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  • 151.
    Bondia-Pons, Isabel
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Department of Food Science and Physiology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
    Maukonen, Johanna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Rissanen, Aila
    Obesity Research Unit, Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Saarela, Maria
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hakkarainen, Antti
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lundbom, Jesper
    Department of Radiology, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS) Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lundbom, Nina
    Department of Radiology, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS) Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.
    Obesity Research Unit, Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Metabolome and fecal microbiota in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for weight: a Big Mac challenge2014In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 4169-4179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postprandial responses to food are complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. We studied postprandial responses to a Big Mac meal challenge in monozygotic co-twins highly discordant for body weight. This unique design allows assessment of the contribution of obesity, independent of genetic liability. Comprehensive metabolic profiling using 3 analytical platforms was applied to fasting and postprandial serum samples from 16 healthy monozygotic twin pairs discordant for weight (body mass index difference >3 kg/m(2)). Nine concordant monozygotic pairs were examined as control pairs. Fecal samples were analyzed to assess diversity of the major bacterial groups by using 5 different validated bacterial group specific denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. No differences in fecal bacterial diversity were detected when comparing co-twins discordant for weight (ANOVA, P<0.05). We found that within-pair similarity is a dominant factor in the metabolic postprandial response, independent of acquired obesity. Branched chain amino acids were increased in heavier as compared with leaner co-twins in the fasting state, but their levels converged postprandially (paired t tests, FDR q<0.05). We also found that specific bacterial groups were associated with postprandial changes of specific metabolites. Our findings underline important roles of genetic and early life factors in the regulation of postprandial metabolite levels.

  • 152.
    Bondia-Pons, Isabel
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Nordlund, Emilia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Katina, Kati
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Aura, Anna-Marja
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mykkänen, Hannu
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Poutanen, Kaisa
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread2011In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 10, article id 116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism.

    METHODS: A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB) and a standard white wheat bread (WB) as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC × GC-TOF-MS).

    RESULTS: Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004), 45 min (P = 0.002) and 60 min (P < 0.001) after bread intake, and plasma glucose response was significantly higher at time point 90 min after RB than WB intake (P = 0.045). The starch hydrolysis rate was higher for RB than WB, contrary to the in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values < 0.05). Among them, there were changes in essential amino acids (phenylalanine, methionine, tyrosine and glutamic acid), metabolites involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (alpha-ketoglutaric, pyruvic acid and citric acid) and several organic acids. Interestingly, the levels of two compounds involved in the tryptophan metabolism (picolinic acid, ribitol) significantly changed depending on the different bread intake.

    CONCLUSIONS: A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  • 153.
    Bondia-Pons, Isabel
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Department of Food Science and Physiology, Research Building, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
    Pöhö, Päivi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Bozzetto, Lutgarda
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Vetrani, Claudia
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Patti, Lidia
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Aura, Anna-Marja
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Annuzzi, Giovanni
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Rivellese, Angela Albarosa
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Isoenergetic diets differing in their n-3 fatty acid and polyphenol content reflect different plasma and HDL-fraction lipidomic profiles in subjects at high cardiovascular risk2014In: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, ISSN 1613-4125, E-ISSN 1613-4133, Vol. 58, no 9, p. 1873-1882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SCOPE: Dysregulation of lipid homeostasis is related to multiple major healthcare problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 fatty acid (FA) and polyphenol rich diets on plasma and HDL fraction lipidomic profiles in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Ultra performance LC coupled to quadrupole TOF/MS mass spectrometry global lipidomic profiling was applied to plasma and HDL fraction from an 8 wk randomized intervention with four isoenergetic diets, differing in their natural n-3 FA and polyphenols content, in 78 subjects with a high BMI, abdominal obesity, and at least one other feature of the metabolic syndrome. Dependency network analysis showed a different pattern of associations between lipidomics, dietary, and clinical variables after the dietary interventions. The most remarkable associations between variables were observed after the diet high in n-3 FA and polyphenols, as the inverse association between gallic acid intake and LDL cholesterol levels, which was indirectly associated with a HDL cluster exclusively comprised lysophospholipids.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first human randomized controlled trial showing direct and indirect associations with lipid molecular species and clinical variables of interest in the evaluation of the metabolic syndrome after diets naturally rich in polyphenols.

  • 154.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Stomby, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Göteborgs Universitet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Diet-Induced Weight Loss alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task2015In: Obesity Facts, ISSN 1662-4025, E-ISSN 1662-4033, Vol. 8, p. 261-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. Methods: 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Results: Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010) after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA). Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Conclusions: Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity.

  • 155. Borg, Saskia
    et al.
    Seubert, Janina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lipids in Eating and Appetite Regulation - A Neuro-Cognitive Perspective2017In: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, ISSN 1438-7697, E-ISSN 1438-9312, Vol. 119, no 12, article id 1700106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foods high in dietary fat provide a particularly energy-rich source of nutrition. A preferred food choice in humans, their intake is thought to contribute substantially to the current obesity epidemic. Fat has recently been proposed to constitute a basic taste; yet, its diverse sensory properties in the olfactory and somatosensory domain, as well as its postingestive effects have made the exact attributes that make its consumption so appealing difficult to disentangle. Recent scientific advances have shed light on the different molecular mechanisms underlying the sensory detection of fat in the periphery, and described their relevance for perceptual experience and eating behavior. However, these different analysis levels are to date poorly integrated, both within each sensory modality, and from a multisensory perspective.

  • 156.
    Borgenvik, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Nordin, Marie
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Mattsson, C. Mikael
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Enqvist, Jonas K.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Blomstrand, Eva
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Eva Blomstrand's research group.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Björn Ekblom's research group.
    Alterations in amino acid concentrations in the plasma and muscle in human subjects during 24 h of simulated adventure racing2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, p. 3679-3688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation was designed to evaluate changes in plasma and muscle levels of free amino acids during an ultra-endurance exercise and following recovery. Nine male ultra-endurance trained athletes participated in a 24-h standardized endurance trial with controlled energy intake. The participants performed 12 sessions of running, kayaking and cycling (4 x each discipline). Blood samples were collected before, during and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken 1 week before the test and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. During the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of branched-chain (BCAA), essential amino acids (EAA) and glutamine fell 13%, 14% and 19% (P<0.05) respectively, whereas their concentrations in muscle were unaltered. Simultaneously, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels rose 38% and 50% (P<0.05) in the plasma and 66% and 46% (P<0.05) in muscle, respectively. After the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of BCAA were positively correlated with muscle levels of glycogen (r2=0.73, P<0.05), as was the combined concentrations of muscle tyrosine and phenylalanine with plasma creatine kinase (r2=0.55, P<0.05). Following 28-h of recovery, plasma and muscle levels of amino acids had either returned to their initial levels or were elevated. In conclusion, ultra-endurance exercise caused significant changes elevations in plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine, which suggest an increase in net muscle protein breakdown during exercise. There was a reduction in plasma concentrations of EAA and glutamine during exercise, whereas no changes were detected in their muscle concentration after exercise.

  • 157. Bozorgmanesh, Mohammad Reza
    et al.
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Mehrabi, Yadollah
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Temporal Changes in Anthropometric Parametersand Lipid Profile according to Body Mass Indexamong an Adult Iranian Urban Population2008In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 53, p. 13-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To examine changes in anthropometric parametersand lipid profiles over a period of 3.6 years in an Iranian adultpopulation according to body mass index (BMI) groups.Methods: Between 1998 and 2001 (phase 1) and 2002 and2005 (phase 2), 5,618 nondiabetic Iranian adults aged 6 20years were examined. Analysis of covariance was used to delineatetrends in anthropometric parameters as well as totaland low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC, LDL-Cand HDL-C, respectively) across BMI groups. Results: AlthoughBMI increased in women, this increase was not significantin obese persons. Among the men, however, a significantincrease in BMI was observed only in lean persons.Waist circumference (WC) increased across all BMI groupsin both sexes. A significant decrease was observed in TC[men: –0.83 mmol/l, 95% confidence interval (CI) –1.27 to–0.40; women: –0.78 mmol/l, CI –0.97 to –0.60] and LDL-C(men: –0.63 mmol/l, CI –1.13 to –0.13; women: –0.51 mmol/l,CI –0.78 to –0.24). A significant decrease in mean HDL-Cwas observed only among men (–0.09 mmol/l, CI –0.13to –0.04), with no difference among BMI groups (p = 0.3).There were no significant decreases in TC/HDL-C and LDLC/HDL-C ratios in men or women. Conclusions: Despite an 

    increase in WC, favorable trends were observed in TC andLDL-C levels. The favorable trend in TC levels was counterbalancedby changes in HDL-C, as reflected by the absence of asignificant decrease in TC/HDL-C or LDL-C/HDL-C

  • 158. Brader, Lea
    et al.
    Rejnmark, Lars
    Carlberg, Carsten
    Schwab, Ursula
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Landin-Olsson, Mona
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg
    Poutanen, Kaisa S.
    Herzig, Karl-Heinz
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Savolainen, Markku J.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial (SYSDIET)2014In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 1123-1134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At northern latitudes, vitamin D is not synthesized endogenously during winter, causing low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a healthy Nordic diet based on Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) on plasma 25(OH)D and explored its dietary predictors. In a Nordic multi-centre trial, subjects (n = 213) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to a control or a healthy Nordic diet favouring fish (a parts per thousand yen300 g/week, including a parts per thousand yen200 g/week fatty fish), whole-grain products, berries, fruits, vegetables, rapeseed oil and low-fat dairy products. Plasma 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone were analysed before and after 18- to 24-week intervention. At baseline, 45 % had vitamin D inadequacy (< 50 nmol/l), whereas 8 % had deficiency (< 25 nmol/l). Dietary vitamin D intake was increased by the healthy Nordic diet (P < 0.001). The healthy Nordic and the control diet reduced the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy by 42 % (P < 0.001) and 19 % (P = 0.002), respectively, without between-group difference (P = 0.142). Compared with control, plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0.208) and parathyroid hormone (P = 0.207) were not altered by the healthy Nordic diet. Predictors for 25(OH)D were intake of vitamin D, eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), vitamin D supplement, plasma EPA and plasma DHA. Nevertheless, only vitamin D intake and season predicted the 25(OH)D changes. Consuming a healthy Nordic diet based on NNR increased vitamin D intake but not plasma 25(OH)D concentration. The reason why fish consumption did not improve vitamin D status might be that many fish are farmed and might contain little vitamin D or that frying fish may result in vitamin D extraction. Additional ways to improve vitamin D status in Nordic countries may be needed.

  • 159. Braem, Marieke G. M.
    et al.
    Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte
    Schouten, Leo J.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Hansen, Louise
    Dahm, Christina C.
    Overvad, Kim
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Dossus, Laure
    Floegel, Anna
    Boeing, Heiner
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Benetou, Vassiliki
    Goufa, Ioulia
    Pala, Valeria
    Galasso, Rocco
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Palli, Domenico
    Tumino, Rosario
    Gram, Inger T.
    Lund, Eiliv
    Gavrilyuk, Oxana
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Quiros, Ramon
    Gonzales, Carlos A.
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Huerta Castano, Jose M.
    Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio
    Idahl, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Ohlson, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Jirstrom, Karin
    Witfalt, Elisabet
    Allen, Naomi E.
    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.
    Kaw, Kay-Tee
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Dik, Vincent K.
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Coffee and tea consumption and the risk of ovarian cancer: a prospective cohort study and updated meta-analysis2012In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 1172-1181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund Report concluded that there was limited and inconsistent evidence for an effect of coffee and tea consumption on the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Objective: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we aimed to investigate whether coffee intakes, tea intakes, or both are associated with the risk of EOC. Design: All women participating in the EPIC (n = 330,849) were included in this study. Data on coffee and tea consumption were collected through validated food-frequency questionnaires at baseline. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models. Furthermore, we performed an updated meta-analysis of all previous prospective studies until April 2011 by comparing the highest and lowest coffee- and tea-consumption categories as well as by using dose-response random-effects meta-regression analyses. Results: During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 1244 women developed EOC. No association was observed between the risk of EOC and coffee consumption [HR: 1.05 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.46) for the top quintile compared with no intake] or tea consumption [HR: 1.07 (95% Cl: 0.78, 1.45) for the top quintile compared with no intake]. This lack of association between coffee and tea intake and EOC risk was confirmed by the results of our meta-analysis. Conclusion: Epidemiologic studies do not provide sufficient evidence to support an association between coffee and tea consumption and risk of ovarian cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:1172-81.

  • 160.
    Branth, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Westerterp, Klaas
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Edsgren, Ronnie
    Mustelin, Markys
    Nilsson, Roger
    Energy turnover in a sailing crew during offshore racing around the world1996In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1272-1276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy turnover during offshore sailing was studied in 11 male crew members of one team during the first three legs of the 1993-1994 Whitbread Round The World Race. The effect of racing on the energy balance of the crew members was studied by anthropometric measurements and dietary intake as calculated from food inventories before and after each leg. Energy turnover, calculated from dietary intake and release of endogenous energy as a result of changes in body composition, was higher than expected (about 18-20 MJ·d-1). These findings were confirmed using the doubly labeled water technique in six crew members during the third leg, in which mean energy turnover was found to be 19.3 MJ·d-1. Changes in body weight and composition indicated a negative energy balance during all legs.

  • 161.
    Brantsaeter, Anne Lise
    et al.
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Exposure & Risk Assessment, Div Environm Med, POB 4404, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Torjusen, Hanne
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Exposure & Risk Assessment, Div Environm Med, POB 4404, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway.;Natl Inst Consumer Res SIFO, Oslo, Norway..
    Meltzer, Helle Margrete
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Exposure & Risk Assessment, Div Environm Med, POB 4404, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Exposure & Risk Assessment, Div Environm Med, POB 4404, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Hoppin, Jane A.
    N Carolina State Univ, Ctr Human Hlth & Environm, Dept Biol Sci, Raleigh, NC 27695 USA..
    Alexander, Jan
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Off Director Gen, POB 4404, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Lieblein, Geir
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Plant Sci, As, Norway..
    Roos, Gun
    Natl Inst Consumer Res SIFO, Oslo, Norway..
    Holten, Jon Magne
    Oikos Organ Norway, Oslo, Norway..
    Swartz, Jackie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Vidarkliniken, Jarna, Sweden..
    Haugen, Margaretha
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Exposure & Risk Assessment, Div Environm Med, POB 4404, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Organic Food Consumption during Pregnancy and Hypospadias and Cryptorchidism at Birth: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)2016In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 124, no 3, p. 357-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The etiologies of the male urogenital anomalies hypospadias and cryptorchidism remain unclear. It has been suggested that maternal diet and environmental contaminants may affect the risk of these anomalies via placental or hormonal disturbances. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between organic food consumption during pregnancy and prevalence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism at birth. METHODS: Our study includes 35,107 women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) who delivered a singleton male infant. Information about use of six groups of organically produced food (vegetables, fruit, bread/cereal, milk/dairy products, eggs, and meat) during pregnancy was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Women who indicated that they sometimes, often, or mostly consumed organic foods in at least one of the six food groups were classified as organic food consumers in analyses. Hypospadias and cryptorchidism diagnoses were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Seventy-four male newborns were diagnosed with hypospadias (0.2%), and 151 with cryptorchidism (0.4%). Women who consumed any organic food during pregnancy were less likely to give birth to a boy with hypospadias (OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.70, based on 21 exposed cases) than women who reported they never or seldom consumed organic food. Associations with specific organic foods were strongest for vegetable (OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.85; 10 exposed cases) and milk/dairy (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.17, 1.07; 7 exposed cases) consumption. No substantial association was observed for consumption of organic food and cryptorchidism. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of organically produced foods during pregnancy was associated with a lower prevalence of hypospadias in our study population. These findings were based on small numbers of cases and require replication in other study populations.

  • 162. Brattby, LE
    et al.
    Sandhagen, B
    Samuelson, Gösta
    Energiförbrukning, fysisk aktivitet och idrottsvanor hos 15-åringar i Uppsala och Trollhättan1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1102-6489, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 31-34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 163. Bratteby, L E
    et al.
    Sandhagen, B
    Fan, H
    Enghardt, H
    Samuelson, Gösta
    Total energy expenditure and physical activity as assessed by the doubly labeled water method in Swedish adolescents in whom energy intake was underestimated by 7-d diet records.1998In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 67, no 5, p. 905-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish children and adolescents may be adopting a sedentary lifestyle with low energy expenditures and intakes, but no quantitative data are available. The purpose of the present study in 50 adolescents aged 15 y was to investigate whether assessment of total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) by the doubly labeled water method and indirect calorimetry and estimation of energy intake by a 7-d diet record would indicate physical inactivity. The boys' (n = 25) mean weight was 112% and the girls' (n = 25) was 109% of Swedish reference values from 1976; the mean height of both boys and girls was 102% of those reference values. Mean TEE in the boys and girls, 13.82 +/- 1.90 and 10.70 +/- 1.59 MJ/d, and mean PAL (TEE/basal metabolic rate), 1.89 +/- 0.16 and 1.79 +/- 0.22, respectively, were nonsignificantly higher than corresponding figures from other published studies. Mean energy intake as a percentage of TEE was 81.9 +/- 17.9% in the boys and 78.3 +/- 16.4% in the girls. Significant negative correlations were found both between energy intake as a percentage of TEE and percentage body fat and between energy intake as a percentage of TEE and body mass index. These results add to the evidence that 7-d diet records underestimate energy intake in adolescents, particularly those with a tendency for overweight and increased body fat. The results support indications of a trend of increasing body weight and height in Swedish adolescents, but conflict with the presumptions of low physical activity, low energy expenditure, and low energy intake. These results support the view that current recommendations for energy intake during adolescence are too low.

  • 164.
    Bratteby, L-E
    et al.
    University Hospital, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Sandhagen, B
    Hospital, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Samuelson, Gösta
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Advanced Nursing.
    Physical activity, energy expenditure and their correlates in two cohorts of Swedish subjects between adolescence and early adulthood2005In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 59, no 11, p. 1324-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess physical activity and energy expenditure and to identify their correlates during adolescence and early adulthood. DESIGN: In a cohort study, total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) were assessed at 15 and 21 y from a 7-day activity diary and predicted BMR. The influences on TEE and PAL of body size, gender, sexual maturity, physical activity habits, sitting time, region, social conditions, employment, food habits, smoking and alcohol intake were examined in multivariate analyses.Subjects:71 male and 89 female subjects, living in two socioeconomically different regions of Sweden, a university region and an industrial region. SETTING: The university city of Uppsala and the industrial town of Trollhättan. RESULTS: At both 15 and 21 y, PAL and TEE were high, with gender, sitting time and physical activity habits as main correlates. At age 21 y, employment and the mother's educational level also appeared as significant correlates. The relations between the main variables and their correlates were more complex than at age 15 y, and the sitting time was reduced and the activity habits were changed. CONCLUSIONS: A reduction of daily sitting appears to be a major reason why high levels of physical activity and energy expenditure were maintained from 15 to 21 y of age in spite of changed and less frequent activity habits during this interval.

  • 165. Breimer, Lars H
    et al.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro University Hospital; Departments of Clinical Medicine & Biomedicine, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University.
    Has folate a role in the developing nervous system after birth and not just during embryogenesis and gestation?2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 185-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is now 30 years since the first publications stating that supplementation with folate could prevent neural tube defects appeared and 20 years since the definitive data, including prevention of other birth defects. Since then epidemiological studies and animal experiments have identified folate as a molecule at the crossroads of neural development. Fortification of food has greatly reduced the incidence of spina bifida. Much interest has focussed on long-term sequelae in children born to mothers severely deprived of folate (and other nutrients) such as during the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944 and in poor parts of the world. In addition, deficiency in folate and B12 are increasingly discussed as a possible contributing factor in dementia and congenital orofacial and heart malformations. The year 2011 saw the publication of a study that implicated low folate intake in poorer school performance of adolescents as judged by school marks. This has enormous social implications but needs confirmation from other settings. This review assesses the current state of evidence and sets the data in context of whether folate has a role in the development and plasticity of the nervous system even after birth, with particular emphasis on childhood and adolescence.

  • 166.
    Bron, Peter A.
    et al.
    NIZO Food Research, Ede, The Netherlands; BE-Basic Foundation, The Netherlands, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Kleerebezem, Michiel
    Host Microbe Interactomics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Brummer, Robert-Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Cani, Patrice D.
    Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, WELBIO – Walloon Excellence in Life Sciences and BIOtechnology, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    Mercenier, Annick
    Nutrition and Health Research, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    MacDonald, Thomas T.
    Barts and The London school of Medicine and Dentistry, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
    Garcia-Ródenas, Clara L
    Nutrition and Health Research, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Wells, Jerry M.
    Host Microbe Interactomics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Can probiotics modulate human disease by impacting intestinal barrier function?2017In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 93-107Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intestinal barrier integrity is a prerequisite for homeostasis of mucosal function, which is balanced to maximise absorptive capacity, while maintaining efficient defensive reactions against chemical and microbial challenges. Evidence is mounting that disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is one of the major aetiological factors associated with several gastrointestinal diseases, including infection by pathogens, obesity and diabetes, necrotising enterocolitis, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. The notion that specific probiotic bacterial strains can affect barrier integrity fuelled research in which in vitro cell lines, animal models and clinical trials are used to assess whether probiotics can revert the diseased state back to homeostasis and health. This review catalogues and categorises the lines of evidence available in literature for the role of probiotics in epithelial integrity and, consequently, their beneficial effect for the reduction of gastrointestinal disease symptoms.

  • 167. Bruce, Å
    et al.
    Hagman, U
    Persson, LÅ
    Samuelson, Gösta
    Sjölin, S
    Näringsintag hos svenska barn: Resultat från en multicenter studie 1980-19811984In: Vår föda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 36, no suppl 2, p. 61-134Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 168. Bruck, Wolfram M
    et al.
    Redgrave, Michele
    Tuohy, Kieran M
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    Graverholt, Gitte
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Gibson, Glenn R
    Effects of bovine alpha-lactalbumin and casein glycomacropeptide-enriched infant formulae on faecal microbiota in healthy term infants2006In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 673-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Certain milk factors may promote the growth of a host-friendly gastrointestinal microbiota, for example, one that is predominated by bifidobacteria, a perceived healthpromoting genus. This may explain why breast-fed infants experience fewer intestinal infections than their formula-fed counterparts who are believed to have a more diverse microbiota, which is similar to that of adults. The effects of formulas supplemented with 2 such ingredients from bovine milk, a-lactalbumin (alpha-lac) and casein glycomacropeptide (GMP), on gut flora were investigated in this study.

    Patients and Methods: Six-week-old (4-8 wk), healthy term infants were randomised to a standard infant formula or 1 of 2 test formulae enriched in alpha-Jac with higher or lower GMP until 6 months. Faecal bacteriology was determined by the culture-independent procedure fluorescence in situ hybridisation.

    Results: There was a large fluctuation of bacterial counts within groups with no statistically significant differences between groups. Although all groups showed a. predominance of bifidobacteria, breast-fed infants had a small temporary increase in counts. Other bacterial levels varied in formula-fed groups, which overall showed an adult-like faecal microflora.

    Conclusions: It can be speculated that a prebiotic effect for alpha-lac and GMP is achieved only with low starting populations of beneficial microbiota (eg, infants not initially breast-fed).

  • 169.
    Brug, Johannes
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm , Sweden.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway .
    The pro children study: conceptualization, baseline results and intervention development of a European effort to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in schoolchildren2005In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 209-211Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 170.
    Brug, Johannes
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm , Sweden.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway .
    The pro children study: conceptualization, baseline results and intervention development of a European effort to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in schoolchildren2005In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 209-211Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Brugård Konde, Åsa
    et al.
    Livsmedelsverket.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Mat för spädbarn 0-1 år2012In: Barnläkaren, ISSN 1651-0534, no 5, p. 6-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 172. Brunkwall, Louise
    et al.
    Chen, Yan
    Hindy, George
    Rukh, Gull
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Barroso, Ines
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and genetic predisposition to obesity in 2 Swedish cohorts2016In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 104, no 3, p. 809-815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which has increased substantially during the last decades, has been associated with obesity and weight gain.

    Objective: Common genetic susceptibility to obesity has been shown to modify the association between SSB intake and obesity risk in 3 prospective cohorts from the United States. We aimed to replicate these findings in 2 large Swedish cohorts.

    Design: Data were available for 21,824 healthy participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study and 4902 healthy participants from the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Complex Traits Involved in Elevated Disease Risk Study. Self-reported SSB intake was categorized into 4 levels (seldom, low, medium, and high). Unweighted and weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) were constructed based on 30 body mass index [(BMI) in kg/m2]-associated loci, and effect modification was assessed in linear regression equations by modeling the product and marginal effects of the GRS and SSB intake adjusted for age-, sex-, and cohort-specific covariates, with BMI as the outcome. In a secondary analysis, models were additionally adjusted for putative confounders (total energy intake, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and physical activity).

    Results: In an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis, each SSB intake category increment was associated with a 0.18 higher BMI (SE = 0.02; P = 1.7 × 10−20n = 26,726). In the fully adjusted model, a nominal significant interaction between SSB intake category and the unweighted GRS was observed (P-interaction = 0.03). Comparing the participants within the top and bottom quartiles of the GRS to each increment in SSB intake was associated with 0.24 (SE = 0.04; P = 2.9 × 10−8n = 6766) and 0.15 (SE = 0.04; P = 1.3 × 10−4n = 6835) higher BMIs, respectively.

    Conclusions: The interaction observed in the Swedish cohorts is similar in magnitude to the previous analysis in US cohorts and indicates that the relation of SSB intake and BMI is stronger in people genetically predisposed to obesity.

  • 173.
    Brunosson, Albina
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen.
    Livsviktigt med hem- och konsumentkunskap2013In: Skånes fria tidning, ISSN 2001-2349, no 14/9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Korvstoppning, ölbryggeri och ostmakeri. Matnörderiet har kanske aldrig varit så stort som i dag. Men betyder det att vi fått bättre kunskap om maten vi stoppar i oss och hur den blir till? Knappast, menar Albina Brunnosson, lärare vid Högskolan i Kristianstad och doktorand i kostvetenskap vid Uppsala universitet. I veckans debatt skriver hon att behovet av skolans minsta ämne är större än någonsin. Inte minst för jämställdheten.

  • 174.
    Brunosson, Albina
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Avdelningen för Praktisk-estetiska ämnen.
    Livsviktigt med hem- och konsumentkunskap2013In: Skånes fria tidning, ISSN 2001-2349, no 14/9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Korvstoppning, ölbryggeri och ostmakeri. Matnörderiet har kanske aldrig varit så stort som i dag. Men betyder det att vi fått bättre kunskap om maten vi stoppar i oss och hur den blir till? Knappast, menar Albina Brunnosson, lärare vid Högskolan i Kristianstad och doktorand i kostvetenskap vid Uppsala universitet. I veckans debatt skriver hon att behovet av skolans minsta ämne är större än någonsin. Inte minst för jämställdheten.

  • 175. Bruun, Signe
    et al.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Husby, Steffen
    Jacobsen, Lotte Neergaard
    Michaelsen, Kim F.
    Fowler, Christopher J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Zachariassen, Gitte
    Satiety Factors Oleoylethanolamide, Stearoylethanolamide, and Palmitoylethanolamide in Mother's Milk Are Strongly Associated with Infant Weight at Four Months of Age: data from the Odense Child Cohort2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation of appetite and food intake is partly regulated by N-acylethanolamine lipids oleoylethanolamide (OEA), stearoylethanolamide (SEA), and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), which induce satiety through endogenous formation in the small intestine upon feeding, but also when orally or systemic administered. OEA, SEA, and PEA are present in human milk, and we hypothesized that the content of OEA, SEA, and PEA in mother's milk differed for infants being heavy (high weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ)) or light (low WAZ) at time of milk sample collection. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of OEA, SEA, and PEA in milk samples collected four months postpartum from mothers to high (n = 50) or low (n = 50) WAZ infants. Associations between OEA, SEA, and PEA concentration and infant anthropometry at four months of age as well as growth from birth were investigated using linear and logistic regression analyses, adjusted for birth weight, early infant formula supplementation, and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index. Mean OEA, SEA, and PEA concentrations were lower in the high compared to the low WAZ group (all p < 0.02), and a higher concentration of SEA was associated with lower anthropometric measures, e.g., triceps skinfold thickness (mm) (β = -2.235, 95% CI = -4.04, -0.43, p = 0.016), and weight gain per day since birth (g) (β = -8.169, 95% CI = -15.26, -1.08, p = 0.024). This raises the possibility, that the content of satiety factors OEA, SEA, and PEA in human milk may affect infant growth.

  • 176. Buckland, G
    et al.
    Travier, N
    Cottet, V
    Gonzalez, CA
    Lujan-Barroso, L
    Agudo, A
    Trichopoulou, A
    Lagiou, P
    Trichopoulos, D
    Peeters, PH
    May, A
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB
    Duijnhoven, FJ Bvan
    Key, TJ
    Allen, N
    Khaw, KT
    Wareham, N
    Romieu, I
    McCormack, V
    Boutron-Ruault, M
    Clavel-Chapelon, F
    Panico, S
    Agnoli, C
    Palli, D
    Tumino, R
    Vineis, P
    Amiano, P
    Barricarte, A
    Rodriguez, L
    Sanchez, MJ
    Chirlaque, MD
    Kaaks, R
    Teucher, B
    Boeing, H
    Bergmann, MM
    Overvad, K
    Dahm, CC
    Tjonneland, A
    Olsen, A
    Manjer, J
    Wirfalt, E
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Lund, E
    Hjartaker, A
    Skeie, G
    Vergnaud, AC
    Norat, T
    Romaguera, D
    Riboli, E
    Adherence to the mediterranean diet and risk of breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort study2013In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 132, no 12, p. 2918-2927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet (MD) could reduce the risk of breast cancer (BC). As evidence from the prospective studies remains scarce and conflicting, we investigated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of BC among 335,062 women recruited from 1992 to 2000, in ten European countries, and followed for 11 years on average. Adherence to the MD was estimated through an adapted relative Mediterranean diet (arMED) score excluding alcohol. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used while adjusting for BC risk factors. A total of 9,009 postmenopausal and 1,216 premenopausal first primary incident invasive BC were identified (5,862 estrogen or progesterone receptor positive [ER+/PR+] and 1,018 estrogen and progesterone receptor negative [ER/PR]). The arMED was inversely associated with the risk of BC overall and in postmenopausal women (high vs. low arMED score; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.94 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88, 1.00] ptrend = 0.048, and HR = 0.93 [95% CI: 0.87, 0.99] ptrend = 0.037, respectively). The association was more pronounced in ER/PR tumors (HR = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.65, 0.99] ptrend = 0.043). The arMED score was not associated with BC in premenopausal women. Our findings show that adherence to a MD excluding alcohol was related to a modest reduced risk of BC in postmenopausal women, and this association was stronger in receptor-negative tumors. The results support the potential scope for BC prevention through dietary modification.

  • 177. Buckland, Genevieve
    et al.
    Agudo, Antonio
    Luján, Leila
    Jakszyn, Paula
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Palli, Domenico
    Boeing, Heiner
    Carneiro, Fátima
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Tumino, Rosario
    Panico, Salvatore
    Nesi, Gabriella
    Manjer, Jonas
    Regnér, Sara
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Stenling, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Sanchez, María-José
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Navarro, Carmen
    Quirós, J Ramón
    Allen, Naomi E
    Key, Timothy J
    Bingham, Sheila
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Overvad, Kim
    Jensen, Majken
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Peeters, Petra H M
    Numans, Mattijs E
    Ocké, Marga C
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Morois, Sophie
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Lund, Eiliv
    Couto, Elisabeth
    Boffeta, Paolo
    Jenab, Mazda
    Riboli, Elio
    Romaguera, Dora
    Mouw, Traci
    González, Carlos A
    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study2010In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 381-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean dietary pattern is believed to protect against cancer, although evidence from cohort studies that have examined particular cancer sites is limited.

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the association between adherence to a relative Mediterranean diet (rMED) and incident gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    DESIGN: The study included 485,044 subjects (144,577 men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries. At recruitment, dietary and lifestyle information was collected. An 18-unit rMED score, incorporating 9 key components of the Mediterranean diet, was used to estimate rMED adherence. The association between rMED and GC with respect to anatomic location (cardia and noncardia) and histologic types (diffuse and intestinal) was investigated. A calibration study in a subsample was used to control for dietary measurement error.

    RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 8.9 y, 449 validated incident GC cases were identified and used in the analysis. After stratification by center and age and adjustment for recognized cancer risk factors, high compared with low rMED adherence was associated with a significant reduction in GC risk (hazard ratio: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). A 1-unit increase in the rMED score was associated with a decreased risk of GC of 5% (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). There was no evidence of heterogeneity between different anatomic locations or histologic types. The calibrated results showed similar trends (overall hazard ratio for GC: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99).

    CONCLUSION: Greater adherence to an rMED is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of incident GC.

  • 178. Burger, Koert NJ
    et al.
    Beulens, Joline WJ
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T
    Sluijs, Ivonne
    Spijkerman, Annemieke MW
    Sluik, Diewertje
    Boeing, Heiner
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Teucher, Birgit
    Dethlefsen, Claus
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Kyro, Cecilie
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Bendinelli, Benedetta
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Nilsson, Peter M
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    Crowe, Francesca
    Allen, Naomi
    Noethlings, Ute
    Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity, and mortality risk of individuals with diabetes mellitus2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 8, p. e43127-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity are associated with mortality risk in the general population. Whether this is also the case among diabetes patients is unknown.Objective: To assess the associations of dietary fiber, glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, and starch intake with mortality risk in individuals with diabetes. Methods: This study was a prospective cohort study among 6,192 individuals with confirmed diabetes mellitus (mean age of 57.4 years, and median diabetes duration of 4.4 years at baseline) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary intake was assessed at baseline (1992-2000) with validated dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, while adjusting for CVD-related, diabetes-related, and nutritional factors. Results: During a median follow-up of 9.2 y, 791 deaths were recorded, 306 due to CVD. Dietary fiber was inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75-0.91]) and CVD mortality risk (0.76[0.64-0.89]). No significant associations were observed for glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, or starch. Glycemic load (1.42[1.07-1.88]), carbohydrate (1.67[1.18-2.37]) and sugar intake (1.53[1.12-2.09]) were associated with an increased total mortality risk among normal weight individuals (BMI <= 25 kg/m(2); 22% of study population) but not among overweight individuals (P interaction <= 0.04). These associations became stronger after exclusion of energy misreporters. Conclusions: High fiber intake was associated with a decreased mortality risk. High glycemic load, carbohydrate and sugar intake were associated with an increased mortality risk in normal weight individuals with diabetes.

  • 179.
    Bustos, Atma-Sol
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL). Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science, Avdelningen för mat- och måltidsvetenskap. Lund University.
    Linares-Pasten, Javier A.
    Lund University.
    Penarrieta, Jose M.
    Bolivia.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Lund University.
    Interaction between phenolic compounds and lipase: the influence of solubility and presence of particles in the IC50 value2018In: Journal of Food Science, ISSN 0022-1147, E-ISSN 1750-3841, Vol. 83, no 8, p. 2071-2076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is one of the principal human health problems and one of the main treatments against it is the inhibition of pancreatic lipase, the main responsible enzyme of lipid digestion. For that purpose, previous studies have tested several phenolic compounds against lipase, without considering their aggregation behavior in aqueous solutions. Because of this, the present study focuses on understanding how the solubility and the presence of particles affect the IC50 value of the interaction between lipase and phenolic compounds present in beverages like fruit juices and teas. Therefore, the inhibitory capacity against pancreatic lipase and the aggregate formation of 9 phenolic compounds (quercetin, rutin, myricetin, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, cyanidin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and vanillic acid) were analyzed. The results obtained together with the solubility data from literature were treated by principal component analysis and indicate that the IC50 value does not correlate with the solubility or aggregate formation of the phenolic compounds. However, the IC50 values of phenolic compounds which aggregate during the assay conditions have low reproducibility. This study shows that the aggregate formation of phenolic compounds plays an important role during in vitro assays for pancreatic lipase inhibition and should be considered in future experiments as it can lead to false positive results. In terms of particle formation, the flavonoids investigated in this study are more prone to aggregation compared to the phenolic acids.

  • 180.
    Bäcklund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Evaluation of 2-year family-based lifestyle intervention regarding physical activity among children with overweight and obesity2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Bäcklund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Problems in enhancing physical activity among overweight and obese children2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Physical inactivity is regarded as one of the main factors that have contributed to the rapid increase in prevalence of childhood obesity in recent decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether participation in a family-based multifactor intervention program could increase physical activity among overweight and obese children.

    Methods: 105 children, mean age 10.5 years (SD±1.09), with overweight and obesity living in northern Sweden were recruited and randomized into an intervention or control group. The intervention group was invited to participate in a program aiming at improving lifestyle regarding food habits and physical activity. The children’s physical activity was measured during 4 days at baseline and after 1 year with SenseWear Armband.

    Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups neither at either baseline or 1 year, regarding energy expenditure, steps/day, time being sedentary (< 3 MET), and time being active at different MET-levels. For all children, time being active ≥ 3 MET significantly decreased with 44.5 (111) min/d from baseline to 1-year. Despite the decrease in physical activity, the children were physically active ≥ 3 MET during 4.1 (1.6) h/d at 1-year.

    Conclusion: Physical activity decreased with increased age among overweight and obese children, despite extensive effort of intervention. To make future interventions worthwhile it is important to consider the participant’s physical activity level before entering the study, when planning and setting up the intervention program; to comprise the participant’s individual goals regarding physical activity; and to focus specifically on decreasing time being sedentary.

  • 182.
    Börnhorst, Claudia
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology – BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Siani, Alfonso
    Unit of Epidemiology and Population Genetics, Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
    Russo, Paola
    Unit of Epidemiology and Population Genetics, Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
    Kourides, Yannis
    Research and Education Institute of Child Health, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Sion, Isabelle
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Molnár, Denés
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Rodríguez, Gerardo
    GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Ben-Shlomo, Yoav
    School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Howe, Laura
    School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mehlig, Kirsten
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Regber, Susann
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI).
    Bammann, Karin
    Institute for Public Health and Nursing Research (IPP), Faculty for Human and Health Sciences, University Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Foraita, Ronja
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology – BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology – BIPS, Bremen, Germany, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Tilling, Kate
    School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e0149268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences.

    Methods

    The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden) participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008) and follow-up examination (2009/2010) supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences.

    Results

    Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries) with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG) was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers’ smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found.

    Conclusion

    Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association with children’s BMI growth.

  • 183. Büchner, Frederike L
    et al.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Ros, Martine M
    Kampman, Ellen
    Egevad, Lars
    Overvad, Kim
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Roswall, Nina
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Touillaud, Marina
    Chang-Claude, Jenny
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Boeing, Heiner
    Weikert, Steffen
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Palli, Domenico
    Sieri, Sabina
    Vineis, Paolo
    Tumino, Rosario
    Panico, Salvatore
    Vrieling, Alina
    Peeters, Petra H M
    van Gils, Carla H
    Lund, Eiliv
    Gram, Inger T
    Engeset, Dagrun
    Martinez, Carmen
    Gonzalez, Carlos A
    Larrañaga, Nerea
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Navarro, Carmen
    Rodríguez, Laudina
    Manjer, Jonas
    Ehrnström, Roy A
    Hallmans, Goran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Ljungberg, Borje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Allen, Naomi E
    Roddam, Andrew W
    Bingham, Sheila
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Slimani, Nadia
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Jenab, Mazda
    Mouw, Traci
    Michaud, Dominique S
    Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M
    Riboli, Elio
    Consumption of vegetables and fruit and the risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition2009In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 125, no 11, p. 2643-2651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous epidemiologic studies found inconsistent associations between vegetables and fruit consumption and the risk of bladder cancer. We therefore investigated the association between vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of bladder cancer among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer occurrence was available for a total of 478,533 participants, who were recruited in 10 European countries. Estimates of rate ratios were obtained by Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, gender and study centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, duration of smoking and lifetime intensity of smoking. A calibration study in a subsample was used to control for dietary measurement errors. After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 1015 participants were newly diagnosed with bladder cancer. Increments of 100 g/day in fruit and vegetable consumption combined did not affect bladder cancer risk (i.e., calibrated HR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.95-1.01). Borderline statistically significant lower bladder cancer risks were found among never smokers with increased consumption of fruit and vegetables combined (HR = 0.94 95%CI: 0.87-1.00 with increments of 100 g/day; calibrated HR = 0.92 95%CI 0.79-1.06) and increased consumption of apples and pears (hard fruit; calibrated HR = 0.90 95%CI: 0.82-0.98 with increments of 25 g/day). For none of the associations a statistically significant interaction with smoking status was found. Our findings do not support an effect of fruit and vegetable consumption, combined or separately, on bladder cancer risk. (c) 2009 UICC.

  • 184. Cabrera, C.
    et al.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Eriksson, B. G.
    Wedel, H.
    Eiben, G.
    Steen, B.
    Lissner, L.
    Socio-economic gradient in food selection and diet quality among 70-year olds2007In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 466-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess social disparities in food choices and diet quality in a population of 70-year old Swedes.

    Design: Cross-sectional study among participants in the 2000 Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies in Goteborg.

    Participants: A representative population of men (n=233) and women (n=321) from Goteborg, a city on the south western coast of Sweden.

    Methods: One hour diet history interviews were performed and 35 specific foods and food groups were identified; in addition a diet quality index (DQI) was calculated. Differences in food choices and diet quality scores were tested across educational and socio-economic index categories (SEI).

    Results: Men with higher education and SEI had higher diet quality scores than those with lower socio-economic status, while no differences in DQI were noted in women. Further analysis of women based on their husband's occupational group also yielded no differences in diet quality. When studying individual foods, socio-economic differences were observed in women and men.

    Conclusions: Selection of food varies by education and occupational status in both sexes although socio-economic disparities in diet quality were observed in men only.

  • 185.
    Cai, Demin
    et al.
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yuan, Mengjie
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Haoyu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Pan, Shifeng
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Ma, Wenqiang
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Hong, Jian
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Ruqian
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Key Lab Anim Physiol & Biochem, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.;Jiangsu Collaborat Innovat Ctr Meat Prod & Proc Q, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Maternal Betaine Supplementation throughout Gestation and Lactation Modifies Hepatic Cholesterol Metabolic Genes in Weaning Piglets via AMPK/LXR-Mediated Pathway and Histone Modification2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 10, article id 646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Betaine serves as an animal and human nutrient which has been heavily investigated in glucose and lipid metabolic regulation, yet the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets during pregnancy and lactation increased cholesterol content and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) gene expression, but decreasing bile acids content and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase (CYP7a1) expression in the liver of weaning piglets. This was associated with the significantly elevated serum betaine and methionine levels and hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) content. Concurrently, the hepatic nuclear transcription factor liver X receptor LXR was downregulated along with activated signal protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed lower LXR binding on CYP7a1 gene promoter and more enriched activation histone marker H3K4me3 on LDLR and SR-BI promoters. These results suggest that gestational and lactational betaine supplementation modulates hepatic gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism via an AMPK/LXR pathway and histone modification in the weaning offspring.

  • 186. Cameron, AJ
    et al.
    Soderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Magliano, DJ
    Comment on 'General and abdominal obesity parameters and their combination in relation to mortality: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis'2014In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 140-140Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 187. Campa, Daniele
    et al.
    Hüsing, Anika
    Chang-Claude, Jenny
    Dostal, Lucie
    Boeing, Heiner
    Kröger, Janine
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Roswall, Nina
    Overvad, Kim
    Dahm, Christina C
    Rodríguez, Laudina
    Sala, Núria
    Pérez, Maria José Sánchez
    Larrañaga, Nerea
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Allen, Naomi E
    Travis, Ruth C
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Naska, Androniki
    Bamia, Christina
    Palli, Domenico
    Sieri, Sabina
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    van Kranen, Henk J
    Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
    Chajes, Veronique
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Siddiq, Afshan
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Canzian, Federico
    Genetic variability of the fatty acid synthase pathway is not associated with prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC)2011In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 420-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A western lifestyle, characterised by low rates of energy expenditure and a high-energy diet rich in animal protein, saturated fats and refined carbohydrates, is associated with high incidence of prostate cancer in men. A high-energy nutritional status results in insulin/IGF signalling in cells, which in turn stimulates synthesis of fatty acids. We investigated whether the genetic variability of the genes belonging to the fatty acid synthesis pathway is related to prostate cancer risk in 815 prostate cancer cases and 1266 controls from the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC). Using a tagging approach and selecting 252 SNPs in 22 genes, we covered all the common genetic variation of this pathway. None of the SNPs reached statistical significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Common SNPs in the fatty acid synthase pathway are not major contributors to prostate cancer risk.

  • 188. Campanella, Gianluca
    et al.
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Polidoro, Silvia
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Palli, Domenico
    Panico, Salvatore
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Tumino, Rosario
    Fiorito, Giovanni
    Guarrera, Simonetta
    Iacoviello, Licia
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Melin, Beatrice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Lenner, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    de Kok, Theo M. C. M.
    Georgiadis, Panagiotis
    Kleinjans, Jos C. S.
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Lillycrop, Karen A.
    May, Anne M.
    Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte
    Murray, Robert
    Riboli, Elio
    Verschuren, Monique
    Lund, Eiliv
    Mode, Nicolle
    Sandanger, Torkjel M.
    Fiano, Valentina
    Trevisan, Morena
    Matullo, Giuseppe
    Froguel, Philippe
    Elliott, Paul
    Vineis, Paolo
    Chadeau-Hyam, Marc
    Epigenome-wide association study of adiposity and future risk of obesity-related diseases2018In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 42, no 12, p. 2022-2035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity is an established risk factor for several common chronic diseases such as breast and colorectal cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases; however, the biological basis for these relationships is not fully understood. To explore the association of obesity with these conditions, we investigated peripheral blood leucocyte (PBL) DNA methylation markers for adiposity and their contribution to risk of incident breast and colorectal cancer and myocardial infarction.

    Methods: DNA methylation profiles (Illumina Infinium® HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) from 1941 individuals from four population-based European cohorts were analysed in relation to body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip and waist-height ratio within a meta-analytical framework. In a subset of these individuals, data on genome-wide gene expression level, biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolism were also available. Validation of methylation markers associated with all adiposity measures was performed in 358 individuals. Finally, we investigated the association of obesity-related methylation marks with breast, colorectal cancer and myocardial infarction within relevant subsets of the discovery population.

    Results: We identified 40 CpG loci with methylation levels associated with at least one adiposity measure. Of these, one CpG locus (cg06500161) in ABCG1 was associated with all four adiposity measures (P = 9.07×10−8 to 3.27×10−18) and lower transcriptional activity of the full-length isoform of ABCG1 (P = 6.00×10−7), higher triglyceride levels (P = 5.37×10−9) and higher triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio (P = 1.03×10−10). Of the 40 informative and obesity-related CpG loci, two (in IL2RB and FGF18) were significantly associated with colorectal cancer (inversely, P < 1.6×10−3) and one intergenic locus on chromosome 1 was inversely associated with myocardial infarction (P < 1.25×10−3), independently of obesity and established risk factors.

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that epigenetic changes, in particular altered DNA methylation patterns, may be an intermediate biomarker at the intersection of obesity and obesity-related diseases, and could offer clues as to underlying biological mechanisms.

  • 189. Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo J
    et al.
    Sluijs, Ivonne
    Nöthlings, Ute
    Freisling, Heinz
    Overvad, Kim
    Boeing, Heiner
    Masala, Giovanna
    Panico, Salvatore
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sieri, Sabina
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Katzke, Verena A
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Nilsson, Peter M
    Halkjær, Jytte
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Spijkerman, Annemieke M
    Arriola, Larraitz
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    May, Anne M
    Beulens, Joline W
    The association of substituting carbohydrates with total fat and different types of fatty acids with mortality and weight change among diabetes patients2016In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1096-1102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Substitution of carbohydrates with fat in a diet for type 2 diabetes patients is still debated.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary carbohydrate intake and isocaloric substitution with (i) total fat, (ii) saturated fatty acids (SFA), (iii) mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and (iv) poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality risk and 5-year weight change in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    METHODS: The study included 6192 patients with type 2 diabetes from 15 cohorts of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary intake was assessed at recruitment with country-specific food-frequency questionnaires. Cox and linear regression were used to estimate the associations with (CVD) mortality and weight change, adjusting for confounders and using different methods to adjust for energy intake.

    RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 9.2 y ± SD 2.3 y, 791 (13%) participants had died, of which 268 (4%) due to CVD. Substituting 10 g or 5 energy% of carbohydrates by total fat was associated with a higher all-cause mortality risk (HR 1.07 [1.02-1.13]), or SFAs (HR 1.25 [1.11-1.40]) and a lower risk when replaced by MUFAs (HR 0.89 [0.77-1.02]). When carbohydrates were substituted with SFAs (HR 1.22 [1.00-1.49]) or PUFAs (HR 1.29 [1.02-1.63]) CVD mortality risk increased. The 5-year weight was lower when carbohydrates were substituted with total fat or MUFAs. These results were consistent over different energy adjustment methods.

    CONCLUSIONS: In diabetes patients, substitution of carbohydrates with SFAs was associated with a higher (CVD) mortality risk and substitution by total fat was associated with a higher all-cause mortality risk. Substitution of carbohydrates with MUFAs may be associated with lower mortality risk and weight reduction. Instead of promoting replacement of carbohydrates by total fat, dietary guideline should continue focusing on replacement by fat-subtypes; especially SFAs by MUFAs.

  • 190.
    Cannon, Barbara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    What Ignites UCP1?2017In: Cell Metabolism, ISSN 1550-4131, E-ISSN 1932-7420, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 697-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We thought we knew how the heat-producing uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue was activated: by fatty acids released upon lipid droplet breakdown in the brown adipocytes. However, two studies in this issue (Schreiber et al., 2017; Shin et al., 2017) imply that this classical model may not be valid: heat can be produced in brown fat without intracellular lipolysis.

  • 191.
    Carlhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Claesson, Ing-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Maternal obesity (Class I-III), gestational weight gain and maternal leptin levels during and after pregnancy: a prospective cohort study2016In: BMC Obesity, ISSN 2052-9538, Vol. 3, no 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Maternal obesity is accompanied by maternal and fetal complications during and after pregnancy. The risks seem to increase with degree of obesity. Leptin has been suggested to play a role in the development of obesity related complications. Whether maternal leptin levels differ between obese and morbidly obese women, during and after pregnancy, have to our knowledge not been previously described. Neither has the association between maternal leptin levels and gestational weight gain in obese women. The aim was to evaluate if maternal plasma leptin levels were associated with different degrees of maternal obesity and gestational weight gain.

    Methods

    Prospective cohort study including women categorized as obesity class I-III (n = 343) and divided into three gestational weight gain groups (n = 304). Maternal plasma leptin was measured at gestational week 15, 29 and 10 weeks postpartum. Maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from early pregnancy weight. Gestational weight gain was calculated using maternal weight in delivery week minus early pregnancy weight. The mean value and confidence interval of plasma-leptin were analysed with a two-way ANOVA model. Interaction effect between BMI and gestational weight gain group was tested with a two-way ANOVA model.

    Results

    The mean maternal leptin concentrations were significantly higher in women with obesity class III compared to women in obesity class I, at all times when plasma leptin were measured. The mean leptin concentrations were also significantly higher in women with obesity class II compared to women in obesity class I, except in gestational week 29. There was no difference in mean levels of plasma leptin between the gestational weight gain groups. No significant interaction between BMI and gestational weight gain group was found.

    Conclusions

    Plasma leptin levels during and after pregnancy were associated with obesity class but not with degree of gestational weight gain. These results are in concordance with epidemiological findings where the risk of obstetric complications increases with increased maternal obesity class. The effect on obstetric outcome by degree of gestational weight gain is less pronounced than the adverse effects associated with maternal obesity.

  • 192.
    Carlsson, Liesel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Williams, Patricia L.
    Hayes-Conroy, Jessica S.
    Hobart & William Smith Coll, Womens Studies, Geneva, NY 14456 USA..
    Lordly, Daphne
    Mt St Vincent Univ, Dept Appl Human Nutr, Halifax, NS, Canada..
    Callaghan, Edith
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    School Gardens: Cultivating Food Security in Nova Scotia Public Schools?2016In: Canadian journal of dietetic practice and research, ISSN 1486-3847, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 119-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A small but growing body of peer-reviewed research suggests that school gardens can play a role in building community food security (CFS); however, to date little research exploring the role of school gardens in supporting CFS is available. This paper begins to address this gap in the literature. Methods: A qualitative, exploratory, single-case study design was used. The focus of this case study was the school food garden at an elementary school in the River Valley, Nova Scotia, school community. Results: Results provide useful information about potential CFS effects of school gardens in addition to the environmental effects on school gardens important to their effectiveness as CFS tools. Findings suggest children gained food-related knowledge, skills, and values that support long-term CFS. A local social and political landscape at the community, provincial, and school board level were key to strengthening this garden's contributions to CFS. Conclusions: We support Dietitians of Canada's nomination of school gardens as an indicator of CFS with theoretical and practical evidence, underscore the importance of a supportive environment, and need for further research in this area. Health professionals and community organizations provide critical support, helping to weave gardens into a greater movement towards building CFS.

  • 193.
    Carlsson, Maine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nutritional status, body composition and physical activity among older people living in residential care facilities2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis was to study, whether drinkable yoghurt enriched with probiotic bacteria could have any effect on constipation and body weight (BW) among older people with dementia. Further, it concerns poor nutritional status among older people with physical and cognitive impairments and its relationship with factors commonly occur in older people living in residential care facilities. It also discusses how body composition changes with ageing and the associations between changes in muscle mass and functional balance after a high-intensity weight-bearing exercise program (the HIFE program) and the ingestion of an additional milk-based protein-enriched energy supplement.

    A six-month feasibility study that included a probiotic drink was performed among 15 old people who were living in special units for people with dementia and who all had constipation. The effects of the probiotic drink on stool habits, and BW were studied. The outcome measures were followed daily for bowel movements and at three and six months for BW. The staff found the study easy to carry out and that the drink was well accepted by the participants. No convincing beneficial effects on stool habits were observed. In addition, a mean BW loss of 0.65 kg/month was registered. A poor nutritional intake, low physical activity level, and an over-night fast of almost 15 hours, 4 hours longer than recommended were also observed.

    As a part of the FOPANU Study (Frail Older People-Activity and Nutrition Study), a randomized controlled trial was carried out in Umeå - the associations between nutritional status and factors common among old people with physical and cognitive impairments living in residential care facilities was studied. Assessments were made of nutritional status using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scale, fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) using both bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) and skinfold thickness measurements. The effects of a high- intensity functional exercise program with an additional protein-enriched milk drink on ability to build muscle mass were evaluated. Analyses were made to investigate whether nutritional status, assessed using the MNA scale, was associated with medical conditions, drugs, activities of daily living (Barthel ADL index), cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)), and depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)) at baseline. The associations were assessed with multiple linear regression analyses with additional interaction analyses.

    An independent association was found between poor nutritional status and having had a urinary tract infection (UTI) during the preceding year and being dependent in feeding for both women and men, and having lower MMSE scores for women. A large proportion of the participants, were at risk of malnutrition or were already malnourished. Women, but not men, had significantly lower Fat-Free Mass Index (FFMI) and Fat Mass Index (FMI) with age.

    Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy results correlated with skinfold thickness measurements, but on different levels on value for FM%.

    Despite the high-intensity exercise had long-term effects (at six months, three months after the exercise) on functional balance, walking ability and leg strength. No effects on muscle mass and no additional effects from the protein-enriched drink could be observed after the three months of high intensity exercise. A negative, long-term effect on the amount of muscle mass and BW was revealed at six months (three months after the intervention had ended). The effects from the exercise did not differ for participants who were malnourished. No statistical interactions were observed between sex, depression, dementia disorder, and nutritional status, and the level of functional balance capacity on the outcome at three or six months.

    In summary, the majority of the included older people with dementia had a low dietary intake, low physical activity level, and lost BW despite receiving a probiotic drink supplement every day for six months. The supplementation had no detectable effect on constipation. Among the participants in the FOPANU Study, UTI during the preceding year was independently associated with poor nutritional status. Being dependent in feeding was associated with poor nutritional status as were lower MMSE scores for women but not for men. Despite the high-intensity exercise program had long-term effects on the fysical function was no effect on the amount of muscle mass at three months observed. The FFM and FM expressed as indexes of body height were inversely related to age for women, but not for men. A high-intensity exercise program did not have any effect on the amount of muscle mass. The ingestion of a protein-enriched drink immediately after exercise produced no additional effect on the outcome and the results did not differ for participants who were malnourished. The negative long-term effect on amount of muscle mass, and BW, indicate that it is necessary to compensate for increased energy demands during a high-intensity exercise program. High age, female sex, depression, mild to moderate dementia syndrome, malnutrition, and severe physical impairment do not seem to have a negative impact on the effect of a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program. Consequently, people with these characteristics in residential care facilities should not be excluded from training and rehabilitation including nutrition. More research is needed in large randomized controlled trials to further explore the association between energy balance and malnutrition among frail old people, with a special focus on UTI and constipation, but also to study how physical exercise affects older people’s nutritional status.

  • 194.
    Carlsson, Maria E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Gunningberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Predictors for Development of Pressure Ulcer in End-of-Life Care: A National Quality Register Study2017In: Journal of Palliative Medicine, ISSN 1096-6218, E-ISSN 1557-7740, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 53-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The scientific knowledge about pressure ulcers (PUs) is growing, but there is a shortage of studies of PUs at end of life. The recommendations regarding PU prevention in palliative care (PC) are based on consensus documents. Aim: To use data from a national register to identify predictors for development of PUs at the end of life. Design: A retrospective, descriptive, and comparative study design was used. Setting/Participants: All deceased patients over 17 years old (n = 60,319) and registered in the Swedish Register of Palliative Care (SRPC) during 2014 were included. Statistical Analysis: Logistic regression. Results: In the full model, all health units except general palliative home care had a significantly higher incidence of PUs than did the nursing homes. The well-known predictors of PUs in general, diabetes, post-fracture state, infections, and multiple sicknesses, are predictors even in dying patients. Dementia was significantly associated with lower likelihood of PUs, while pain was associated with more PUs. Intravenous drip or enteral feeding was associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of developing PUs. Conclusions: The SRPC could be a unique resource for quality improvement and research. The present study cannot prove causation, but it can report correlations between background variables and PU prevalence. More studies, with different designs, are warranted to establish the roles of risk factors for PU in end-of-life care.

  • 195.
    Carlsson, Martin
    et al.
    Cty Hosp Kalmar, Sweden; Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Cty Hosp Kalmar, Sweden.
    Wanby, Par
    Cty Hosp Kalmar, Sweden.
    Directly measured free 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels show no evidence of vitamin D deficiency in young Swedish women with anorexia nervosa2018In: Eating and Weight Disorders, ISSN 1124-4909, E-ISSN 1590-1262, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 247-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by low fat mass complicated by osteoporosis. The role of circulating vitamin D in the development of bone loss in AN is unclear. Fat mass is known to be inversely associated with vitamin D levels measured as serum levels of total, protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D, but the importance of directly measured, free levels of 25(OH)D has not been determined in AN. The aim of this study was to investigate vitamin D status, as assessed by serum concentrations of total and free serum 25(OH)D in patients with AN and healthy controls. Methods In female AN patients (n = 20), and healthy female controls (n = 78), total 25(OH)D was measured by LC-MS/MS, and free 25(OH)D with ELISA. In patients with AN bone mineral density (BMD) was determined with DEXA. Results There were no differences between patients and controls in total or free S-25(OH)D levels (80 +/- 31 vs 72 +/- 18 nmol/L, and 6.5 +/- 2.5 vs 5.6 +/- 1.8 pg/ml, respectively), and no association to BMD was found. In the entire group of patients and controls, both vitamin D parameters correlated with BMI, leptin, and PTH. Conclusions The current study did not demonstrate a vitamin D deficiency in patients with AN and our data does not support vitamin D deficiency as a contributing factor to bone loss in AN. Instead, we observed a trend toward higher vitamin D levels in AN subjects compared to controls. Measurement of free vitamin D levels did not contribute to additional information.

  • 196.
    Carlsson, Martin
    et al.
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden; Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ingela
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden.
    Von, Siv-Ping
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden.
    Wanby, Par
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden.
    Erythrocyte fatty acid composition does not influence levels of free, bioavailable, and total 25-hydroxy vitamin D2017In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL and LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, ISSN 0036-5513, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 45-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In vitro, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) may decrease the binding affinity of vitamin D metabolites for vitamin D-binding protein, which in turn may influence their bioavailability. FAs incorporated as phospholipids in erythrocyte (ery-) cell membranes reflect dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to investigate ery-FA composition in relation to markers for vitamin D. In healthy females (age 22.6 +/- 2.0 years) total 25(OH)D was measured by LC-MS/MS (n=78), free 25(OH)D with ELISA (n=64 of 78), and bioavailable 25(OH)D was calculated. Analysis of ery-FA composition was by gas chromatography (n=56 of 78). A strong correlation between total 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D was seen (r=.66, pamp;lt;.001), and between total-25(OH)D and bioavailable 25(OH)D (r=.68, pamp;lt;.001). No correlations between 25(OH)D fractions and specific fatty acids were found, and in particular, no associations with mono- and poly-unsaturated FA compositions. All 25(OH)D fractions were correlated with leptin (total 25(OH)D (r=-.33, pamp;lt;.003); bioavailable 25(OH)D (r=-.47, pamp;lt;.001); free 25(OH)D (r=-.44, pamp;lt;.001). Associations were found between PTH and total 25(OH)D (r=-.35, p=.002) and weaker between bioavailable 25(OH)D (r=-.35, p=.040) and free 25(OH)D (r=-.28, p=.079). All fractions of 25(OH)D appear to correlate in a similar way to PTH, BMI and body fat (leptin). No association was found between ery-FA composition and free/bioavailable 25(OH)D. It is unlikely that FAs are a strong uncoupling factor of DBP-bound 25(OH)D.

  • 197.
    Carlsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Wanby, Par
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University ; Kalmar County Hospital.
    Lexne, Erik
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Mathold, Karin
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Nobin, Rebecca
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Ericson, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Nordqvist, Ola
    Kalmar County Council.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Older Swedish Adults with High Self-Perceived Health Show Optimal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Whereas Vitamin D Status Is Low in Patients with High Disease Burden2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controversy pervades the definition of adequate and optimal vitamin D status. The Institutes of Medicine have recommended serum 25(OH) D levels above 50 nmol/L based upon evidence related to bone health, but some experts, including the Endocrine Society and International Osteoporosis Foundation, suggest a minimum serum 25(OH) D level of 75 nmol/L to reduce the risk of falls and fractures in older adults. In a cross-sectional study, we compared vitamin D status in people >= 75 years selected from four groups with a frailty phenotype, combined with a control group free from serious illness, and who considered themselves completely healthy. Only 13% of the 169 controls were vitamin D deficient (S-25(OH) D) < 50 nmol/L), in contrast with 49% of orthopedic patients with hip fractures (n = 133), 31% of stroke patients (n = 122), 39% of patients visiting the hospital's emergency department >= 4 times a year (n = 81), and 75% of homebound adult residents in long-term care nursing homes (n = 51). The mean vitamin D concentration of the healthy control group (74 nmol/L) was similar to a suggested optimal level based on physiological data and mortality studies, and much higher than that of many officially recommended cut-off levels for vitamin D deficiency (< 50 nmol/L). The present study provides a basis for planning and implementing public guidelines for the screening of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D treatment for frail elderly patients.

  • 198.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Gonzalez, A. D.
    Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change2009In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 89, no 5, p. S1704-S1709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic warming is caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, with agriculture as a main contributor for the latter 2 gases. Other parts of the food system contribute carbon dioxide emissions that emanate from the use of fossil fuels in transportation, processing, retailing, storage, and preparation. Food items differ substantially when GHG emissions are calculated from farm to table. A recent study of approximate to 20 items sold in Sweden showed a span of 0.4 to 30 kg CO2 equivalents/kg edible product. For protein-rich food, such as legumes, meat, fish, cheese, and eggs, the difference is a factor of 30 with the lowest emissions per kilogram for legumes, poultry, and eggs and the highest for beef, cheese, and pork. Large emissions for ruminants are explained mainly by methane emissions from enteric fermentation. For vegetables and fruits, emissions usually are <= 2.5 kg CO2 equivalents/kg product, even if there is a high degree of processing and substantial transportation. Products transported by plane are an exception because emissions may be as large as for certain meats. Emissions from foods rich in carbohydrates, such as potatoes, pasta, and wheat, are <1.1 kg/kg edible food. We suggest that changes in the diet toward more plant-based foods, toward meat from animals with little enteric fermentation, and toward foods processed in an energy-efficient manner offer an interesting and little explored area for mitigating climate change.

  • 199.
    Cattaneo, Adriano
    et al.
    U. for Hlth. Serv. Res./Intl. Coop., Istituto per l'Infanzia, Trieste, Italy .
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Koletzko, Berthold
    Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University of Munich, Germany .
    Guzman, Luis Ruiz
    Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, Barcelona, Spain .
    Protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe: current situation2005In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the current situation regarding protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe, as a first step towards the development of a blueprint for action.

    DESIGN AND SETTING: A questionnaire was completed by 29 key informants and 128 other informants in the EU, including member states, accession and candidate countries.

    RESULTS: EU countries do not fully comply with the policies and recommendations of the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding that they endorsed during the 55th World Health Assembly in 2002. Some countries do not even comply with the targets of the Innocenti Declaration (1990). Pre-service training on breast-feeding practice is inadequate and in-service training achieves only low to medium coverage. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative is well developed only in three countries; in 19 countries, less than 15% of births occur in baby-friendly hospitals. The International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, endorsed in 1981 by all countries, is not fully applied and submitted to independent monitoring. The legislation for working mothers meets on average the International Labour Organization standards, but covers only women with full formal employment. Voluntary mother-to-mother support groups and trained peer counsellors are present in 27 and 13 countries, respectively. Breast-feeding rates span over a wide range; comparisons are difficult due to use of non-standard methods. The rate of exclusive breast-feeding at 6 months is low everywhere, even in countries with high initiation rates.

    CONCLUSIONS: EU countries need to revise their policies and practices to meet the principles inscribed in the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding in order to better protect, promote and support breast-feeding.

  • 200.
    Cattaneo, Adriano
    et al.
    U. for Hlth. Serv. Res./Intl. Coop., Istituto per l'Infanzia, Trieste, Italy .
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Koletzko, Berthold
    Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University of Munich, Germany .
    Guzman, Luis Ruiz
    Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, Barcelona, Spain .
    Protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe: current situation2005In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the current situation regarding protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe, as a first step towards the development of a blueprint for action.

    DESIGN AND SETTING: A questionnaire was completed by 29 key informants and 128 other informants in the EU, including member states, accession and candidate countries.

    RESULTS: EU countries do not fully comply with the policies and recommendations of the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding that they endorsed during the 55th World Health Assembly in 2002. Some countries do not even comply with the targets of the Innocenti Declaration (1990). Pre-service training on breast-feeding practice is inadequate and in-service training achieves only low to medium coverage. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative is well developed only in three countries; in 19 countries, less than 15% of births occur in baby-friendly hospitals. The International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, endorsed in 1981 by all countries, is not fully applied and submitted to independent monitoring. The legislation for working mothers meets on average the International Labour Organization standards, but covers only women with full formal employment. Voluntary mother-to-mother support groups and trained peer counsellors are present in 27 and 13 countries, respectively. Breast-feeding rates span over a wide range; comparisons are difficult due to use of non-standard methods. The rate of exclusive breast-feeding at 6 months is low everywhere, even in countries with high initiation rates.

    CONCLUSIONS: EU countries need to revise their policies and practices to meet the principles inscribed in the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding in order to better protect, promote and support breast-feeding.

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