muren, Astri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Ranehill, Eva
    Gender and altruism in a random sample2018Ingår i: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, ISSN 2214-8043, E-ISSN 2214-8051, Vol. 77, s. 72-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study gender differences in altruism in a large random sample of the Swedish population using a standard dictator game. Beside a baseline treatment we implement a priming treatment where participants are reminded of their gender, and two treatments with known male and female counterpart respectively. We find suggestive evidence that women are more altruistic than men only in the priming treatment. A post-hoc analysis using data on interviewer gender to explore gender context effects indicates that priming affects behavior only in mixedgender contexts.

  • 188.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Dreber, Anna
    von Essen, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Muren, Astri
    Ranehill, Eva
    Gender, risk preferences and willingness to compete in a random sample of the Swedish population2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 189.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gunnarsson, Kristin
    Gendered Trends in Income Inequality2018Ingår i: Nordic Economic Policy Review, ISSN 1904-4526, E-ISSN 1904-8092, nr 519, s. 100-127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the gender dimension of income inequality in the Nordic countries. While income inequality is commonly studied at the household level, we examine  individual-level inequality in order to measure differences between genders and within genders. We estimate Gini coefficients for men’s and women’s disposable and labour incomes separately, and study the trends in gender gaps at different percentile levels. Our results emphasize that important gender differences in inequality are not captured by the commonly used household inequality measures, but need to be assessed employing individual-level inequality measures.

  • 190.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gunnarsson, Kristin
    Roine, Jesper
    Women in top incomes - evidence from Sweden 1974-20132017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 191.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    Roine, Jesper
    Kvinnorna i toppen av den svenska inkomstfördelningen2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Betydligt färre kvinnor än män har höga inkomster. Men sedan 1970-talet har andelen kvinnor i toppen av inkomstfördelningen tredubblats och utgör nu runt 18 procent. En internationell jämförelse visar dock att utvecklingen går snabbare i många andra länder.

    Sverige är vi vana vid att vara bland de bästa i världen på jämställdhet mellan kvinnor och män. Men ser man till den ekonomiska eliten är bilden en annan. De högsta positionerna i samhället innehas i betydligt större utsträckning av män än av kvinnor.

    Få kvinnor i toppen men andelen ökar stadigt. För att närmare förstå utvecklingen har tre nationalekonomer studerat balansen mellan könen i inkomstfördelningens topp sedan mitten av 1970-talet. Bilden som framträder är på många sätt positiv. Till exempel så har kvinnors representation i inkomsttoppen stadigt ökat och mest har det ökat i den absoluta toppen. I mitten av 1970-talet var andelen kvinnor i hundradelen av befolkningen med de högsta inkomsterna bara 6 procent. I dag är den runt 18 procent.

    Fler kvinnor har höga arbetsinkomster. En annan tydlig förändring är att kvinnor i högre utsträckning hamnar i toppen till följd av sin inkomst från arbete snarare än från kapital. Andelen änkor i toppen har också minskat.

    Kvinnorna i toppen är ofta gifta med höginkomsttagare. Forskarna har också studerat familjeförhållanden hos kvinnor och män med de högsta inkomsterna. Här finner de att de flesta män i toppen av inkomstfördelningen är gifta medan detta bara gäller ungefär hälften av kvinnorna. Dessutom är en majoritet av männen i toppen gifta med någon som inte befinner sig i inkomsttoppen, medan situationen är den omvända för kvinnorna i toppen.

    En anledning till att det ser ut så kan enligt författarna vara att villkoren för män och kvinnor i toppen av inkomstfördelningen ser mycket olika ut när det gäller möjligheterna att kombinera karriär med familjeliv.

  • 192.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    Roine, Jesper
    Ny rapport: Näringslivet halkar efter2018Ingår i: Dagens industri, ISSN 0346-640XArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 193.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Sjögren, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Håkanson, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Rosen, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Trading Off or Having It All? Completed Fertility and Mid-career Earnings of Swedish Men and Women2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 194.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Det ojämlika faderskapet2018Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 33-42Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att barnlösheten är högre bland män än bland kvinnor är välbekant, men inte lika känt är att barnlösheten bland män har ökat på senare år medan den har minskat något bland kvinnor. Samtidigt pekar tidigare studier på att de flesta individer önskar få barn någon gång i livet. Barnlösheten är således till övervägande del ofrivillig. I den här artikeln ger vi en översikt av kunskapsläget vad gäller manlig barnlöshet utifrån samhällsvetenskapliga studier och beskriver de barnlösa männen i fråga om utbildning, inkomst och sysselsättning. Vi pekar också ut några viktiga kunskapsluckor.

  • 195.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Can you stay at home today?: The relationship between economic dependence, parents' occupation and care leave for sick children2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 196.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Can you stay home today? Parents’ occupations, relative resources and division of care leave for sick children2015Ingår i: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 58, nr 4, s. 357-370Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This is one of only a few studies on the division of care leave for sick children (temporary parental leave) between parents in Sweden and is the first to examine the importance of differences in parents’ work characteristics. The study uses register data for parents with children born between 1999 and 2002 to analyse two aspects of parents’ employment that may be of importance for the division of care leave: their relative resources, in this case wages, and different occupations. First, the results show that a father’s share of care leave increases as the mother’s relative wage decreases. This suggests that decisions about care leave are influenced by bargaining power gained through differences in resources. Second, the resources of couples where both partners work in the same occupation are more equal, and such couples also divide care leave more equally than couples with different occupations. However, the fact that same-occupation couples tend to share care leave more equally does not seem to be explained by similarities in the partners’ work characteristics, and may instead be due to unmeasured, stable characteristics. Greater income and career possibilities for the women are proposed as a possible explanation of the division of care leave for same-occupation couples.

  • 197.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Care more, earn less? The association between care leave for sick children and wage among Swedish parents2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies have shown that women’s and men’s wages relate to parenthood in general and to parental leave in particular, but we know little about the possible wage impact of leave to care for sick children, which is a part of the Swedish parental leave system. On the one hand, care leave may influence human capital and real or perceived work capacity similarly to parental leave and send the employer the same signals about work commitment and responsibilities outside of work. On the other hand, important differences, including timing, frequency and predictability, between care leave and parental leave influence paid work. This study uses Swedish register data to analyse the association between care leave and wages among mothers and fathers who had their first child in 1994. The results show that care leave is associated with a lower wage, particularly among men, up to 13 years after the birth of the first child. One reason for the gender difference in the association between care leave and wage may be that men’s care leave has a stronger signalling effect compared with women’s care leave.

  • 198.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Dual-Earner Couples/Dual-Career Couples2014Ingår i: Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. / [ed] Axel C. Michalos, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014, s. 1703-1706Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 199.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Happy hour? Studies on well-being and time spent on paid and unpaid work2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis focuses on causes and consequences of paid working hours and housework hours among women and men in Sweden and Europe. It consists of four studies.

    Study I investigates changes in the division of housework in Swedish couples when they become parents. The study shows that women adjust their housework hours to the number and age of children in the household, whereas men do not. Longer parental leave periods among fathers have the potential to counteract this change towards a more traditional division of housework.

    Study II explores the associations between psychological distress and paid working hours, housework hours and total role time in Sweden. The results suggest that women’s psychological distress decreases with increasing paid working hours and housework hours, but that a long total role time is associated with high levels of distress. The gender difference in time spent on housework accounts for 40 per cent of the gender difference in psychological distress.

    Study III asks whether hours spent on paid work and housework account for the European gender difference in well-being, and whether the associations between well-being and hours of paid work and housework is influenced by gender attitudes and social comparison. The results indicate that gender differences in time spent on paid work and housework account for a third of the gender difference in well-being. Gender attitudes and social comparison do not to any great extent influence the associations between well-being and paid work and housework, respectively.

    Study IV examines possible differences between European family policy models in the associations between well-being and hours of paid work and housework. Some model differences are found, and they are accounted for by experiences of work-family conflict among men, but not among women. For both women and men, work-family conflict appears to suppress positive aspects of paid working hours.

  • 200.
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    How children impact on parent’s division of labour: A longitudinal study of changes in housework following the birth of a childManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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