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  • 151.
    Kudahettige-Nilsson, Rasika
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Helmerius, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Nilsson, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Sjöblom, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Hodge, David
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Biobutanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum Using Xylose Recovered from Birch Kraft Black Liquor2015Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 176, s. 71-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied using acid-hydrolyzed xylan recovered from hardwood Kraft black liquor by CO2 acidification as the only carbon source. Detoxification of hydrolyzate using activated carbon was conducted to evaluate the impact of inhibitor removal and fermentation. Xylose hydrolysis yields as high as 18.4% were demonstrated at the highest severity hydrolysis condition. Detoxification using active carbon was effective for removal of both phenolics (76-81%) and HMF (38-52%). Batch fermentation of the hydrolyzate and semi-defined P2 media resulted in a total solvent yield of 0.12-0.13 g/g and 0.34 g/g, corresponding to a butanol concentration of 1.8-2.1 g/L and 7.3 g/L respectively. This work is the first study of a process for the production of a biologically-derived biofuel from hemicelluloses solubilized during Kraft pulping and demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing xylan recovered directly from industrial Kraft pulping liquors as a feedstock for biological production of biofuels such as butanol.

  • 152. Kudahettige-Nilsson, Rasika
    et al.
    Holmgren, Marie
    Umeå university.
    Imerzeel, Peter
    Umeå university.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    Umeå university.
    Characterization of bioethanol production from hexoses and xylose by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor2012Inngår i: Bioenergy Research, ISSN 1939-1234, E-ISSN 1939-1242, s. 277-285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 153. Kudahettige-Nilsson, Rasika
    et al.
    Holmgren, Marie
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Plant Physiology, Umeå University.
    Madavi, Batol
    Tarbiat Modares University.
    Nilsson, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Sellstedt, Anita
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Plant Physiology, Umeå University.
    Adaptability of Trametes versicolor to the lignocellulosic inhibitors furfural, HMF, phenol and levulinic acid during ethanol fermentation2016Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 90, s. 95-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ligno-cellulosic biofuels, notably ethanol produced in processes involving biological fermentation, have high potential as renewable alternatives to fossil fuels. However, ligno-cellulose pretreatment procedures generate substances that inhibit current biocatalysts. Thus, efficient methods are required for improving these organisms' tolerance or developing new biocatalysts with higher tolerance to the inhibitors. For this, greater knowledge of the mechanisms involved is needed. Therefore, we examined effects of common inhibitors (phenol, levulinic acid, HMF (hydroxymethylfurfural) and furfural) on growth, utilization of sugars (xylose, mannose and glucose) and enzyme activities of a tolerant organism, the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, during 15-day incubations. The fungus metabolized and grew in the presence of all the inhibitors (singly and together) at the applied concentration (0.2–0.6 g/L). When all inhibitors were added, no significant effect of sugar utilization was shown. However, levulinic acid added solely reduced xylose (but not xylose-degrading enzymes) and mannose utilization, but not glucose utilization. Physiological and biotechnological implications of the findings are discussed such as usage of T. versicolor as a detoxifying agent in ethanol production.

  • 154.
    Larson, M.A.
    et al.
    Iowa State University.
    White, E.T.
    Iowa State University.
    Ramanarayanan, K. A.
    Iowa State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Growth rate dispersion in MSMPR crystallizers1985Inngår i: AIChE Journal, ISSN 0001-1541, E-ISSN 1547-5905, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 90-94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A model is presented which relates the crystal size distribution (CSD) from a mixed-suspension, mixed-product-removal (MSMPR) crystallizer to the distribution of growth rates. This model is based on the assumption that individual contact nuclei have some inherent growth rate which remains constant, but the growth rate may vary from crystal to crystal. The crystal size distribution can be calculated from prior knowledge of the growth rate distribution. A limited knowledge of only the coefficient of variation and the mean growth rate permits an approximation of the expected crystal size distribution. Conversely, estimates of the mean and variance of the growth rate distribution can be determined from the moments of the CSD from an MSMPR crystallizer

  • 155.
    LeCaptain, D.J.
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Applicability of second harmonic generation for in situ measurement of induction time of selected crystallization systems1999Inngår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 203, nr 4, s. 564-569Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The nonlinear optical technique of second harmonic generation (SHG) is introduced as a novel technique for monitoring particle formation in batch crystallizations. SHG is more sensitive and is less prone to interference than turbidometric methods. The studies presented show the applicability of SHG as a method for in situ measuring the induction time of a number of noncentrosymmetric crystal systems.

  • 156.
    Li, Muyang
    et al.
    DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan State University, Department of Biosystems & Agricultural Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Heckwolf, Marlies
    DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Crowe, Jacob D.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Williams, Daniel L.
    Michigan State University, DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Magee, Timothy D.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Kaeppler, Shawn M.
    DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Lion, Natalia de
    DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize (Zea mays L.) lines2015Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 66, nr 14, s. 4305-4315Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall susceptibility to swelling. It was also positively correlated with the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and negatively correlated with the initial cell-wall lignin, xylan, acetate, and p-coumaric acid (pCA) content, as well as pCA released from the cell wall by pre-treatment. The hydrolysis yield following pre-treatment exhibited statistically significant negative correlations to the lignin content after pre-treatment and positive correlations to the solubilized ferulic acid and pCA. Several unanticipated results were observed, including a positive correlation between initial lignin and acetate content, lack of correlation between acetate content and initial xylan content, and negative correlation between each of these three variables to the hydrolysis yields for untreated maize. Another surprising result was that pCA release was negatively correlated with hydrolysis yields for untreated maize and, along with ferulic acid release, was positively correlated with the pre-treated maize hydrolysis yields. This indicates that these properties that may negatively contribute to the recalcitrance in untreated cell walls may positively contribute to their deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment.

  • 157.
    Li, Muyang
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Pattathil, Sivakumar
    University of Georgia.
    Hahn, Michael G
    University of Georgia.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Identification of features associated with plant cell wall recalcitrance to pretreatment by alkaline hydrogen peroxide in diverse bioenergy feedstocks using glycome profiling2014Inngår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, nr 33, s. 17282-17292Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A woody dicot (hybrid poplar), an herbaceous dicot (goldenrod), and a graminaceous monocot (corn stover) were subjected to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis in order to assess how taxonomically and structurally diverse biomass feedstocks respond to a mild alkaline oxidative pretreatment and how differing features of the cell wall matrix contribute to its recalcitrance. Using glycome profiling, we determined changes in the extractability of non-cellulosic glucans following pretreatment by screening extracts of the pretreated walls with a panel of 155 cell wall glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies to determine differences in the abundance and distribution of non-cellulosic glycan epitopes in these extracts and assess pretreatment-induced changes in the structural integrity of the cell wall. Two taxonomically-dependent outcomes of pretreatment were identified that both improved the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis yields but differed in their impacts on cell wall structural integrity. Specifically, it was revealed that goldenrod walls exhibited decreases in all classes of alkali-extractable glycans indicating their solubilization during pretreatment, which was accompanied by an improvement in the subsequent extractability of the remaining cell wall glycans. The corn stover walls did not show the same decreases in glycan abundance in extracts following pretreatment, but rather mild increases in all classes of cell wall glycans, indicating overall weaker associations between cell wall polymers and improved extractability. The hybrid poplar walls were relatively unaffected by pretreatment in terms of composition, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the extractability of cell wall glycans due presumably to their higher lignin content and denser vascular structure.

  • 158.
    Li, Muyang
    et al.
    Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, .
    Williams, Daniel L.
    DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, .
    Heckwolf, Marlies
    Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    de Leon, Natalia
    Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Kaeppler, Shawn
    Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Sykes, Robert W.
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Prediction of Cell Wall Properties and Response to Deconstruction Using Alkaline Pretreatment in Diverse Maize Genotypes Using Py-MBMS and NIR2017Inngår i: Bioenergy Research, ISSN 1939-1234, E-ISSN 1939-1242, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 329-343Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we explore the ability of several characterization approaches for phenotyping to extract information about plant cell wall properties in diverse maize genotypes with the goal of identifying approaches that could be used to predict the plant’s response to deconstruction in a biomass-to-biofuel process. Specifically, a maize diversity panel was subjected to two high-throughput biomass characterization approaches, pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and chemometric models to predict a number of plant cell wall properties as well as enzymatic hydrolysis yields of glucose following either no pretreatment or with mild alkaline pretreatment. These were compared to multiple linear regression (MLR) models developed from quantified properties. We were able to demonstrate that direct correlations to specific mass spectrometry ions from pyrolysis as well as characteristic regions of the second derivative of the NIR spectrum regions were comparable in their predictive capability to partial least squares (PLS) models for p-coumarate content, while the direct correlation to the spectral data was superior to the PLS for Klason lignin content and guaiacyl monomer release by thioacidolysis as assessed by cross-validation. The PLS models for prediction of hydrolysis yields using either py-MBMS or NIR spectra were superior to MLR models based on quantified properties for unpretreated biomass. However, the PLS models using the two high-throughput characterization approaches could not predict hydrolysis following alkaline pretreatment while MLR models based on quantified properties could. This is likely a consequence of quantified properties including some assessments of pretreated biomass, while the py-MBMS and NIR only utilized untreated biomass.

  • 159.
    Li, Zhenglun
    et al.
    Michigan State University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Bansal, Namita
    DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Azarpira, Ali
    DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Bhalla, Aditya
    DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Chen, Charles H.
    Michigan State University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Ralph, John P.
    DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Hegg, Eric L.
    Michigan State University, DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Chemical and structural changes associated with Cu-catalyzed alkaline-oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar2015Inngår i: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikkel-id 123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment catalyzed by Cu(II) 2,2′-bipyridine complexes has previously been determined to substantially improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of woody plants including hybrid poplar as a consequence of moderate delignification. In the present work, cell wall morphological and lignin structural changes were characterized for this pretreatment approach to gain insights into pretreatment outcomes and, specifically, to identify the extent and nature of lignin modification. Results: Through TEM imaging, this catalytic oxidation process was shown to disrupt cell wall layers in hybrid poplar. Cu-containing nanoparticles, primarily in the Cu(I) oxidation state, co-localized with the disrupted regions, providing indirect evidence of catalytic activity whereby soluble Cu(II) complexes are reduced and precipitated during pretreatment. The concentration of alkali-soluble polymeric and oligomeric lignin was substantially higher for the Cu-catalyzed oxidative pretreatment. This alkali-soluble lignin content increased with time during the catalytic oxidation process, although the molecular weight distributions were unaltered. Yields of aromatic monomers (including phenolic acids and aldehydes) were found to be less than 0.2 % (wt/wt) on lignin. Oxidation of the benzylic alcohol in the lignin side-chain was evident in NMR spectra of the solubilized lignin, whereas minimal changes were observed for the pretreatment-insoluble lignin. Conclusions: These results provide indirect evidence for catalytic activity within the cell wall. The low yields of lignin-derived aromatic monomers, together with the detailed characterization of the pretreatment-soluble and pretreatment-insoluble lignins, indicate that the majority of both lignin pools remained relatively unmodified. As such, the lignins resulting from this process retain features closely resembling native lignins and may, therefore, be amenable to subsequent valorization.

  • 160.
    Li, Zhenglun
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Chen, Charles H.
    Michigan State University.
    Liu, Tongjun
    Michigan State University.
    Mathrubootham, Vaidyanathan
    Michigan State University.
    Hegg, Eric L.
    Michigan State University.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Catalysis with Cuii(bpy) improves alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment2013Inngår i: Biotechnology and Bioengineering, ISSN 0006-3592, E-ISSN 1097-0290, Vol. 110, nr 4, s. 1078-1086Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper(II) 2,2′-bipyridine (CuII(bpy))-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment was performed on three biomass feedstocks including alkali pre-extracted switchgrass, silver birch, and a hybrid poplar cultivar. This catalytic approach was found to improve the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of plant cell wall polysaccharides to monosaccharides for all biomass types at alkaline pH relative to uncatalyzed pretreatment. The hybrid poplar exhibited the most significant improvement in enzymatic hydrolysis with monomeric sugar release and conversions more than doubling from 30% to 61% glucan conversion, while lignin solubilization was increased from 36.6% to 50.2% and hemicellulose solubilization was increased from 14.9% to 32.7%. It was found that CuII(bpy)-catalyzed AHP pretreatment of cellulose resulted in significantly more depolymerization than uncatalyzed AHP pretreatment (78.4% vs. 49.4% decrease in estimated degree of polymerization) and that carboxyl content the cellulose was significantly increased as well (fivefold increase vs. twofold increase). Together, these results indicate that CuII(bpy)-catalyzed AHP pretreatment represents a promising route to biomass deconstruction for bioenergy applications

  • 161.
    Liang, B.
    et al.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Hartel, R.W.
    University of Wisconsin.
    Berglund, Kris
    Effects of raffinose on sucrose crystal growth kinetics and rate dispersion1989Inngår i: AIChE Journal, ISSN 0001-1541, E-ISSN 1547-5905, Vol. 35, nr 12, s. 2053-2057Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work seeks to further the investigation of the effects of raffinose on both the crystallization kinetics and GRD of growing sucrose crystals. Measurements of the widening of the crystal size distribution (CSD) of suspension grown seed crystals, as well as direct photomicroscopic measurements of the growth of these seed crystals, were completed for this study. The range of supersaturation studied was 0.28 to 2.05 g sucrose per 100 g solution with a temperature range of 313 to 333 K. The results of a previous investigation on the solubility of sucrose in raffinose solution were utilized for the kinetic determinations.

  • 162.
    Liang, B. M.
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Hartel, R.W.
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Growth rate dispersion in seeded batch sucrose crystallization1987Inngår i: AIChE Journal, ISSN 0001-1541, E-ISSN 1547-5905, Vol. 33, nr 12, s. 2077-2079Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this study was to compare the results of batch suspension and photomicroscopic cell experiments on growth rate dispersion of sucrose seed crystals to determine the relative effects of GRD in the two different environments. This was done by observing the change in CSD of the seed distribution in the batch suspension crystallizer, while simultaneously monitoring the individual growth rates of an identical seed sample in the photomicroscopic cell. It is found that seeds growing in a stirred suspension batch crystallizer also exhibit growth rate dispersion, as evidenced by the increasing width of the CSD with time.

  • 163.
    Liao, Wei
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Liu, Yan
    Department of Biosystems & Agricultural Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Integrated Farm-Based Biorefinery2014Inngår i: Biorefineries: Integrated Biochemical Processes for Liquid Biofuels, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2014, s. 255-270Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal manure and crop residues are agricultural wastes rich in carbohydrates and nitrogen that represent a largely untapped reservoir of biomass. These farm wastes have great potential as feedstocks for the production of renewable biobased energy and chemical products. This chapter presents a novel integrated farm-based biorefining system for producing ethanol, methane, and algal biomass from a mixed feedstock of animal manure and corn stover. The system includes three unit operations for anaerobic digestion (AD), algae cultivation, and bioethanol production. The AD process produces methane and pretreats the biomass fiber for bioethanol production. The algae cultivation process treats the liquid AD effluent, further reducing the environmental impacts of excess nutrients in the agricultural residues and generating a protein-rich algal biomass. Finally, a bioethanol process utilizes the carbohydrates in the AD-treated fiber to produce ethanol. The integrated system uses the advantages of individual biological processes to synergistically improve the energy efficiency of lignocellulosic biofuel production, address the water usage of lignocellulosic biorefining, provide a solution to -problems with feedstock logistics, and alleviate the environmental impacts of agricultural residues. This integrated biological process could eventually lead to reducing our reliance on fossil fuel, while simultaneously maximizing farmers' interests and minimizing environmental impacts

  • 164.
    Lingman, Peter
    et al.
    Optimation AB.
    Eriksson, Tomas
    Optimation AB.
    Marklund, Joacim
    Softronic AB.
    Lindström, Curt
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Gamifcation in web based dynamical simulations2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 165.
    Liu, Tongjun
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Williams, Daniel L.
    Michigan State University.
    Pattathil, Sivakumar
    University of Georgia.
    Li, Muyang
    Michigan State University.
    Hahn, Michael G
    University of Georgia.
    Hodge, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Coupling alkaline pre-extraction with alkaline-oxidative post-treatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability2014Inngår i: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A two-stage chemical pretreatment of corn stover is investigated comprising an NaOH pre-extraction followed by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) post-treatment. We propose that conventional one-stage AHP pretreatment can be improved using alkaline pre-extraction, which requires significantly less H2O2 and NaOH. To better understand the potential of this approach, this study investigates several components of this process including alkaline pre-extraction, alkaline and alkaline-oxidative post-treatment, fermentation, and the composition of alkali extracts.Results: Mild NaOH pre-extraction of corn stover uses less than 0.1 g NaOH per g corn stover at 80 degrees C. The resulting substrates were highly digestible by cellulolytic enzymes at relatively low enzyme loadings and had a strong susceptibility to drying-induced hydrolysis yield losses. Alkaline pre-extraction was highly selective for lignin removal over xylan removal; xylan removal was relatively minimal (similar to 20%). During alkaline pre-extraction, up to 0.10 g of alkali was consumed per g of corn stover. AHP post-treatment at low oxidant loading (25 mg H2O2 per g pre-extracted biomass) increased glucose hydrolysis yields by 5%, which approached near-theoretical yields. ELISA screening of alkali pre-extraction liquors and the AHP post-treatment liquors demonstrated that xyloglucan and beta-glucans likely remained tightly bound in the biomass whereas the majority of the soluble polymeric xylans were glucurono (arabino) xylans and potentially homoxylans. Pectic polysaccharides were depleted in the AHP post-treatment liquor relative to the alkaline pre-extraction liquor. Because the already-low inhibitor content was further decreased in the alkaline pre-extraction, the hydrolysates generated by this two-stage pretreatment were highly fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that were metabolically engineered and evolved for xylose fermentation.Conclusions: This work demonstrates that this two-stage pretreatment process is well suited for converting lignocellulose to fermentable sugars and biofuels, such as ethanol. This approach achieved high enzymatic sugars yields from pretreated corn stover using substantially lower oxidant loadings than have been reported previously in the literature. This pretreatment approach allows for many possible process configurations involving novel alkali recovery approaches and novel uses of alkaline pre-extraction liquors. Further work is required to identify the most economical configuration, including process designs using techno-economic analysis and investigating processing strategies that economize water use.

  • 166.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Helmerius, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Integration of a hemicellulose extraction process into a biomass based heat and power plant2009Inngår i: Proceedings of ECOS 2009: 22nd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Foz do Iguaçú: ABCM, Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of processes where lignocellulosic biomass can be refined to several different end-products in the same plant, i.e. a biorefinery, will be important in the development towards a more sustainable society where fossil fuels are replaced. This paper presents the idea to integrate the production of green chemicals via hot water hemicellulose extraction of birch wood (hardwood) into a small-scale combined heat and power plant (CHP), in this case an externally fired gas turbine. A techno-economically successful concept could provide the option to turn a small- to medium scale CHP plant into a small- to medium scale biorefinery. The results show that the extracted wood-chips would serve very well as a fuel for combustion and gasification processes due to the relatively high heating value, low ash content and significantly lower concentrations of alkali metals. Under the assumed economic conditions, electricity can be produced to a cost in the range of €85.6 to €196.2 per MWhel and a fermentable feedstock stream with a xylose concentration of 65 g/L to a cost in between €0.44 to €4.15 per kg xylose depending on plant size and number of annual operational hours.

  • 167. Malinovskiy, Dmitry
    et al.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Determination of the isotopic composition of molybdenum in the bottom sediments of freshwater basins2007Inngår i: Geochemistry International, ISSN 0016-7029, E-ISSN 1556-1968, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 381-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of measurements of the Mo isotopic composition in the bottom sediments (BS) of freshwater basins. Mo isotopic ratios were measured using a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC ICP MS). Efficient methods were used in this study for Mo separation from the elements of the sample matrix and correction for instrumental mass discrimination. This allowed us to achieve a high accuracy of 0.06, 0.08, and 0.14‰ (2 σ) for the measurement of 97Mo/95Mo, 98Mo/95Mo, and 100Mo/95Mo, respectively. The range of variations in Mo isotope ratios observed in the collected BS columns was ∼2.2‰ in terms of δ97Mo/95Mo. The results obtained here suggest that geochemical processes occurring during Mo migration with land water can change the isotopic composition of Mo. It is pointed out that the potential use of Mo isotopic systematics for reconstructions of redox conditions in seawater over the geologic past requires the quantification of isotopic effects of Mo accompanying its migration on land and the extent of possible variations in the isotopic composition of Mo entering the ocean.

  • 168.
    Mamma, Diommi
    et al.
    NTUA.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Biotechnological Potential of Citrus Peels2014Inngår i: Industrial Microbiology: Microbes in Process, Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated , 2014, s. 59-92Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 169.
    Mamma, Diommi
    et al.
    Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Biotransformation of citrus by-products into value added products2014Inngår i: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 529-549Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Citrus by-products are the processing wastes generated after citrus juice extraction and constitute about 50 % of fresh fruit weight. This solid residue comprised of peel (flavedo and albedo), pulp (juice sac residue), rag (membranes and cores) and seeds. The disposal of the fresh peels is becoming a major problem to many factories. Usually, citrus juice industries dry the residue and it is either sold as raw material for pectin extraction or pelletized for animal feeding, though none of these processes is very profitable. This residual material is a poor animal feed supplement because of its extremely low protein content and high amount of sugar. The application of agroindustrial by-products in bioprocesses offers a wide range of alternative substrates, thus helping solve pollution problems related to their disposal. This article reviews attempts that have been made to use citrus by-products to generate several value-added products, such as essential oils, pectin, enzymes, single cell protein, natural antioxidants, ethanol, organic acids, and prebiotics.

  • 170.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teknisk biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J.University College London, UK.
    Measurement, Monitoring, Modelling and Control of Bioprocesses2013Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated Measurement and Monitoring of Bioprocesses: Key Elements of the M3C Strategy, by Bernhard Sonnleitner Automatic Control of Bioprocesses, by Marc Stanke, Bernd Hitzmann An Advanced Monitoring Platform for Rational Design of Recombinant Processes, by G. Striedner, K. Bayer Modelling Approaches for Bio-Manufacturing Operations, by Sunil Chhatre Extreme Scale-Down Approaches for Rapid Chromatography Column Design and Scale-Up During Bioprocess Development, by Sunil Chhatre Applying Mechanistic Models in Bioprocess Development, by Rita Lencastre Fernandes, Vijaya Krishna Bodla, Magnus Carlquist, Anna-Lena Heins, Anna Eliasson Lantz, Gürkan Sin and Krist V. Gernaey Multivariate Data Analysis for Advancing the Interpretation of Bioprocess Measurement and Monitoring Data, by Jarka Glassey Design of Pathway-Level Bioprocess Monitoring and Control Strategies Supported by Metabolic Networks, by Inês A. Isidro, Ana R. Ferreira, João J. Clemente, António E. Cunha, João M. L. Dias, Rui Oliveira Knowledge Management and Process Monitoring of Pharmaceutical Processes in the Quality by Design Paradigm, by Anurag S Rathore, Anshuman Bansal, Jaspinder Hans The Choice of Suitable Online Analytical Techniques and Data Processing for Monitoring of Bioprocesses, by Ian Marison, Siobhán Hennessy, Róisín Foley, Moira Schuler, Senthilkumar Sivaprakasam, Brian Freeland

  • 171.
    Mathis-Lilley, J. J.
    et al.
    Iowa State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Contact nucleation from aqueous potash alum solutions1985Inngår i: AIChE Journal, ISSN 0001-1541, E-ISSN 1547-5905, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 865-867Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on experimental results, it is concluded that potash alum contact nuclei grow at a size-independent rate in a system where flow does not result in crystal collisions. Both initial size and growth rate distributions are present for contact nuclei of potash alum. Curvature in semilogarithmic population density-size plots from continuous potash alum crystallization studies may be due to growth rate dispersion and not size-dependent growth.

  • 172.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Antonopoulou, Io
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Evaluation of Myceliopthora thermophila as an enzyme factory for the production of thermophilic cellulolytic enzymes2015Inngår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 5140-5158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is a key step in bioethanol production. Efficient hydrolysis requires a consortium of different enzymes that are able to hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. Myceliopthora thermophila is a promising candidate for the production of thermophilic cellulolytic enzymes, the use of which could reduce the cost of ethanol production. The growth conditions of the fungus were optimized in order to achieve increased secretion of extracellular cellulases. Optimal conditions were found to be 7.0% w/v brewer’s spent grain as the carbon source and 0.4% w/v ammonium sulfate as the nitrogen source. The cellulases obtained were characterized for their optimum activity. The optimum temperature and pH for cellulase activity are 65 °C and pH 5.5, respectively. Studies on thermal inactivation of the crude extract showed that the cellulases of M. thermophila are stable for temperatures up to 60 °C. At this temperature the half-life was found to be as high as 27 h. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose resulted in 31.4% hydrolysis yield at 60 °C after 24 h of incubation. Finally, the recalcitrance constant for cellulose and cellulose pretreated with ionic liquids was calculated to be 5.46 and 2.69, respectively.

  • 173.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Bonturi, Nemailla
    Department of Materials and Bioprocess Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas.
    Miranda, Everson Alves
    Department of Materials and Bioprocess Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    High concentrations of dried sorghum stalks as a biomass feedstock for single cell oil production by Rhodosporidium toruloides2015Inngår i: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 8:6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Environmental crisis and concerns for energy security have made the research for renewable fuels that will substitute the usage of fossil fuels an important priority. Biodiesel is a potential substitute for petroleum, but its feasibility is hindered by the utilization of edible vegetable oil as raw material, which is responsible for alarge fraction of the production cost and fosters the food versus fuel competition. Microbial oils are an interesting alternative as they do not compete with food production, and low cost renewable materials could serve as raw materials during cultivation of microorganisms. Sweet sorghum is an excellent candidate as substrate for microbial oil production, as it possesses high photosynthetic activity yielding high amounts of soluble and insoluble carbohydrates, and does not require high fertilization and irrigation rates.Results: Initially the ability of sweet sorghum to fully support yeast growth, both as a carbon and nitrogen source was evaluated. It was found that addition of an external nitrogen source had a negative impact on single cell oil (SCO) production yields, which has a positive effect on the process economics. Subsequently the effect of thepresence of a distinct saccharification step on SCO was examined. The presence of an enzymatic saccharification step prior to SCO production improved the production of SCO, especially in high solid concentrations. Removal of solids was also investigated and its positive effect on SCO production was also demonstrated. When juice from 20%w/w enzymatically liquefied sweet sorghum was used as the raw material, SCO production was 13.77 g/L. To the best of our knowledge this is one of the highest SCO titers reported in the literature when renewable raw materials were utilized.Conclusions: The use of sweet sorghum at high solid concentrations as a feedstock for the efficient production of SCO by Rhodosporidium toruloides was demonstrated. Moreover, addition of enzymes not only led to liquefaction of sweet sorghum and permitted liquid fermentation, but also enhanced lipid production by 85.1% and 15.9%when dried stalks or stalk juice was used, respectively.

  • 174.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Ethanol Production from Enzymatically Treated Dried Food Waste Using Enzymes Produced On-Site2015Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 1446-1458Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental crisis and the need to find renewable fuel alternatives have made production of biofuels an important priority. At the same time, the increasing production of food waste is an important environmental issue. For this reason, production of ethanol from food waste is an interesting approach. Volumes of food waste are reduced and ethanol production does not compete with food production. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of using source-separated household food waste for the production of ethanol. To minimize the cost of ethanol production, the hydrolytic enzymes that are necessary for cellulose hydrolysis were produced in-house using the thermophillic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila. At the initial stage of the study, production of these thermophilic enzymes was studied and optimized, resulting in an activity of 0.28 FPU/mL in the extracellular broth. These enzymes were used to saccharify household food waste at a high dry material consistency of 30% w/w, followed by fermentation. Ethanol production reached 19.27 g/L with a volumetric productivity of 0.92 g/L·h, whereas only 5.98 g/L of ethanol was produced with a volumetric productivity of 0.28 g/L·h when no enzymatic saccharification was used.

  • 175.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    National Technical University of Athens.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    National Technical University of Athens.
    Fermentation of liquefacted hydrothermally pretreated sweet sorghum bagasse to ethanol at high-solids content2013Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 127, s. 202-208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be utilized as feedstock for ethanol production at high initial dry matter concentration was investigated. In order to achieve high enzymatic hydrolysis yield, a hydrothermal pretreatment prior to liquefaction and saccharification was applied. Response surface methodology had been employed in order to optimize the pretreatment step, taking into account the yield of cellulose hydrolysis. Liquefaction of the pretreated bagasse was performed at a specially designed liquefaction chamber at 50 °C for either 12 or 24 h using an enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g·DM and 18% DM. Fermentation of liquefacted bagasse was not affected by liquefaction duration and leaded to an ethanol production of 41.43 g/L and a volumetric productivity of 1.88 g/L h. The addition of extra enzymes at the start up of SSF enhanced both ethanol concentration and volumetric productivity by 16% and 17% after 12 and 24 h saccharification, respectively.

  • 176.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    BIOtechMASS Unit, Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Optimization of ethanol production from high dry matter liquefied dry sweet sorghum stalks2013Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 51, s. 91-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of sweet sorghum to be utilized as feedstock for ethanol production at high initial dry material concentration was investigated. Sweet sorghum, after being dried, was liquefacted employing commercial cellulase solution Celluclast® 1.5L, in order submerged fermentation to be permitted under high-solids concentrations. The presence of a separate enzymatic liquefaction step at 350 kg m−3 initial DM enhanced both ethanol production and productivity by 29.76% and 250%, respectively. Response surface methodology, based on the central composite design was applied to explore the combined effect of liquefaction duration and enzyme loading in order liquefaction conditions to be optimized. When the optimum conditions were tested using an enzyme load of 8.32 FPU g−1 of dry material for 8.6 h at 50 °C, high productivity (3.0 kg m−3 h−1) and final ethanol production (62.5 kg m−3) were achieved.

  • 177.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Gao, Qiuju
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Jansson, Stina
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Green conversion of municipal solid wastes into fuels and chemicals2017Inngår i: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0717-3458, E-ISSN 0717-3458, Vol. 26, s. 69-83Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Presently, the society is facing a serious challenge for the effective management of the increasing amount of produced municipal solid wastes. The accumulated waste has caused a series of environmental problems such as uncontrolled release of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the increasing amount has resulted in a shortage of areas available for waste disposal, resulting in a non-sustainable waste management. These problems led to serious public concerns which in turn resulted in political actions aiming to reduce the amount of the waste ending in the environment. These actions aim to promote sustainable waste management solutions. The main objective of these policies is to promote recycling of municipal solid waste and also the conversion of waste to energy and valuable chemicals. These conversions can be performed by using either biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion) or thermochemical processes (e.g. pyrolysis). The research efforts during the last years have been fruitful and many publications demonstrate the effective conversation of municipal solid waste to energy and chemicals. These processes are discussed in the current review article together with the change of waste policy that was implemented in EU during the last years.

  • 178.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Giannakou, Maria
    Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Vörös, Dimitrij
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Effect of synthetic and natural media on lipid production from Fusarium oxysporum2017Inngår i: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0717-3458, E-ISSN 0717-3458, Vol. 30, s. 95-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Dependence on fossil resources, for the production of fuels and energy, has resulted in environmental and financial problems, which require our immediate action in order to reverse the situation. Use of renewable sources for the production of fuels and energy is an important alternative with biodiesel remains as one of the promising options. Aim of this work is to evaluate the fungus Fusarium oxysporum for its potentials to accumulate microbial lipids when grown on synthetic media and saccharified sweet sorghum stalks.

    Results

    The effect of different carbon sources, nitrogen sources and C/N ratio on the lipid production was initially examined, which resulted in a lipid concentration of 4.4 g/L, with lipid content of 42.6% w/w. Sweet sorghum stalks were able to support growth and lipid production of the fungus, both as carbon source and as nitrogen source. It was also shown that saccharification of the dried stalks is an important step to increase lipid production. Removal of the remaining stalk solids enabled the lipid production during cultivation in increased initial solids of up to 16 w/w. This resulted in a lipid production of 3.81 g/L.

    Conclusions

    It was demonstrated that F. oxysporum can be used as an efficient oleaginous microorganism, with sweet sorghum serving as an excellent raw material for the cultivation of the fungus. The lipids obtained during this work were also found to have a fatty acid profile with good potentials to be used for biodiesel production.

  • 179.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Loizidou, Maria
    Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Kekos, Dimitris
    Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Utilization of Household Food Waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content2014Inngår i: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 7, nr 1, artikkel-id 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundEnvironmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. ResultsHousehold food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. ConclusionsIn conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall ethanol production yield.

  • 180.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Nitsos, Christos
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Vörös, Dimitrij
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    High-Titer Methane from Organosolv-Pretreated Spruce and Birch2017Inngår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikkel-id 263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The negative impact of fossil fuels and the increased demand for renewable energy sources has led to the use of novel raw material sources. Lignocellulosic biomass could serve as a possible raw material for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. This work is aimed at using forest biomass, both softwood (spruce) and hardwood (birch), as a raw material for anaerobic digestion. We examined the effect of different operational conditions for the organosolv pretreatment (ethanol content, duration of treatment, and addition of acid catalyst) on the methane yield. In addition, we investigated the effect of addition of cellulolytic enzymes during the digestion. We found that inclusion of an acid catalyst during organosolv pretreatment improved the yields from spruce, but it did not affect the yields from birch. Shorter duration of treatment was advantageous with both materials. Methane yields from spruce were higher with lower ethanol content whereas higher ethanol content was more beneficial for birch. The highest yields obtained were 185 mL CH4/g VS from spruce and 259.9 mL CH4/g VS from birch. Addition of cellulolytic enzymes improved these yields to 266.6 mL CH4/g VS and 284.2 mL CH4/g VS, respectively.

  • 181.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Novak, Katharina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Enman, Josefine
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Acetate-detoxification of wood hydrolysates with alkali tolerant Bacillus sp. as a strategy to enhance the lipid production from Rhodosporidium toruloides2017Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 242, s. 287-294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current work was to convert an acetate-rich hemicellulose liquid fraction (LF) from hot-water extraction of Betula pendula to oils for biodiesel, with Rhodosporidium toruloides. The toxicity of acetate was circumvented by biological detoxification with an isolated alkali-tolerant and acetate-resistant Bacillus sp. strain. Removal of other lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, such as furfural and phenols, was evaluated by two strategies; an activated carbon (AC) treatment of the undiluted LF, and dilution of the LF by 25% (0.75LF) and 50%. (0.50LF). The bacterium consumed most of the acetic acid in 6-8 days in the treated or diluted media, which were subsequently used for cultivation of the yeast, for conversion of sugars to oils. The oil concentration reached 2.8 and 1.8 g/L, in the AC LF and 0.75LF medium, respectively. In comparison, the oil accumulation in the same media without prior cultivation of Bacillus sp. was 0.86 and 0.03 g/L, respectively.

  • 182.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Evaluation of dried sweet sorghum stalks as raw material for methane production2014Inngår i: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2014, artikkel-id 731731Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of utilizing dried sweet sorghum stalks as raw material for anaerobic digestion has been evaluated. Two different treatments were tested, a mild thermal and an enzymatic, alone or in combination. Thermal pretreatment was found to decrease the methane yields, whereas one-step enzymatic treatment resulted in a significant increase of 15.1% comparing to the untreated sweet sorghum. Subsequently, in order to increase the total methane production, the combined effect of enzyme load and I/S on methane yields from sweet sorghum was evaluated by employing response surface methodology. The obtained model showed that the maximum methane yield that could be achieved is 296 mL CH4/g VS at I/S ratio of 0.35 with the addition of 11.12 FPU/g sweet sorghum.

  • 183.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Sequential parametric optimization of methane production from different sources of forest raw material2015Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 1163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in environmental problems and the shortage of fossil fuels have led to the need for action in the development of sustainable and renewable fuels. Methane is produced through anaerobic digestion of organic materials and is a biofuel with very promising characteristics. The success in using methane as a biofuel has resulted in the operation of several commercial-scale plants and the need to exploit novel materials to be used. Forest biomass can serve as an excellent candidate for use as raw material for anaerobic digestion. During this work, both hardwood and softwood species—which are representative of the forests of Sweden—were used for the production of methane. Initially, when untreated forest materials were used for the anaerobic digestion, the yields obtained were very low, even with the addition of enzymes, reaching a maximum of only 40 mL CH4/g VS when birch was used. When hydrothermal pretreatment was applied, the enzymatic digestibility improved up to 6.7 times relative to that without pretreatment, and the yield of methane reached up to 254 mL CH4/g VS. Then the effect of chemical/enzymatic detoxification was examined, where laccase treatment improved the methane yield from the more harshly pretreated materials while it had no effect on the more mildly pretreated material. Finally, addition of cellulolytic enzymes during the digestion improved the methane yields from spruce and pine, whereas for birch separate saccharification was more beneficial. To achieve high yields in spruce 30 filter paper units (FPU)/g was necessary, whereas 15 FPU/g was enough when pine and birch were used. During this work, the highest methane yields obtained from pine and birch were 179.9 mL CH4/g VS and 304.8 mL CH4/g VS, respectively. For mildly and severely pretreated spruce, the methane yields reached 259.4 mL CH4/g VS and 276.3 mL CH4/g VS, respectively. We have shown that forest material can serve as raw material for efficient production of methane. The initially low yields from the untreated materials were significantly improved by the introduction of a hydrothermal pretreatment. Moreover, enzymatic detoxification was beneficial, but mainly for severely pretreated materials. Finally, enzymatic saccharification increased the methane yields even further.

  • 184.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Strategies for Enhanced Biogas Generation through Anaerobic Digestion of Forest Material: An Overview2016Inngår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 5482-5499Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Incorporation of biofuels into the existing selection of fuels is a very important measure to slow down environmental destruction and to counter the imminent fossil fuel shortage. Biogas is a very interesting option for use in both electricity and heat production, and also as a fuel for vehicles. The positive fuel characteristics of biogas and the high yields of biogas obtained from traditional raw materials (e.g., animal manure) have resulted in operation of several commercial units around the globe. On the other hand, there is an increased demand for biogas production which, for the need to be met, should have renewable resources incorporated into it. Forest materials are an interesting candidate, and there is a rising interest in the research and industrial communities to exploit them as raw materials for anaerobic digestion in biogas production. In this review article, we aim to give the reader an insight into the most recent processes for conversion of various sources of forest materials into biogas.

  • 185.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Sterioti, Aikaterini-Aithra
    Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Use of dried sweet sorghum for the efficient production of lipids by the yeast Lipomyces starkeyi CBS 18072014Inngår i: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 62, s. 367-372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi to efficiently produce lipids when cultivated on saccharified sweet sorghum stalks juice was evaluated. Initially the production of lipids using synthetic media mimicking sweet sorghum stalks has been studied and optimized concerning the nitrogen source and the C:N ratio. Under optimum conditions (yeast extract as nitrogen source and C:N ratio of 190) the lipid production reached 5.81 g/L with a lipid content of 47.3% (w/w) from a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose, mimicking the sugar composition of sorghum. When cultivated on sweet sorghum stalks juice, it was observed that no external nitrogen addition was necessary which could result in substantial decrease of the initial C:N ratio. Moreover a distinct saccharification process prior to yeast cultivation improved the lipid production yield as it resulted in an increase of the C:N ratio. The highest lipid production, which was 6.40 g/L with a lipid content of 29.5% (w/w), was obtained when juice from saccharified sweet sorghum stalks at an initial sorghum content of 12% (w/w) was used as feedstock.

  • 186.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Topakas, Evangelos
    National Technical University of Athens.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    New trends in microbial production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid2014Inngår i: Current Biochemical Engineering, ISSN 2212-7119, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 141-154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of bio-based chemicals nowadays is more crucial than ever. 3-Hydroxypropionic acid can serve as a building block chemical for the production of other high added value chemicals, fact that have made it as one of the most valuable chemicals according to US DOE. Recently, researchers have turned their interest in the construction of a microbial cell factory that will be capable of producing 3-hydroxypropionic acid from renewable raw materials. Most of the work is dedicated in the utilization of glycerol as raw material by employing either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Several genes were tested and evaluated and different cultivation techniques were applied. During the last few years, promising levels of 3- hydroxypropionic acid were obtained, however more effort has to be dedicated on this direction of the commercialization of the process that seems to be closer than even before.

  • 187.
    McMahon, Paula M.
    et al.
    Iowa State University.
    Cerreta, Michael K.
    Iowa State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Larson, Maurice A.
    Iowa State University.
    A constant-temperature Raman cell for the study of supersaturated aqueous solutions1986Inngår i: Applied Spectroscopy, ISSN 0003-7028, E-ISSN 1943-3530, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 282-283Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order that the phenomena of crystal nucleation and growth from solution can be fully understood, the current knowledge of supersaturated solution structure must be extended. Previous studies on Raman spectroscopy of aqueous metal nitrate solutions indicated the presence of solvated ions, solvent separated ion pairs, contact ion pairs, and ion agglomerates as a function of concentration. Unfortunately, the concentration range of these studies did not include supersaturated solutions. It is the purpose of this work to describe an experimental technique which allows the study of supersaturated solutions.

  • 188.
    McMahon, Paula M.
    et al.
    Iowa State University.
    Larson, Maurice A.
    Iowa State University.
    Hussmann, Glenn A.
    Iowa State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Cerreta, Michael K.
    Iowa State University.
    Raman spectroscopic studies of the structure of supersaturated nitrate and phosphate solutions1984Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser Raman spectroscopy was used to study aqueous solutions of potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate, and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. Concentrations were varied from dilute to supersaturated. In all cases additional order was found as the concentration was increased. The implications for the relationship between solution structure and crystallization phenomena (nucleation and growth) are discussed.

  • 189.
    McMahon, P.M.
    et al.
    Iowa State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Larson, M.A.
    Iowa State University.
    Raman spectroscopic studies of the structure of supersaturated KNO//3 solutions1984Inngår i: Industrial Crystallization 84: proceedings of the 9th Symposium on industrial crystallization, the Hague, the Netherlands, September 25-28, 1984 / [ed] S.J. Jančić; E.J. de Jong, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1984, s. 229-232Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser Raman spectroscopy was used to study the nu //1 (A//1) band of aqueous potassium nitrate solution. The purpose was to establish the relationship between solution structure, nucleation and growth. Two bands were determined that exist at 1049 cm** minus **1 (the free nitrate ion) and 1050. 5 cm** minus **1 (a more ordered species). The band at 1050. 5 cm** minus **1 increased in magnitude as concentration was increased into the supersaturation region. Solutions containing 200 ppm Cr**3** plus were also studied and this impurity was found to suppress the formation of the species at 1050. 5 cm** minus **1.

  • 190.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Kudahettige-Nilsson, Rasika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Black liquor fractionation for biofuels production: A techno-economic assessment2014Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 166, s. 508-517Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The hemicelluloses fraction of black liquor is an underutilized resource in many chemical pulp mills. It is possible to extract and separate the lignin and hemicelluloses from the black liquor and use the hemicelluloses for biochemical conversion into biofuels and chemicals. Precipitation of the lignin from the black liquor would consequently decrease the thermal load on the recovery boiler, which is often referred to as a bottleneck for increased pulp production. The objective of this work is to techno-economically evaluate the production of sodium-free lignin as a solid fuel and butanol to be used as fossil gasoline replacement by fractionating black liquor. The hydrolysis and fermentation processes are modeled in Aspen Plus to analyze energy and material balances as well as to evaluate the plant economics. A mathematical model of an existing pulp and paper mill is used to analyze the effects on the energy performance of the mill subprocesses.

  • 191.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Techno-economic evaluation of butanol production via black liquor fractionation2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 192.
    Micael, Karlberg
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teknisk biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Soft sensor application on lactate controlled fed-batch cultivation for monoclonal antibody production2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Monoclonal antibody producing cells are of great interest and used frequently in the field of biomedical research, diagnostics and therapy with increasing need for better systems to more efficiently produce antibodies at a lower costs. In this project three fed-batch cultivations of hybridoma cells (HB-8696) were cultured in a stirred tank reactor with the use of a soft sensor to monitor the lactate concentration and as well as a dielectric probe for biomass measurements. In addition, a protocol for growing the inoculum was also successfully produced and a previous batch cultivation was also analyzed which gave crucial information about stoichiometrically relation in the feed medium which was used in the fed-batch cultivations. The BioSenz Analyzer was used for on-line lactate concentration monitoring and was later used to control the feed profile to avoid overflow metabolism in two of the three fed-batch cultivations. However, nothing conclusive could be said about the lactate controller as of yet which needs further research.

  • 193. Miranda, A.
    et al.
    Berglund, Kris
    Recovery of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes produced β-amylase by (hydroxypropyl)methylcellulose partition1990Inngår i: Biotechnology progress (Print), ISSN 8756-7938, E-ISSN 1520-6033, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 214-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A procedure for recovering Clostridium thermosulfurogenes produced β-amylase from fermentation broth by partition was developed. The partition was achieved by addition of ammonium sulfate to an aqueous solution of the enzyme with (hydroxypropyl)methylcellulose. The β-amylase-containing pellet formed upon centrifugation could be redissolved and the polymer recovered by a second salt addition. The process was not dependent on polymer/enzyme solution pH, but it was affected by temperature, polymer nominal molecular weight and loading, and fermentation carbon source. Unlike more traditional aqueous-phase partitions, such as poly(ethylene glycol)/dextran, the current approach appeared to be biospecific.

  • 194.
    Miranda, E.A.
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Development of precipitant agents for precipitation of proteins based on hydrophobic interaction1995Inngår i: Brazilian journal of chemical engineering, ISSN 0104-6632, E-ISSN 1678-4383, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation agents were developed to perform protein separation by precipitation based on hydrophobic interaction. They consisted of ligands, saturated linear chains of fatty acids, attached by esterification to a carrier molecule, methylcellulose. Precipitation of bovine serum albumin was achieved at 50 percent saturation of ammonium sulfate. The butyric acid derivative showed a higher efficiency in precipitating this protein than other derivatives tested. There is evidence that the interaction between the protein and the derivatives is hydrophobic.

  • 195.
    Miranda, Everson A.
    et al.
    Michigan State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Evaluation of column flotation in the downstream processing of fermentation products: recovery of a genetically engineered α-amylase1993Inngår i: Biotechnology progress (Print), ISSN 8756-7938, E-ISSN 1520-6033, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 411-420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flotation is a simple, inexpensive, and versatile unit operation with a largely unexplored potential in biotechnology. There is a general lack of research concerning biotechnological applications in this area, especially in the recovery of fermentation products. Moreover, the few reports in the literature do not consider the modern concept of column flotation as practiced in the mineral industry. We report herein the application of column flotation for the recovery of a Bacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase expressed in Escherichia coli by the use of a food-grade polymer, (hydroxypropyl)methylcellulose (HPMC), and ammonium sulfate. First, the enzyme was removed from the liquid phase by partition to a salted-out HPMC phase. The enzyme-containing polymer flocs were then floated from the liquid. Recovery of active enzyme was as high as 90%, with throughput as high as 94 m3/(h·m2). The floatability of the enzyme from a periplasmic extract was higher than extracellular enzyme in the broth due to the presence of depressors of molecular weight lower than 10 000 in the broth.

  • 196.
    Murphy, Vincent G.
    et al.
    Colorado State University.
    Berglund, Kris
    Modeling growth rate dispersion in a batch sucrose crystallizer1986Inngår i: Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Fundamentals, ISSN 0019-7874, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 174-176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth rate data from experiments on sucrose crystals are analyzed for growth rate dispersion (the variation of crystal growth rates within a population). Two competing models are used in this analysis. Experimental results suggest that carefully designed experiments must be performed to distinguish between the two.

  • 197.
    Nair Muraleedharan, Madhu
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Erratum: Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygensases2017Inngår i: Extremophilic Enzymatic Processing of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to Bioenergy / [ed] Rajesh K. Sani, R. Navanietha Krishnaraj, Springer International Publishing , 2017, s. E1-Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 198.
    Nair Muraleedharan, Madhu
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygensases2017Inngår i: Extremophilic Enzymatic Processing of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to Bioenergy / [ed] Rajesh K. Sani, R. Navanietha Krishnaraj, Springer International Publishing , 2017, s. 89-98Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygensaes have now been evolved as one of the most promising enzymes, attracting huge research attention due to their potential use in saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of fuels and value added chemicals. In the presence of molecular oxygen, these copper depended enzymes break the recalcitrant cellulose chain by a combined oxidative and hydrolytic action, and increase the substrate accessibility for other cellulases to work. This ‘boosting effect’ and ability to act in synergy makes them important subject to research, towards the future goal of sustainable bioeconomy. Diversity of this enzyme group ranges from early discovered chitin and cellulose active ones, to the recently identified hemicellulose and starch active ones. In this chapter we present a brief summary about LPMOs and the findings related to them from their discovery to the recent developments.

  • 199.
    Nair, Ramkumar B
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Eh-Hser Nay, Theimya
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. Biotechnology.
    Waste Bread Valorization Using Edible Filamentous Fungi2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is the first of its kind to use industrial waste bread for ethanol and food-grade filamentous fungal biomass production, with an ‘integrated-biorefinery’ approach for the existing wheat-based ethanol facilities. Four different food-grade fungi such as Neurospora intermedia, Aspergillus oryzae, belonging to ascomycetes and Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, belonging to zygomycetes, were screened. Initial screening for fungal cultures (without external enzyme saccharification) showed an ethanol yield maximum of 47.8 ±1.1 to 67.3 ±2.1, and 38.7 ±1.1 to 67.7±1.8 mg per g dry substrate loading from whole-grain bread and white-bread respectively, post the enzymatic liquefaction. Scale-up of the N. intermedia fermentation achieved using bench scale airlift reactor showed an ethanol yield maximum of 91.6 ±2.1 and 87.5 ±1.9 mg per g dry substrate loading for whole-grain bread and white-bread respectively.

  • 200.
    Nair, Ramkumar B
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Kalif, Mahdi
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Mild-temperature dilute acid pretreatment for integration of first and second generation ethanol processes2017Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 245, s. 145-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of hot-water (100 °C) from the 1st generation ethanol plants for mild-temperature lignocellulose pretreatment can possibly cut down the operational (energy) cost of 2nd generation ethanol process, in an integrated model. Dilute-sulfuric and -phosphoric acid pretreatment at 100 °C was carried out for wheat bran and whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment time and acid type influenced the release of sugars from wheat bran, while acid-concentration was found significant for whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment led up-to 300% improvement in the glucose yield compared to only-enzymatically treated substrates. The pretreated substrates were 191–344% and 115–300% richer in lignin and glucan, respectively. Fermentation using Neurospora intermedia, showed 81% and 91% ethanol yields from wheat bran and stillage-fibers, respectively. Sawdust proved to be a highly recalcitrant substrate for mild-temperature pretreatment with only 22% glucose yield. Both wheat bran and whole-stillage are potential substrates for pretreatment using waste heat from the 1st generation process for 2nd generation ethanol.

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