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  • 151.
    Andersson, Margareta A.T.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Hallberg, Malin
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Slag-metal reactions during ladle treatment with focus on desulphurisation2002In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 224-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within several cooperative projects, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Ovako Steel AB, and MEFOS have investigated the desulphurisation of bearing steel during vacuum degassing. The work includes thermodynamic calculations of the slag-metal equilibrium, CFD modelling of slag-metal reactions, and plant trials. Results from the various studies are presented and discussed in this paper. Models for predicting slag properties (sulphide capacity, viscosity, and oxide activities) in liquid slags as functions of slag composition and temperature have been used for the calculation of data which have been employed in static and dynamic modelling of sulphur refining. The results from static modelling show that the method allows fast and easy evaluation of the theoretical desulphurisation conditions during degassing at Ovako Steel AB, as well as theoretical determination of the parameters that have the greatest influence on the equilibrium sulphur distribution. The conclusion from dynamic modelling is that the vacuum degassing operation can be described dynamically with the present knowledge of sulphide capacity, sulphur distribution, viscosity, and oxide activities of ladle slags if this knowledge is combined with fluid flow modelling to derive the overall kinetics. The presented model approaches have been found useful in understanding the sulphur refining process at Ovako Steel AB. The dynamic modelling concept is also believed to have potential for dynamic descriptions of other slag-metal reactions in steelmaking.

  • 152.
    Andersson, Margareta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Hallberg, Malin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Slag/metal reactionsduring ladle treatment with focus on desulphurisation2000In: 6thInternational Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 153.
    Andersson, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Fundamental decarburisation model of AOD process2013In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 390-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mathematical fluid flow model of gas injection in an argon–oxygen decarburisation (AOD) converter process has been coupled with a high temperature thermodynamic model. The current model is a further enhancement of an earlier developed three-dimensional, three-phase model, to also include some thermodynamics of the process. The model is based on fundamental transport equations and includes separate solutions for the steel, slag and the gas phases and their coupling by friction. The AOD model has been used to predict the first injection stage of decarburisation in an AOD converter. The predictions have been found to agree well with the corresponding results from an industrial process control model. One of the important observations from the simulations was that large concentration gradients of carbon exist in the AOD at an early stage and as the first injection step approaching its end the carbon gradients diminish. Also, the results show, in accordance with theory, that the local decarburisation rate is decreased at elevated pressures.

  • 154.
    Andersson, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Investigating the effectof slag on decarburization in an AOD converter using a fundamental model2013In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 169-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-temperature thermodynamics model has been coupled with a fundamental mathematical model describing the fluid flow, where boundary conditions were chosen based on data for an industrial AOD converter. Using this model, the effect of both slag phases (a liquid part and a solid part) on the decarburization was studied. More specifically, the separation of chromium oxide to liquid slag as well as the effect of the amount of rigid top slag (solid)on the decarburization was investigated. The liquid slag was considered with respect to the uptake of chromium oxide, while the rigid top slag was only considered with respect to the increase of the metallostatic pressure in the steel melt. The results suggest that separation of chromium oxide to liquid slag results in a decreased decarburization rate. The same conclusion can be drawn with respect to the amount of solid top slag.

  • 155.
    Andersson, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Preliminary investigation of influence of temperature on decarburisation using fundamental AOD model2013In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 551-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high temperature thermodynamics model was earlier coupled with a fundamental mathematical model describing the fluid flow in an argon–oxygen decarburisation (AOD) converter and was initially validated for an idealised temperature description. More specifically, a linear average temperature relation was used such that the temperature would be isolated from other effects such as reactions and mixing. Thereafter, the effect of the starting temperature on the decarburisation was studied. The purpose is to provide some initial knowledge about how temperature affects the decarburisation in an AOD converter. The results suggest that the thermodynamic limit for carbon concentration after reaching the carbon removal efficiency (CRE) maxima is vertically translated downwards at higher temperatures. Furthermore, when plotting the mass ratio between CO and CO2, there is an indication of a point that may relate to a CRE maximum.

  • 156.
    Andersson, Nils Å. I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Coupling of a fundamental mathematical fluid flow model with computational thermodynamics model to study the decarburisation2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Andersson, Nils Å. I.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage T. I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    A fundamental decarburization model of the AOD processIn: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Andersson, Nils Å. I.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage T. I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    An in-Depth Model-Based Analysis of Decarburization in the AOD Process2012In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 83, no 11, p. 1039-1052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previously reported flow and reaction model for an argon-oxygen decarburization converter was extended to also include a thermodynamic description. An in-depth study of the model results has been conducted to answer how concentrations of elements and species in the converter at different locations change with time. This may contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of the refining procedure in the argon-oxygen decarburization process. The refining procedure includes several step-wise changes of an injected gas composition to higher and higher inert gas ratio, called step changes. A step change leads to a decreased partial pressure of carbon monoxide and maintains the decarburization at a higher efficiency. The results shows early and late concentration profiles for the first injection step and suggests a way to determine when a step change should be made. Moreover, the step change could be determined by calculating the carbon concentration profiles and deciding when the carbon concentration gradients start to diminish.

  • 159.
    Andersson, Nils Å. I.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage T. I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Investigating the effect of slag on decarburization in an AOD coverter using a fundamental modelIn: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344XArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Andersson, Nils Å. I.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage T. I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Preliminary investigation of temperatur dependencies on decarburization in a fundamental AOD modelIn: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Andersson, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research.
    Budak, Nesrin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Melander, Arne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research.
    Palmquist, Niclas
    Experimental measurements and numerical simulations of distortions of overlap laser-welded thin sheet steel beam structures2017In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 927-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distortions of mild steel structures caused by laser welding were analyzed. One thousand-millimeter U-beam structures were welded as overlap joints with different process parameters and thickness configurations. Final vertical and transverse distortions after cooling were measured along the U-beam. Significant factors, which affect distortions, were identified. Heat input per unit length, weld length, and sheet thickness showed a significant effect on welding distortions. Furthermore, the welding distortions were modeled using FE simulations. A simplified and computationally efficient simulation method was used. It describes the effect of shrinkage of the weld zone during cooling. The simulations show reasonable computation times and good agreement with experiments.

  • 162.
    Andersson, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Study of Dross in Ductile Cast Iron Main Shafts2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study of dross in ductile cast iron main shafts was performed at Global Castings Guldsmedshyttan AB and presented in this master thesis. The purpose of the study was to obtain answers to why dross defects were present in some of the foundry's casted main shafts, with the main problem located at the flange of the shaft. The chemical composition of the dross formations and which steps in the casting process that increased the dross formation were of interest. The study only included dross in main shafts manufactured at Global Castings Guldsmedshyttan AB.

    Dross particles form when elements such as Mg, Ca, Si and Mn react with O. These elements, which are highly reactive to O, are used in ductile cast irons to achieve the spheroidal graphite nodules that regulate the cast materials ductile properties. If a higher amount of dross particles has formed, the particles will start to cluster, resulting in a growing dross formation. Dross formations works as surface crack initiation points and reduces the castings fatigue strength and ductility.

    During the study it was seen that the cause of dross formations is a combination of many parameters increasing the melts exposure to O resulting in dross defects. The dross formations could be connected to worn out ladles, low melt temperatures, incorrect additions of Mg treatment, lack of an extra slag removal station and finally turbulence as the melt were poured into the mould.

    At Global Castings Guldsmedshyttan AB a greater part of the main shafts containing dross defects were a result of worn out ladles and low melt temperatures. The types of dross found in the main shaft material were mainly Mg, Ca, Si and Al which had reacted with O. S bonded with Mg and Ca was also detected in the dross formations. It was shown that the dross particles could be derived from charge material, Mg treatment and inoculation.

    To avoid dross defects the first step would be to set up an extra slag station, shorten the interval of maintenance of the ladles and to better adjust the melt temperature to the condition of the specific ladle. To minimize dross due to excess Mg a better controlled process would be recommended with an increased number of monitored manufacturing parameters.    

  • 163.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Analysis of welding in comparable steel grades: Influence of steel grade on the welding process2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is written to examine the influence of different low carbon steel sheet materials on the GMAW welding process. During welding the properties of the base material influence the productivity of the welding process. The purpose of this thesis is to examine how the choice of material and welding speed affect the welding process and the productivity.

    A literature survey was performed to describe the welding technique and the differences in manufacturing for the sheet materials as well as the effect of alloying and welding on the sheet material. Defects in the weld and methods used to determine them are explained. Test pieces of the different sheet materials were welded with the GMAW process and examined.

    The result shows that there is a variation in the welding process regarding weld penetration. Measurements also show that welding speed and gap have little influence on the hardness of the weld and heat-affected zone and that the S355MC is more likely to suffer from a narrower toe transition radius than S355NL and S355MC Si. This and the higher area in the Y2 region for the S355MC could indicate a stronger inward flow in the weld pool during welding possibly a result of surface active agents such as oxygen and sulphur.

  • 164. Andersson, Urban
    et al.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Karlsson, Rolf
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    The Turbine-99 workshops - conclusions and recommendations2004In: 22nd IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, Stockholm, Sweden, June 29 - July 2, 2004, Stockholm: IAHR , 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Andreasson, Eskil
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Lindström, Tommy
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    Käck, Britta
    Altair Engineering AB, SWE.
    Malmberg, Christoffer
    Saab AB, SWE.
    Asp, Ann Magret
    Tetra Pak AB, SWE.
    Simulation of thin aluminium-foil in the packaging industry2017In: AIP Conference Proceedings / [ed] Brabazon D.,Ul Ahad I.,Naher S., American Institute of Physics Inc. , 2017, Vol. 1896, article id 160014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work present an approach of how to account for the anisotropic mechanical material behaviour in the simulation models of the thin aluminium foil layer (≈10 μm) used in the Packaging Industry. Furthermore, the experimental results from uniaxial tensile tests are parameterised into an analytical expression and the slope of the hardening subsequently extended way beyond the experimental data points. This in order to accommodate the locally high stresses present in the experiments at the neck formation. An analytical expression, denominated Ramberg-Osgood, is used to describe the non-linear mechanical behaviour. Moreover it is possible with a direct method to translate the experimental uniaxial tensile test results into useful numerical material model parameters in Abaqus™. In addition to this the extended material behaviour including the plastic flow i.e. hardening, valid after onset of localisation, the described procedure can also capture the microscopic events, i.e. geometrical thinning, ongoing in the deformation of the aluminium foil. This method has earlier successfully been applied by Petri Mäkelä for paperboard material [1]. The engineering sound and parameterised description of the mechanical material behaviour facilitates an efficient categorisation of different aluminium foil alloys and aid the identification of the correct anisotropic (RD/TD/45°) mechanical material behaviour derived from the physical testing. © 2017 Author(s).

  • 166.
    Andriollo, Tito
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Hellström, Kristina
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Sonne, Mads R.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Thorborg, Jesper
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Tiedje, Niels
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Hattel, Jesper
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Uncovering the local inelastic interactions during manufacture of ductile cast iron: How the substructure of the graphite particles can induce residual stress concentrations in the matrix2018In: Journal of the mechanics and physics of solids, ISSN 0022-5096, E-ISSN 1873-4782, Vol. 111, p. 333-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements have revealed that plastic deformation and a residual elastic strain field can be present around the graphite particles in ductile cast iron after manufacturing, probably due to some local mismatch in thermal contraction. However, as only one component of the elastic strain tensor could be obtained from the XRD data, the shape and magnitude of the associated residual stress field have remained unknown. To compensate for this and to provide theoretical insight into this unexplored topic, a combined experimental-numerical approach is presented in this paper. First, a material equivalent to the ductile cast iron matrix is manufactured and subjected to dilatometric and high-temperature tensile tests. Subsequently, a two-scale hierarchical top-down model is devised, calibrated on the basis of the collected data and used to simulate the interaction between the graphite particles and the matrix during manufacturing of the industrial part considered in the XRD study. The model indicates that, besides the viscoplastic deformation of the matrix, the effect of the inelastic deformation of the graphite has to be considered to explain the magnitude of the XRD strain. Moreover, the model shows that the large elastic strain perturbations recorded with XRD close to the graphite–matrix interface are not artifacts due to e.g. sharp gradients in chemical composition, but correspond to residual stress concentrations induced by the conical sectors forming the internal structure of the graphite particles. In contrast to common belief, these results thus suggest that ductile cast iron parts cannot be considered, in general, as stress-free at the microstructural scale. 

  • 167.
    Antti, Britt-Marie
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pulpkemi och kalcitflotation1986In: Workshop i mineralteknik: Luleå 11-12 februari 1986 / [ed] Börje Sköld; Eric Forssberg, MinFo , 1986, p. 81-104Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Antti, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Pulp chemistry in calcite flotation.: Modelling of oleate adsorption using theoretical equilibrium calculations1989In: Mining engineering, ISSN 0026-5187, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 93-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the conditions required for direct flotation of calcite. Flotation experiments have been performed with oleate as the collector reagent and water glass as the dispersant and modifier. To be able to explain what happens in the flotation, solubility and adsorption experiments have been conducted parallel to, and under the same conditions as, the flotation experiments. Theoretical equilibrium calculations have been made with the help of data from the practical experiments for the purpose of modelling the adsorption experiments. With theoretical equilibrium calculations it is possible to predict that silicate ions will form complexes with calcium ions at the mineral surface.

  • 169.
    Antti, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Pulp chemistry in industrial mineral flotation: Studies of surface complex on calcite and apatite surfaces using FTIR spectroscopy1989In: Mining engineering, ISSN 0026-5187, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 217-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flotation experiments in a Hallimond tube have been performed on calcite and apatite at pH levels and oleate concentrations judged to be interesting from the point of view of adsorption isotherms. For the calcite system, adsorption isotherms indicate precipitation of calcium oleate after monolayer formation at pH 9, 10 and 11. In the apatite system, a double layer of oleate is formed. This means that apatite, unlike calcite, is sensitive to collector reagent overdosage. With the aid of FTIR techniques it is possible to demonstrate the existence of a surface complex in the apatite system with a calcium-oleate ratio of 1:1 at monolayer coverage of the surface. In conditions corresponding to bulk precipitation of calcium oleate, this compound can be detected by FTIR analysis of unfloated material.

  • 170.
    Antzutkin, Oleg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Kota, Hanumantha Rao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Ikumapayi, Fatai
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Holmgren, Allan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Gunneriusson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Johansson, Björn
    New Boliden AB.
    Berggren, Andreas
    New Boliden AB.
    Larsson, Anna-Carin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Mouzon, Johanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Bhuiyan, Iftekhar Uddin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Forsmo, Seija
    LKAB.
    Interactions in multi-component mineral systems2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Antzutkin, Oleg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Kota, Hanumantha Rao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Ikumapayi, Fatai
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Johansson, Björn
    New Boliden AB.
    Berggren, Andreas
    New Boliden AB.
    Larsson, Anna-Carin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Holmgren, Allan
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Mouzon, Johanne
    Bhuiyan, Iftekhar Uddin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Forsmo, Seija
    LKAB.
    Interactions in multi-component mineral systems2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Appelberg, Jesper
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Nakajima, Keiji
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Shibata, H.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    In situ studies of misch-metal particle behavior on a molten stainless steel surface2008In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 495, no 1-2, p. 330-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of misch-metal is widely spread among the stainless steel producers. Casting problems like clogging are common when using these additions. Information about Ce-La-Al-O particles formed due to the addition of misch-metal in the ladle is scarce in the open literature. The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge of the particle behavior and the particle characteristics in two stainless steels resulting from the addition of misch-metal. The in situ particle behavior has been studied using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope.

  • 173. Arai, Y.
    et al.
    Emi, Toshihiko
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Casting of Metals.
    Fredriksson, Hasse
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Casting of Metals.
    Shibata, H.
    In-situ observed dynamics of peritectic solidification and delta/gamma transformation of Fe-3 to 5 At. Pct Ni alloys2005In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 36A, no 11, p. 3065-3074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of liquid -> delta ferrite and delta ferrite -> gamma austenite transformation in Fe-3.50 at. pct Ni alloy, and of the peritectic solidification of Fe-4.83 and 5.01 at. pct Ni alloys, have been dynamically observed in situ with a confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) combined with an infrared image furnace (IIF). The unique sequence, morphologies, and rates of these transformations have been determined at a temperature gradient of 4 K/mm and growth rates of 2 to 3 mu m/s, in unidirectional solidification experiments. These observations have been discussed in terms of the constitutional undercooling description of solidification theory.

  • 174.
    Arapan, S.
    et al.
    VSB Tech Univ Ostrava, IT4Innovat, 17 Listopadu 15, CZ-70833 Ostrava, Czech Republic;Univ Burgos, Int Res Ctr Crit Raw Mat & Adv Ind Technol, ICCRAM, Burgos 09001, Spain.
    Nieves, P.
    Univ Burgos, Int Res Ctr Crit Raw Mat & Adv Ind Technol, ICCRAM, Burgos 09001, Spain.
    Cuesta-Lopez, S.
    Univ Burgos, Int Res Ctr Crit Raw Mat & Adv Ind Technol, ICCRAM, Burgos 09001, Spain;Int Ctr Adv Mat & Raw Mat Castilla & Leon, ICAMCyL, Leon 24492, Spain.
    Gusenbauer, M.
    Danube Univ Krems, Dept Integrated Sensor Syst, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
    Oezelt, H.
    Danube Univ Krems, Dept Integrated Sensor Syst, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
    Schrefl, T.
    Danube Univ Krems, Dept Integrated Sensor Syst, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
    Delczeg-Czirjak, Erna Krisztina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Herper, Heike C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Orebro Univ, Sch Sci & Engn, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden.
    Influence of antiphase boundary of the MnAl tau-phase on the energy product2019In: PHYSICAL REVIEW MATERIALS, ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 3, no 6, article id 064412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we use a multiscale approach to describe a realistic model of a permanent magnet based on MnAl tau-phase and elucidate how the antiphase boundary defects present in this material affect the energy product. We show how the extrinsic properties of a microstructure depend on the intrinsic properties of a structure with defects by performing micromagnetic simulations. For an accurate estimation of the energy product of a realistic permanent magnet based on the MnAl tau-phase with antiphase boundaries, we quantify exchange interaction strength across the antiphase boundary defect with a simple approach derived from first-principles calculations. These two types of calculations, performed at different scales, are linked via atomistic spin-dynamics simulations.

  • 175.
    Ari, Vidyadhar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Flotation of silicate minerals: physico-chemical studies in the presence of alkylamines and mixed (cationic/anionic/non-ionic) collectors2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism of adsorption of long chain alkyl primary amines and, co-adsorption of amines and alcohols on silicate minerals (quartz and feldspar) were studied using FTIR (DRIFT and IRRAS) and XPS spectroscopy methods. The spectroscopy data were correlated with zeta-potential and Hallimond flotation results. The effect of alkyl chain length of mixed collectors in adsorption at solid/water interface is also examined. In addition, the underlying mechanism of the reported mixed cationic/anionic collector scheme for selective feldspar flotation from quartz is delineated through flotation, zeta-potential and infrared spectroscopy studies. Furthermore, the mixed collector system is applied for a successful separation of albite from Greek Stefania feldspar ore. For the first time, it was shown from infrared spectra that the amine cation forms strong hydrogen bonds with the surface silanol groups. The XPS spectra revealed the presence of molecular amine together with the protonated amine on silicate surface. Based on these observations, a model of successive two-dimensional and three-dimensional precipitation was suggested to explain amine adsorption on a silicate surface. The co-adsorption of long chain alcohols or sulfonates with amine cations leads to formation of a closer packed surface layer with synergistic enhancement of amine adsorption. The enhanced adsorption and hence higher flotation recoveries is discussed in the light of our experimental results.

  • 176.
    Aronsson Rindby, Anna Cornelia
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Sahlin, Augusta
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Troell, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Compilation and validation of heat transfer coefficients of quenching oils2012In: Proceedings of the 6th International Quenching and Control of Distortion Conference Including the 4th International Distortion Engineering Conference, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Arvhult, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Gueneau, Christine
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, DEN, SCCME, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gosse, Stephane
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, DEN, SCCME, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Selleby, Malin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Thermodynamic assessment of the Ni-Te system2019In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 54, no 16, p. 11304-11319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thermodynamic assessment of the Ni-Te system has been performed using the Calphad method, based on experimental data available in the literature. The proposed description has been developed for use in the modeling of fission-product-induced internal corrosion of stainless steel cladding in Generation IV nuclear reactors. DFT calculations were performed to obtain 0 K properties of solid phases to assist the thermodynamic optimization. The ionic liquid two-sublattice model was used, and most solution phases were modeled using interstitial metal sub-lattices. With a strict number of parameters, the resulting description satisfactorily reproduces all thermodynamic properties and high-temperature phase transitions. The metastable miscibility gap in the Ni-rich liquid that is experimentally suggested is not present in the final description. The phase exhibits a metastable order-disorder transition between the CdI2 and NiAs types of interstitial nickel distribution. The CdI2 prototype is the stable space group at room temperature. Low-temperature ordering phase transitions have been disregarded in this description, since they are not of interest to the application of corrosion in nuclear reactors.

  • 178.
    Arvidsson, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Studie av inneslutningsbeteende under tillverkningsprocessen av götgjutet verktygsstål2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En undersökning av inneslutningsbeteende under tillverkningsprocessen av götgjutet verktygsstål har utförts på Uddeholm i Hagfors. Med hjälp av OES med PDA och SEM med INCA feature undersöktes sammansättningen, antalet, storleken, fördelningen, koncentrationen och formen av inneslutningar före och efter vakuumbehandlingen samt i kokill.  

    Fyra typer av inneslutningar kunde identifieras i olika skeden i processen. Al2O3-MgO spineller i flytande CaO- Al2O3 lösning, CaO-Al2O3 flytande inneslutning, Al2O3-MgO Spineller och Al2O3-SiO2 i fastform. 

    Vakuumbehandlingen påverkar typen, formen, storleken och antalet inneslutningar. Den induktiva omrörningen påverkar antalet och storleken av inneslutningarna. Vid avgjutningen utskiljs Al2O3-SiO2 som med stor sannolikhet beror på provtagningen.  

  • 179.
    Arzpeyma, Niloofar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Modeling of Post Combustion in Ovako electric arc furnace (EAF)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Arzpeyma, Niloofar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Numerical Study of the Gas Flow and Heat Transfer during Electromagnetic Stirring and Post Combustion in EAFs2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of electromagnetic stirring on scrap melting and post combustion in two different electric arc furnaces (EAFs) have been studied using numerical modelling. The effect of electromagnetic stirring on melting of a piece of scrap located at the eccentric bottom tapping (EBT) region of an EAF has been studied. The results were compared to a condition in which the only source term for momentum transfer was buoyancy. It was shown that the use of electromagnetic stirring can contribute to a better heat transfer rate at the melt–scrap interface. The Grashof and Nusselt number for both electromagnetic stirring and natural convection were estimated, and were compared with those estimated in previous studies. The post combustion (PC) inside a duct system of an EAF has been studied considering combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The aim was to study the effect of air leakage through the airgap and fan power on post combustion of the off–gas leaving the furnace. Furthermore, to see how much uncombusted can be captured after the air gap. It was shown a higher off-gas mass flow rate and a higher power of the outlet fan led to a higher combustion of CO and H2. Moreover, a backward modeling of the flow was done to estimate the off–gas composition at the furnace outlet. The post combustion inside the same EAF used in the previous part has been studied. The domain consists of the fluid region above the melt bath. The oxy fuel reactions and combustion of CO were taken into account. The oxy-fuel reactions in a both simplified and a more accurate form (JC) were studied. The results showed less combustion of CO in the latter form. Using the results of the off–gas composition at the outlet, an attempt was made to estimate the flow rate of CO arising from the bath. Different flow rates of CO from the melt and air flow rate through the roof were assumed. In both burner mode and burner + lancing mode, the calculated concentration of CO2 was higher than that calculated in the previous part. The reason could be that the dissociation of CO2 to CO and O2 at high temperatures, and the de-post combustion of CO2 due to the reaction with carbon in the melt and in the electrodes were not considered.

  • 181.
    Arzpeyma, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Mathematical Modeling of Postcombustion in an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF)2019In: METALS, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical modeling was used to study the capability of postcombustion in an electric arc furnace (EAF) equipped with virtual lance burners. The CO flow rate at the molten bath surface was estimated using the off-gas data obtained close to the outlet of an EAF. Then, the effect of the secondary oxygen flow rate on postcombustion was studied. The results show a CO flow rate of 0.6 kgs(-1) and 0.8 kgs(-1) for operation modes of burner and burner + lancing. Increase of the secondary oxygen flow rates of 60% and 70% result in 17% and 7% increase in the postcombustion ratio (PCR) for the burner and burner lancing modes, respectively.

  • 182.
    Arzpeyma, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Modeling of post combustion inside the off-gas duct system of the Ovako electric arc furnace2014In: CDF 2014: 10th International Conference on CFD in Oil & Gas, Metallurgical and Process Industries, SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway, 17-19 June 2014, Proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study the post combustion (PC) inside the duct system of an electric arc furnace (EAF), a three-dimensional computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) model was developed. The reactions between the off gas species (oxygen and hydrogen) and oxygen which leaked into the duct, through the air gap, was considered. The off-gas composition, the off –gas velocity and the outlet pressure were considered as parameters affecting the PC. The results showed that there was a considerable amount of the uncombusted CO to be captured. The highest CO concentration was found at the central part of the duct. The results also showed that a higher off-gas mass flow rate and a higher power of the outlet fan led to a higher combustion of CO and H2. An off-gas analysis probe was then installed after the air gap, where the tip of the probe was placed according to the predicted high CO concentration area found in the simulations. Thereafter, the measured off-gas composition was used to predict the off-gas composition at the outlet of the EAF.

  • 183.
    Arzpeyma, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Widlund, Ola
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Mathematical Modeling of Scrap Melting in an EAF Using Electromagnetic Stirring2013In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical modeling has been used to investigate the influence of electromagnetic stirring on melting of a single piece of scrap in an eccentric bottom tapping (EBT) electric arc furnace (EAF). The heat transfer and fluid flow in the melt for both conditions with and without electromagnetic stirring were studied. The buoyancy and electromagnetic forces were considered as the source terms for momentum transfer in the studied conditions. The enthalpy-porosity technique was applied to track the phase change of a scrap piece defined in the EBT region of the furnace. Different scrap sizes, preheating temperatures, stirring directions and force magnitudes were considered, and the heat transfer coefficient was estimated from the heat transfer rate at the melt-scrap interface. The results showed that electromagnetic stirring led to a reduced melting time and an increased heat transfer coefficient by a factor of four. The results for Nusselt number versus Grashof number for natural convection and Reynolds number for electromagnetic stirring were compared with those obtained through correlations from previous studies.

  • 184.
    Asala, G.
    et al.
    University of Manitoba, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Ojo, Olanrewaju
    University of Manitoba, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Microstructure Dependence of Dynamic Impact Behaviour of ATI 718plus® Superalloy2018In: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 & Derivatives: Energy, Aerospace, and Industrial Applications / [ed] Ott, E., Liu, X., Andersson, J., Bi, Z., Bockenstedt, K., Dempster, I., Groh, J., Heck, K., Jablonski, P., Kaplan, M., Nagahama, D. and Sudbrack, C., Springer, 2018, p. 369-378Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ATI 718Plus® is a γ′-strengthened nickel-based superalloy developed to substitute the widely used Alloy 718 in aero-engine applications. This newer superalloy is a candidate material for aero-engine turbine structures, with the requirement to withstand impact loading occurring at high strain rates during turbine blade out events. Furthermore, the understanding of the high strain rate response of ATI 718Plus® is important in optimising its machinability during cutting operations. To predict and model the behaviour of ATI 718Plus® during these events and in other dynamic impact applications, proper understanding of the high strain rate behaviour of the alloy is important, but not presently available. Therefore, in this work, the influence of microstructural condition and strain rates on dynamic impact behaviour of ATI 718Plus®, using a modified version of direct impact Hopkinson bar, is investigated. It is observed that the age-hardened alloy exhibits a significantly reduced strain hardening and strain rate hardening capabilities compared to the solution heat treated microstructure. Furthermore, microstructural examination of the deformed samples shows that the formation of adiabatic shear bands, which usually serve as damage nucleation site, is substantially suppressed in the solution heat treated microstructure, while the aged microstructure exhibits high propensity to form localised shear bands.

  • 185.
    Asala, G.
    et al.
    University of Manitoba, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Khan, A. K.
    University of Manitoba, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Mechanical Engineering. University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Ojo, O. A.
    University of Manitoba, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Microstructural Analyses of ATI 718Plus® Produced by Wire-ARC Additive Manufacturing Process2017In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 48A, no 9, p. 4211-4228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed microstructural study of ATI 718Plus superalloy produced by the wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process was performed through the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Extensive formation of eutectic solidification microconstituents including Laves and MC-type carbide phases, induced by micro-segregation, are observed in the build of the alloy in the as-deposited condition. Notwithstanding the significant segregation of niobium (Nb), which has been reported to promote the formation of the delta-phase in ATI 718Plus, only eta-phase particles are observed in the deposit. Excessive precipitation of eta-phase particles is found to be linked to Laves phase particles that are partially dissolved in the deposit after post-deposition heat treatment (PDHT). The EBSD analysis shows a high textured build in the aOE (c) 100 > directions with only a few misoriented grains at the substrate-deposit boundary and the top of the deposit. Investigation on the hardness of the build of the alloy, in the as-deposited condition, showed a softened zone about 2 mm wide at the deposited metal heat affected zone (DMHAZ), which has not been previously reported and potentially damaging to the mechanical properties. An extensive analysis with the use of both microstructural characterization tools and theoretical calculations shows that the DMHAZ has the lowest volume fraction of strengthening precipitates (gamma’ and gamma aEuro(3)) in terms of their number density, which therefore induces the observed softness. Delayed re-precipitation kinetics and the extent of the precipitation of gamma’ and gamma aEuro(3) in the DMHAZ which is related to the diffusion of segregated solute elements from the interdendritic regions are attributed to this phenomenon. The microstructural analyses discussed in this work are vital to adequate understanding of properties of ATI 718Plus produced by the additive manufacturing process technique.

  • 186.
    Asala, Gbenga
    et al.
    University of Manitoba, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Andersson, Joel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology.
    Ojo, Olanrewaj A.
    University of Manitoba, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Hot corrosion behaviour of wire-arc additive manufactured Ni-based superalloy ATI 718Plus®2019In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 158, article id 108086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hot corrosion behaviour of wire-arc additive manufactured and wrought ATI 718Plus® are studied. ATI 718Plus® produced by the additive manufacturing process, in the as-processed condition, exhibits a significantly lower hot corrosion resistance in comparison to the wrought alloy. Analytical electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques, with corroboration by thermodynamic calculations, are used to identify the underlying cause of the poor hot corrosion resistance. Based on the understanding accrued from the analyses, post-processing heat treatments are used to improve the hot corrosion resistance, which is valuably pertinent to the application of ATI 718Plus® produced by additive manufacturing in hot corrosive environments. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 187.
    ASUMADU, TABIRI KWAYIE
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    MACRO INCLUSION RESEARCH: DETECTION AND EVALUATION OF MACRO INCLUSIONS IN SPECIAL STEELS2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 188.
    Attila, Dioszegi
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Dept of Mechanical Engineering/Component Technology.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    Jönköping University, Dept of Mechanical Engineering/Component Technology.
    Orlenius, Jessica
    Jönköping University, Dept of Mechanical Engineering/Component Technology.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Defect Formation of Grey Cast Iron2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cast iron is one of the oldest technical alloys used for creating objects. Foundrymen from the very beginning ofcasting was fighting to avoid casting defects. In the beginning a successfully performed casting was associated withwitchcraft. Cast component producers suffer yearly substantial expanses due to rejecting or repairing castings. Thepresent work will summarize research efforts to understand formation mechanisms of defects, performed incollaboration with Swedish foundries during the last years. The presented work will focus on defects, specific castingof gray iron components. Studied defects are gas porosity, shrinkage porosity and metal expansion penetration.Novell experimental set up has been developed or existing methods has been improved to study defect formationmechanisms. Today we can realize that casting without defects are possible only by approaching the defect formationmechanism with multidisciplinary science.

  • 189.
    Aune, Ragnhild E.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Metallurgy.
    Thermodynamic studies of some high temperature systems1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 190.
    Aune, Ragnhild Elizabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Experimental designs toward an understanding of process phenomena in steelmaking2006In: Iron and Steel Technology, ISSN 1547-0423, Vol. 3, no 12, p. 137-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various experimental studies towards the understanding of different process phenomena in iron and steelmaking were presented. Thermal diffusivity measurement was carried out at various temperature to monitor the structural changes occurring in coke. X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out to determine the average crystallite size of graphite along the structural c-axis and in the structural ab plane. It was observed that the apparent thermal diffusivity during the cooling cycle is larger than the heating cycle. Many experiments were also conducted in a high-temperature x-ray diffraction unit, to study the rate of graphitization at any given temperature for a given coke sample. An experimental design for the investigation of the mechanism of reduction in the blast furnace shaft, and the role of coke by dynamic x-ray photography was also carried out. The heating and melting of a mold flux during continuous casting were also simulated in specially designed laboratory.

  • 191.
    Autieri, Carmine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. ..
    Bouhon, Adrien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Sanyal, Biplab
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Gap opening and large spin–orbit splitting in MX2 (M = Mo,W; X = S,Se,Te) from the interplay between crystal field and hybridisations: insights from ab-initio theory2017In: Philosophical Magazine, ISSN 1478-6435, E-ISSN 1478-6443, Vol. 97, no 35, p. 3381-3395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By means of first-principles density functional calculations, we study the maximally localised Wannier functions for the 2D transition metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te). We have found that part of the energy gap is opened by the crystal field splitting induced by the X-2-like atoms. The inversion of the band character between the Gamma and the K points of the Brillouin zone is due to the M-M hybridisation. The consequence of this inversion is the closure of the gap in absence of the M-X hybridisation. The M-X hybridisation is the only one that tends to open the gap at every k-point. It is found that the change in the M-X and M-M hybridisation is the main responsible for the difference in the gap between the different dichalcogenide materials. The inversion of the bands gives rise to different spinorbit splitting at Gamma and K point in the valence band. The different character of the gap at Gamma and K point offers the chance to manipulate the semiconducting properties of these compounds. For a bilayer system, the hybridisation between the out-of-plane orbitals and the hybridisation between the in-plane orbitals split the valence band respectively at the Gamma and K point. The splitting in the valence band is opened also without spin-orbit coupling and occurs due to the M-M and X-X hybridisation between the two monolayers. The transition from direct to indirect band gap is governed by the hybridisation between out-of-plane orbitals of different layers and in-plane orbitals of different layers.

  • 192. Avazkonandeh-Gharavol, M. H.
    et al.
    Haddad-Sabzevar, M.
    Fredriksson, Hasse
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Casting of Metals.
    Effect of partition coefficient on microsegregation during solidification of aluminium alloys2014In: International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials, ISSN 1674-4799, E-ISSN 1869-103X, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 980-989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the modeling of microsegregation, the partition coefficient is usually calculated using data from the equilibrium phase diagrams. The aim of this study was to experimentally and theoretically analyze the partition coefficient in binary aluminum-copper alloys. The samples were analyzed by differential thermal analysis (DTA), which were melted and quenched from different temperatures during solidification. The mass fraction and composition of phases were measured by image processing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) unit. These data were used to calculate as the experimental partition coefficients with four different methods. The experimental and equilibrium partition coefficients were used to model the concentration profile in the primary phase. The modeling results show that the profiles calculated by the experimental partition coefficients are more consistent with the experimental profiles, compared to those calculated using the equilibrium partition coefficients.

  • 193. Avazkonandeh-Gharavol, M. H.
    et al.
    Haddad-Sabzevar, M.
    Fredriksson, Hasse
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Experimental analysis of partition coefficient in Al-Mg alloys2016In: Iranian Journal of Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1735-0808, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 62-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because the partition coefficient is one of the most important parameters affecting microsegregation, the aim of this research is to experimentally analyse the partition coefficient in Al-Mg alloys. In order to experimentally measure the partition coefficient, a series of quenching experiments during solidification were carried out. For this purpose binary Al-Mg alloys containing 6.7 and 10.2 wt-% Mg were melted and solidified in a DTA furnace capable of quenching samples during solidification. Cooling rates of 0.5 and 5 KJmin were used and samples were quenched from predetermined temperatures during solidification. The fractions and compositions of the phases were measured by quantitative metallography and SEM/EDX analyses, respectively. These results were used to measure the experimental partition coefficients. The resultant partition coefficients were used to model the concentration profile in the primary phase and the results were compared with equilibrium calculations and experimental profiles. The results of calculations based on the experimental partition coefficients show better consistency with experimental concentration profiles than the equilibrium calculations.

  • 194. Avazkonandeh-Gharavol, M. H.
    et al.
    Haddad-Sabzevar, M.
    Fredriksson, Hasse
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Casting of Metals.
    On the microsegregation of Al-Mg alloys by thermal analysis and numerical modeling2014In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 610, p. 462-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about solid fraction versus temperature during solidification is crucial for the control of solidification processes. In the present paper solidification sequence and path of Al-Mg binary alloys containing 6.7 and 10.2 wt.% Mg was investigated by a series of DTA and quenching experiments and numerical modeling in 0.5 and 5 K min(-1) cooling rates. Experimental results show that at both cooling rates, Al-6.7 wt.% Mg solidifies with a single phase structure, but Al-10.2 wt.% Mg solidifies with a two phase structure. According to the results of numerical modeling, good agreement between calculated solidification curves and experimental solid fractions, but poor correlation with concentration profiles. The source of discrepancies is discussed according to different theories of microsegregation.

  • 195.
    Awe, Samuel A.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Dahle, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Development of cast Al-Cu-Si ternary eutectic alloys for high temperature applications2016In: Proceedings and Abstracts Book of European Advanced Materials Congress, At Stockholm, Sweden / [ed] Ashutosh Tiwari, Linköping: VBRI Press , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 196.
    Awe, Samuel A.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Jarfors, Anders E.W.
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.
    Lee, Young C.
    Dahle, Arne
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Materials and manufacturing – Casting.
    Development of new Al-Cu-Si alloys for high temperature performance2017In: Advanced Materials Letters, ISSN 0976-3961, E-ISSN 0976-397X, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 695-701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a quest to develop new light metal alloys that can perform excellently at elevated-temperatures (from 300°C to 400°C), a ternary eutectic Al-Cu-Si alloy was exploited to gain a deeper understanding of the alloy system and its suitability for high temperature applications. The alloys studied, with chemical composition of Al-27%Cu-5%Si (by weight percent) with Ni addition in the range of 0 to 1.5%wt, were cast in a rapid solidification casting technique. The solidification characteristics of the alloy was studied using the Thermo-Calc software. Microstructures were characterized in a scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Finally, the elevated-temperatures tensile properties of the alloys were investigated. Comparing the microstructures and mechanical properties of these Al-Cu-Si(-Ni) alloys with conventional Al-Si alloy A319, the refined microstructure with dispersed Ni intermetallic particles formed in the as-cast Al-Cu-Si(-Ni) alloys deliver improved elevated temperature properties. In particular, the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the new alloy with 1.5% Ni at 400?C were observed to be 220% and 309% higher, respectively, than for conventional A319 alloy.

  • 197.
    Awe, Samuel Ayowole
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Antimony recovery from complex copper concentrates through hydro- and electrometallurgical processes2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, one of the major difficulties confronted during copper metallurgy is the elimination of antimony and arsenic impurities from the process. This is because the pure copper ore reserves are becoming exhausted and the resources of unexploited ores often contain relatively high amounts of antimony and arsenic. During smelting of copper concentrates, arsenic is easily removed into the offgas while antimony is not readily removed due to its lower partial pressure and high affinity for liquid copper. Therefore, removal of these impurities at an early stage of processing will be beneficial for the copper making process. The present research is aimed at (i) purifying impure complex copper sulphide concentrates by selectively dissolving the impurities, and consequently, upgrading the concentrates for pyrometallurgical processing, and (ii) depositing antimony as a marketable product from synthetic alkaline sulphide pregnant leach liquors by electrowinning. The mineralogical investigations conducted on the concentrates studied revealed that tetrahedrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite and pyrite were the common mineralogical phases present in the concentrates. Silver and arsenic were found as solid solution in the tetrahedrite crystal structure. Alkaline sulphide solution was used to dissolve antimony from the concentrates. Antimony recovery from tetrahedrite dissolution was increased by approximately 280% when the reaction temperature was increased from 84⁰C to 105⁰C. By raising the concentration of Na2S from 60 g/L to 100 g/L, the extraction of Sb was raised by a factor of 3 while increase in NaOH concentration from 30 g/L to 60 g/L enhanced the recovery by 140%. It was found that the leaching yield decreased by about 37% when the mineral particle size of the concentrate was increased from -53+38 µm to -106+75 µm. Under the selected leaching conditions, the estimated activation energy of tetrahedrite dissolution in the leaching reagent was 81 kJ/mol, which is indicative of a chemically controlled leach process. Characterisation of the leach residue by XRD and QEMSCAN proves that the alkaline sulphide lixiviant is selective and effective to dissolve the antimony and arsenic from the complex concentrate. The average crystal chemical formulae of the solid residue determined by QEMSCAN indicate the conversion of tetrahedrite into a new copper sulphide having stoichiometry of Cu1.64S. Tetrahedrite in the concentrate was reduced from 30.2% to 1.1% in the purified leach residue.Moreover, the results of electrowinning tests showed that the initial Na2S concentration had a significant influence on Sb deposition from this specific system. Current efficiency decreased remarkably when Na2S concentration was increased to 150 g/L. The test results indicated that the desired Na2S concentration should be less than 100 g/L. Faraday efficiency increased with increase in current density provided that the residual Sb concentration in the electrolyte remained above 20 g/L. Increase in NaOH concentration from 100 to 400 g/L raised the current efficiency by a factor of almost 1.5 while the specific energy requirement was reduced from 2.3 to 1.9 kWh/kg. Experimental results demonstrated that the specific energy decreased by almost 38% as the electrolyte temperature increased from 45 to 90⁰C and the optimum temperature should be between 50 and 75⁰C to reduce the heating cost. It was noted that polysulphide and thiosulphate had an adverse effect on Sb deposition. Current efficiency of the process decreased sharply from 83% to 32% when the polysulphide concentration was increased from 0 to 30 g/L; and at this polysulphide concentration, the specific energy was raised from 1.7 to 4.9 kWh/kg. Sparging of the electrolyte facilitates a smooth and adherent antimony deposit with an improved purity. The results from these experiments demonstrated that the anodic reactions were influenced by anodic current density and NaOH concentration. The molar concentration ratio between hydroxide and free sulphide ions must be ≥ 7.3 to produce appreciable amounts of sulphate in the electrolytic process. The amount of sulphate formed increased from 0.5 to 16.9 g/L when the anodic current density was increased from 500 to 2500 A/m2. By raising NaOH concentration from 100 to 400 g/L, the production of sulphate at the anode was enhanced by 6.2 g/L increment. However, the concentration of thiosulphate formed during the electrolysis decreased with increasing anode current density and NaOH concentration. The main factors influencing the purity of the antimony deposits were current density and NaOH concentration. Antimony purity was lowered from 99.9% to 99.2% when the current density was increased from 50 to 250 A/m2. Sparging of the electrolyte during the electrodeposition enhanced antimony purity by 0.4%. Finally, a simplified integrated hydro-/electro-metallurgical process flowsheet for antimony removal and recovery from Rockliden sulphide copper concentrate was developed. The experimental results from this investigation confirmed that different concentrations of Na2S and NaOH were needed at leaching and electrowinning stages to achieve an efficient process. 

  • 198.
    Awe, Samuel Ayowole
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Hydrometallurgical upgrading of a tetrahedrite-rich copper concentrate2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Removal of impurity elements in copper metallurgy is one of the major problems encountered today since pure copper ore reserves are becoming exhausted and the resources of unexploited ores often contain relatively high amounts of antimony, arsenic, mercury and bismuth, which need to be eliminated. The present work aims at pre-treating a tetrahedrite rich complex copper sulphide concentrate by selective dissolution of the impurities, therefore, upgrading it for pyrometallurgical processing. Characterisation of the complex concentrate was performed and the result shows that antimony and part of arsenic were present as tetrahedrite and bournonite. Dissolution kinetics of tetrahedrite in aqueous alkaline sodium sulphide solutions was investigated. It was found that the rate of dissolving tetrahedrite by the lixiviant increases with increase in reaction temperature, sodium sulphide concentration, sodium hydroxide concentration, and with decrease in mineral particle size. The kinetic study indicates that the rate of leaching tetrahedrite in the lixiviant under the selected conditions is chemically controlled through the particle surface reaction. The activation energies of the process were estimated as 81 kJ/mol and 75 kJ/mol, respectively, for antimony and arsenic dissolution from tetrahedrite. The estimated activation energies were within the range reported for a chemically controlled reaction process. Besides, the alkaline sulphide lixiviant proves selective and effective to dissolve these impurity elements from the concentrate with good recoveries. Further investigations on the factors influencing the leaching efficiency of the lixiviant were studied. Analysis of the leach residue indicates that copper content of the tetrahedrite has transformed into copper sulphides with the average chemical formula Cu1.64S. The grade and economic value of the concentrate were improved greatly after sulphide treatment, and therefore, suitable as a feedstock for smelting. The impurities in the concentrate were found to have reduced to a level satisfactory for smelting operation.Furthermore, modelling and optimisation of alkaline sulphide leaching of a complex copper concentrate containing 1.69% Sb and 0.14% Sn were conducted. Response surface methodology, in combination with central composite face-centred design (RSM-CCF), was used to optimise the operating parameters. The leaching temperature, sulphide ion concentration and solid concentration were chosen as the variables, and the response parameters were antimony and tin recoveries, and the time required to achieve 90% Sb dissolution. It was seen that the leaching process was strongly dependent on the reaction temperature as well as the sulphide ion concentration without any significant dependence on the solid concentration. Additionally, a mathematical model was constructed to characterise the leaching behaviour within the experimental range studied. The results from the model allow identification of the most favourable leaching conditions. The model was validated experimentally, and the results show that the model is reliable and accurate in predicting the leaching process.

  • 199. Awe, Samuel Ayowole
    et al.
    Khoshkhoo, Mohammad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Kruger, Paul
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Sandström, Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Modelling and process optimisation of antimony removal from a complex copper concentrate2012In: Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, ISSN 1003-6326, E-ISSN 2210-3384, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 675-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modelling and optimization for the alkaline sulphide leaching of a complex copper concentrate containing 1.69% Sb and 0.14% Sn were studied. Response surface methodology, in combination with central composite face-centred design (RSM-CCF), was used to optimise the operating parameters. The leaching temperature, sulphide ion concentration and solid concentration werechosen as the variables, and the response parameters were antimony and tin recovery, and the time required to achieve 90% Sb dissolution. It was confirmed that the leaching process was strongly dependent on the reaction temperature as well as the sulphide ion concentration without any significant dependence on the solid concentration. Furthermore, a mathematical model was constructed tocharacterise the leaching behaviour. The results from the model allow identification of the most favourable leaching conditions. The model was validated experimentally, and the results show that the model is reliable and accurate in predicting the leaching process.

  • 200.
    Awe, Samuel Ayowole
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Mostaghel, Sina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Sandström, Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Wise process routes for varying feedstock in base metal extraction2011In: Proceedings, European Metallurgical Conference EMC 2011: Process Metallurgy, Recycling/Waste Treatment and Prevention, Germany: GDMB , 2011, Vol. 4, p. 1315-1322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there are several large but low-grade ore deposits that have not been extracted so far. The main reason is presence of impurities such as arsenic and antimony that increase the overall cost of the process and make the extraction uneconomical. In-depth experimental studies, plant data and theoretical modelling and innovations are needed to develop new techniques for an efficient use of the resources. Besides, recycling of metals from end of life scrap and metal containing waste, e.g. waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), is an important part of a metal production plant. Most of these secondary raw materials contain mixtures of different metals together with various plastics and ceramics that may adversely affect products and by-products of the metallurgical opera-tion. Therefore, a thorough study on how to control possible changes of properties is required. The aim of the research is to develop an optimum combination of hydro- and pyro- metallurgical path-ways to bleed out impurities from the metal extraction chain and/or convert them into valuable by-products. The first part of the current paper focuses on impurity removal from a complex copper concentrate as an upgrading stage. It is shown that by selective dissolution of tetrahedrite in alkaline sulphide solution, antimony and arsenic would be eliminated and the concentrate can be treated in pyro-metallurgical processes. In the second part of the paper, influences of one of the most common and significant compounds that is included in most of the secondary raw materials, alumina Al2O3, on properties of a copper production slag are explained. Results show that increased alumina content of the slag will cause formation of a new phase and rises the liquidus temperature, while its leaching properties are not adversely affected.

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