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  • 151.
    Andersson, Vidar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Evaluation of CellaVision DM1200 Vet and its ability to differentiate feline leukocytes compared to manual differential count and Advia 21202016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Leukocyte differential count in peripheral blood smear has, ever since the method was developed more than 100 years ago, been one of the most frequently used diagnostics tool in the routine hematology laboratory. The manual differential count of leukocytes using a microscope is still the standard method in most small and medium sized laboratories. Even though the method does not require any expensive instruments it comes at a high cost due to it being labor intensive and time consuming. In recent years the rapid technical advancements has led to the development of automatic or semi-automatic methods in which the leukocytes are differentiated. In this study a method comparison was made between manual leukocyte differential counts, CellaVision DM1200 Vet and Advia 2120 when analyzing 106 fresh, feline blood samples. The general agreement between results was good, especially for the most common leukocytes, such as neutrophils and lymphocytes. Results for eosinophils and monocytes had moderate agreement. The confidence intervals were generally wider when CellaVision DM1200 Vet was compared with Advia 2120, than when CellaVision DM1200 Vet was compared to the manual differential count. Despite the fact that Advia 2120 and CellaVision DM1200 Vet are both faster and often show comparable results to the manual differential count, the light microscopy will remain the gold standard for difficult samples, where there is suspicion of inflammation (band neutrophils), intracellular microorganisms, reactive lymphocytes or if the sample contains a high degree of smudge cells or artifacts. 

  • 152.
    Andersson, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Vänsterkammarfunktion hos cancerpatienter som erhållit hjärttoxisk behandling: Intraobservatörvariabilitet för systoliska funktionsmått utvärderad med ekokardiografi2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 153.
    Andonova, Teodora
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Effect of Omega-3 on Cholesterol Homeostasis in Mouse Brain2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 154.
    Andrae, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Gouveia, Leonor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Gallini, Radiosa
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    He, Liqun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Fredriksson, Linda
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Ingrid
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Bengt R.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Biomed, Electron Microscopy Unit, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Ulf
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Betsholtz, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    A role for PDGF-C/PDGFR alpha signaling in the formation of the meningeal basement membranes surrounding the cerebral cortex2016In: BIOLOGY OPEN, ISSN 2046-6390, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 461-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) is one of three known ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor PDGFR alpha. Analysis of Pdgfc null mice has demonstrated roles for PDGF-C in palate closure and the formation of cerebral ventricles, but redundancy with other PDGFR alpha ligands might obscure additional functions. In search of further developmental roles for PDGF-C, we generated mice that were double mutants for Pdgfc(-/-) and Pdgfra(GFP/+). These mice display a range of severe phenotypes including spina bifida, lung emphysema, abnormal meninges and neuronal over-migration in the cerebral cortex. We focused our analysis on the central nervous system (CNS), where PDGF-C was identified as a critical factor for the formation of meninges and assembly of the glia limitans basement membrane. We also present expression data on Pdgfa, Pdgfc and Pdgfra in the cerebral cortex and microarray data on cerebral meninges.

  • 155. Andre, Kadri
    et al.
    Kampman, Olli
    Illi, Ari
    Viikki, Merja
    Setala-Soikkeli, Eija
    Mononen, Nina
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Haraldsson, Susann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Koivisto, Pasi A.
    Leinonen, Esa
    SERT and NET polymorphisms, temperament and antidepressant response2015In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 531-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The genetic variations in norepinephrine transporter (NET) and serotonin transporter (SERT) genes have been associated with personality traits, several psychiatric disorders and the efficacy of antidepressant treatment. Aims: We investigated the separate effects and possible interactions between NET T-182C (rs2242446) and SERT 5-HTTLPR (rs4795541) polymorphisms on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) treatment response and temperamental traits assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in a clinical sample of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Our sample of 97 patients with major depression completed the 107-item TCI temperament questionnaire (version IX) at the initial assessment of the study and after 6 weeks of follow-up. All subjects received selective SSRI medications. Temperament dimension scores at baseline (1) and endpoint (2) during antidepressant treatment were analyzed between NET and SERT genotypes. Results: SS-genotype of 5-HTTLPR was associated with higher baseline Persistence scores than SL- or LL-genotype. A corresponding but weaker association was found at endpoint. No differences were found between 5-HTTLPR genotypes and other temperament dimensions and 5-HTTLPR genotypes had no effect on treatment response. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the SS-genotype of 5-HTTLPR is associated with Persistence scores in patients with MDD. Higher Persistence could be viewed as a negative trait when recovering from stress and its association with short and "weaker" S-allele may be related to less efficient serotonin neurotransmission, possibly resulting in less effective coping strategies on a behavioral level.

  • 156. Andreassen, Jenny
    PRESERVATION OF DNA AND BACTERIA FOR INCORPORATION IN CULTURE COLLECTIONS2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study contains of two different parts, an investigation of long time stored prokaryotic DNA for incorporation in a DNA-bank, and lyophilization of two Flavobacterium strains with different lyoprotectants and validation of an alternative method for determination of concentration. For the DNA-project PCR and capillary gel electrophoresis was used for sequencing, and lyophilization, CFU-counts and Start of growth time was used to investigate the Flavobacteriums. 87.5% of the DNA samples with maintained quality were correctly identified. The lyophilization was successful, with varying results from the revivals. The validation could not be completed due to incoherent results between the two methods.An alternative validation method is suggested. The presence of viable but non-cultivable should also be considerated for continued studies.

  • 157.
    Andreo, Pedro
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Wulff, Joerg
    Burns, David T.
    Palmans, Hugo
    Consistency in reference radiotherapy dosimetry: resolution of an apparent conundrum when Co-60 is the reference quality for charged-particle and photon beams2013In: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 58, no 19, p. 6593-6621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Substantial changes in ion chamber perturbation correction factors in Co-60 gamma-rays, suggested by recent Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, would cause a decrease of about 1.5% in the reference dosimetry of all types of charged particles (electrons, protons and heavier ions) based on calculated k(Q) values. It has gone largely unnoticed that the ratio of calibration coefficients N-D,N-w,N-Co60 and N-K,N-air,N-Co60 yields an experimental value of F-ch,F-Co60 = (s(w-air) pch)(Co60) through N-D,N-air,N-Co60. Coefficients provided by the IAEA and traceable to the BIPM for 91 NE-2571 chambers result in an average F-ch,F-Co60 which is compared with published (and new) MC simulations and with the value in IAEA TRS-398. It is shown that TRS-398 agrees within 0.12% with the experimental F-ch,F-Co60. The 1.5% difference resulting from MC calculations (1.1% for the new simulations) cannot be justified using current fundamental data and BIPM standards if consistency in the entire dosimetry chain is sought. For photons, MC k(Q) factors are compared with TRS-398. Using the same uncertainty for W-air, the two sets of data overlap considerably. Experimental k(Q) values from standards laboratories lie between the two sets of calculated values, showing no preference for one set over the other. Observed chamber-to-chamber differences, that include the effect of waterproof sleeves (also seen for Co-60), justify the recommendation in TRS-398 for k(Q) values specifically measured for the user chamber. Current developments on I-values for the stopping powers of water and graphite are presented. A weighted average I-water = 78 +/- 2 eV is obtained from published experimental and DRF-based values; this would decrease sw-air for all types of radiotherapy beams between 0.3% and 0.6%, and would consequently decrease the MC derived F-ch,F-Co60. The implications of a recent proposal for I-graphite = 81 eV are analysed, resulting in a potential decrease of 0.7% in N-K,N-air,N-Co60 which would raise the experimental F-ch,F-Co60; this would result in an increase of about 0.8% in the current TRS-398 value when referred to the BIPM standards. MC derived F-ch,F-Co60 using new stopping powers would then agree at a level of 0.1% with the experimental value, confirming the need for consistency in the dosimetry chain data. Should world average standards be used as reference, the figures would become +0.4% for TRS-398 and -0.3% for the MC calculation. F-ch,F-Q calculated for megavoltage photons using new stopping powers would decrease by between 0.2% and 0.5%. When they enter as a ratios in k(Q), differences with MC values based on current key data would be within 0.2% but their discrepancy with k(Q) experimental photon values remains unresolved. For protons the new data would require an increase in W-air,W-Q of about 0.6%, as this is inferred from a combination of calorimetry and ionometry. This consistent scenario would leave unchanged the current TRS-398 k(Q) (NE-2571) data for protons, as well as for ions heavier than protons unless new independent W-air,W-Q values become available. Also in these advanced radiotherapy modalities, the need for maintaining data consistency in an analysis that unavoidably must include the complete dosimetry chain is demonstrated.

  • 158.
    Angeland, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Inverkan av n-3-fettsyror vid förlossningsdepression.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    n-3 fettsyror har en avgörande roll som komponent av plasmamembranets fosfolipider och tillhör gruppen fleromättade fettsyror. n- 3 fettsyrorna har en inverkan på cellstruktur och funktion och viktiga fettsyror är dokosahexaensyra (DHA) och eikosapentaensyra (EPA). DHA och EPA bildas från Alfalinolensyra (ALA) som är essentiell, det vill säga att den måste tillföras via kosten därför att kroppen inte kan tillverka den själv. ALA måste därför tillföras antingen genom fisk-och skaldjursintag och då framförallt fet fisk eller genom kosttillskott. EPA och DHA finns främst i hjärnan som till 60 % består av fett.

    Förlossningsdepression är en åkomma som drabbar ungefär 10-20 % av barnafödande kvinnor. Det är en komplex åkomma som kan bero på olika miljöfaktorer, genetiska anlag men kan även bero på kosten. Förlossningsdepression kan bli allvarligt både för modern och för barnet.

    Syftet med den här studien var att genom vetenskapliga artiklar undersöka om n-3 fettsyror kan ha en inverkan vid förlossningsdepression och isåfall genom vilka mekanismer. Det finns idag inget konkret svar på om n-3 fettsyror kan hjälpa vid förlossningsdepression samtidigt som många studier inom området har gjorts. Denna studie hade därför som syfte att eventuellt kunna bidra med ytterligare kunskap om n-3 fettsyror och förlossningsdepression och om fettsyrorna verkligen hjälper.

    Resultaten från de sex artiklar i studien som undersöktes visade inte på någon tydlig koppling mellan halten av n-3 fettsyror och förlossningsdepression. I tre av de sex studierna kunde dock en liten effekt observeras. En studie visade också att en högre snarare än en lägre nivå av fettsyror kunde öka risken för depression. Det behövs fler studier inom området för att få ett konkret svar.

  • 159.
    Aniansson, Rebecka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Utvärdering av snabb resistensbestämning för Staphylococcus aureus och Streptococcus pneumoniae direkt från positiv blododlingsflaska2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteria in the bloodstream may cause sepsis, therefore early and correct treatment is important. Antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is essential for the patients survival. In sepsis with diagnosis based on blood culture, at least two days are required for results from AST.

    Routine AST-method in Swedish microbiological laboratories is the disc diffusion method standardized by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). In disc diffusion, bacteria are grown on agar plates and inhibition zones around paper disks with antibiotics are used to measure the antibiotic effect. The method requires bacterial colonies as source material and takes 16–20 hours. EUCAST has further developed the method for Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (RAST). RAST is performed directly from positive blood culture bottles and inhibition zones are measured at 4, 6 and 8 hours. The method uses different breakpoints for categorization at the different timepoints. The purpose of the study was to evaluate RAST for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae by examining bacterial isolates inoculated into blood culture bottles. Zone diameters were measured, and results were compared with those of standardized disk diffusion. For S.aureus, at 4 hours 102/184 (55%) readings were categorizable, at 6 hours 164/184 (89%) and at 8 hours 174/184 (95%). A total of 7 error categorizations occurred, 5 of which were underestimation of clindamycin resistance at 4 hours. For S.pneumoniae at 4 hours, 74/80 (92%) readings were categorizable, at 6 hours 73/80 (91%) and at 8 hours 77/80 (96%). Resistance was overestimated at 21 zone measurements at 4 hours.. RAST showed good results for S.aureus after 6 hours. For S.pneumoniae, further studies are required but RAST may work after 6 hours for penicillin resistance assessment.

  • 160.
    Ankarling, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dechiffrerandet av Detox: Bland sanningar och myter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sellers of detox preparations argue that in our modern society, the body's purification mechanisms are no longer sufficient and need a little help, preferably in the form of alleged cleansing herbal formulas. Some also advocate colonic irrigation and ionizing foot baths. The purpose of this study is to survey the flora of detox products in the form of nutritional supplements: what types there are, what ingredients are included and which claims are made. The claims have been classified for testability and reliability was assessed through searches in PubMed and Web of Science. Some of the testable assertions seem to completely lack evidence, other claims lean on studies that suffer from problematic deficiencies, while some claims deserve further study since they find support from studies with promising preliminary results. You cannot rule out a future for evidence-based detox diets, no more than you can to say that detox diets today keep their promises. More clinical, placebo-controlled studies are required and a clearer dividing line between what is pure bluff and what is serious research. Consumers should be aware of the lack of evidence and the risks that exist, for example in the form of contaminated products and the potential risk of interactions with medicines. 

  • 161.
    Ansell, Brendan R. E.
    et al.
    Univ Melbourne, Fac Vet & Agr Sci, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia..
    McConville, Malcolm J.
    Univ Melbourne, Inst Bio21, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia..
    Ma'ayeh, Showgy Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Dagley, Michael J.
    Univ Melbourne, Inst Bio21, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia..
    Gasser, Robin B.
    Univ Melbourne, Fac Vet & Agr Sci, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia..
    Svärd, Staffan G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Jex, Aaron R.
    Univ Melbourne, Fac Vet & Agr Sci, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia..
    Drug resistance in Giardia duodenalis2015In: Biotechnology Advances, ISSN 0734-9750, E-ISSN 1873-1899, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 888-901Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Giardia duodenalis is a microaerophilic parasite of the human gastrointestinal tract and a major contributor to diarrheal and post-infectious chronic gastrointestinal disease world-wide. Treatment of G. duodenalis infection currently relies on a small number of drug classes. Nitroheterocyclics, in particular metronidazole, have represented the front line treatment for the last 40 years. Nitroheterocyclic-resistant G. duodenalis have been isolated from patients and created in vitro, prompting considerable research into the biomolecular mechanisms of resistance. These compounds are redox-active and are believed to damage proteins and DNA after being activated by oxidoreductase enzymes in metabolically active cells. In this review, we explore the molecular phenotypes of nitroheterocyclic-resistant G. duodenalis described to date in the context of the protisfs unusual glycolytic and antioxidant systems. We propose that resistance mechanisms are likely to extend well beyond currently described resistance-associated enzymes (i.e., pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases and nitroreductases), to include NAD(P)H- and flavin-generating pathways, and possibly redox-sensitive epigenetic regulation. Mechanisms that allow G. duodenalis to tolerate oxidative stress may lead to resistance against both oxygen and nitroheterocyclics, with implications for clinical control. The present review highlights the potential for systems biology tools and advanced bioinformatics to further investigate the multifaceted mechanisms of nitroheterocyclic resistance in this important pathogen.

  • 162.
    Antila, Kari
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tampere, Finland.
    Lötjönen, Jyrki
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tampere, Finland.
    Thurfjell, Lennart
    GE Healthcare, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laine, Jarmo
    Nexstim Ltd, Helsinki, Finland.
    Massimini, Marcello
    University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Rueckert, Daniel
    Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Zubarev, Roman A.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tampere, Finland.
    van Gils, Mark
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tampere, Finland.
    Mattila, Jussi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tampere, Finland.
    Hviid Simonsen, Anja
    Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Waldemar, Gunhild
    Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Soininen, Hilkka
    University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    The PredictAD project: development of novel biomarkers and analysis software for early diagnosis of the Alzheimer's disease2013In: Interface Focus, ISSN 2042-8898, E-ISSN 2042-8901, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 20120072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia affecting 36 million people worldwide. As the demographic transition in the developed countries progresses towards older population, the worsening ratio of workers per retirees and the growing number of patients with age-related illnesses such as AD will challenge the current healthcare systems and national economies. For these reasons AD has been identified as a health priority, and various methods for diagnosis and many candidates for therapies are under intense research. Even though there is currently no cure for AD, its effects can be managed. Today the significance of early and precise diagnosis of AD is emphasized in order to minimize its irreversible effects on the nervous system. When new drugs and therapies enter the market it is also vital to effectively identify the right candidates to benefit from these. The main objective of the PredictAD project was to find and integrate efficient biomarkers from heterogeneous patient data to make early diagnosis and to monitor the progress of AD in a more efficient, reliable and objective manner. The project focused on discovering biomarkers from biomolecular data, electrophysiological measurements of the brain and structural, functional and molecular brain images. We also designed and built a statistical model and a framework for exploiting these biomarkers with other available patient history and background data. We were able to discover several potential novel biomarker candidates and implement the framework in software. The results are currently used in several research projects, licensed to commercial use and being tested for clinical use in several trials.

  • 163. Antoni, Gunnar
    et al.
    Sörensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET.
    Hall, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Molecular Imaging of Transporters with Positron Emission Tomography2009In: Transporters as Targets for Drugs, Berlin: Springer, 2009, Vol. 4, p. 155-186Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positron emission tomography (PET) visualization of brain components in vivo is a rapidly growing field. Molecular imaging with PET is also increasingly used in drug development, especially for the determination of drug receptor interaction for CNS-active drugs. This gives the opportunity to relate clinical efficacy to per cent receptor occupancy of a drug on a certain targeted receptor and to relate drug pharmacokinetics in plasma to interaction with target protein. In the present review we will focus on the study of transporters, such as the monoamine transporters, the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter, the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2, and the glucose transporter using PET radioligands. Neurotransmitter transporters are presynaptically located and in vivo imaging using PET can therefore be used for the determination of the density of afferent neurons. Several promising PET ligands for the noradrenaline transporter (NET) have been labeled and evaluated in vivo including in man, but a really useful PET ligand for NET still remains to be identified. The most promising tracer to date is (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2. The in vivo visualization of the dopamine transporter (DAT) may give clues in the evaluation of conditions related to dopamine, such as Parkinson's disease and drug abuse. The first PET radioligands based on cocaine were not selective, but more recently several selective tracers such as [11C]PE2I have been characterized and shown to be suitable as PET radioligands. Although there are a large number of serotonin transporter inhibitors used today as SSRIs, it was not until very recently, when [11C]McN5652 was synthesized, that this transporter was studied using PET. New candidates as PET radioligands for the SERT have subsequently been developed and [11C]DASB and [11C]MADAM and their analogues are today the most promising ligands. The existing radioligands for Pgp transporters seem to be suitable tools for the study of both peripheral and central drug–Pgp interactions, although [11C]verapamil and [18F]fluoropaclitaxel are probably restricted to use in studies of the blood–brain barrier. The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is another interesting target for diagnostic imaging and [11C]DTBZ is a promising tracer. The noninvasive imaging of transporter density as a function of disease progression or availability following interaction with blocking drugs is highlighted, including the impact on both development of new therapies and the process of developing new drugs. Although CNS-related work focusing on psychiatric disorders is the main focus of this review, other applications of PET ligands, such as diagnosis of cancer, diabetes research, and drug interactions with efflux systems, are also discussed. The use of PET especially in terms of tracer development is briefly described. Finally, it can be concluded that there is an urgent need for new, selective radioligands for the study of the transporter systems in the human brain using PET.

  • 164.
    Antonsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical measurements during experimental stereotactic radiofrequency lesioning2006In: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, ISSN 1011-6125, E-ISSN 1423-0372, Vol. 84, no 2-3, p. 118-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo a laser Doppler measurement system in porcine brain tissue during thermal lesioning. A 2-mm monopolar radiofrequency lesioning electrode was equipped with optical fibers in order to monitor the lesioning procedure. Laser Doppler and backscattered light intensity signals were measured along the electrode trajectory and during bilateral lesioning in the central gray (70, 80 and 90°C, n = 14). The time course of the coagulation process could be followed by optical recordings. Two separate groups of tissue were identified from the intensity signals. The changes in the perfusion levels in both groups displayed significant changes (p < 0.05, n = 48) at all temperature settings, while backscattered light intensity was significant for only one group at the different temperatures (p < 0.05, n = 39). These results indicate that optical measurements correlate with lesion development in vivo. The study also indicates that it is possible to follow the lesioning process intra-operatively.

  • 165. Arab, Khelifa
    et al.
    Park, Yoon Jung
    Lindroth, Anders M.
    Schaefer, Andrea
    Oakes, Christopher
    Weichenhan, Dieter
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Risch, Angela
    Meister, Michael
    Dienemann, Hendrik
    Dyckhoff, Gerhard
    Herold-Mende, Christel
    Grummt, Ingrid
    Niehrs, Christof
    Plass, Christoph
    Long Noncoding RNA TARID Directs Demethylation and Activation of the Tumor Suppressor TCF21 via GADD45A2014In: Molecular Cell, ISSN 1097-2765, E-ISSN 1097-4164, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 604-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DNA methylation is a dynamic and reversible process that governs gene expression during development and disease. Several examples of active DNA demethylation have been documented, involving genome-wide and gene-specific DNA demethylation. How demethylating enzymes are targeted to specific genomic loci remains largely unknown. We show that an antisense lncRNA, termed TARID (for TCF21 antisense RNA inducing demethylation), activates TCF21 expression by inducing promoter demethylation. TARID interacts with both the TCF21 promoter and GADD45A (growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, alpha), a regulator of DNA demethylation. GADD45A in turn recruits thymine-DNA glycosylase for base excision repair-mediated demethylation involving oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in the TCF21 promoter by ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase proteins. The results reveal a function of lncRNAs, serving as a genomic address label for GADD45A-mediated demethylation of specific target genes.

  • 166.
    Arabi, Thyba
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Cajal cellernas roll i mag-tarm komplikationer hos patienter med transtyretin amyloidos2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 167. Arenz, Stefan
    et al.
    Abdelshahid, Maha
    Sohmen, Daniel
    Payoe, Roshani
    Starosta, Agata L.
    Berninghausen, Otto
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Beckmann, Roland
    Wilson, Daniel N.
    The stringent factor RelA adopts an open conformation on the ribosome to stimulate ppGpp synthesis2016In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 44, no 13, p. 6471-6481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under stress conditions, such as nutrient starvation, deacylated tRNAs bound within the ribosomal A-site are recognized by the stringent factor RelA, which converts ATP and GTP/GDP to (p)ppGpp. The signaling molecules (p) ppGpp globally rewire the cellular transcriptional program and general metabolism, leading to stress adaptation. Despite the additional importance of the stringent response for regulation of bacterial virulence, antibiotic resistance and persistence, structural insight into how the ribosome and deacylated-tRNA stimulate RelA-mediated (p)ppGpp has been lacking. Here, we present a cryo-EM structure of RelA in complex with the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome with an average resolution of 3.7 angstrom and local resolution of 4 to > 10 angstrom for RelA. The structure reveals that RelA adopts a unique 'open' conformation, where the C-terminal domain (CTD) is intertwined around an A/T-like tRNA within the intersubunit cavity of the ribosome and the N-terminal domain (NTD) extends into the solvent. We propose that the open conformation of RelA on the ribosome relieves the autoinhibitory effect of the CTD on the NTD, thus leading to stimulation of (p)ppGpp synthesis by RelA.

  • 168. Arfvidsson, Berndt
    et al.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Norgren, Lars
    S100B concentrations increase perioperatively in jugular vein blood despite limited metabolic and inflammatory response to clinically uneventful carotid endarterectomy2015In: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, ISSN 1434-6621, E-ISSN 1437-4331, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 111-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Our aim was to test the hypothesis that metabolic and inflammatory responses of the brain perioperatively during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) might affect blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Methods: Twenty patients with >70% stenosis of internal carotid artery (ICA) were prospectively included. Surgery was performed under general anaesthesia. Blood was sampled from ipsilateral internal jugular vein and radial artery: just before, during, and after ICA clamping S100B protein, glucose, lactate, 20 amino acids, and key cytokines were analysed. Results: Jugular vein S100B increased during clamping and reperfusion, while a marginal systemic increase was recorded, unrelated to stump pressure during clamping. Glucose increased during clamping in jugular vein blood and even more systemically, while jugular lactate values were higher than systemic values initially. Most amino acids did not differ significantly between jugular vein and systemic levels: glutamic acid and aspartic acid decreased during surgery while asparagine increased. Jugular vein interleukin (IL)-6 showed a transient non-significant increase during clamping and decreased systemically. IL-8 and IL-10 increased over time. Conclusions: Rising jugular vein S100B concentrations indicated reduced BBB integrity, and marginal secondary increase of S100B systemically. Limited ischaemic effects on the brain during cross-clamping, unrelated to S100B concentrations, were confirmed by lower brain glucose levels and higher lactate levels than in systemic blood. The lack of increased jugular vein glutamic acid disproves any major ischaemic brain injury following CEA. The inflammatory response was limited, did not differ greatly between jugular and systemic blood, and was unrelated to S100B.

  • 169.
    Arinell, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Acute Internal Medicine, Centralsjukhuset, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Blanc, Stéphane
    CNRS UMR 7178, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Welinder, Karen Gjesing
    Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Støen, Ole Gunnar
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Evans, Alina L.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Koppang, Norway.
    Fröbert, Ole
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Physical inactivity and platelet function in humans and brown bears: A comparative study2018In: Platelets, ISSN 0953-7104, E-ISSN 1369-1635, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 87-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical inactivity increases the risk of thromboembolism. However, good standardized human models on inactivity are in short supply and experimental models are few.

    Our objective was to investigate how standardized bed rest affects platelet aggregation in humans and to investigate if aggregation is altered in a translational model system - the hibernating brown bear (Ursus arctos). We collected blood from (1) healthy male volunteers participating in a 21-day bed rest study in head-down tilt position (-6°) 24 h a day; (2) free-ranging brown bears captured during winter hibernation and again during active state in summer. We analyzed platelet function using multiple electrode platelet aggregometry. In total, 9 healthy male volunteers (age 31.0 ± 6.4 years) and 13 brown bears (7 females and 6 males, age 2.8 ± 0.6 years) were included. In hibernating bears adenosine diphosphate, arachidonic acid, thrombin receptor activating peptide, and collagen impedance aggregometry tests were all halved compared to summer active state. In human volunteers no statistically significant changes were found between baseline and the end of bed rest. In human male volunteers 3 weeks of bed rest did not affect platelet function. In hibernating brown bears platelet aggregation was halved compared to summer and we hypothesize that this is a protective measure to avoid formation of thrombi under periods of low blood flow.

  • 170.
    Armulik, Annika
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Studies on the transmembrane signaling of β1 integrins2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface receptors, composed of an α and a β subunit, mainly binding for extracellular matrix proteins. lntegrin subunit β1 can combine with at least 12 a subunits and thus form the biggest subfamily within the integrin family. In this thesis, functional properties of the splice variant β1Β, and the effects of several mutations in the cytoplasmic tail of integrin subunit β1Α were studied. In addition, the border between the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of several integrin subunits was determined.

    The β1Β splice variant has been reported to have a dominant negative effect on functions of β1Α integrins. In this study, it was studied if the expression of β1Β had similar negative effects on the αvβ3 integrin functions since the β3 subunit is structurally similar to β1Α. The β1Β subunit was expressed in an integrin β1-deficient cell line and it was found that the presence of β1Β does not interfere with adhesion or signaling of endogenous αvβ3

    The border between the cytoplasmic domain and the C-terminal end of the transmembrane domain of integrin α and β subunits has been unclear. This question was experimentally addressed for integrin subunits β1, β2, α2 and α5. It was found that integrin subunits contain a positively charged lysine, which is embedded in the membrane in the absence of interacting proteins.

    The functional importance of the lysine in integrin transmembrane domains was investigated by mutating this amino acid to leucine in β1Α. The mutation affected cell spreading and tyrosine phosphorylation of the adapter protein CAS. The activation of focal adhesion kinase and tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin was not affected. Furthermore, the mutation of two tyrosines to phenylalanines in the β1Α cytoplasmic tail was found to reduce the capability of β1Α integrins to mediate cell spreading and migration. Activation of focal adhesion kinase in response to the later β1Α mutant was shown to be impaired as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of adapter proteins paxillin and tensin whereas overall tyrosine phosphorylation of CAS was unaffected. These data suggests the presence of focal adhesion kinase-dependent and -independent pathways for tyrosine phosphorylation of CAS after integrin β1Α-mediated adhesion.

  • 171.
    Arndt, Anton
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    The evolution of running shoes2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Arndt, Anton
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Laboratory for Biomechanics and Motor Control.
    Lundgren, Paul
    Liu, Anmin
    Nester, Christopher
    Maiwald, Christian
    Jones, Richard
    Lundberg, Arne
    The effect of a midfoot cut in the outer sole of a shoe on intrinsic foot kinematics during walking.2013In: Footwear Science, ISSN 1942-4280, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 63-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modifications in shoe outer soles are frequently made with the intention of altering biomechanics of the foot inside the shoe. These modifications are however, generally based upon intuition with little or no scientific data for support. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in intrinsic foot segmental kinematics between walking in a neutral shoe and a shoe modified with a clear cut forming a break underneath the midfoot, approximating the Lisfrancs joint.

    Five healthy male subjects participated in the study. Intracortical pins were inserted under sterile conditions and local anaesthetic in nine different bones of the foot and shank. The subjects performed 10 walking trials in both a neutral, standard, flatsoled, flexible walking shoe and in the same shoe with an approximately 1 cm deep cut aligned with the subjects’ Lisfrancs joint. Material tests showed that the cut reduced midfoot shoe bending stiffness by 23% to 38% and torsional stiffness by 23% to 28%. A helical axis approach was applied for calculating the 3D rotations about relevant joints.

    Kinematic trajectories in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes were normalised to the stance phase for seven selected joints to compare rotation patterns when wearing the two shoe conditions. Although one out of 21 ranges of motion (ROM) showed a significant difference, there is strong reason to regard this as the result of a type 1 error. Apart from this no differences in ROM occurred between the shoe conditions.

    The low subject number reduced the statistical power of the results. However, the study indicated that outer sole modifications that may be assumed to have clear effects upon foot kinematics, do not necessarily do so.

  • 173.
    Arnqvist, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Optimering av lymfocytfraktionering med AutoMACS Pro för biobankning av hematologiska maligniteter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 174.
    Aronsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Genetisk modifiering och kloning av coxsackievirus B5 Dalldorf2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 175.
    Aronsson, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tunable and modular assembly of polypeptides and polypeptide-hybrid biomaterials2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomaterials are materials that are specifically designed to be in contact with biological systems and have for a long time been used in medicine. Examples of biomaterials range from sophisticated prostheses used for replacing outworn body parts to ordinary contact lenses. Currently it is possible to create biomaterials that can e.g. specifically interact with cells or respond to certain stimuli. Peptides, the shorter version of proteins, are excellent molecules for fabrication of such biomaterials. By following and developing design rules it is possible to obtain peptides that can self-assemble into well-defined nanostructures and biomaterials.

    The aim of this thesis is to create ”smart” and tunable biomaterials by molecular self-assembly using dimerizing –helical polypeptides. Two different, but structurally related, polypeptide-systems have been used in this thesis. The EKIV-polypeptide system was developed in this thesis and consists of four 28-residue polypeptides that can be mixed-and-matched to self-assemble into four different coiled coil heterodimers. The dissociation constant of the different heterodimers range from μM to < nM. Due to the large difference in affinities, the polypeptides are prone to thermodynamic social self-sorting. The JR-polypeptide system, on the other hand, consists of several 42-residue de novo designed helix-loop-helix polypeptides that can dimerize into four-helix bundles. In this work, primarily the glutamic acid-rich polypeptide JR2E has been explored as a component in supramolecular materials. Dimerization was induced by exposing the polypeptide to either Zn2+, acidic conditions or the complementary polypeptide JR2K.

    By conjugating JR2E to hyaluronic acid and the EKIV-polypeptides to star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol), respectively, highly tunable hydrogels that can be self-assembled in a modular fashion have been created. In addition, self-assembly of spherical superstructures has been investigated and were obtained by linking two thiol-modified JR2E polypeptides via a disulfide bridge in the loop region. ŒThe thesis also demonstrates that the polypeptides and the polypeptide-hybrids can be used for encapsulation and release of molecules and nanoparticles. In addition, some of the hydrogels have been explored for 3D cell culture. By using supramolecular interactions combined with bio-orthogonal covalent crosslinking reactions, hydrogels were obtained that enabled facile encapsulation of cells that retained high viability.

    The results of the work presented in this thesis show that dimerizing α–helical polypeptides can be used to create modular biomaterials with properties that can be tuned by specific molecular interactions. The modularity and the tunable properties of these smart biomaterials are conceptually very interesting andmake them useful in many emerging biomedical applications, such as 3D cell culture, cell therapy, and drug delivery

    .

  • 176.
    Aronsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Local Delivery of Bisphosphonates from FibMat Matrix2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Improving the functionality and reducing revision rates are important driving forces in the development of orthopaedic implants. FibMat is a fibrinogen based matrix developed towards commercialisation by the company Optovent AB. This matrix can be coated on implants and act as a local drug delivery system for bisphosphonates (BPs). BPs are drugs inhibiting bone resorption, and applied with FibMat to improve stability of implants in bone, e.g. when fixing bone fractures. In this thesis, FibMat loaded with BP (FibMat/BP) was coated on stainless-steel screws and titanium screws in order to investigate some technology properties relevant to its clinical applicability. Bone-mimicking materials were used to study scrape-off effect upon insertion. The coagulation properties of fibrinogen as well as the structural properties of BPs were studied after exposure to gamma radiation.

    The screws were coated with FibMat and BP (alendronate and 14C-alendronate) using standard coupling techniques. The total amount and distribution of BP after insertion was measured by liquid scintillation and autoradiography. Coagulation assays were performed in order to determine the coagulation properties of fibrinogen, exposed to doses up to 35 kGy, mixed with thrombin. The structural properties of four different BPs (alendronate, pamidronate, zoledronate and ibandronate), exposed to doses up to 35 kGy were analysed by transmission infrared spectroscopy.

    The results show that FibMat/BP coating on porous stainless-steel screws is virtually unaffected by insertion into bone materials. The anodised, planar titanium screws are more affected by the insertion process, but an even BP distribution in the cancellous material is indicated. The coagulation assays show that gamma-irradiated fibrinogen has a slower coagulation process compared to non-irradiated fibrinogen and form interrupted network unable to clot. The chemical structures of the BPs seem unaffected by exposure to gamma irradiation. In conclusion, the FibMat/BP is a promising technology for local distribution of BP in conjunction with bone implants.

  • 177.
    Aronsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Method Development: Quantitative Determination of Polysorbate 80 in Gammanorm® and Poloxamer 188 in Octagenate® Using Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Polysorbate 80 (PS80) and Poloxamer 188 (P188) are non-ionic detergents used as surfactants in the injection fluids Gammanorm® (human immunoglobulin) and Octagenate® (recombinant human factor VIII) respectively.PS80 in Gammanorm® is currently quantified using a spectrophotometric method based on complexation with ammonium cobalt(II)-thiocyanate after a protein precipitation step with ethanol (T-603). Highly questionable performance of T-603 has led to the development of an analysis method based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). P188 in Octagenate® is currently quantified using HILIC-ELSD (Q-726), but recent problems with peak broadening, signal saturation and insufficient resolution have caused Q-726 to be placed on hold.The aim of this work was to solve the problems connected with Q-726, an analysis method for the quantitative determination of P188 in Octagenate®, and to develop a new analysis method for the quantitative determination of PS80 in Gammanorm® based on HILIC-ELSD.Optimization of ELSD parameters and increased water content in the mobile phase, proved effective in solving the problems with the analysis of P188. The lack of reproducible ethanol injections without interfering peaks prevented further advancement of the PS80 method development. Good results from analysis of standard injections of PS80 between 1 and 10 ppm in the PS80 method were obtained with good correlation (R2 > 0.99). The obtained results, in combination with a recently published article, describing a quantitative determination of PS80 in therapeutic protein formulations based on HPLC-ELSD, indicates potential for this method and further analysis should be performed to validate whether or not the method development is to be continued.

  • 178.
    Aronsson, Ulrika
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Metodutvärdering och mervärde av Treponema pallidum IgM analys vid diagnostik av syfilis2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 179.
    Arponen, Omar
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Realtids-PCR för påvisande av plasmidburen ampicillinresistens: Kartläggning av förekomst i vattenisolat från Helge Å, Kristianstad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The antibiotic class β-lactams include drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporines, carbapenems and monobactams which mechanism of action is to inhibit cell-wall synthesis. Bacteria have developed several mechanisms to counter β-lactams. Bacteria can defend themselves from antibiotics by releasing enzymes that attack the antibiotic compound itself by hydrolysis, target alteration or redox reactions. Presence of antibiotics can also trigger a downregulation of genes coding for antibiotic binding proteins, as well as upregulation of proteins that serves as channel and pump proteins that ensure no accumulation of antibiotics occurs in the cytosol. The aim with the study was to investigate the presence of three plasmid-mediated genes (blaFOX, blaCIT(CMY-2) and blaMOX) coding for ampicillin resistance (pAmpC) in water isolates sampled from Helge River, Kristianstad. The detection of genes was done according to a previous optimized protocol for Real-Time PCR with SYBR™Green chemistry (duplex blaCIT(CMY-2)/blaMOX and singleplex blaFOX). The method proved not to be robust for multiplex PCR, only the singelplex for the gene blaFOX could produce valid results. 30 of 96 isolates were deemed as positive for the gene, whereas 27 of 79 were considered clinical relevant. Among the 27 isolates, 16 also harbored other genes for resistance (13 blaCTX-M, 2 blaOXA, 1 blaTEM and 1 blaSHV). One isolate carried on three resistancegenes (blaFOX, blaCTX-M och blaTEM). A majority of the positive isolates, 20 out of 27, were sampled near the pumpstation. The findings indicate that Helge river might be a reservoir for dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.

  • 180. Arsov, S.
    et al.
    Trajceska, L.
    van Oeveren, W.
    Smit, A. J.
    Vidimliski, P. Dzekova
    Stegmayr, Bernd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Sikole, A.
    Rakhorst, G.
    Graaff, R.
    The use of a skin age reader to evaluate risk of cvd and mortality in dialysis patients2011In: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 606-606Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 181. Arsov, Stefan
    et al.
    Graaff, Reindert
    van Oeveren, Wim
    Stegmayr, Bernd
    Sikole, Aleksandar
    Rakhorst, Gerhard
    Smit, Andries J.
    Advanced glycation end-products and skin autofluorescence in end-stage renal disease: a review2014In: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, ISSN 1434-6621, E-ISSN 1437-4331, Vol. 52, no 1, SI, p. 11-20Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in its end stage, is marked by extremely high cardiovascular rates of morbidity and mortality; hemodialysis patients have a five-fold shorter life expectancy than healthy subjects of the same age. In CKD the metabolic products that accumulate in the body are so-called uremic toxins. These include advanced glycation end-products (AGE). AGE levels are markedly increased in CKD patients not only because of impaired excretion but also because of increased production. AGE formation has initially been described as a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and glucose in the so-called Maillard reaction, but they are also more rapidly formed during oxidative stress and subsequent formation of reactive carbonyl compounds like (methyl) glyoxal. AGE accumulate in tissue where they cross-link with proteins, e. g., collagen, inducing tissue stiffening of blood vessels and skin. They may also interact with receptor of AGE (RAGE) and other receptors, which lead to activation of intracellular transduction mechanisms resulting in cytokine release and further tissue damage in CKD. The accumulation of AGE in the skin can be measured non-invasively using autofluorescence. The skin autofluorescence is a strong marker of cardiovascular mortality in CKD. The focus of this review is on the role of tissue and plasma AGE, and of skin autofluorescence as a proxy of tissue AGE accumulation, in the increase in cardiovascular disease in end stage renal disease (ESRD). This review will also present the possibility of reducing the AGE accumulation in ESRD patients using the following five methods: 1) use of low AGE peritoneal dialysis solutions; 2) use of advanced hemodialysis techniques; 3) use of AGE reducing drugs; 4) optimizing the nutrition of hemodialysis patients; and 5) renal transplantation.

  • 182. Arsov, Stefan
    et al.
    Trajceska, Lada
    van Oeveren, Wim
    Smit, Andries J
    Dzekova, Pavlina
    Stegmayr, Bernd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Sikole, Aleksandar
    Rakhorst, Gerhard
    Graaff, Reindert
    Increase in skin autofluorescence and release of heart-type fatty acid binding protein in plasma predicts mortality of hemodialysis patients2013In: Artificial Organs, ISSN 0160-564X, E-ISSN 1525-1594, Vol. 37, no 7, p. E114-E122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are uremic toxins that accumulate progressively in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the 1-year increase in skin autofluorescence (DAF), a measure of AGEs accumulation and plasma markers, as predictors of mortality in HD patients. One hundred sixty-nine HD patients were enrolled in this study. Skin autofluorescence was measured twice, 1 year apart using an AGE Reader (DiagnOptics Technologies BV, Groningen, The Netherlands). Besides routine blood chemistry, additional plasma markers including superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxydase, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), and von Willebrand factor were measured at baseline. The mortality of HD patients was followed for 36 months. Skin autofluorescence values of the HD patients at the two time points were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those of healthy subjects of the same age. Mean 1-year DAF of HD patients was 0.16 +/- 0.06, which was around seven-to ninefold higher than 1-year DAF in healthy subjects. Multivariate Cox regression showed that age, hypertension, 1-year DAF, hs-CRP, ICAM-1, and H-FABP were independent predictors of overall mortality. Hypertension, 1-year DAF, hs-CRP, and H-FABP were also independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. One-year DAF and plasma H-FABP, used separately and in combination, are strong predictors of overall and cardiovascular mortality in HD patients.

  • 183.
    Arvidsson, Malin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Li, Sabina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Prevalens av Anaplasma phagocytophilum i fästingar avlägsnade från flyttfåglar vid Ottenby fågelstation, Öland2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that uses ticks as vectors to infect new hosts. It causes tick-borne fever in animals and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Since the bacteria affects immune cells it contributes to infected individuals being susceptible to secondary infections, with consequences in e.g. sheep farming. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the bacterium A. phagocytophilum in ixodid ticks collected from migratory birds at Ottenby Bird Observatory, Öland. 1115 ticks from 4778 birds were screened for the gene Anaplasma citrate synthase (gltA) using real-time PCR. Ten ticks were positive for A. phagocytophilum, a prevalence of 0,9 %. Seven of the ticks were nymphs, two were larvae and one was of unknown developmental stage. The larvae had probably obtained the pathogen from the birds they were collected from since these were the ticks’ first hosts. The positive ticks were collected from common blackbird, European robin, willow warbler and tree pipit. Common blackbirds showed a significantly higher prevalence of A. phagocytophilum (4,8 %) than the predominant tick carrying bird species, European robin. The results of the study support earlier observations that birds carry a role in the dispersal of tick- borne pathogens.

  • 184.
    Asaei, Ava
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Effekten av interleukin-6, interleukin-17 och kombinationen av dessa på inflammatoriskt svar i humana endotelceller2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 185. Asan, Noor Badariah
    et al.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications, Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt.
    Shah, Syaiful Redzwan Mohd
    Rydberg, Anders
    Blokhuis, Taco J.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Augustine, Robin
    Intra-body microwave communication through adipose tissue2017In: Healthcare technology letters, E-ISSN 2053-3713, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human body can act as a medium for the transmission of electromagnetic waves in the wireless body sensor networks context. However, there are transmission losses in biological tissues due to the presence of water and salts. This Letter focuses on lateral intra-body microwave communication through different biological tissue layers and demonstrates the effect of the tissue thicknesses by comparing signal coupling in the channel. For this work, the authors utilise the R-band frequencies since it overlaps the industrial, scientific and medical radio (ISM) band. The channel model in human tissues is proposed based on electromagnetic simulations, validated using equivalent phantom and ex-vivo measurements. The phantom and ex-vivo measurements are compared with simulation modelling. The results show that electromagnetic communication is feasible in the adipose tissue layer with a low attenuation of approximate to 2 dB per 20 mm for phantom measurements and 4 dB per 20 mm for ex-vivo measurements at 2 GHz. Since the dielectric losses of human adipose tissues are almost half of ex-vivo tissue, an attenuation of around 3 dB per 20 mm is expected. The results show that human adipose tissue can be used as an intra-body communication channel.

  • 186.
    Ashri, Nadia Y.
    et al.
    Najd Consulting Hosp, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. AstraZeneca R&D Sodertalje, Clin Pharmacol, SE-15185 Sodertalje, Sweden.;AstraZeneca R&D Sodertalje, DMPK, SE-15185 Sodertalje, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Dept Chem & Biomed Sci, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Analyt Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sample treatment based on extraction techniques in biological matrices2011In: Bioanalysis, ISSN 1757-6180, E-ISSN 1757-6199, Vol. 3, no 17, p. 2003-2018Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of sample preparation methods as the first stage in bioanalysis is described. In this article, the sample preparation concept and strategies will be discussed, along with the requirements for good sample preparation. The most widely used sample preparation methods in the pharmaceutical industry are presented; for example, the need for same-day rotation of results from large numbers of biological samples in pharmaceutical industry makes high throughput bioanalysis more essential. In this article, high-throughput sample preparation techniques are presented; examples are given of the extraction and concentration of analytes from biological matrices, including protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction and microextraction-related techniques. Finally, the potential role of selective extraction methods, including molecular imprinted phases, is considered.

  • 187.
    Asif, Sana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Asawa, Kenta
    Department of Bioengineering, The University of Tokyo, 7‐3‐1 Hongo, Bunkyo‐ku, Tokyo, 113–8656 Japan.
    Yuuki, Inoue
    Department of Bioengineering, The University of Tokyo, 7‐3‐1 Hongo, Bunkyo‐ku, Tokyo, 113–8656 Japan.
    Ishihara, Kazuhiko
    Department of Bioengineering, The University of Tokyo, 7‐3‐1 Hongo, Bunkyo‐ku, Tokyo, 113–8656 Japan.
    Lindell, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Holmgren, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Ryden, Anneli
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Almas Allé 8, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jensen-Waern, Marianne
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Almas Allé 8, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Teramura, Yuji
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Department of Bioengineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Linnaeus Center of Biomaterials Chemistry, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Validation of an MPC polymer coating to attenuate surface- induced cross-talk between the complement and coagulation systems in whole blood in in vitro and in vivo models2019In: Macromolecular Bioscience, ISSN 1616-5187, E-ISSN 1616-5195, Vol. 19, no 5, article id 1800485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial surfaces that come into contact with blood induce an immediate activation of the cascade systems of the blood, leading to a thrombotic and/or inflammatory response that can eventually cause damage to the biomaterial or the patient, or to both. Heparin coating has been used to improve hemocompatibility, and another approach is 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)-based polymer coatings. Here, the aim is to evaluate the hemocompatibility of MPC polymer coating by studying the interactions with coagulation and complement systems using human blood in vitro model and pig in vivo model. The stability of the coatings is investigated in vitro and MPC polymer-coated catheters are tested in vivo by insertion into the external jugular vein of pigs to monitor the catheters' antithrombotic properties. There is no significant activation of platelets or of the coagulation and complement systems in the MPC polymer-coated one, which was superior in hemocompatibility to non-coated matrix surfaces. The protective effect of the MPC polymer coat does not decline after incubation in human plasma for up to 2 weeks. With MPC polymer-coated catheters, it is possible to easily draw blood from pig for 4 days in contrast to the case for non-coated catheters, in which substantial clotting is seen.

  • 188.
    Asif, Sana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Ekdahl, Kristina N
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Linnæus Center of Biomaterials Chemistry, Linnæus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Fromell, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Gustafson, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Paediatric Surgery.
    Barbu, Andreea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Le Bland, Katarina
    Division of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, and Hematology and Regenerat ive Medicine Centre at Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, SE-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Teramura, Yuji
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Department of Bioengineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.
    Heparinization of cell surfaces with short pepetide-conjugated PEG-lipid regulates thromboinflammation in thransplantation of human MSCs and hepatocytes2016In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 35, p. 194-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infusion of therapeutic cells into humans is associated with immune responses, including thromboinflammation, which result in a large loss of transplanted cells\ To address these problems, heparinization of the cell surfaces was achieved by a cell-surface modification technique using polyethylene glycol conjugated phospholipid (PEG-lipid) derivatives. A short heparin-binding peptide was conjugated to the PEG-lipid for immobilization of heparin conjugates on the surface of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human hepatocytes. Here three kinds of heparin-binding peptides were used for immobilizing heparin conjugates and examined for the antithrombogenic effects on the cell surface. The heparinized cells were incubated in human whole blood to evaluate their hemocompatibility by measuring blood parameters such as platelet count, coagulation markers, complement markers, and Factor Xa activity. We found that one of the heparin-binding peptides did not show cytotoxicity after the immobilization with heparin conjugates. The degree of binding of the heparin conjugates on the cell surface (analyzed by flow cytometer) depended on the ratio of the active peptide to control peptide. For both human MSCs and hepatocytes in whole-blood experiments, no platelet aggregation was seen in the heparin conjugate-immobilized cell group vs. the controls (non-coated cells or control peptide). Also, the levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), C3a, and sC5b-9 were significantly lower than those of the controls, indicating a lower activation of coagulation and complement. Factor Xa analysis indicated that the heparin conjugate was still active on the cell surface at 24 h post-coating. It is possible to immobilize heparin conjugates onto hMSC and human hepatocyte surfaces and thereby protect the cell surfaces from damaging thromboinflammation. Statement of Signigficance We present a promising approach to enhance the biocompatibility of therapeutic cells. Here we used short peptide-conjugated PEG-lipid for cell surface modification and heparin conjugates for the coating of human hepatocytes and MSCs. We screened the short peptides to find higher affinity for heparinization of cell surface and performed hemocompatibility assay of heparinized human hepatocytes and human MSCs in human whole blood. Using heparin-binding peptide with higher affinity, not only coagulation activation but also complement activation was significantly suppressed. Thus, it was possible to protect human hepatocytes and human MSCs from the attack of thromboinflammatory activation, which can contribute to the improvement graft survival.

  • 189.
    Asif, Sana
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Fromell, Karin
    Uppsala University.
    Gustafson, Elisabet
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Barbu, Andreea
    Uppsala University.
    Le Blanc, Katarina
    Karolinska Institutet;Karolinska University Hospital.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Teramura, Yuji
    Uppsala University;The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Heparinization of cell surfaces with short peptide-conjugated PEG-lipid regulates thromboinflammation in transplantation of human MSCs and hepatocytes2016In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 35, p. 194-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infusion of therapeutic cells into humans is associated with immune responses, including thromboinflammation, which result in a large loss of transplanted cells\ To address these problems, heparinization of the cell surfaces was achieved by a cell-surface modification technique using polyethylene glycol conjugated phospholipid (PEG-lipid) derivatives. A short heparin-binding peptide was conjugated to the PEG-lipid for immobilization of heparin conjugates on the surface of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human hepatocytes. Here three kinds of heparin-binding peptides were used for immobilizing heparin conjugates and examined for the antithrombogenic effects on the cell surface. The heparinized cells were incubated in human whole blood to evaluate their hemocompatibility by measuring blood parameters such as platelet count, coagulation markers, complement markers, and Factor Xa activity. We found that one of the heparin-binding peptides did not show cytotoxicity after the immobilization with heparin conjugates. The degree of binding of the heparin conjugates on the cell surface (analyzed by flow cytometer) depended on the ratio of the active peptide to control peptide. For both human MSCs and hepatocytes in whole-blood experiments, no platelet aggregation was seen in the heparin conjugate-immobilized cell group vs. the controls (non-coated cells or control peptide). Also, the levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), C3a, and sC5b-9 were significantly lower than those of the controls, indicating a lower activation of coagulation and complement. Factor Xa analysis indicated that the heparin conjugate was still active on the cell surface at 24 h post-coating. It is possible to immobilize heparin conjugates onto hMSC and human hepatocyte surfaces and thereby protect the cell surfaces from damaging thromboinflammation. Statement of Signigficance We present a promising approach to enhance the biocompatibility of therapeutic cells. Here we used short peptide-conjugated PEG-lipid for cell surface modification and heparin conjugates for the coating of human hepatocytes and MSCs. We screened the short peptides to find higher affinity for heparinization of cell surface and performed hemocompatibility assay of heparinized human hepatocytes and human MSCs in human whole blood. Using heparin-binding peptide with higher affinity, not only coagulation activation but also complement activation was significantly suppressed. Thus, it was possible to protect human hepatocytes and human MSCs from the attack of thromboinflammatory activation, which can contribute to the improvement graft survival. (C) 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 190.
    Ask, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    REPLICATING THE TUMOUR MICROENVIRONMENT:CHEMOSENSITIVITY TESTING IN FIBROBLAST COCULTURES2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 191.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, P
    Öberg, Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, H
    Törngren, P
    Tibbling, Lita
    Feedback system for control of abdominal compression in oesophageal investigations.1981In: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, E-ISSN 1741-0444, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 501-503Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Edwall, G
    Tibbling, Lita
    Combined pH and pressure measurement device for oesophageal investigations.1981In: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, E-ISSN 1741-0444, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 443-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A combined pH- and pressure-measurement device for oesophageal investigations has been designed using monocrystalline antimony pH electrodes and perfused polyvinyl catheters. The combined device facilitates pressure measurements simultaneously with pH recording, both distal and proximal to the pH electrode. The device is easier to pass through the nose to the oesophagus than the conventional glass pH electrode. pH and pressure measurements in the oesophagus are therefore simplified and valuable information about the function of the region of the lower oesophageal sphincter is added owing to the simultaneous recording of the two parameters.

  • 193.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sökjer, H.
    Tibbling, Lita
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mechanisms affecting lower oesophageal sphincter opening and oesophageal retention: A combined X-ray and manometry study1978In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 857-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using simultaneous manometry and cineradiography, oesophageal evacuation was studied while contrast medium was infused via a catheter. The distal half of the oesophagus could be filled with contrast medium without triggering peristalsis. The hydrostatic pressure necessary to open the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) was of approximately the same magnitude as the pressure gradient between oesophagus and LES. No significant relaxation of the LES could be observed at the initiation of swallowing. The LES may be looked upon not only as a sphincter preventing reflux but also as a gate which must be forced open by food.

  • 194.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibbling, Lita
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion.
    Clinical evaluation of different fluid-filled systems for oesophageal manometry1979In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a clinical study of oesophageal manometry with fluid-filled catheters, both a non-perfused system and a perfused system with a syringe pump have been compared to a system with a low-compliance perfusion pump, which served as a reference. Significantly lower values of motility amplitudes, motility derivatives, and partly of LES pressures, and a time delay of up to 0.5 sec of the amplitude maximum were obtained with the non-perfused system and the system with a syringe pump in comparison to the low-compliance system. Since the oesophageal function can be erroneously evaluated by use of a non-perfused system or a perfused system with a syringe pump, such systems cannot be recommended for clinical use.

  • 195.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibbling, Lita
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, P.Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bandbreddskrav hos oesophagusmanometriska system.1978Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 196.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öberg, P. Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibbling, Lita
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Static and dynamic characteristics of fluid-filled esophageal manometry systems1977In: American Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0002-9513, Vol. 233, no 5, p. E389-E396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Esophageal manometric systems with water-filled catheters have been characterized by the use of model experiments. The examined parameters have been: catheter dimension, catheter compliance, catheter resistance, pump type, pump compliance, and perfusion flow. Accurate static pressure measurements have been obtained for perfused systems independently of the investigated parameters. The dynamic characteristics vary with catheter diameter and perfusion flow. For catheters with low diameter, a narrow bandwidth is obtained for the investigated perfusion flows. The results have been expressed in terms of an electric model of the measurement system. Perfusion pumps with low compliance are recommended to improve the dynamic properties of the measurement system.

  • 197.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öberg, Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering.
    Ödman, S.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tenland, T.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Skogh, M.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ECG Electrodes: A Study of Electrical and Mechanical Long-term Properties1979In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 189-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term properties of commercially available ECG-electrodes were studied by investigating the parameters: polarization potential, electrical impedance, adhesion, and skin reactions during a period of 7 days. As expected, the most stable polarization potentials were obtained for Ag/AgCl electrodes. Certain simple disposable electrodes showed large polarization potential variations. The most stable electrode impedance was obtained for disposable electrodes with stable adhesion and equipped with an electrode cup or similar. Unchanged adhesion and mechanical properties during the test period were shown by the disposable electrodes with a large self-adhesive collar.

  • 198.
    Aspelin, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Anrikning med Illumina Nextera XT sekvenseringsbibliotek2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 199.
    Asper, M.
    et al.
    Charles River Biopharmaceut Serv GmbH, D-51105 Cologne, Germany..
    Hanrieder, T.
    Charles River Biopharmaceut Serv GmbH, D-51105 Cologne, Germany..
    Quellmalz, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Mihranyan, Albert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Removal of xenotropic murine leukemia virus by nanocellulose based filter paper2015In: Biologicals (Print), ISSN 1045-1056, E-ISSN 1095-8320, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 452-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The removal of xenotrpic murine leukemia virus (xMuLV) by size-exclusion filter paper composed of 100% naturally derived cellulose was validated. The filter paper was produced using cellulose nanofibers derived from Cladophora sp. algae. The filter paper was characterized using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, helium pycnometry, and model tracer (100 nm latex beads and 50 nm gold nanoparticles) retention tests. Following the filtration of xMuLV spiked solutions, LRV >= 5.25 log(10) TCID50 was observed, as limited by the virus titre in the feed solution and sensitivity of the tissue infectivity test. The results of the validation study suggest that the nanocellulose filter paper is useful for removal of endogenous rodent retroviruses and retrovirus-like particles during the production of recombinant proteins.

  • 200.
    Aspholm-Hurtig, Marina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Dailide, Giedrius
    Lahmann, Martina
    Kalia, Awdhesh
    Ilver, Dag
    Roche, Niamh
    Vikström, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Sjöström, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Lindén, Sara
    Bäckström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Lundberg, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Arnqvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Mahdavi, Jafar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Nilsson, Ulf J
    Velapatiño, Billie
    Gilman, Robert H
    Gerhard, Markus
    Alarcon, Teresa
    López-Brea, Manuel
    Nakazawa, Teruko
    Fox, James G
    Correa, Pelayo
    Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria
    Perez-Perez, Guillermo I
    Blaser, Martin J
    Normark, Staffan
    Carlstedt, Ingemar
    Oscarson, Stefan
    Teneberg, Susann
    Berg, Douglas E
    Borén, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Functional adaptation of BabA, the H. pylori ABO blood group antigen binding adhesin2004In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 305, no 5683, p. 519-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adherence by Helicobacter pylori increases the risk of gastric disease. Here, we report that more than 95% of strains that bind fucosylated blood group antigen bind A, B, and O antigens (generalists), whereas 60% of adherent South American Amerindian strains bind blood group O antigens best (specialists). This specialization coincides with the unique predominance of blood group O in these Amerindians. Strains differed about 1500-fold in binding affinities, and diversifying selection was evident in babA sequences. We propose that cycles of selection for increased and decreased bacterial adherence contribute to babA diversity and that these cycles have led to gradual replacement of generalist binding by specialist binding in blood group O-dominant human populations.

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