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  • 151.
    Akram, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Quttineh, Nils-Hassan
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Optimeringslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Closing Pakistan’s yield gaps through nutrient recycling2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, E-ISSN 2571-581X, s. 1-14, artikkel-id 00024Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving food security will require closing yield gaps in many regions, including Pakistan. Although fertilizer subsidies have facilitated increased nitrogen (N) application rates, many staple crop yields have yet to reach their maximum potential. Considering that current animal manure and human excreta (bio-supply) recycling rates are low, there is substantial potential to increase the reuse of nutrients in bio-supply. We quantified 2010 crop N, phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) needs along with bio-supply nutrient availability for Pakistani districts, and compared these values to synthetic fertilizer use and costs. We found that synthetic fertilizer use combined with low bio-supply recycling resulted in a substantial gap between nutrient supply and P and K crop needs, which would cost 3 billion USD to fill with synthetic fertilizers. If all bio-supply was recycled, it could eliminate K synthetic fertilizer needs and decrease N synthetic fertilizer needs to 43% of what was purchased in 2010. Under a full recycling scenario, farmers would still require an additional 0.28 million tons of synthetic P fertilizers, costing 2.77 billion USD. However, it may not be prohibitively expensive to correct P deficiencies. Pakistan already spends this amount of money on fertilizers. If funds used for synthetic N were reallocated to synthetic P purchases in a full bio-supply recycling scenario, crop needs could be met. Most recycling could happen within districts, with only 6% of bio-supply requiring between-district transport when optimized to meet national N crop needs. Increased recycling in Pakistan could be a viable way to decrease yield gaps.

  • 152.
    Akram, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Quttineh, Nils-Hassan
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Optimeringslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Enhancing nutrient recycling from excreta to meet crop nutrient needs in Sweden - a spatial analysis2019Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 10264Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased recycling of nutrient-rich organic waste to meet crop nutrient needs is an essential component of a more sustainable food system. However, agricultural specialization continues to pose a significant challenge to balancing crop nutrient needs and the nutrient supply from animal manure and human excreta locally. For Sweden, this study found that recycling all excreta (in 2007) could meet up to 75% of crop nitrogen and 81% of phosphorus needs, but that this would exceed crop potassium needs by 51%. Recycling excreta within municipalities could meet 63% of crop P nutrient needs, but large regional differences and imbalances need to be corrected to avoid over or under fertilizing. Over 50% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus in excreta is contained in just 40% of municipalities, and those have a surplus of excreta nutrients compared to crop needs. Reallocation of surpluses (nationally optimized for phosphorus) towards deficit municipalities, would cost 192 million USD (for 24 079 km of truck travel). This is 3.7 times more than the total NPK fertilizer value being transported. These results indicate that Sweden could reduce its dependence on synthetic fertilizers through investments in excreta recycling, but this would likely require valuing also other recycling benefits.

  • 153.
    Al Haji, Ghazwan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fowler, Scott
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Smart traffic calming measures for smart cities - a pre-study2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic calming measures, such as speed bumps and elevated crossing points, are used to reduce speed, to prevent overtaking and generally contribute to a safer traffic situation. However, they might also cause increased response times for rescue vehicles (e.g. ambulances or fire trucks). An alternative to the conventional traffic calming measures is so-called smart traffic calming measures. These can determine when a vehicle approaches, whose journey should not be hindered, and adjust to allow for free passage for this vehicle.

    This report gives an overview of the problem, and some examples of smart  traffic calming measures are discussed. Special focus is put on the wireless communication necessary to detect emergency vehicles. Furthermore, existing challenges and possible solutions for traffic calming measures and the communication needed to make them smart are discussed.

  • 154.
    Alam, Syed Asad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Techniques for Efficient Implementation of FIR and Particle Filtering2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    FIR filters occupy a central place many signal processing applications which either alter the shape, frequency or the sampling frequency of the signal. FIR filters are used because of their stability and possibility to have linear-phase but require a high filter order to achieve the same magnitude specifications as compared to IIR filters. Depending on the size of the required transition bandwidth the filter order can range from tens to hundreds to even thousands. Since the implementation of the filters in digital domain requires multipliers and adders, high filter orders translate to a large number of these arithmetic units for its implementation. Research towards reducing the complexity of FIR filters has been going on for decades and the techniques used can be roughly divided into two categories; reduction in the number of multipliers and simplification of the multiplier implementation. 

    One technique to reduce the number of multipliers is to use cascaded sub-filters with lower complexity to achieve the desired specification, known as FRM. One of the sub-filters is a upsampled model filter whose band edges are an integer multiple, termed as the period L, of the target filter's band edges. Other sub-filters may include complement and masking filters which filter different parts of the spectrum to achieve the desired response. From an implementation point-of-view, time-multiplexing is beneficial because generally the allowable maximum clock frequency supported by the current state-of-the-art semiconductor technology does not correspond to the application bound sample rate. A combination of these two techniques plays a significant role towards efficient implementation of FIR filters. Part of the work presented in this dissertation is architectures for time-multiplexed FRM filters that benefit from the inherent sparsity of the periodic model filters.

    These time-multiplexed FRM filters not only reduce the number of multipliers but lowers the memory usage. Although the FRM technique requires a higher number delay elements, it results in fewer memories and more energy efficient memory schemes when time-multiplexed. Different memory arrangements and memory access schemes have also been discussed and compared in terms of their efficiency when using both single and dual-port memories. An efficient pipelining scheme has been proposed which reduces the number of pipelining registers while achieving similar clock frequencies. The single optimal point where the number of multiplications is minimum for non-time-multiplexed FRM filters is shown to become a function of both the period, L and time-multiplexing factor, M. This means that the minimum number of multipliers does not always correspond to the minimum number of multiplications which also increases the flexibility of implementation. These filters are shown to achieve power reduction between 23% and 68% for the considered examples.

    To simplify the multiplier, alternate number systems like the LNS have been used to implement FIR filters, which reduces the multiplications to additions. FIR filters are realized by directly designing them using ILP in the LNS domain in the minimax sense using finite word length constraints. The branch and bound algorithm, a typical algorithm to implement ILP problems, is implemented based on LNS integers and several branching strategies are proposed and evaluated. The filter coefficients thus obtained are compared with the traditional finite word length coefficients obtained in the linear domain. It is shown that LNS FIR filters provide a better approximation  error compared to a standard FIR filter for a given coefficient word length.

    FIR filters also offer an opportunity in complexity reduction by implementing the multipliers using Booth or standard high-radix multiplication. Both of these multiplication schemes generate pre-computed multiples of the multiplicand which are then selected based on the encoded bits of the multiplier. In TDF FIR filters, one input data is multiplied with a number of coefficients and complexity can be reduced by sharing the pre-computation of the multiplies of the input data for all multiplications. Part of this work includes a systematic and unified approach to the design of such computation sharing multipliers and a comparison of the two forms of multiplication. It also gives closed form expressions for the cost of different parts of multiplication and gives an overview of various ways to implement the select unit with respect to the design of multiplexers.

    Particle filters are used to solve problems that require estimation of a system. Improved resampling schemes for reducing the latency of the resampling stage is proposed which uses a pre-fetch technique to reduce the latency between 50% to 95%  dependent on the number of pre-fetches. Generalized division-free architectures and compact memory structures are also proposed that map to different resampling algorithms and also help in reducing the complexity of the multinomial resampling algorithm and reduce the number of memories required by up to 50%.

  • 155.
    Alam, Syed Asad
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A unified approach to the design and implementation of computation sharing multipliers: Computation sharing multipliersManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A unified approach to the design and implementation of computation sharing multiplier based on Booth and standard high-radix multiplication schemes is presented here. Both of these multiplication schemes have various building blocks and one of which is the pre-computer which can be shared across a number of multiplications if the multiplicand to the multipliers is same, like in a transposed direct form (TDF) finitelength impulse response (FIR) filter. Closed form expressions to estimate the cost of different building blocks based on different schemes have been developed and analyzed in different dimensions. Standalone multipliers and as part of computation sharing in FIR filters and complex multipliers have been realized in hardware and synthesized using standard cell library.

    It is shown that apart from word length and filter length, the ratio  between the cost of implementing adders and multiplexers has an effect on the choice of optimal radix. The higher the ratio, the lower is the cost of implementing multiplexers which will benefit high radix. Higher radix will also benefit from computation sharing if the cost of one multiplication for it is less than the lower radix and it is shown that radix-16 Booth multiplier achieves lower area complexity and power consumption by an average of 7% and 17%, respectively.

  • 156.
    Alam, Syed Asad
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Generalized Division-Free Architecture and Compact Memory Structure for Resampling in Particle Filters2015Inngår i: 2015 European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD), IEEE Press, 2015, s. 416-419Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The most challenging step of implementing particle filtering is the resampling step which replicates particles with large weights and discards those with small weights. In this paper, we propose a generic architecture for resampling which uses double multipliers to avoid normalization divisions and make the architecture  equally efficient for non-powers-of-two number of particles. Furthermore, the complexity of resampling is greatly affected by the size of memories used to store weights. We illustrate that by storing the original weights instead of their cumulative sum and calculating them online reduces the total complexity, in terms of area, ranging from 21% to 45%, while giving up to 50% reduction in memory usage.

  • 157.
    Alam, Syed Asad
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Improved particle filter resampling architecturesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The most challenging aspect of particle filtering hardware implementation is the resampling step which replicates particles with large weights and discards those with small weights because it has a high latency and can only be partially executed in parallel with the other steps of particle filtering. To reduce the latency, an improved resampling scheme is proposed in this work which involves pre-fetching from the weight memory in parallel to the fetching of a value from a random function generator. Architectures for realizing the pre-fetch technique are also proposed. The trade-off between the latency reduction achieved by increasing the size of the pre-fetch memory and the architectural implementation complexity has been analyzed. Results show that a pre-fetch of five achieves the best area-latency trade-off while on average achieving an 85% reduction in the latency.

    We also propose a generic double multiplier architecture for resampling which avoids normalization divisions and makes the architecture equally efficient for non-powers-of-two number of particles as well as removes the need of explicitly ordering the random values for efficient multinomial resampling implementation. It is further improved by computing the cumulative sum of weights on-the-fly which helps in reducing the size of the weight memories by up to 50%.

  • 158.
    Alam, Syed Asad
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    On the implementation of time-multiplexed frequency-response masking filters2016Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ISSN 1053-587X, E-ISSN 1941-0476, Vol. 64, nr 15, s. 3933-3944Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of narrow transition band finite-length impulse response (FIR) filters is high and can be reduced by using frequency-response masking (FRM) techniques. These techniques use a combination of periodic model and, possibly periodic, masking filters. Time-multiplexing is in general beneficial since only rarely does the technology bound maximum obtainable clock frequency and the application determined required sample rate correspond. Therefore, architectures for time-multiplexed FRM filters that benefit from the inherent sparsity of theperiodic filters are introduced in this work.

    We show that FRM filters not only reduces the number of multipliers needed, but also have benefits in terms of memory usage. Despite the total amount of samples to be stored is larger for FRM, it results in fewer memory resources needed in FPGAs and more energy efficient memory schemes in ASICs. In total, the power consumption is significantly reduced compared to a single stage implementation. Furthermore, we show that the choice of the interpolation factor which gives the least complexity for the periodic model filter and subsequent masking filter(s) is a function of the time-multiplexing factor, meaning that the minimum number of multipliers not always correspond to the minimum number of multiplications. Both single-port and dual-port memories are considered and the involved trade-off in number of multipliers and memory complexity is illustrated. The results show that for FPGA implementation, the power reduction ranges from 23% to 68% for the considered examples.

  • 159.
    Alarcon, E I
    et al.
    Bio-nanomaterials Chemistry and Engineering Laboratory, Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, 40 Ruskin Street, Rm H5229, Ottawa, Canada.
    Vulesevic, B
    Bio-nanomaterials Chemistry and Engineering Laboratory, Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, 40 Ruskin Street, Rm H5229, Ottawa, Canada.
    Argawal, A
    Bio-nanomaterials Chemistry and Engineering Laboratory, Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, 40 Ruskin Street, Rm H5229, Ottawa, Canada.
    Ross, A
    Bio-nanomaterials Chemistry and Engineering Laboratory, Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, 40 Ruskin Street, Rm H5229, Ottawa, Canada.
    Bejjani, P
    Bio-nanomaterials Chemistry and Engineering Laboratory, Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, 40 Ruskin Street, Rm H5229, Ottawa, Canada.
    Podrebarac, J
    Bio-nanomaterials Chemistry and Engineering Laboratory, Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, 40 Ruskin Street, Rm H5229, Ottawa, Canada.
    Ravichandran, Ranjithkumar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Suuronen, E J
    Bio-nanomaterials Chemistry and Engineering Laboratory, Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, 40 Ruskin Street, Rm H5229, Ottawa, Canada.
    Griffith, May
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Coloured cornea replacements with anti-infective properties: expanding the safe use of silver nanoparticles in regenerative medicine.2016Inngår i: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 8, nr 12, s. 6484-6489Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the broad anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), their use in bioengineered corneal replacements or bandage contact lenses has been hindered due to their intense yellow coloration. In this communication, we report the development of a new strategy to pre-stabilize and incorporate AgNPs with different colours into collagen matrices for fabrication of corneal implants and lenses, and assessed their in vitro and in vivo activity.

  • 160.
    Albahari, Alberto
    et al.
    Universidad de Malaga, Spain.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos
    Universidad de Malaga, Spain.
    Science and Technology Parks: A study of value creation for park tenants2019Inngår i: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 1256-1272Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on Science and Technology Parks (STPs) is growing rapidly and, despite the positive impact of STPs on firms found by many studies, it remains unclear how STPs create value for tenants. In this paper, we study the STP supply side through a case study in a Swedish region. We identify two components of the business support provided by parks: a configuration-oriented component, and a process-oriented component. The former refers to the static design of the business support, and the latter to the active, hands-on support provided by parks’ management. Both components must be planned carefully in order to deliver value to tenants. We also discuss some implications for policy and managers.

  • 161.
    Albani, Giorgia
    et al.
    University of Milano Bicocca, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Perelli Cippo, Enrico
    CNR, Italy.
    Croci, Gabriele
    University of Milano Bicocca, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Muraro, Andrea
    CNR, Italy.
    Schooneveld, Erik
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, England.
    Scherillo, Antonella
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, England.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Sweden; Mittuniversitetet, Sweden.
    Kanaki, Kalliopi
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Sweden.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. European Spallat Source ERIC, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Claps, Gerardo
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Murtas, Fabrizio
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Rebai, Marica
    University of Milano Bicocca, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Tardocchi, Marco
    CNR, Italy.
    Gorini, Giuseppe
    University of Milano Bicocca, Italy; CNR, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Evolution in boron-based GEM detectors for diffraction measurements: from planar to 3D converters2016Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 27, nr 11, artikkel-id 115902Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The so-called He-3-crisis has motivated the neutron detector community to undertake an intense Ramp;D programme in order to develop technologies alternative to standard He-3 tubes and suitable for neutron detection systems in future spallation sources such as the European spallation source (ESS). Boron-based GEM (gas electron multiplier) detectors are a promising He-3-free technology for thermal neutron detection in neutron scattering experiments. In this paper the evolution of boron-based GEM detectors from planar to 3D converters with an application in diffraction measurements is presented. The use of 3D converters coupled with GEMs allows for an optimization of the detector performances. Three different detectors were used for diffraction measurements on the INES instrument at the ISIS spallation source. The performances of the GEM-detectors are compared with those of conventional He-3 tubes installed on the INES instrument. The conceptual detector with the 3D converter used in this paper reached a count rate per unit area of about 25% relative to the currently installed He-3 tube. Its timing resolution is similar and the signal-to-background ratio (S/B) is 2 times lower.

  • 162.
    Albarracín, Lluís
    et al.
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
    Bergman Ärlebäck, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Matematik och tillämpad matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Civil, Elisabeth
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
    Gorgorió, Núria
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
    Extending Modelling Activity Diagrams as a tool to characterise mathematical modelling processes2019Inngår i: The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, ISSN 1551-3440, E-ISSN 1551-3440, Vol. 16, nr 1-2, artikkel-id 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a qualitative study in which we analyse the video-recordings of four groups of students solving Fermi Problems. Previous studies show that Secondary School students solve this type of problems using complex problem solving processes and developing mathematical models. In order to analyse the students’ problem solving processes, so-called Modelling Activity Diagrams were used. The results of the present study demonstrate that solving Fermi problems is a complex matter, and that some of the theoretical tools used in the field of Mathematical Education fail to adequately reflect this level of complexity. In addition, Modelling Activity Diagrams are presented as a more detailed analysis tool to characterise student choices and actions, as well as to make the structure of the Fermi problem addressed more visible.

  • 163.
    Albertsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. SICS East Swedish ICT AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rennes, Evelina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. SICS East Swedish ICT AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. SICS East Swedish ICT AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Similarity-Based Alignment of Monolingual Corpora for Text Simplification2016Inngår i: CL4LC 2016 - Computational Linguistics for Linguistic Complexity: Proceedings of the Workshop, The COLING 2016 Organizing Committee , 2016, s. 154-163Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparable or parallel corpora are beneficial for many NLP tasks.  The automatic collection of corpora enables large-scale resources, even for less-resourced languages, which in turn can be useful for deducing rules and patterns for text rewriting algorithms, a subtask of automatic text simplification. We present two methods for the alignment of Swedish easy-to-read text segments to text segments from a reference corpus.  The first method (M1) was originally developed for the task of text reuse detection, measuring sentence similarity by a modified version of a TF-IDF vector space model. A second method (M2), also accounting for part-of-speech tags, was devel- oped, and the methods were compared.  For evaluation, a crowdsourcing platform was built for human judgement data collection, and preliminary results showed that cosine similarity relates better to human ranks than the Dice coefficient. We also saw a tendency that including syntactic context to the TF-IDF vector space model is beneficial for this kind of paraphrase alignment task.

  • 164.
    Albinsson, L.
    et al.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedman, J.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mixed DNA profiles from single-donors2015Inngår i: Abstract book, 7th European Academy of Forensic Science, EAFS, Prag, Tjeckien, 2015, 2015, s. 538-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosaicism and chimerism in individuals can complicate the interpretation and even lead to misinterpretation of DNA profiles in forensic casework. If a person has different DNA profiles in different tissue types, i.e. a true chimaera, wrongful exclusions can be made. Additionally, mixed chimaeras can have DNA profiles that may be mistaken for mixtures. We have set-up automatic DNA databasing processes to handle atypical single-donor DNA profiles, i.e. profiles having one or several “extra” alleles.

    Studying all reference samples analysed at NFC from 2006 until spring 2014, 2‰ of the samples showed atypical DNA profiles. To be able to set routines for handling these DNA profiles, each one was manually searched in CODIS with adjusted settings, to evaluate the frequency of false-positive hits. To tag these profiles in LIMS a new result status was implemented. Additionally, all such DNA profiles must be confirmed by analysing at least two discrete samples. In LIMS, the results are manually recorded to compose of all alleles from the samples from a suspect, i.e. containing most possible genetic information. LIMS automatically categorises the atypical DNA profiles with a special CODIS index, called “Multi-allelic offender”. The first time an atypical profile is searched, the matches are manually investigated. If a match is false, its disposition will be set to “no match” to prevent this from occurring in future searches. Automatic searches will then be performed in every day routine with moderate stringency, allowing the atypical DNA profile to match either a genotype or a mixture. If the match is true, a match-report will be created and sent to the police from the LIMS.

     

  • 165.
    Albouy, Camille
    et al.
    IFREMER, France.
    Archambault, Philippe
    Univ Laval, Canada.
    Appeltans, Ward
    UNESCO, Belgium.
    Araujo, Miguel B.
    CSIC, Spain; Univ Evora, Portugal; Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Beauchesne, David
    Univ Quebec Rimouski, Canada.
    Cazelles, Kevin
    Univ Guelph, Canada.
    Cirtwill, Alyssa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Fortin, Marie-Josee
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Galiana, Nuria
    CNRS, France.
    Leroux, Shawn J.
    Mem Univ, Canada.
    Pellissier, Loik
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland; Swiss Fed Res Inst WSL, Switzerland.
    Poisot, Timothee
    Univ Montreal, Canada; McGill Univ, Canada.
    Stouffer, Daniel B.
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Wood, Spencer A.
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Gravel, Dominique
    Univ Montreal, Canada; Univ Sherbrooke, Canada.
    The marine fish food web is globally connected2019Inngår i: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 3, nr 8, s. 1153-+Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The productivity of marine ecosystems and the services they provide to humans are largely dependent on complex interactions between prey and predators. These are embedded in a diverse network of trophic interactions, resulting in a cascade of events following perturbations such as species extinction. The sheer scale of oceans, however, precludes the characterization of marine feeding networks through de novo sampling. This effort ought instead to rely on a combination of extensive data and inference. Here we investigate how the distribution of trophic interactions at the global scale shapes the marine fish food web structure. We hypothesize that the heterogeneous distribution of species ranges in biogeographic regions should concentrate interactions in the warmest areas and within species groups. We find that the inferred global metaweb of marine fish-that is, all possible potential feeding links between co-occurring species-is highly connected geographically with a low degree of spatial modularity. Metrics of network structure correlate with sea surface temperature and tend to peak towards the tropics. In contrast to open-water communities, coastal food webs have greater interaction redundancy, which may confer robustness to species extinction. Our results suggest that marine ecosystems are connected yet display some resistance to perturbations because of high robustness at most locations.

  • 166.
    Albrektsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Optimisation of Off-Road Transport Missions2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mines, construction sites, road construction and quarries are examples of applications where construction equipment are used. In a production chain consisting of several construction machines working together, the work needs to be optimised and coordinated to achieve an environmental friendly, energy efficient and productive production. Recent rapid development within positioning services, telematics and human machine interfaces (HMI) opens up for control of individual machines and optimisation of transport missions where several construction machines co-operate.

    The production chain on a work site can be split up in different sub-tasks of which some can be transport missions. Taking off in a transport mission where one wheel loader ("loader" hereinafter) and two articulated haulers ("haulers" hereinafter) co-operate to transport material at a set production rate [ton/h], a method for fuel optimal control is developed. On the mission level, optimal cycle times for individual sub-tasks such as wheel loader loading, hauler transport and hauler return, are established through the usage of Pareto fronts.

    The haulers Pareto fronts are built through the development of a Dynamic Programming (DP) algorithm that trades fuel consumption versus cycle time for a road stretch by means of a time penalty constant. Through varying the time penalty constant n number of times, discrete fuel consumption - cycle time values can be achieved, forming the Pareto front. At a later stage, the same DP algorithm is used to generate fuel optimal vehicle speed and gear trajectories that are used as control signals for the haulers. Input to the DP algorithm is the distance to be travelled, road inclination, rolling resistance coefficient and a max speed limit to avoid unrealistic optimisation results.

    Thus, a method to describe the road and detect the road related data is needed to enable the optimisation. A map module is built utilising an extended Kalman Filter, Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother and sensor fusion to merge data and estimate parameters not observable by sensors. The map module uses a model of the vehicle, sensor signals from a GPS or GNSS sensor and machine sensors to establish a map of the road.

    The wheel loader Pareto front is based on data developed in previous research combined with Volvo in-house data. The developed optimisation algorithms are implemented on a PC and in an interactive computer tablet based system. A human machine interface is created for the tablet, guiding the operators to follow the optimal control signals, which is speed for the haulers and cycle time for the loader. To evaluate the performance of the system it is tested in real working conditions.

    The contributions develop algorithms, set up a demo mission control system and carry out experiments. Altogether rendering in a platform that can be used as a base for a future design of an off-road transport mission control system.

  • 167.
    Albrektsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Åslund, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fuel Optimal Control of an Articulated Hauler Utilising a Human Machine Interface2019Inngår i: Smart Cities, Green Technologies, and Intelligent Transport Systems / [ed] Donnellan, Brian; Klein, Cornel; Helfert, Markus; Gusikhin, Oleg; Pascoal, António, Springer International Publishing , 2019, s. 190-208Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilising optimal control presents an opportunity to increase the fuel efficiency in an off-road transport mission conducted by an articulated hauler. A human machine interface (HMI) instructing the hauler operator to follow the fuel optimal vehicle speed trajectory has been developed and tested in real working conditions. The HMI implementation includes a Dynamic Programming based method to calculate the optimal vehicle speed and gear shift trajectories. Input to the optimisation algorithm is road related data such as distance, road inclination and rolling resistance. The road related data is estimated in a map module utilising an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), a Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother and a data fusion algorithm. Two test modes were compared: (1) The hauler operator tried to follow the optimal vehicle speed trajectory as presented in the HMI and (2) the operator was given a constant target speed to follow. The objective of the second test mode is to achieve an approximately equal cycle time as for the optimally controlled transport mission, hence, with similar productivity. A small fuel efficiency improvement was found when the human machine interface was used.

  • 168.
    Albrektsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Åslund, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fuel optimal control of an off-road transport mission2018Inngår i: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), 2018, s. 175-180Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To coordinate and optimise an off-road transport mission, on which a wheel loader and two articulated haulers cooperate, a fuel-optimal control algorithm is developed. The control algorithm utilises Pareto fronts of fuel consumption versus cycle time to e

  • 169.
    Albrektsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Åslund, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Road estimation and fuel optimal control of an off-road vehicle2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, SciTePress, 2017, s. 58-67Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 170.
    Al-Chalabi, Mona
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Matematik och tillämpad matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gymnasieelevers matematiska svårigheter att lösa linjära ekvationer och linjära ekvationssystem: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Många gymnasieelever har svårt att förstå algebra, specifikt linjära ekvationer och linjära ekvationssystem, vilket hindrar deras vidare lärande i både matematik och andra ämnen.  Lärare måste därför ha en klar uppfattning om vilka dessa svårigheter är för att kunna hjälpa sina elever till förståelse och lärande av detta område i algebra. I studien undersöks forskningslitteraturens resultat om vilka dessa svårigheter är. Påvisade svårigheter som har illustrerats med exempel på elevlösningar är: brister i elevers algebraiska förkunskaper, procedurkunskaper och konceptuella kunskaper (särskilt om likhetstecken, konstanter och variabler), brister i elevers kunskaper om algebraisk syntax, samt brister i elevers hantering av de operationer som används för lösning av ekvationer och ekvationssystem, t ex hur man hanterar negativa koefficienter och konstanter och använder substitutionsmetoden.

  • 171.
    Al-Dabbas, Khaled
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Analysis of GHG emissions reduction from road transport: a case study of the German passenger vehicles2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation and energy play an essential role in modern society. Since the Industrial Revolution, fossil fuels have enabled great advancements in human society. Within this process, Internal Combustion Engines Vehicles (ICEVs) played a significant role in guaranteeing reliable and affordable long-distance transportation. However, the subsequent increase of the Motorized Private Transport resulted in undesired effects such as pollution. One instrument in reducing the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of the transport sector is to shift from the conventional ICEVs toward zero local emission vehicles. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are being promoted worldwide as a suitable powertrain technology that could replace the ICEVs. However, unless combined with electricity from renewable generation technologies the EVs will not effectively reduce GHG emissions. Through the simulation of future transport and energy sector scenarios in Germany, the GHG emission reductions have been analyzed. Techno-economic and environmental characteristics for several powertrain technologies under several vehicles charging strategies are evaluated. The thesis explores the impact of charging EVs on the electrical grid. The result show that EVs using smart charging strategies that support Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) are capable of fulfilling mobility needs of users while providing substantial flexibility to the electrical grid. Such flexibility can facilitate the future expansion of non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources (RES).

  • 172.
    Aldred, Nick
    et al.
    Newcastle University, England .
    Gohad, Neeraj V.
    Clemson University, SC USA .
    Petrone, Luigi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Orihuela, Beatriz
    Duke University, NC USA .
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mount, Andrew
    Clemson University, SC USA .
    Rittschof, Dan
    Duke University, NC USA .
    Clare, Anthony S.
    Newcastle University, England .
    Confocal microscopy-based goniometry of barnacle cyprid permanent adhesive2013Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 216, nr 11, s. 1969-1972Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological adhesives are materials of particular interest in the fields of bio-inspired technology and antifouling research. The adhesive of adult barnacles has received much attention over the years; however, the permanent adhesive of the cyprid - the colonisation stage of barnacles - is a material about which very little is presently known. We applied confocal laser-scanning microscopy to the measurement of contact angles between the permanent adhesive of barnacle cyprid larvae and self-assembled monolayers of OH- and CH3-terminated thiols. Measurement of contact angles between actual bioadhesives and surfaces has never previously been achieved and the data may provide insight into the physicochemical properties and mechanism of action of these functional materials. The adhesive is a dual-phase system post-secretion, with the behaviour of the components governed separately by the surface chemistry. The findings imply that the cyprid permanent adhesion process is more complex than previously thought, necessitating broad re-evaluation of the system. Improved understanding will have significant implications for the production of barnacle-resistant coatings as well as development of bio-inspired glues for niche applications.

  • 173.
    Aldén, Fanny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Juopperi, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    UX-verktyg för prototyputveckling med AI-baserat automationsstöd för omvandling av skisser till gränssnittskomponenter2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Att skapa prototyper för att testa idéer är vanligt, oavsett vad det är som ska testas. Prototyper kan förekomma i oändligt olika former och vara mer eller mindre verklighetstrogna. Hur verklighetstrogen en prototyp är beror på vad som ska testas och hur mycket tid som läggs på prototypskapandet. I teknikbranschen är prototyperna vanligen digitala och skapas med prototypprogram. Eftersom tid är pengar så försöker företag effektivisera prototyprocessen genom att utforska nya tekniker, som exempelvis artificiell intelligens. Syftet med examensarbetet som beskrivs i den här rapporten är att undersöka hur ett prototypverktyg med automation bör utformas samt vilka eventuella användningsområde verktyget har. Under examensarbetet genomfördes intervjuer med anställda på konsultföretaget Exsitec. Syftet med intervjuerna var att ta reda på hur Exsitec arbetar med prototyper i uppstarten av sina projekt. Med hjälp av informationen identifierades svårigheter i arbetsprocessen. Utifrån den informationen utvecklades prototypverktyget ProtoDraw. Verktyget är utrustat med artificiell intelligens, som känner igen skisser och ger utifrån dem rekommendationer på webbkomponenter. Prototypverktyget utvecklades, tränades och testades som en del av fallstudien. Målet med fallstudien var att testa användares förtroende för verktyget samt hur förtroendet berodde på verktygets automationsnivå. Prototypverktyget utrustades med tre automationsnivåer interaktionsmodell A, interaktionsmodell B och interaktionsmodell C. Interaktionsmodell A gav alla förslag till användaren och rekommenderade de mest lika komponenterna genom att rama in dem. I interaktionsmodell B fick användaren endast de tre bästa resultaten. I interaktionsmodell C fick användaren endast ett förslag från automationen. Totalt genomfördes 15 användartester, fem stycken på varje nivå. Resultatet från användartesterna visade att interaktionsmodell B hade högst och stadigast förtroende. Interaktionsmodell B var även nivån som användarna ansåg var mest användbar. Trots detta var A nivån som användarna utförde uppgifterna i användartesterna på kortast tid. C hade den långsammaste tiden och det berodde på att den höga automationsnivån bidrog till att gränssnittet blev känsligt för fel.

  • 174.
    Alegret, Guillem
    et al.
    MAN Diesel & Turbo, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Llamas, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vejlgaard-Laursen, Morten
    MAN Diesel & Turbo, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Fordonssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Modeling of a Large Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engine with Cylinder Bypass Valve and EGR System2015Inngår i: 10th IFAC Conference on Manoeuvring and Control of Marine Craft MCMC 2015: Copenhagen, 24–26 August 2015 / [ed] Roberto Galeazzi and Mogens Blanke, IFAC Papers Online, 2015, Vol. 48, s. 273-278Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A nonlinear mean value engine model (MVEM) of a two-stroke turbocharged marine diesel engine is developed, parameterized and validated against measurement data. The goal is to have a computationally fast and accurate engine model that captures the main dynamics and can be used in the development of control systems for the newly introduced EGR system. The tuning procedure used is explained, and the result is a six-state MVEM with seven control inputs that capture the main system dynamics.

  • 175.
    Alene Asres, Georgies
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Dombovari, Aron
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Sipola, Teemu
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Puskas, Robert
    University of Szeged, Hungary.
    Kukovecz, Akos
    University of Szeged, Hungary; MTA SZTE Lendulet Porous Nanocomposites Research Grp, Hungary.
    Konya, Zoltan
    University of Szeged, Hungary; MTA SZTE React Kinet and Surface Chemistry Research Grp, Hungary.
    Popov, Alexey
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lin, Jhih-Fong
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lorite, Gabriela S.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Mohl, Melinda
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Toth, Geza
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Kordas, Krisztian
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    A novel WS2 nanowire-nanoflake hybrid material synthesized from WO3 nanowires in sulfur vapor2016Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, nr 25610Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, WS2 nanowire-nanoflake hybrids are synthesized by the sulfurization of hydrothermally grown WO3 nanowires. The influence of temperature on the formation of products is optimized to grow WS2 nanowires covered with nanoflakes. Current-voltage and resistance-temperature measurements carried out on random networks of the nanostructures show nonlinear characteristics and negative temperature coefficient of resistance indicating that the hybrids are of semiconducting nature. Bottom gated field effect transistor structures based on random networks of the hybrids show only minor modulation of the channel conductance upon applied gate voltage, which indicates poor electrical transport between the nanowires in the random films. On the other hand, the photo response of channel current holds promise for cost-efficient solution process fabrication of photodetector devices working in the visible spectral range.

  • 176.
    Alenvret, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Evaldsson, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Creating customer value through knowledge integration: How internal stakeholders can be involved in the product development process2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing globalisation of the market is followed by increased competition between organisations. Therefore it becomes more important to create products with high customer value. To be able to create customer value, deep understanding of the customers’ needs must be obtained by employees, shared between them and transformed into products. Further consequences of globalisation are increasing differences between customers’ needs, which results in demand for customisable and flexible products.The purpose of this study was to analyse how organisations can create more customer value through increased knowledge integration. The focus was on how knowledge that already resides within a globally dispersed organisation can be integrated during the product development process.This study showed that customer value is created throughout the product development process by integrating the knowledge held by R&D and internal stakeholders. Different types of value are created at different phases in the product development process. One important finding is that different parts of the augmented value are created throughout the entire product development process. Since employees obtain different knowledge depending on which customer they interact with, it is important to utilise knowledge from a large number of employees with different roles and in different countries. Hence, the significance of knowledge integration must be disseminated and understood across the organisation. After completing the product development process additional customer value is created by the internal stakeholders’ who sell and implement the product, but it is during the product development process that the basis for their value creation is established.Knowledge needs to be integrated in a formalised, repeatable way, so that the R&D department can ensure that the right product is developed at the right time. Integration means that the tacit knowledge that resides within one employee is codified into an explicit form that can be exploited by more employees. Therefore, four steps must be performed and repeated iteratively to create and spread knowledge throughout the organisation. The first step includes communication by exchanging tacit knowledge. The second step entails documenting the knowledge, and the third step involves combining the knowledge residing in the organisations into one common knowledge system. The final step includes distributing the knowledge so that it recievess wide attention within the organisation. Several factors that have a negative impact on these four steps, and knowledge integration, need to be countered somehow. However, it was found that there are several mechanisms that facilitate knowledge integration, and most often the presence of several mechanisms at the same time had a better effect.

  • 177.
    Alesand, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vergara, Ekhiotz Jon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Communication Energy Evaluation for Mobile Applications: Emulating 3G over WiFi2016Inngår i: ProceedingENERGY-SIM '16 Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Energy-Aware Simulation, ACM Digital Library, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ubiquitous connectivity and massive use of mobile applications are currently hampered by fast battery drain of mobile devices. The communication energy of a mobile device is highly inuenced by the cellular operator conguration and the communication data pattern. Although testing the functionality and eciency of an application under diverse and realistic network settings is desirable, it is currently limited at the application developer test environment. It is generally hard to mimic di erent operator (infrastructure) settings that impact battery drain. In this paper we propose a system that creates a realistic cellular network testing environment for mobile applications on top of a WiFi network. A mobile device connects via WiFi to an emulator which shapes the uplink and downlink WiFi trac using real cellular operator conguration parameters. The system provides higher test repeatability compared to live networks and can be congured to emulate diverse cellular network parameters. These parameters, which determine the energy consumption, can be changed modularly and eciently. The evaluation of the resulting trac of the emulator compared to real cellular packet races from a streaming application shows a high correlation (0.97-0.98). The work has resulted in integration of the emulator within Spotify's test environment.

  • 178.
    Alexandersson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nordin, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Implementation of CAN Communication Stack in AUTOSAR2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the automotive industry today, embedded systems have reached a level of complexity which is not maintainable with the traditional approach of design- ing automotive embedded systems. For this purpose, many of the worlds leading automotive manufacturers have formed an alliance to apprehend this problem. This has resulted in AUTOSAR, an open standardized architecture for automotive embedded systems, which strives for increased flexibility and safety regulations. This thesis will explore the possibilities of implementing a CAN Communication stack using the AUTOSAR architecture and its corresponding methodology. As a result of this thesis, a complete AUTOSAR CAN communication stack has been implemented, as well has a simulator application with the purpose of testing its functionality. 

  • 179.
    Alexander-Webber, J. A.
    et al.
    University of Oxford, England; University of Cambridge, England.
    Huang, J.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Maude, D. K.
    CNRS UGA UPS INSA, France.
    Janssen, T. J. B. M.
    National Phys Lab, England.
    Tzalenchuk, A.
    National Phys Lab, England; Royal Holloway University of London, England.
    Antonov, V.
    Royal Holloway University of London, England.
    Yager, T.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Lara-Avila, S.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Kubatkin, S.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nicholas, R. J.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Giant quantum Hall plateaus generated by charge transfer in epitaxial graphene2016Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, nr 30296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial graphene has proven itself to be the best candidate for quantum electrical resistance standards due to its wide quantum Hall plateaus with exceptionally high breakdown currents. However one key underlying mechanism, a magnetic field dependent charge transfer process, is yet to be fully understood. Here we report measurements of the quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene showing the widest quantum Hall plateau observed to date extending over 50 T, attributed to an almost linear increase in carrier density with magnetic field. This behaviour is strong evidence for field dependent charge transfer from charge reservoirs with exceptionally high densities of states in close proximity to the graphene. Using a realistic framework of broadened Landau levels we model the densities of donor states and predict the field dependence of charge transfer in excellent agreement with experimental results, thus providing a guide towards engineering epitaxial graphene for applications such as quantum metrology.

  • 180.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Saab Aeronaut, S-58247 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Adaptive Interaction Criteria for Future Remotely Piloted Aircraft2017Inngår i: ADVANCES IN HUMAN FACTORS IN ROBOTS AND UNMANNED SYSTEMS, SPRINGER INT PUBLISHING AG , 2017, Vol. 499, s. 281-289Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are technical trends and operational needs within the aviation domain towards adaptive behavior. This study focus on adaptive interaction criteria for future remotely piloted aircraft. Criteria that could be used to guide and evaluate design as well as to create a model for adaptive interaction used by autonomous functions and decision support. A scenario and guidelines from the literature, used as example criteria, was presented in a questionnaire to participants from academia/researchers, end users, and aircraft development engineers. Several guidelines had a wide acceptance among the participants, but there was also aspects missing for the application of supporting adaptive interaction for remotely piloted aircraft. The various groups of participants contributed by different aspects supports the idea of having various stakeholders contributing with complementary views. Aspects that the participants found missing includes, predictability, aviation domain specifics, risk analysis, complexity and how people perceive autonomy and attribute intentions.

  • 181.
    Alfredson, Jens
    et al.
    SAAB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gonzaga Trabasso, Luis
    Aeronautics Institute of Technology, Brazil.
    Schminder, Jörg
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanisk värmeteori och strömningslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Granlund, Rego
    Research Institutes of Sweden SICS East, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gårdhagen, Roland
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanisk värmeteori och strömningslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    DESIGN OF A DISTRIBUTED HUMAN FACTORS LABORATORY FOR FUTURE AIRSYSTEMS2018Inngår i: ICAS congress proceeding, International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences , 2018, artikkel-id ICAS2018_0305Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a rationale for structuring a distributed human factors laboratory for future air systems. The distributed herein refers to two aspects: content and geographic. As for content, the laboratory is structured in two levels, namely, individual, and team. As for geographic, the laboratory infrastructure is distributed in three physically separate facilities, namely, Department of Computer and Information Science (IDA) and Department of Management and Engineering (IEI) from Linköping University – Sweden and the Competence Center in Manufacturing from the Aeronautics Institute of Technology (ITA) – Brazil.

  • 182.
    Alfredson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Saab Aeronaut, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Trabasso, Luís Gonzaga
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. ITA, Brazil.
    Blomstrand, Niklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eckerberg, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Klamer, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ledin, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tarander, Jasmine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Engine Failure Induced Task Load Transient for Simulation Based Certification Aiding for Aircraft2018Inngår i: ADVANCES IN HUMAN ASPECTS OF TRANSPORTATION, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2018, Vol. 597, s. 79-86Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is one of a series of studies, researching various aspects that all aim at enhanced simulation based certification aiding for aircraft. An experimental within-group design study was performed with 10 participants ( 5 male, and 5 female). The results showed a significant difference, F(2,16) = 5.11, p = 0.019, in mental workload between an engine failure condition and an normal condition for eye blink frequency. No effect of speed at the engine failure event on mental workload was found.

  • 183.
    Algergawy, Alsayed
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Cheatham, Michelle
    Wright State University, USA.
    Faria, Daniel
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Ferrara, Alfio
    Universita degli studi di Milano, Italy.
    Fundulaki, Irina
    FORTH, Greece.
    Harrow, Ian
    Pistoia Alliance Inc., USA.
    Hertling, Sven
    University of Mannheim, Germany.
    Jimenez-Ruiz, Ernesto
    Alan Turing Institute, London, UK; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Karam, Naouel
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Berlin, Germany.
    Khiat, Abderrahman
    Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.
    Lambrix, Patrick
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Databas och informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Li, Huanyu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Databas och informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Montanelli, Stefano
    Universita degli studi di Milano, Italy.
    Paulheim, Heiko
    University of Mannheim, Germany.
    Pesquita, Catia
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Saveta, Tzanina
    FORTH, Greece.
    Schmidt, Daniela
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Shvaiko, Pavel
    Trentino Digitale SpA, Trento, Italy.
    Splendiani, Andrea
    Pistoia Alliance Inc., USA.
    Thiéblin, Elodie
    IRIT & Université Toulouse II, Toulouse, France.
    Trojahn, Cassia
    IRIT & Université Toulouse II, Toulouse, France.
    Vatascinova, Jana
    University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Zamazal, Ondrej
    University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Zhou, Lu
    Wright State University, USA.
    Results of the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative 20182018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Ontology Matching: co-located with the 17th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2018) / [ed] Pavel Shvaiko, Jérôme Euzenat, Ernesto Jiménez-Ruiz, Michelle Cheatham, Oktie Hassanzadeh, Aachen, Germany: CEUR Workshop Proceedings , 2018, Vol. 2288, s. 76-116Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) aims at comparing ontology matching systems on precisely defined test cases. These test cases can be based on ontologies of different levels of complexity (from simple thesauri to expressive OWL ontologies) and use different evaluation modalities (e.g., blind evaluation, open evaluation, or consensus). The OAEI 2018 campaign offered 12 tracks with 23 test cases, and was attended by 19 participants. This paper is an overall presentation of that campaign.

  • 184.
    Algergawy, Alsayed
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany .
    Faria, Daniel
    BioData.pt, INESC-ID, Lisbon, Portugal .
    Ferrara, Alfio
    Universita degli studi di Milano, Italy .
    Fundulaki, Irini
    Institute of Computer Science-FORTH, Heraklion, Greece .
    Harrow, Ian
    Pistoia Alliance Inc., USA .
    Hertling, Sven
    University of Mannheim, Germany .
    Jimenez-Ruiz, Ernesto
    City University of London, UK and University of Oslo, Norway .
    Karam, Naouel
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Berlin, Germany .
    Khiat, Abderrahmane
    Fraunhofer IAIS, Sankt Augustin, Bonn, Germany.
    Lambrix, Patrick
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Databas och informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Li, Huanyu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Databas och informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Montanelli, Stefano
    Universita degli studi di Milano, Italy .
    Paulheim, Heiko
    University of Mannheim, Germany.
    Pesquita, Catia
    LASIGE, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal .
    Saveta, Tzanina
    Institute of Computer Science-FORTH, Heraklion, Greece .
    Shvaiko, Pavel
    TasLab, Trentino Digitale SpA, Trento, Italy .
    Splendiani, Andrea
    Pistoia Alliance Inc., USA.
    Thieblin, Elodie
    IRIT & Universite Toulouse II, Toulouse, France .
    Trojahn, Cassia
    IRIT & Universite Toulouse II, Toulouse, France .
    Vatascinova, Jana
    University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Zamazal, Ondrej
    University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Zhou, Lu
    Kansas State University, USA .
    Results of the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative 20192019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Ontology Matchingco-located with the 18th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2019) / [ed] Pavel Shvaiko, Jérôme Euzenat, Ernesto Jiménez-Ruiz, Oktie Hassanzadeh, Cássia Trojahn,, Aachen: CEUR Workshop Proceedings , 2019, s. 46-85Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) aims at comparing ontology matching systems on precisely defined test cases. These test cases can be based on ontologies of different levels of complexity (from simple thesauri to expressive OWL ontologies) and use different evaluation modalities (e.g., blind evaluation,open evaluation, or consensus). The OAEI2019 campaign offered 11 tracks with 29 test cases, and was attended by 20 participants. This paper is an overall presentation of that campaign.

  • 185.
    Ali, Amjad
    et al.
    COMSATS Univ Islamabad, Pakistan; Univ Okara, Pakistan.
    Raza, Rizwan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. COMSATS Univ Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Shakir, Muhammad Imran
    King Saud Univ, Saudi Arabia; Univ Calif Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Iftikhar, Asia
    COMSATS Univ Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Alvi, Farah
    COMSATS Univ Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Ullah, Muhammad Kaleem
    COMSATS Univ Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Hamid, Abdul
    Univ Okara, Pakistan.
    Kim, Jung-Sik
    Loughborough Univ, England.
    Promising electrochemical study of titanate based anodes in direct carbon fuel cell using walnut and almond shells biochar fuel2019Inngår i: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 434, artikkel-id 126679Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is an efficient device that converts the carbon fuel directly into electricity with 100% theoretical efficiency contrary to practical efficiency around 60%. In this paper four perovskite anode materials La0.4Sr0.6M0.09Ti0.91O3-delta (M = Ni, Fe, Co, Zn) have been prepared using sol-gel technique to measure the performance of the device using solid fuel. These materials have shown reasonable stability and conductivity at 700 degrees C. Further structural analysis of as-prepared anode material using XRD technique reveals a single cubic perovskite structure with average crystallite size roughly 47 nm. Walnut and almond shells biochar have also been examined as a fuel in DCFC at the temperature range 400-700 degrees C. In addition, Elemental analysis of walnut and almond shells has shown high carbon content and low nitrogen and sulfur contents in the obtained biochar. Subsequently, the superior stability of as-prepared anode materials is evident by thermogravimetric analysis in pure N-2 gas atmosphere. Conversely, the LSFT anode has shown the highest electronic conductivity of 7.53Scm(-1) at 700 degrees C. The obtained power density for LSFTO3-delta composite anode mixed in sub-bituminous coal, walnut and almond shells biochar is of 68, 55, 48 mWcm(-2) respectively. A significant improvement in performance of DCFC (78 mWcm(-2)) was achieved.

  • 186.
    Ali, Amjad
    et al.
    COMSATS Univ Islamabad, Pakistan; Univ Okara, Pakistan.
    Raza, Rizwan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. COMSATS Univ Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Shakir, Muhammad Imran
    King Saud Univ, Saudi Arabia; Univ Calif Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Rafique, Asia
    COMSATS Univ Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Alvi, Farah
    COMSATS Univ Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Ullah, Muhammad Kaleem
    COMSATS Univ Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Hamid, Abdul
    Univ Okara, Pakistan.
    Kim, Jung-Sik
    Loughborough Univ, England.
    Promising electrochemical study of titanate based anodes in direct carbon fuel cell using walnut and almond shells biochar fuel (vol 434, 126679, 2019)2019Inngår i: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 438, artikkel-id 226932Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 187.
    Ali Arslan, Mehmet
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gruian, Flavius
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kuchcinski, Krzysztof
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Code Generation for a SIMD Architecture with Custom Memory Organisation2016Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 CONFERENCE ON DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURES FOR SIGNAL and IMAGE PROCESSING, IEEE , 2016, s. 90-97Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Todays multimedia and DSP applications impose requirements on performance and power consumption that only custom processor architectures with SIMD capabilities can satisfy. However, the specific features of such architectures, including vector operations and high-bandwidth complex memory organization, make them notoriously complicated and time consuming to program. In this paper we present an automated code generation approach that dramatically reduces the effort of programming such architectures, by carrying out instruction scheduling and memory allocation based on a constraint programming formulation. Furthermore, the quality of the generated code is close to that of hand-written code by an experienced programmer with knowledge of the architecture. We demonstrate the viability of our approach on an existing custom heterogeneous DSP architecture, by compiling and running a number of typical DSP kernels, and comparing the results to hand-optimized code.

  • 188.
    Ali, Gulzar
    et al.
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Begum Mallah, Arfana
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Ahmed Mallah, Sarfraz
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Ibupoto, Akila
    Shah Abdul Latif University, Pakistan.
    Ahmed Khand, Aftab
    Tsinghua University, Peoples R China.
    Baradi, Waryani
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yu, Cong
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    University of Sindh, Pakistan; Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Functional CuO Microstructures for Glucose Sensing2018Inngår i: Journal of Electronic Materials, ISSN 0361-5235, E-ISSN 1543-186X, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 1519-1525Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    CuO microstructures are produced in the presence of water-soluble amino acids by hydrothermal method. The used amino acids include isoleucine, alpha alanine, and arginine as a soft template and are used for tuning the morphology of CuO nanostructures. The crystalline and morphological investigations were carried out by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The XRD study has shown that CuO material obtained in the presence of different amino acids is of high purity and all have the same crystal phase. The CuO microstructures prepared in the presence of arginine were used for the development of sensitive and selective glucose biosensor. The linear range for the glucose detection are from 0.001 mM to 30 mM and limit of detection was found to be 0.0005 mM. The sensitivity was estimated around 77 mV/decade. The developed biosensor is highly selective, sensitive, stable and reproducible. The glucose biosensor was used for the determination of real human blood samples and the obtained results are satisfactory. The CuO material is functional therefore can be capitalized in wide range of applications such as lithium ion batteries, all oxide solar cells and supercapacitors.

  • 189.
    Ali Kamyabi, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hajari, Nasim
    University of Zanjan, Iran .
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A high-performance glucose biosensor using covalently immobilised glucose oxidase on a poly(2,6-diaminopyridine)/carbon nanotube electrode2013Inngår i: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 116, s. 801-808Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A highly-sensitive glucose biosensor amenable to ultra-miniaturisation was fabricated by immobilisation of glucose oxidase (GOx), onto a poly(2,6-diaminopyridine)/multi-walled carbon nanotube/glassy carbon electrode (poly(2,6-DP)/MWNT/GCE). Cyclic voltammetry was used for both the electrochemical synthesis of poly-(2,6-DP) on the surface of a MWNT-modified GC electrode, and characterisation of the polymers deposited on the GC electrode. The synergistic effect of the high active surface area of both the conducting polymer, i.e., poly-(2,6-DP) and MWNT gave rise to a remarkable improvement in the electrocatalytic properties of the biosensor. The transfer coefficient (alpha), heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant and Michaelis-Menten constant were calculated to be 0.6, 4 s(-1) and 0.20 mM at pH 7.4, respectively. The GOx/poly(2,6-DP)/MWNT/GC bioelectrode exhibited two linear responses to glucose in the concentration ranging from 0.42 mu M to 8.0 mM with a correlation coefficient of 0.95, sensitivity of 52.0 mu AmM-1 cm(-2), repeatability of 1.6% and long-term stability, which could make it a promising bioelectrode for precise detection of glucose in the biological samples. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 190.
    Ali Kamyabi, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Zanjan University, Iran.
    Hajari, Nasim
    Zanjan University, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Correction: A high-performance glucose biosensor using covalently immobilised glucose oxidase on a poly(2,6-diaminopyridine)/carbon nanotube electrode (vol 116, pg 801, 2013)2016Inngår i: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 153, s. 414-415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A highly-sensitive glucose biosensor amenable to ultraminiaturisation was fabricated by immobilization of glucose oxidase (wGOX), onto a poly(2,6-diaminopyridine)/multi-walled carbon nanotube/glassy carbon electrode (poly(2,6-DP)/MWCNT/GCE). Cyclic voltammetry was used for both the electrochemical synthesis of poly-(2,6-DP) on the surface of a MWCNT-modified GC electrode, and characterization of the polymers deposited on the GC electrode. The synergistic effect of the high active surface area of both the conducting-polymer, i.e., poly-(2,6-DP) and MWCNT gave rise to a remarkable improvement in the electrocatalytic properties of the biosensor. The transfer coefficient (alpha), heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant and Michaelis-Menten constant were calculated to be 0.6, 4 s-1 and 0.22 mM at pH 7.4, respectively. The GOx/poly(2,6-DP)/MWCNT/GC bioelectrode exhibited two linear responses to glucose in the concentration ranging from 0.42 mu M to 8.0 mM with a correlation coefficient of 0.95, sensitivity of 52.0 mu AmM-1 cm-2, repeatability of 1.6% and long-term stability, which could make it a promising bioelectrode for precise detection of glucose in the biological samples. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 191.
    Ali Malik, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gatto, Emanuela
    University Roma Tor Vergata.
    Macken, Stephen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    DiNatale, Corrado
    University Roma Tor Vergata.
    Paolesse, Roberto
    University Roma Tor Vergata.
    DAmico, Arnaldo
    University Roma Tor Vergata.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Imaging fingerprinting of excitation emission matrices2009Inngår i: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 635, nr 2, s. 196-201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectral fingerprinting of the excitation emission matrix (EEM) of fluorescent substances is demonstrated using polychromatic light sources and tri-chromatic image detectors. A model of the measured fingerprints explaining their features and classification performance, based on the polychromatic excitation of the indicators is proposed.

    Substantial amount of spectral information is retained in the fingerprints as corroborated by multivariate analysis and experimental conditions that favor such situation are identified.

    In average, for five different substances, the model shows a fitting goodness measured by the Pearsons r coefficient and the root mean square deviation of 0.8541 and 0.0247 respectively, while principal component classification patterns satisfactorily compare with the EEM spectroscopy classification and respectively explain 96% and 93% of the information in the fist two principal components.

    The measurements can be performed using regular computer screens as illumination and web cameras as detectors, which constitute ubiquitous and affordable platforms compatible with distributed evaluations, in contrast to regular instrumentation for EEM measurements.

  • 192.
    Ali, Sharafat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden; Corning Inc, NY 14831 USA.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Synthesis and characterization of the mechanical and optical properties of Ca-Si-O-N thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering2017Inngår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 315, s. 88-94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ca-Si-O-N thin films were deposited on commercial soda-lime silicate float glass, silica wafers and sapphire substrates by RF magnetron co-sputtering from Ca and Si targets in an Ar/N-2/O-2 gas mixture. Chemical composition, surface morphology, hardness, reduced elastic modulus and optical properties of the films were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. It was found that the composition of the films can be controlled by the Ca target power, predominantly, and by the reactive gas flow. Thin films in the Ca-Si-O-N system are composed of N and Ca contents up to 31 eq. % and 60 eq. %, respectively. The films thickness ranges from 600 to 3000 nm and increases with increasing Ca target power. The films surface roughness varied between 2 and 12 nm, and approximately decreases with increasing power of Ca target. The hardness (4-12 GPa) and reduced elastic modulus (65-145 GPa) of the films increase and decrease with the N and Ca contents respectively. The refractive index (1.56-1.82) is primarily dictated by the N content. The properties are compared with findings for bulk glasses in the Ca-Si-(Al)-O-N systems, and it is concluded that Ca-Si-O-N thin films have higher values of hardness, elastic modulus and refractive index than bulk glasses of similar composition. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 193.
    Ali, Sharafat
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ekström, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pallier, Camille
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. RISE IVF, S-58188 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Optical and mechanical properties of amorphous Mg-Si-O-N thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering2019Inngår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 372, s. 9-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, amorphous thin films in Mg-Si-O-N system typically containing amp;gt; 15 at.% Mg and 35 at.% N were prepared in order to investigate especially the dependence of optical and mechanical properties on Mg composition. Reactive RF magnetron co-sputtering from magnesium and silicon targets were used for the deposition of Mg-Si-O-N thin films. Films were deposited on float glass, silica wafers and sapphire substrates in an Ar, N-2 and O-2 gas mixture. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and nanoindentation were employed to characterize the composition, surface morphology, and properties of the films. The films consist of N and Mg contents up to 40 at.% and 28 at.%, respectively and have good adhesion to substrates and are chemically inert. The thickness and roughness of the films increased with increasing content of Mg. Both hardness (16-21 GPa) and reduced elastic modulus (120-176 GPa) are strongly correlated with the amount of Mg content. The refractive index up to 2.01 and extinction coefficient up to 0.18 were found to increase with Mg content. The optical band gap (3.1-4.3) decreases with increasing the Mg content. Thin film deposited at substrate temperature of 100 degrees C shows a lower value of hardness (10 GPa), refractive index (1.75), and higher values of reduced elastic modulus (124 GPa) as compared to the thin film deposited at 310 degrees C and 510 degrees C respectively, under identical synthesis parameters.

  • 194.
    Ali, Sharafat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Novel transparent Mg-Si-O-N thin films with high hardness and refractive index2016Inngår i: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand for glass materials with better mechanical and optical properties for display and electronic applications. This paper describes the deposition of novel thin films of Mg-circle divide-Si-O-N onto float glass substrates. Amorphous thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N system with high nitrogen and magnesium contents were deposited by reactive RF magnetron co-sputtering from Mg and Si targets in Ar/N-2/O-2 gas mixtures. The thin films studied span an unprecedented range of compositions up to 45 at% Mg and 80 at% N out of cations and anions respectively. Thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N system were found to be homogeneous and transparent in the visible region. Mechanical properties like hardness (H) and reduced elastic modulus (Er) show high values, up to 21 GPa and 166 GPa respectively. The refractive index (1.87-2.00) increases with increasing magnesium and nitrogen contents. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 195.
    Ali Soomro, Razium
    et al.
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Hallam, Keith Richard
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Syed
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Juddin, Siraj
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Jawaid, Sana
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Glutaric Acid Assisted Fabrication of CuO Nanostructures and their Application in Development of Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Sensor System for Carbamates2016Inngår i: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 28, nr 7, s. 1634-1640Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the fabrication of unique arrow head shaped CuO nanostructures using simple hydrothermal treatment method. The highly attractive features were obtained by the application of glutaric acid utilised simultaneous as template and functionalising agent. The functionalised nanostructures were known to possess excellent potential towards the electro-catalytic oxidation of carbofuran pesticide. The generated intense electrochemical signal with lower potential value enabled sensitive and selective determination of carbofuran up to 1 x 10(-3) mu M with wide sensing window in range of 0.01 to 0.16 mu M. The feasibility of the developed sensor system for the practical application was also studied by testing its potential in real sample extracts of various vegetables. The excellent recoveries demonstrated the analytical robustness of the developed sensor system. The sensor system utilises a new and simple approach towards sensitive determination of toxic pesticides reflecting its wide spectrum application in various fields.

  • 196.
    Ali Soomro, Razium
    et al.
    University of Bristol, England; University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Dr MA Kazi Institute Chemistry University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tufail Hussain Sirajuddin; Sherazi, Syed
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Ishaq Abro, Muhammad
    Mehran University of Engn and Technology, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Practice of diclofenac sodium for the hydrothermal growth of NiO nanostructures and their application for enzyme free glucose biosensor2016Inngår i: Microsystem Technologies: Micro- and Nanosystems Information Storage and Processing Systems, ISSN 0946-7076, E-ISSN 1432-1858, Vol. 22, nr 10, s. 2549-2557Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study diclofenac sodium (DFS), an analgesic drug has been employed as an effective template for the synthesis of NiO nanostructures. The NiO nanostructures were synthesised using low temperature hydrothermal growth method, both in the presence and absence of the DFS drug. The synthesised nanostructures were studied for their structural, compositional and electrochemical properties using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry. The synthesised nanostructures were then utilised for the modification of glassy carbon electrode which were then utilised for the electro-catalytic enzyme free glucose sensing in alkaline media. The competitive experiments suggested that although, both nanostructures possess excellent capability of glucose sensing, the NiO nanoflakes modified electrode was found to be twice as much as sensitive (2584 A mu A mM(-1) cm(-2)) as nanoflowers based electrode (1154 A mu A mM(-1) cm(-2)). The NiO nanoflakes based sensor further demonstrated excellent anti-interference potential in the presence of common interferents like uric acid, ascorbic acid and dopamine. In addition, the successful application NiO nanoflakes based sensor to determine real blood glucose concentration further suggest its feasibility for real sample analysis.

  • 197.
    Ali Soomro, Razium
    et al.
    University of Bristol, England; University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tufail Hussain Sirajuddin; Sherazi, Syed
    Univ Sindh, Natl Ctr Excellence Analyt Chem, Jamshoro 76080, Pakistan.
    Ishaq Abro, Muhammad
    Mehran University of Engn and Technology, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ahmed Mahesar, Sarfaraz
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Hussain Kalwar, Nazar
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Glycine-assisted preparation of Co3O4 nanoflakes with enhanced performance for non-enzymatic glucose sensing2015Inngår i: MATERIALS EXPRESS, ISSN 2158-5849, Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 437-444Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a simple, inexpensive and efficient route is proposed to synthesise attractive cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanostructures using glycine as an effective growth controller and regulator. The as-synthesised Co3O4 nanostructures were observed to possess unique nanoflake shape morphological features with highly dense distribution. The formation of Co3O4 nanoflakes (Co3O4 NFKs) was elaborately explored using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. The unique Co3O4 nanoflakes were known to possess excellent electro-catalytic potential for the oxidation of glucose in alkaline medium. This potential property allowed successful development of highly sensitive (1180 mu A mM(-1) cm(-2)), selective and stable non-enzymatic glucose sensor. In addition, the developed sensor had a wide working range (0.1-5.0 mM), low limit of detection (0.7 mu M), and excellent reproducibility, besides the capability of analysing real blood glucose samples.

  • 198.
    Ali Soomro, Razium
    et al.
    University of Bristol, England; University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Nafady, Ayman
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia; Sohag University, Egypt.
    Hallam, Keith Richard
    University of Bristol, England.
    Jawaid, Sana
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Al Enizi, Abdullah
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
    Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Syed
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Sirajuddin,
    Univ Sindh, Natl Ctr Excellence Analyt Chem, Jamshoro 76080, Pakistan.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Univ Sindh, Dr MA Kazi Inst Chem, Jamshoro 76080, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Highly sensitive determination of atropine using cobalt oxide nanostructures: Influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity2016Inngår i: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 948, s. 30-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes sensitive determination of atropine using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with Co3O4 nanostructures. The as-synthesised nanostructures were grown using cysteine (CYS), glutathione (GSH) and histidine (HYS) as effective templates under hydrothermal action. The obtained morphologies revealed interesting structural features, including both cavity-based and flower-shaped structures. The as-synthesised morphologies were noted to actively participate in electro-catalysis of atropine (AT) drug where GSH-assisted structures exhibited the best signal response in terms of current density and over-potential value. The study also discusses the influence of functional groups on the signal sensitivity of atropine electro-oxidation. The functionalisation was carried with the amino acids originally used as effective templates for the growth of Co3O4 nanostructures. The highest increment was obtained when GSH was used as the surface functionalising agent. The GSH-functionalised Co3O4-modified electrode was utilised for the electro-chemical sensing of AT in a concentration range of 0.01 -0.46 mu M. The developed sensor exhibited excellent working linearity (R-2 = 0.999) and signal sensitivity up to 0.001 mu M of AT. The noted high sensitivity of the sensor is associated with the synergy of superb surface architectures and favourable interaction facilitating the electron transfer kinetics for the electro-catalytic oxidation of AT. Significantly, the developed sensor demonstrated excellent working capability when used for AT detection in human urine samples with strong anti-interference potential against common co-existing species, such as glucose, fructose, cysteine, uric acid, dopamine and ascorbic acid. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 199.
    Ali Soomro, Razium
    et al.
    University of Sindh, Pakistan; University of Bristol, England.
    Nafady, Aynam
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia; Sohag University, Egypt.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tufail Hussain Sirajuddin; Sherazi, Syed
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ishaq Abro, Muhammad
    Mehran University of Engn and Technology, Pakistan.
    Development of sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor using complex nanostructures of cobalt oxide2015Inngår i: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 34, s. 373-381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study reports the synthesis of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanostructures and their application in enzyme free electrochemical sensing of glucose. The synthesized nanostructures were elaborately characterized via number of analytical techniques including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The as-synthesized nanostructures of Co3O4 were found to exhibited nanodisc like morphology with the size dimension in range of 300-500 nm. The obtained morphological features were evaluated for their electrochemical potential towards oxidation of glucose which enabled development of sensitive (27.33 mu A mM(-1) cm(-2)), and stable enzyme free glucose sensor. In addition, the developed sensor showed excellent linearity (r(2)=0.9995), wide detection range (0.5-5.0 mM), lower detection limit (0.8 mu M) and extreme selectivity towards glucose in the presence of common interferents like dopamine (DP), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). The successfully application of developed sensor for real blood glucose analysis further reflects its capability for routine glucose measurement.

  • 200.
    Ali Soomro, Razium
    et al.
    University of Bristol, England; University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Richard Hallam, Keith
    University of Bristol, England.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Jawaid, Sana
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Syed
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Sirajjuddin,
    Univ Sindh, Natl Ctr Excellence Analyt Chem, Jamshoro 76080, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A highly selective and sensitive electrochemical determination of melamine based on succinic acid functionalized copper oxide nanostructures2015Inngår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, nr 127, s. 105090-105097Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the development of a highly selective and sensitive electrochemical sensor for the determination of melamine from aqueous environments. The sensor system is based on functionalised marigold-like CuO nanostructures fabricated using a controlled hydrothermal process, where the utilised succinic acid is considered to play a dual role as a functionalising and growth controlling agent (modifier). The fabricated nanostructures exhibit sharp and well-ordered structural features with dimensions (thickness) in the range of 10-50 nm. The sensor system exhibits strong linearity within the concentration range of 0.1 x 10(-9) to 5.6 x 10(-9) M and demonstrates an excellent limit of detection up to 0.1 x 10(-10) M. The extreme selectivity and sensing capability of the developed sensor is attributed to the synergy of selective interaction between succinic acid and melamine moieties, and the high surface area of marigold-like CuO nanostructures. In addition to this, the developed sensor was also utilised for the determination of melamine from real milk samples collected from different regions of Hyderabad, Pakistan. The obtained excellent recoveries proved the feasibility of the sensor for real life applications. The sensor system offers an operative measure for detecting extremely low melamine content with high selectivity in food contents.

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