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  • 151.
    Miemczyk, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Towards the identification of environmental exposures and epigenetic marks related to the etiology of Autism2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Autism is a complex disorder with possible genetic, epigenetic and environmental components. As the etiology remains uncertain and an increase in incidence is suspected, the involvement of possible environmental risk factors has gained increasing attention. With this thesis, I aim to provide tools for assessing such risk factors. Firstly, I aim to construct a questionnaire for the analysis of an environmental component in the etiology of autism. Secondly, I aim to assess the importance of prenatal exposure to metals in certain diseases and thirdly I aim to construct a methodology enabling the analysis of the mitochondrial epigenome, which is especially interesting in relation to autism as mitochondrial diseases occur more frequently in an autistic population than in the general population. For the creation of the questionnaire the scientific literature was reviewed. The resulting questionnaire contains general, prenatal, neonatal and paternal risk factors. The metal analysis was conducted on the cord blood of patients who later developed autism, antinuclear antibodies positive rheumatoid arthritis or diabetes, which were then compared to healthy control subjects. My findings propose a link between elevated levels of cord blood cadmium or aluminum and rheumatic arthritis. In addition, elevated aluminum levels might be associated with autism. In regards to the analysis of the mitochondrial epigenome, to my knowledge, no standard protocol exists with frozen human whole blood as a source. In this thesis, I succeeded in creating the basis for such a protocol, however still needing several small modifications for an increased overall yield.

  • 152.
    Milton, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enclosure utilization and space preference in captive dholes (Cuon alpinus)2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of how animals utilize their space can be important when they are held in captivity. This is especially true for animals that are on the edge of extinction as such knowledge can possibly help to improve their captive breeding programs. One of these animals is the dhole, Cuon alpinus. The aim for this study was to assess how the dholes at Kolmården zoo utilize their space, if they share space and if they prefer to use specific pathways. The study took place at Kolmården zoo during 12 days and included a total of 72 hours of visual observation. A summarized map, with subdivision into 14 zones, of the dholes’ enclosure was used when recording the dholes’ location. For location recordings scan sampling was used. The dholes showed marked differences in utilization of zones ranging from the most popular zone with 1341 markings to the least popular zone with 71 markings. There was a clear preference for three zones during the whole observation period. No marked differences for utilization of zones were found between feeding vs. non-feeding days and morning vs. afternoon. Furthermore, the dholes showed a tendency for sharing space and utilization of two pathways. This project makes it evident that the dholes at Kolmården zoo prefer certain zones within their enclosure. This is probably due to that the zones preferred provides locations with access to resting, lookout possibilities etc that is important for the dholes to express a natural behavior.

  • 153. Mobley, K. B.
    et al.
    Amundsen, T.
    Forsgren, E.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia.
    Jones, A.G.
    Multiple mating and a low incidence of cuckoldry for nest-holding males in the two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens2009In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 9, p. 1-10, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A major question in behavioural ecology concerns the relationship between genetic mating systems and the strength of sexual selection. In this study, we investigated the genetic mating system of the two-spotted goby (Gobiusculus flavescens), a useful fish model for the study of sexual selection whose genetic mating system remains uncharacterized. We developed four polymorphic microsatellite markers and used them to conduct parentage analyses on 21 nests collected during the breeding season to examine the rates of multiple mating by males and to test for evidence of alternative mating strategies. Results: Results of this study indicate that male G. flavescens mate with multiple females and enjoy confidence of paternity. We detected only one instance of sneaking, so cuckoldry contributed a very small percentage (~0.1%) of the total fertilizations in this population. Nests were nearly full and males that maintain larger nests have higher mating and reproductive success, irrespective of body size. Conclusion: Overall, our investigation shows that G. flavescens is similar to other, related gobies in that the nests of care-giving males often contain eggs from multiple females. However, G. flavescens differs from other gobies in displaying an extremely low rate of cuckoldry. The study of ecological factors responsible for this important difference between G. flavescens and related species should be a fertile area for future work.

  • 154.
    Monsalve Pasapera, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Habitat Utilization of the Endemic Poison Dart Frog Excidobates mysteriosus in North-western Peru2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide amphibian diversity is severely threatened, mainly due to deforestation. Lack of sufficient knowledge for species conservation is common. This is the first detailed study of the poison dart frog Excidobates mysteriosus including habitat requirements, occupancy patterns and behaviours. It is known only from one location in north-western Peru, living in Bromeliaceae plant species. The frogs and tadpoles were found in two unidentified Bromeliaceae species; Bromeliad Species 1 and Bromeliad Species 2. Bromeliad quality variables were evaluated for habitat requirements, behavioural recordings were performed ad libitum and catching-and-release with photographingof frogs for monitoring dispersals. Results show that for Bromeliad Species 1 significantly more frogs were present in bromeliads that were wider, received less sun exposure, had deeper water cavities and in bromeliads growing on lower altitudes. For Bromeliad Species 2 deeper water cavities had a significant effect on presence of frogs. In both bromeliad species higher presence of tadpoles were found in plants that were wider and had deeper water cavities. The density of bromeliads had no effect on frog or tadpole occupancy for neither bromeliad species. The dispersal, feeding and tadpole release behaviours are reported. Individual frogs were found to disperse 0-113m. The total number of encountered frogs was 1006 and 86 tadpoles, most of them found in three core areas. These areas should be targeted for conservation management and monitoring, diminishing the high deforestation pressure which saves old-growth forests and thereby as well the preferred wider bromeliads containing deeper water cavities and the biggest frog populations.

  • 155.
    Moradinour, Zahra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Habitat Preferences of the Woodland Brown (Lopinga achine) in South-East Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of changes in grass sward composition and vegetation structure, as well as overgrowth of trees and bushes in open areas, many woodland butterfly species have declined across Europe. Lopinga achine is a flagship species of woodlands and it has gone extinct from several habitats in Europe. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of habitat factors on the occurrence of L. achine and investigate if alteration in such habitat factors effect on their movement pattern. The experiments were conducted in the south east of Sweden. The occurrence of the butterflies and sampling habitat factors were recorded in transect method in 11 sites in the province of Östergötland. Furthermore, movement pattern and flight speed of 28 individuals were tested in two sites with different habitat structures. Habitat variables including host plant (Carex montana) abundance, grass sward height, tree canopy cover and also fern abundance had a significant effect on the occurrence of the species. In addition, open area with short grass height and less canopy cover affected the movement pattern and speed of L. achine and individuals flew more straight and faster in open areas. In conclusion, results shown that habitat factors are important for the occurrence of L. achine and population viability. In addition, alteration in habitat structure such as short grass sward height and lack of bush and canopy trees effect on butterflies’ movement behaviour, which may lead to population decline or extinction of the species from local habitats.

  • 156.
    Morinay, Jennifer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. University Claude Bernard Lyon 1.
    Sources of variability in heterospecific social information use for breeding habitat selection: Role of genetics and personality in collared flycatchers2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All their life, individuals have to make decisions that may strongly affect their fitness. To optimize their decisions, they can use personally acquired information but also information obtained from observing other individuals (“social information”). The propensity to gather and use social information and the information meaning might depend on both individual and environmental factors. Studying what drives within- and between-individual differences in social information use should help us understand the evolutionary potential of this supposedly adaptive behaviour. The aim of my PhD was to empirically investigate sources of variability in heterospecific social information use for breeding habitat selection. I worked on a natural population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis, Gotland Island, Sweden), a passerine species shown to cue on the presence, density, reproductive investment and nest site preference of dominant titmice for settlement decisions. Using both long term and experimental data, I showed that the use of heterospecific social information, measured as the probability to copy tit nest preference, is not heritable but depends on male age and aggressiveness and on tit apparent breeding investment at the time of flycatcher settlement. Using a playback experiment, I also showed that female flycatchers can fine-tune nest site choice according to (i) song features supposedly reflecting great tit (Parus major) quality and (ii) their own aggressiveness level. This thesis highlights the importance of personality in the use of heterospecific social information for breeding site selection in this population, and broadens the traditionally known sources of heterospecific information to fine song characteristics reflecting heterospecifics’ quality. To fully understand the evolutionary mechanisms and consequences of heterospecific social information use, genetically based plasticity and fitness consequences remain to be explored.

  • 157.
    Mossing, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology.
    Seasonal variations in general activity, behaviour and cutaneous glandular structures in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.)1980Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The locomotor activity of the reindeer is separated into a diurnal and a nocturnal phase which, in turn, consists of a  number of short-term activity bursts. The onset and termination  of diurnal and nocturnal activity are largely in synchrony  with sunrise and sunset. Since the diurnal phase is  longer, total activity is dependent on the photoperiod. Total  activity as well as the number of activity bursts is greater  in Jùne with continuous daylight than in December with 6  hours daylight. In winter, reindeer spent less time feeding  but more time ruminating and resting *than in summer. Synchronization  between individuals was also greatest in winter. It  is concluded that the described changes in the activity  pattern are due to an endogenous component and that this component  further controls food consumption and energy balance  of the reindeer.  Seasonal variations in behavioural patterns are described.  Several specific rutting behavioürs, sexual and agonostic,  emerge in the male during the prerut and persist until after  the rut. The preorbital gland is enlarged and secretory activity  is evident. The rut is cha'tabterized by the sudden appearance  of an odour in the breath of mature males followed a few  later by a strong odour in the urine. These odours persist for  a short time during the most intense period of rut. The amount  of androgen rizes sharply and reaches peak concentrations in  late September - early October, decreasing thereafter. The  described behavioural cues occur with a certain constancy in  time in concecutive seasons.  A quantification of the amounts of secretory epithelia in preorbital,  interdigital, caudal and tarsal glands reveals that  only the preorbital gland is subjected to any seasonal and  sexual variation. The apocrine epithelium in this gland is  most developed in mature males during the rutting season and  seems to be dependent upon the presence of an elevated androgen  concentration. The tarsal gland is the least developed  gland while the interdigital and caudal glands are more welldeveloped  and structurally complex. Scattered apocrine glands  are only developed on the legs, the ventral body, oral angle  and in the rump patch.

  • 158.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Neuromolecular and behavioural profile of teleosts: - effects of boldness, agonistic behaviour and reproductive status2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates if boldness is reflected in the function of brain histaminergic system in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Moreover, behavioural differences in AB line, spiegeldanio (spd) line and wild caught strain of zebrafish have also been explored apart from the winner-loser effect in AB and spd fish. This thesis also includes studies on the effect of progestins on reproductive behaviour in zebrafish and regulation of leptinergic system on sexual maturation in male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Boldness is reflected in higher expression of histamine receptor 1 (hrh1) in the telencephalon and diencephalon of male zebrafish and dominance by an elevated expression of hrh1 in the optic tectum. In female zebrafish boldness is also associated with lower expression of histamine receptor 3 (hrh3) in the optic tectum and dominance by lower expression of hrh3 in the telencephalon. Comparison of behavioural traits of zebrafish of AB, spd and wild type shows that wild type strain is most shy and shows no gender difference. AB is bolder than spd in the open field test while spd is bolder AB in the novel tank dive test. Similarly results for aggression are also test dependent since the spd is more aggressive than AB in the mirror test, however no difference is measured during dyadic fight test. A typical loser effect and activation of serotonergic system is observed in both AB and spd fish. Further, both levonorgestrel (LNG) and progesterone (P4) cause an early puberty in male zebrafish. However only levonorgestrel causes males biased population at environmental concentrations. In male Atlantic salmon, during early spring, both leptin paralogues, lepa1 and lepa2 in the liver and leptin receptor (lepr) in the brain are downregulated in non-maturing control group. At final maturational stage both hepatic lepa1 and lepa2 are upregulated 7.7 times and 49 times respectively in maturing control males. A significant upregulation of lepr is also measured from mid to late spermatogenesis.  

    This thesis elucidates that an elevated brain histaminergic tone is associated with boldness and dominance and in both sexes changes at gene level are orchestrated by different brain region. Boldness is a contextual trait as it depends on strain, line, sex and test. The loser effect after losing a fight is present in both AB and spd line, however it has been shown for the first time in spd line here. Only androgenic progestin causes male biased population but both androgenic and anti androgenic progestin cause early puberty in zebrafish. The expression of leptinergic system is significantly affected during early sexual maturation in parr stage of salmon. Moreover, depleted fat stores are associated with low leptin levels and feed restriction is association with an elevated leptinergic tone in liver and pituitary. This thesis not only emphasizes that strain vs line difference exists and should be an important criterion before designing any experiment, but it also indicates an important role histaminergic system, progestins and leptinergic system in divergent behaviour profiles, puberty and sexual maturation, respectively of teleosts and contributes to our understanding of it.

  • 159.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. Uppsala University.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology. Uppsala University.
    André, Goncalo Igreja
    University of Western Australia.
    Koning, Harmen Kornelis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Thörnqvist, Per Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    A role of brain histaminergic system in shaping behavioural profiles in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Effect of boldness and social interaction on the histaminergic system in zebrafishManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. Uppsala University.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Boldness in males and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) is dependent on strain, line and testManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. Uppsala University.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Thörnqvist, Per Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    The aggressive spiegeldanio has no advantage in dyadic fights with zebrafish of the AB strainManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Naslund, Joacim
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; University of South Bohemia Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
    Saarinen Claesson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johnsson, Jorgen I.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Performance of wild brown trout in relation to energetic state and lab-scored activity during the early-life survival bottleneck2017In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 71, no 11, article id UNSP 165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The early life stage is typically a selective bottleneck during which individual performance is important for survival. We investigated size, energetic state, and activity, in relation to recapture probability in the youngest free-swimming stage of a territorial fish, the brown trout. In two experiments, we induced compensatory growth in wild-caught brown trout fry, using a restriction-refeeding protocol. Upon refeeding in the laboratory, the restricted trout showed compensatory growth in mass, but not in length. During this compensatory growth phase, we released the fish into their native stream habitat and then recaptured them after 1 month to assess survival and growth. Despite not having fully compensated body size at release, restricted fish did not show continued growth compensation in the stream, indicating that the natural environment limits growth capacity during early life. Individual baseline activity was scored in open-field tests before and after food restriction and was found repeatable but not significantly affected by growth manipulations. Under natural conditions, we found a positive association between open-field activity and survival (as indicated by recapture probability), but no significant differences between food-restricted and control fish. Initial body length positively influenced survival in the first experiment (early summer), but not in the second (late summer). These results contrast with the assumption that high baseline activity should be riskier in natural environments. For territorial animals, we hypothesize that activity is associated with high aggression and territoriality, which facilitates access to high-quality territories providing both shelter from predation and reduced starvation risk, which reduces mortality risk. Significance statement In the early critical life stage, more active brown trout are better survivors. This finding, which contradicts general assumptions about the balance between predator exposure and food intake, could possibly be due to trout being highly territorial species in which active individuals can claim the best territories. We also find that young trout are likely limited in growth rate by environmental conditions in the wild, as growth compensation following food restriction is possible in the lab, but not realized in natural streams.

  • 163.
    Nilsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Use of space in captive Siberian tigers2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical measurements of the use of space of an enclosure are important indicators of the enclosure’s appropriateness for the exhibited animal. By studying the animal’s use of space zoological parks are able to provide a more species-adequate environment. In this study the utilization of space by the Siberian tigers held at Kolmården Djurpark was analyzed. Data were collected using the scan sample method for a total of 120 observation hours during 15 days. The tigers showed a marked difference in the utilization of different parts of the enclosure with the number of observations ranging from 1252 for the most popular zone to only 172 for the least popular one. The tigers showed a consistent preference for two of the 15 zones across all days of observation. Further analyses showed that these zones were preferred both during mornings and afternoons as well as during feeding days and non-feeding days. This study demonstrates that the tigers might display a preference for certain environmental features as a result of their behavioral needs that are no different from tigers in the wild. 

  • 164.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of stress on fowl and their need for social support2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication has taken place over thousands of years and during that time we have bred animals on different traits. The red jungle fowl is the ancestor to all domesticated chicks, including the white leghorn which is used in egg production. The domestication of the red jungle fowl has resulted in behavioral changes between itself and domesticated breeds, such as white leghorn. In this study we examine how these two breeds handle stress and whether or not they use social support when coping and recovering from a stress experience. The study took place in a built arena with two stimuli animals on each side. There the animal was studied for 5 minutes, stressed for 3 minutes and studied again for 5 minutes. We found that the red jungle fowl males spent more time in the unfamiliar zone before stress than males of the white leghorn. Our results also showed that the females of white leghorn and red jungle fowl spent more time in the familiar zone than males after being stressed. This is an indication that they are more dependent on social support from familiar animals after stress than the males are. Aggressive behavior was also observed among the males. Red jungle fowl males acted aggressively towards the unfamiliar stimuli animals and the white leghorn towards the familiar stimuli animals. In conclusion, we found that the females where in greater need of social support than the males.

  • 165.
    Nonaka, Yuki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Life-History Divergence and Relative Fitness of Nestling Ficedula Flycatcher Hybrids2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The typical intermediate morphology of hybrids may result in their failure to utilize the same niches as their parents. However, the fitness consequences of the potentially intermediate life-history traits of hybrids have been given less scientific attention. In this study I aimed to investigate how life-history divergence in parental species affects the relative fitness of nestling hybrids resulting from crosses between collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied flycatchers (F. hypoleuca). Previous studies showed that collared flycatcher nestlings beg more intensively and grow faster under good conditions, but are less robust against the seasonal decline in food availability compared to pied flycatcher nestlings. This life-history divergence between the species allows regional coexistence. To investigate whether the life-history divergence in flycatchers influences the relative fitness of nestling hybrids, I cross-fostered hybrid nestlings in aviaries into the nests of conspecific pairs and compared their performance. I found that the hybrids displayed intermediate growth rates between collared and pied flycatchers across the season. There might therefore be environmental conditions when hybrids perform better than purebred offspring with respect to growth and survival.

  • 166.
    Norberg, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory-related behaviors in the South American Coati (Nasua nasua)2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the use and behavioural relevance of the different senses in the South American Coati is limited. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the use of the sense of smell in this species. Twenty-five captive coatis were observed at the zoo of La Paz for a total of 120 hours to collect data on olfactory-related behaviors. The coatis frequently performed behaviors in response to the detection of odors such as sniffing on the ground, on objects, on food, on conspecifics, or in the air. In contrast, they did not display many odor depositing behaviors such as urinating, defecating, or scent-marking. The most frequently performed olfactory-related behavior was “sniffing on ground” which accounted for an average of 40 % of all recorded behaviors. In general, both adult males and non-males (here defined as adult females, as well as sub-adults and juveniles of both sexes) performed olfactory-related behaviors at similar frequencies. However, a few frequency differences for certain behaviors were found in the morning and in the afternoon, and in food or no food conditions, respectively. When food was present, for example, the coatis spent less time on olfactory-related foraging behaviors like “sniffing on ground” and “nose-digging” compared to when food was not present. The finding that scent-marking was rare in this captive group, indicates little need for territorial marking or communication of reproductive state under these circumstances. Findings from this study support the idea that Nasua nasua use their sense of smell in a variety of different contexts, and further studies are needed to extend the results.

  • 167.
    Norberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Enfjäll, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Leimar, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Habitat exploration in butterflies - an outdoor cage experiment2002In: Evolutionary ecology, Vol. 16, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 168.
    Nordström, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology. Flinders University, Centre for Neuroscience, Adelaide.
    Dahlbom, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Pragadheesh, V.S.
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Naturalist-Inspired Chemical Ecology, Bangalore.
    Ghosh, Suhrid
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Naturalist-Inspired Chemical Ecology, Bangalore; Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Suzanne Eaton Group, Dresden.
    Olsson, Amadeus
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Naturalist-Inspired Chemical Ecology, Bangalore.
    Dyakova, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Krishna Suresh, Shravanti
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Naturalist-Inspired Chemical Ecology, Bangalore; Iowa State University, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Ames.
    Olsson, Shannon B.
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Naturalist-Inspired Chemical Ecology, Bangalore.
    In situ modeling of multimodal floral cues attracting wild pollinators across environments2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 50, p. 13218-13223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With more than 80% of flowering plant species specialized for animal pollination, understanding how wild pollinators utilize resources across environments can encourage efficient planting and maintenance strategies to maximize pollination and establish resilience in the face of environmental change. A fundamental question is how generalist pollinators recognize “flower objects” in vastly different ecologies and environments. On one hand, pollinators could employ a specific set of floral cues regardless of environment. Alternatively, wild pollinators could recognize an exclusive signature of cues unique to each environment or flower species. Hoverflies, which are found across the globe, are one of the most ecologically important alternative pollinators after bees and bumblebees. Here, we have exploited their cosmopolitan status to understand how wild pollinator preferences change across different continents. Without employing any a priori assumptions concerning the floral cues, we measured, predicted, and finally artificially recreated multimodal cues from individual flowers visited by hoverflies in three different environments (hemiboreal, alpine, and tropical) using a field-based methodology. We found that although “flower signatures” were unique for each environment, some multimodal lures were ubiquitously attractive, despite not carrying any reward, or resembling real flowers. While it was unexpected that cue combinations found in real flowers were not necessary, the robustness of our lures across insect species and ecologies could reflect a general strategy of resource identification for generalist pollinators. Our results provide insights into how cosmopolitan pollinators such as hoverflies identify flowers and offer specific ecologically based cues and strategies for attracting pollinators across diverse environments.

  • 169.
    Norlén, Ellen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Behavioral responses of mice to the odor of cat urine and horse urine2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The detection of predators by prey species is crucial in order to escape the threat posed by a predator. In mammals, the olfactory sensory system is commonly used to detect odors emitted by predators, and to determine how threatening the situation actually is. However, knowledge about this ability is still sparse and in some cases conflicting. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether CD-1 mice (Mus musculus) show behaviors such as avoidance, anxiety and/or decreased activity when exposed to any of the three odorants: cat bladder urine, horse voided urine or a fruity odor (N-pentyl acetate), with a blank solvent as an alternative in a two-compartment test arena. I found no significant differences between avoidance (the time that the mice spent in the different compartments), anxiety (the numbers of fecal pellets dropped by the mice), or the overall activity (the number of switches between the two compartments), when the mice were exposed to the three different odors. The fact that the cat urine derived from the bladder of the cat may explain the lack of avoidance responses, since bladder urine might not contain the same chemical components as voided urine. Bladder urine might therefore also lack the chemical components that signal “predator” to the mice. In conclusion, mice do not respond differently to the odor of cat bladder urine than to horse voided urine or to the fruity odor of N-pentyl acetate.

  • 170.
    Norén, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine reduces mating behaviour in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, pharmaceutical compounds continue to increase in our aquatic environment. The predominant route into nature is through wastewater treatment plants since the elimination of residual pharmaceuticals is still not mainstream in WWTPs. Fluoxetine is an antidepressant which is commonly prescribed to treat human depression. Wastewater residual fluoxetine is typically found in waters around the world, and can thus affect exposed organisms, such as fish and invertebrates. However, how fluoxetine may affect mating behaviour in exposed organisms remains poorly understood, and particularly so in invertebrates. This is hampering our understanding of the consequences of our medicine leaking into nature because mating behaviour often affects fitness, and invertebrates are key organisms in food chains. Therefore, I here experimentally investigated long-term effects of environmental relevant concentration of fluoxetine (20 ng L-1) on mating behaviours of male and female freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. I demonstrate that fluoxetine reduced male mating attempts with receptive females. Further, there was a tendency for fluoxetine exposure to increase latency to form pre-copula. There was no effect of fluoxetine exposure on male latency to encounter females or female responses toward males. These results indicate that fluoxetine also can affect isopods by reducing mating behaviour. In the long-term, if reproduction is delayed or reduced, it may cause a reduction in populations and thus, alter the whole ecosystem.

  • 171.
    Nygren-Fasth, Veronica
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    En jämförelse av beteendeeffekter hos slaktsvin av olika typer av miljöberikning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Among fattening pigs you find several stereotypical behaviours, such as bar-biting and tail-biting. These behaviours are quite common among domestic pigs. Environmental enrichments are often used to reduce stereotypical behaviours in animals.  An environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of an animal’s welfare, both psychologically and physiologically, through changes in the environment of the animal.

    With this study, different environmental enrichments were studied to see if they can reduce stereotypical behaviour among fattening pigs. The two different environmental enrichments used were a jute sack filled with straw and a Jolly Ball™. The stereotypical behaviours that were looked at were bar-biting, tail-biting and belly-nosing.

    The study was carried out on 107 pigs divided into 12 pig boxes, during 3 weeks in total. All three stereotypical behaviours decreased significantly. This shows that the environmental enrichments had a positive effect on the pigs, since they reduced their stereotypical behaviour.

    The pigs interacted more with the jute sack than they did with the Jolly Ball™.  The pigs preferred the environmental enrichment that was destructible, edible, deformable and chewable, which fits well into similar studies that have been executed.  

  • 172.
    Näsström, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Control and Development of the Autonomic Nervous System in Posthatch Broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Heart rate is tonically regulated by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS); parasympathetic activation decreases heart rate while sympathetic activation increases it. Previous studies on the ANS in chickens have focused mainly on embryonic development, but it is largely unknown what happens in the weeks following hatching. The present study focused on the development of the autonomic nervous system in 2 and 5 week old broiler and Red Junglefowl (RJF). Since broilers are less fearful, less stressed and less active than their wild ancestor RJF, a possible domestication effect on the sympathetic nervous system was investigated by evaluating both physiological and behavioural responses during stress. I found that the heart is mainly under control from the sympathetic nervous system in 2 and 5 week old broiler and RJF as propranolol significantly decreased heart rate during baseline and stress conditions while injection of atropine had little or no effect on baseline heart rates. When the adrenergic tone was blocked, heart rate still increased during stress, more so in 5 week old birds than in 2 week old birds. This suggests that some other physiological regulatory mechanism with fast recruitment is involved in the stress response and it matures in the weeks following hatch. No differences in behaviour between broiler and RJF were observed when the sympathetic nervous system was blocked. As both breeds show similar responses, a domestication effect on the ANS from these results cannot be confirmed.

  • 173.
    Olby, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Fodertillgång och stereotypa beteenden under natten hos Asiatisk elefant (Elephas maximus)2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Animals in zoos live in more barren environments than their conspecifics in nature. In nature, elephants spend more than 75 % of the day foraging and have been observed lying down two hours during night. Stereotypies are common in many different species in zoos. Stereotypic behaviors may constitute up to 50 % of the daily activity budget of zoo elephants. Modern zoos try to reduce stereotypic behaviors by means of environmental enrichment. Three elephant cows at Kolmårdens Djurpark were observed during night to map their nocturnal behaviors and see how they changed with feeding enrichment. The elephants were lying down on their sides 25 % of the time observed. With feeding enrichment offered in the morning, the stereotypies was reduced in one individual from 43 % to 13 % (P<0.01) and the foraging was increased in two individuals from 45 % to 80 % (P<0.01) and from 45 % to 64 % (P<0.05). Increased food access increased foraging behavior and as environmental enrichment was able to reduce the stereotypic behaviors in these Asian elephant.

  • 174.
    Olofsson, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Tibblin, Jessika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Eyespot display in the peacock butterfly triggers antipredator behaviors in naive adult fowl2013In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 305-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large conspicuous eyespots have evolved in multiple taxa and presumably function to thwart predator attacks. Traditionally, large eyespots were thought to discourage predator attacks because they mimicked eyes of the predators' own predators. However, this idea is controversial and the intimidating properties of eyespots have recently been suggested to Amply be a consequence of their conspicuousness. Some lepidopteran species include large eyespots in their antipredation repertoire. In the peacock butterfly, Mathis io, eyespots are typically hidden during rest and suddenly exposed by the butterfly when disturbed. Previous experiments have shown that small wild passerines are intimidated by this display. Here, we test whether eyespots also intimidate a considerably larger bird, domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus, by staging interactions between birds and peacock butterflies that were sham-painted or had their eyespots painted oven Our results show that birds typically fled when peacock butterflies performed their display regardless of whether eyespots were visible or painted over. However, birds confronting butterflies with visible eyespots delayed their return to the butterfly, were more vigilant, and more likely to utter alarm calls associated with detection of ground-based predators, compared with birds confronting butterflies with eyespots painted over. Because production of alarm calls and increased vigilance are antipredation behaviors in the fowl, their reaction suggests that eyespots may elicit fear rather than just an aversion to conspicuous patterns. Our results, therefore, suggest that predators perceive large lepidopteran eyespots as belonging to the eyes of a potential predator.

  • 175.
    Olofsson, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Vallin, Adrian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Winter predation on two species of hibernating butterflies: monitoring rodent attacks with infrared cameras2011In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 529-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Documentation of predator attacks in nature is important for understanding how specific antipredator defences have evolved, but previous accounts have been mostly anecdotal. Therefore, we monitored predation on two closely related butterfly species, Aglais urticae and Inachis io, during winter hibernation. Butterflies were placed singly close to the floor on walls in dark, seminatural hibernation sites (e.g. unheated outhouses). We used motion-initiated infrared-sensitive cameras to record predator attacks on the butterflies. The antipredator attributes of the two species have two characteristics: during rest the butterflies reduce predators’ attention by mimicking leaves but they can suddenly change their guise by repeatedly flicking their wings. The wing flicking also produces hissing sounds and ultrasonic clicks and, furthermore, I. io, but not A. urticae, have large eyespots on the dorsal wing surface. The two butterfly species suffer from mouse predation during the winter and mice have been suggested as potential targets for the butterflies’ sound production. Results showed that (1) mice (Apodemus spp.) were important predators on butterflies, (2) I. io often survived attacks by wing-flicking behaviour, and (3) both species moved to less accessible positions after interactions with mice and other small mammalian predators, but I. io more often so. The successful predator evasion in darkness by I. io suggests a multimodal defence; in addition to the large eyespots, which intimidate birds, we suggest that the hissing and/or click sounds produced during wing flicking may have evolved as defence against rodent attacks

  • 176.
    Olsson, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Är min häst lycklig?: Indikatorer på positiv välfärd hos häst och en checklista för bedömning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is now widely accepted that the concept of ”animal welfare” includes both the physical and mental wellbeing, and that providing positive experiences is equally important as avoiding and limiting negative ones. Most scientists seem to agree that horses experience positive welfare when exploring and feeding in complex environments and through friendly interactions with other members of the flock. In contrast, it is less clear in which situations they experience positive welfare when kept in captivity and their natural behaviours are restricted. We need indicators to assess if animals experience positive welfare, and the first aim of this thesis was a summary of the research on this subject presented the last decade. The indicators can be divided into signs of enjoyment and content (for example facial expression, body language and vocal and non-vocal sounds), luxury behaviours (behaviours not necessary for survival, such as play or allogrooming) and behaviours that supports the possibility to cope with challenges (such as friendly interactions or the possibility to control a situation). Since research has progressed so much the last decade, the second aim of this thesis was to create a checklist to be used when assessing the positive side of the welfare spectrum. However, it became clear that there is still need for more research before the indicators of positive welfare can be used in practice in a detailed checklist. This is partly due to the need for special equipment for analysis of some indicators and because many results were inconclusive or dependent on a specific context. The checklist is therefore limited to how to exclude that the horse experience negative welfare, how to provide more that the minimum level stated in the animal welfare legislation and how to provide daily possibilities to experience positive feelings.

  • 177.
    Oskarsson, Viktoria
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    How does variation in corticosterone relate to animal personality?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Animal personality is a fairly new branch of biology and has been defined as a difference in behaviour between individuals that is relatively consistent across time and/or context. What researchers now are interested in is to find out what it is that creates and maintains this relatively consistent difference between individuals. One possibility is the stress hormone, corticosterone. I have in this report summed up some of the available studies regarding animal personality and its possible correlation to corticosterone. The personality traits that have been reviewed in this report are boldness, exploration, activity, aggressiveness and sociability. The result of these studies show that boldness have both a negative and a positive correlation; exploration showed different correlations between studies; aggressiveness showed different correlation between different animal types and sociability showed both a negative and none correlations. The only one that I could not determent the correlation for was activity. The research regarding animal personality and corticosterone can be of use when looking at animal welfare and how stress affects different individuals. This can give us a direction in our work to reduce stress for animals in research facilities and food production.

  • 178.
    Panksepp, Jaak
    Washington State University Pullman, Washington.
    43 Animal Minds: Do Animals have Emotional Lives?2012In: Sustainable Agriculture / [ed] Christine Jakobsson, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1500, p. 316-323Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 179.
    Persson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Behavioural responses of mice to the odour of cat blood and horse blood2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of prey species are able to detect predators by odours emanating from their urine, feces, fur and anal glands. However, it is unknown whether the odour of a predator’s blood also contains information signalling “predator” to a prey. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess if blood odour from a cat elicits avoidance or anxiety responses in CD-1 mice (Mus musculus). A two-compartment test arena was used to assess place preference, motor activity and fecal excretions when the mice were simultaneously presented with cat blood and a blank control. Additionally, the mice were tested with horse blood and N-pentyl acetate, a fruity odour. The mice did not show avoidance of any of the three odours. Nevertheless, the mice were significantly less active when exposed to cat blood in comparison to horse blood, but did not increase defecation when exposed to cat blood. This suggests that the information mice get by the odour of cat blood did not contain the signal “predator”.

  • 180.
    Persson, Mia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of Stress and Balance of Options on Decision-Making and Associated Physiological Responses in Laying Hens2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Animal preferences in choice tests have frequently been used within animal welfare research to make recommendations about animal handling and husbandry. It is therefore important that these results are obtained in a way that, as far as possible, respects the behavioural capabilities of the animal. Stress has been shown to affect cognitive processes in animals and could therefore affect the decision making process. To examine the effects of stress on decision making, 16 laying hens were trained to distinguish between two different quantities of a food reward. A decision balance point was found, by increasing the cost of reaching the large reward, in lines with the theory of demand curves. Hens were then tested in a t-maze choice test with both balanced and unbalanced sets of options, with and without prior stress treatment. Choice, latency to choose, heart rate and temperatures were recorded. Hens that received stress treatment prior to their first test session were affected by this even in subsequent sessions where they did not receive stress treatment. This effect was not found in hens that first received stress treatment prior to their second test session. This shows the influence of previous experiences on animal decision making. Also, a decrease in heart rate during the decision making period was found, when making a choice between balanced options, indicating anticipation of difficulty. Additionally, this shows that physiological measurements such as heart rate could be of importance for future studies and greater understanding of underlying processes of animal decision making.

  • 181.
    Petkova, Irina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Royal Holloway Univ London, England.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parasite infection and host personality: Glugea-infected three-spined sticklebacks are more social2018In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 72, no 11, article id UNSP 173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of animal personality is now well-documented, although the causes and consequences of this phenomenon are still largely unclear. Parasite infection can have pervasive effects on hosts, including altering host behaviour, and may thus contribute to differences in host personality. We investigated the relationship between the three-spined stickleback and its common parasite Glugea anomala, with focus on differences in host personality. Naturally infected and uninfected individuals were assayed for the five personality traits activity, exploration, boldness, sociability, and aggression. If infected fish behaved differently from uninfected, to benefit this parasite with horizontal transmission, we predicted behaviour increasing interactions with other sticklebacks to increase. Infection status explained differences in host personality. Specifically, Glugea-infected individuals were more social than uninfected fish. This confirms a link between parasite infection and host behaviour, and a relationship which may improve the horizontal transmission of Glugea. However, future studies need to establish the consequences of this for the parasite, and the causality of the parasite-host personality relationship. Significance statement Parasite infection that alters host behaviour could be a possible avenue of research into the causes of animal personality. We studied the link between infection and personality using the three-spined stickleback and its parasite Glugea anomala. We predicted that infected individuals would be more prone to interact with other sticklebacks, since this would improve transmission of this parasite. The personality of uninfected and naturally infected fish was measured and we observed that Glugea-infected sticklebacks were more social. Our results confirm a link between parasitism and variation in host personality.

  • 182.
    Pettersson, Alice
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Can stress-related behavior in dogs be due to pain? A pilot study.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dogs and other pets can have back pain for years that no one notices. As a result they become stressed and can e.g. develop aggressiveness or decrease their feeding. There are indications that chiropractic treatments can treat these animals but this is not commonly known by veterinarians. This study investigated stress related behaviors and average heart rate in ten dogs before and after chiropractic treatment. A control group of eight dogs was also tested but did not receive the treatment. The test consisted of three parts: 1) one part without owner interaction, 2) one part where a human approached and 3) one part were the owner commanded the dog to sit and lie down. Eight out of ten owners experienced a positive change in their dogs’ behavior one week after the treatment though the test results did rather point at more stressful behaviors. The test group showed an increase in yawning and panting from the first to the second test (after the treatment) and showed a higher heart rate after the treatment compared to the control group during part 1. Probably due to that the treatment and the tests were in the same local and the dogs became stressed by being there again. Part 3 did show a possible increase in movability and contact with the owner but more studies are needed to confirm the change that the owners experienced. Though, this study is a step in the right direction; more animals could be treated and saved from euthanizing if chiropractic and the diagnosis of this back injury are taught to veterinarians.

  • 183.
    Plante-Ajah, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Bumblebee learning flights at a flower: viewing direction on departure is influenced by landmark position on approach2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bumblebees, like other Hymenopterans, perform learning flights when departing their nest for the first few times or when departing from a newly discovered food source. As bees can learn about the landmarks around a flower both on approach and on departure, it is possible that what they see and learn on approach affects what they focus on during their learning flight on departure. In the present study, bumblebees from a commercial colony placed in a greenhouse were allowed to land at an artificial flower next to a single cylindrical landmark in one of three different positions (west, north or east), while all bees departed the flower with all three landmarks present in each position. Bumblebees approaching the flower with the landmark in the west position (WEST bees) faced mostly in a westerly direction and toward that landmark on departure, while NORTH bees faced mostly in an easterly direction and toward the east landmark and EAST bees faced mostly in a northerly direction and toward the north landmark. Thus, each group was consistent but favoured a different direction and faced toward a different landmark compared to the other groups, though these differences were most prominent during the early phase of the learning flight. On the other hand, all three groups faced the flower during the late phase of the learning flight. I therefore conclude that bumblebees do learn about the landmarks around a flower on approach, and this affects the direction they face during their learning flight in a consistent way.

  • 184. Pratt, Stephen C
    et al.
    Sumpter, David JT
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of mathematics.
    Mallon, Eamonn B
    Franks, Nigel R
    An agent-based model of collective nest choice by the ant Temnothorax albipennis2005In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 70, no 5, p. 1023-1036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colonies of the ant Temnothorax (formerly Leptothorax) albipennis can collectively choose the best of several nest sites, even when many of the active ants who organize the move visit only one site. Previous studies have suggested that this ability stems from the ants' strategy of graded commitment to a potential home. On finding a site, an ant proceeds from independent assessment, to recruiting fellow active ants via slow tandem runs, to bringing the passive bulk of the colony via rapid transports. Assessment duration varies inversely with site quality, and the switch from tandem runs to transports requires that a quorum of ants first be summoned to the site. These rules may generate a collective decision, by creating and amplifying differential population growth rates among sites. We test the importance of these and other known behavioural rules by incorporating them into an agent-based model. All parameters governing individual behaviour were estimated from videotaped emigrations of individually marked ants given a single nest option of either good or mediocre quality. The time course of simulated emigrations and the distribution of behaviour across ants largely matched these observations, except for the speed with which the final transport phase was completed, and the overall emigration speed of one particularly large colony. The model also predicted the prevalence of splitting between sites when colonies had to choose between two sites of different quality, although it correctly predicted the degree of splitting in only four of six cases. It did not fully capture variance in colony performance, but it did predict the emergence of variation in individual behaviour, despite the use of identical parameter values for all ants. The model shows how, with adequate empirical data, the algorithmic form of a collective decision-making mechanism can be captured.

  • 185.
    Rasmussen, Fredrika
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    The role of serotonin in animal personality2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Interindividual differences in animal behaviour that are relatively consistent over time and context are referred to as animal personality. Personality has been recognized throughout the entire animal kingdom, in an array of species like molluscs, arthropods, fish, birds and mammals. The personality of non-human animals has been suggested to vary along five different axes, or continua; boldness-shyness, avoidanceexploration, activity, sociability and aggressiveness. Having a relatively fixed personality may seem nonadaptive compared to infinite behavioural plasticity so the individual would be able to respond adaptively to any changes in the environment. There can be physiological limitations to the phenotypic expressions of any trait, including behaviour. Variation in neuroendocrinology may thus explain why animals have personality. A candidate neurochemical that potentially proximately influences and forms personality, is serotonin (5- HT), one of the most omnipotent neurotransmitter of the animal body. In the many realms of the serotonergic system, there may arise individual differences which forms a proximate basis for differences in personality. In this review paper, I discuss the impact of the serotonergic system on a few different personality traits. Depending on the individual’s motivational state, serotonin can dampen or enhance aggression. Serotonin correlates negatively to anxious traits. Feeding behaviour is affected by serotonin in seemingly opposing directions. Overall, serotonin seem to underlie many behaviours that describe animal personality.

  • 186.
    Rehn, Therese
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Handlin, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Keeling, Linda J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dogs' endocrine and behavioural responses at reunion are affected by how the human initiates contact2014In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 124, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 187.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Foundations of Consciousness2018Book (Refereed)
  • 188.
    Rizvanovic, Alisa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory discrimination performance and longterm odor memory in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral evidence suggests that Asian elephants strongly rely on their sense of smell in a variety of contexts including foraging and social communication. Using a food-rewarded two-alternative operant conditioning procedure, three female Asian elephants were tested on their olfactory discrimination ability with 1-aliphatic alcohols, n-aldehydes, 2-ketones, n-carboxylic acids and with a set of twelve enantiomeric odor pairs. When presented with pairs of structurally related aliphatic odorants, the discrimination performance of the elephants increased with decreasing structural similarity of the odorants. Nevertheless, the animals successfully discriminated between all aliphatic odorants even when these only differed by one carbon atom. The elephants were also able to discriminate between all twelve enantiomeric odor pairs tested. Additionally, the elephants showed an excellent long-term odor memory and remembered the reward value of previously learned odor pairs after three weeks and one year of recess. Compared to other species tested previously on the same sets of odorants, the Asian elephants performed at least as good as mice and clearly better than human subjects, South African fur seals, squirrel monkeys, pigtail macaques, and honeybees. Taken together, these results support the notion that the sense of smell may play an important role in regulating the behavior of Asian elephants.

  • 189.
    Rollings, Nicky
    et al.
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Uhrig, Emily
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Oregon State University, OR 97331 USA.
    Krohmer, Randolph W.
    St Xavier University, IL USA.
    Waye, Heather L.
    University of Minnesota, MN 56267 USA.
    Mason, Robert T.
    Oregon State University, OR 97331 USA.
    Olsson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Whittington, Camilla M.
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Friesen, Christopher R.
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1852, article id 20162146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis. We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between males and females given their divergent reproductive strategies. Male garter snakes emerge from hibernation with high levels of corticosterone, which facilitates energy mobilization to fuel mate-searching, courtship and mating behaviours during a two to four week aphagous breeding period at the den site. Conversely, females remain at the dens for only about 4 days and seem to invest more energy in growth and cellular maintenance, as they usually reproduce biennially. As male investment in reproduction involves a yearly bout of physiologically stressful activities, while females prioritize self-maintenance, we predicted male snakes would experience more age-specific telomere loss than females. We investigated this prediction using skeletochronology to determine the ages of individuals and qPCR to determine telomere length in a cross-sectional study. For both sexes, telomere length was positively related to body condition. Telomere length decreased with age in male garter snakes, but remained stable in female snakes. There was no correlation between telomere length and growth in either sex, suggesting that our results are a consequence of divergent selection on life histories of males and females. Different selection on the sexes may be the physiological consequence of the sexual dimorphism and mating system dynamics displayed by this species.

  • 190.
    Rosengren, Malin
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Johnsson, Jörgen I.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Sandblom, Erik
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Sundell, Kristina
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    High risk no gain-metabolic performance of hatchery reared Atlantic salmon smolts, effects of nest emergence time, hypoxia avoidance behaviour and size2017In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 175, p. 104-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When animals are reared for conservational releases it is paramount to avoid reducing genetic and phenotypic variation over time. This requires an understanding of how diverging behavioural and physiological traits affect performance both in captivity and after release. In Atlantic salmon, emergence time from the spawning gravel has been linked to certain behavioural and physiological characteristics and to the concept of stress coping styles. Early emerging fry has for example been shown to be bolder and more aggressive and to have higher standard metabolic rates compared to late emerging fry. The first aim was therefore to examine if emergence latency affect the behavioural stress coping response also beyond the fry and parr stage. This was done using a hypoxia avoidance test, where an active behavioural avoidance response can be related to higher risk taking. No behavioural differences were found between the two emergence fractions either at the parr or pre-smolt stage, instead smaller individuals were more prone to express an "active" hypoxia avoidance response. Further, an individual expressing a "passive" response as parr were also more prone to express this behaviour at the pre-smolt stage. While there are some previous studies showing that early emerging individuals with a bolder personality may be favored within a hatchery setting it is not known to what extent these early differences persist to affect performance after release. The second aim was therefore to compare the physiological performance at the time of release as smolts using the two subgroups; 1) early emerging fish showing active hypoxia avoidance (Early + Bold) and 2) late emerging fish showing a passive hypoxia response (Late + Shy). The Early + Bold group showed a higher red blood cell swelling, suggesting a higher adrenergic output during stress, whereas there was no difference in post-stress plasma cortisol or physiological smolt status. While there was no difference in standard metabolic rate between the groups, the Early + Bold group exhibited a lower maximum metabolic rate and aerobic scope following strenuous swimming. In captivity this may have no clear negative effects, but in the wild, a more risk prone behavioural profile linked to a lower aerobic capacity to escape from e.g. a predator attack, could clearly be disadvantageous.

  • 191.
    Roth, Lina S V
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessing companion dog behaviour in a social setting2015In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 315-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing and important need for large-scale characterisation of dog behaviour, for example to conduct genetic analyses or to assess welfare. An extensive number of standardised tests and questionnaires are used for this, but few focus on the normal behaviour in situations which are frequently encountered in the everyday life of companion dogs. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a fast, but standardised method to characterise behavioural variation in pet dogs, based on a brief observation in a situation often encountered by many dogs, namely during training classes. The spontaneous behaviour of dogs was video-recorded during 3 minutes in a standardised setting, while their owners were occupied filling in a short questionnaire, and during 30 seconds of walking on leash. Behaviours, including contact seeking behaviour with both the owner, a stranger and other dogs, together with general activity and interaction with a novel object were later analysed and further processed in two separate Principal Component Analyses (PCA). The PCs from the two test parts correlated significantly with each other and aspects of both home and test environment influenced several components in both PCAs. Age and sex also showed significant effects on test outcome, e.g. age affected how social and explorative the dog was and females jumped more on their owner, whilst males pulled the leash more. In addition, dogs that were perceived as cooperative by their owner, looked more at their owner and pulled the leash less. In conclusion, this simple test captures essential parts of the normal, everyday behaviour profile of dogs, such as owner- and dog-directed social behaviour, which are not usually measured in the commonly used test batteries for dogs.

  • 192.
    Rudh, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Edström, Torkel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    IFM, Biology, Linköping University.
    Tullberg, Birgitta
    Department of Zoology. Stockholm University.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Pattern coarseness affects detectability of dull but not of conspicuously coloured poison frogs by an avian predator - implications for evolutionary transitions between aposematism and crypsisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Récapet, Charlotte
    et al.
    Univ Lyon, Univ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lab Biometr & Biol Evolut, CNRS,UMR 5558, 43 Bd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.;Univ Lausanne Sorge, Dept Ecol & Evolut, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Bize, Pierre
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Biol Sci, Tillydrone Ave, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, Scotland..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Univ Lyon, Univ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lab Biometr & Biol Evolut, CNRS,UMR 5558, 43 Bd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Food availability modulates differences in parental effort between dispersing and philopatric birds2017In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 688-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal entails costs and might have to be traded off against other life-history traits. Dispersing and philopatric individuals may thus exhibit alternative life-history strategies. Importantly, these differences could also partly be modulated by environmental variation. Our previous results in a patchy population of a small passerine, the collared flycatcher, suggest that, as breeding density, a proxy of habitat quality, decreases, dispersing individuals invest less in reproduction but maintain a stable oxidative balance, whereas philopatric individuals maintain a high reproductive investment at the expense of increased oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed at experimentally testing whether these observed differences between dispersing and philopatric individuals across a habitat quality gradient were due to food availability, a major component of habitat quality in this system. We provided additional food for the parents to use during the nestling rearing period and we measured subsequent parental reproductive effort (through provisioning rate, adult body mass, and plasmatic markers of oxidative balance) and reproductive output. Density-dependent differences between dispersing and philopatric parents in body mass and fledging success were observed in control nests but not in supplemented nests. However, density-dependent differences in oxidative state were not altered by the supplementation. Altogether, our results support our hypothesis that food availability is responsible for some of the density-dependent differences observed in our population between dispersing and philopatric individuals but other mechanisms are also at play. Our study further emphasizes the need to account for environmental variation when studying the association between dispersal and other traits.

  • 194.
    Sakreida, Katrin
    et al.
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Menz, Mareike
    University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Rottschy, Claudia
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Eickhoff, Simon
    Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany / Research Centre Jülich, Germany.
    Borghi, Anna
    University of Bologna, Italy / National Research Council, Rome, Italy.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Binkofski, Ferdinand
    Neural pathways of stable and variable affordances: a coordinate-based meta-analysis2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Vorobyev, Victor
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Alakurtti, Kati
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Does TMS on V3 block conscious visual perception?2019In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 128, p. 223-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary visual cortex (V1) and extrastriate V2 are necessary for the emergence of visual consciousness, but the effects of involvement of extrastriate V3 on visual consciousness is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the causal role of V3 in visual consciousness in humans. We combined neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a computational model of the TMS-induced electric field to test whether or not the intact processing of visual input in V3, like in V1 and V2, is necessary for conscious visual perception. We targeted the stimulation both to V2 and to V3. If TMS of V3 blocks conscious visual perception of stimuli, then activation in V3 is a causally necessary prerequisite for conscious perception of stimuli. According to the alternative hypothesis, TMS of V3 will not block the conscious visual perception of stimuli, because the pathways from V1 to the higher cortical areas that go around V3 provide sufficient visual input for the emergence of conscious visual perception. The results showed that TMS interfered with conscious perception of features, detection of stimulus presence and the ability to discriminate the letter stimuli both when TMS was targeted either to V3 or to V2. For the conscious detection of stimulus presence, the effect was significantly stronger when V2 was stimulated than when V3 was stimulated. The results of the present study suggest that in addition to the primary visual cortex and V2, also V3 causally contributes to the generation of the most basic form of visual consciousness. Importantly, the results also indicate that V3 is necessary for visual perception in general, not only for visual consciousness.

  • 196.
    Sarenbo, Sirkku
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Canines seized by the Swedish Police Authority in 2015–20162019In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 296, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inspection protocols of the Swedish police, based on the Act (2007:1150) on Supervision of Dogs and Cats, were used to examine the characteristics of 101 seized dogs, their owners, and the circumstances in which the attacks occurred. Most common reasons to seize a dog was that the dog owner was not following a previous order or ban, or that the dog had attacked and caused damage to humans or animals. The most common circumstances of the attacks involved dogs that escaped from gardens, unleashed dogs on walks and attacks by dogs on a leash. Bull breeds caused the highest number of injuries, the most serious injuries, and they were most often categorized as high risk, followed by Rottweilers and German Shepherds. Affenpinscher, Chihuahua, Cocker Spaniel, Japanese Spitz, Pug, Shih Tzu, Shetland Sheepdog and Golden Retriever were identified as victim breeds. The seized dogs had caused substantial harm to humans, animals, and their environment. The largest proportion of dogs returned to owners occurred in the Stockholm region.

  • 197.
    Sarenbo, Sirkku
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Min hund är egentligen snäll: Jag vet inte varför den gjorde så här2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Min hund är egentligen snäll är i första hand riktad till den myndighet som handlägger tillsynsärenden, enligt lag om tillsyn (2007:1150) över hundar och katter. I boken redovisas bakgrunden till rasförbuden i Danmark och Norge, och demografi över hundpopulationer i Sverige av de hos grannländerna förbjudna raserna, samt en analys av 107 stycken överklagade beslut enligt tillsynslagen. I boken redovisas också de många olika brottstyper där hundar kan vara inkluderade, vilket kan vara av intresse för brottsutredare och åklagare. Boken kan vara av intresse även för andra aktörer som arbetar med djurskyddsfrågor, beslutsfattare, veterinärer, forskare, studenter m.fl.

  • 198.
    Schrödl, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Do the tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) use their animal exploration trail?: A space use study on a 360 zoo exhibit at a Swedish zoo2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Zoos have important roles in society such as conservation, but also a responsibility concerning their captive animals’ welfare. One way of improving animal welfare is by providing enrichment and one such enrichment is the innovative animal exploration trails in 360 Zoo exhibits. These are supposed to enable the animals to travel larger, continuous distances and provide enriching visual, scent, and noise stimuli in hopes that the animals will have an activity budget closer to in their wild counterparts and having a larger behaviour repertoire. These are both ways to determine if animals’ welfare is good. However, these animal trails have yet to be evaluated for their effect on animal welfare, and this study aimed to evaluate how much a group of tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) at Öland Zoo and Amusement Park in Sweden used their animal trail and to investigate if their use was affected by the weather, temperature, or by visitors being present. The results show that the capuchins used the trail to a great extent, and that their use varied significantly depending on the weather, temperature and visitors. The data sample was, however questionable for these environmental factors and no strong associations were found for their effect, which was attributed to the capuchins possibly having a preference for being outside despite aversive conditions, but also to the design of the trail. Its design was maybe not optimal as it only had one entrance, which could impede its usefulness as a result of social factors for example. The trail does, however grant the capuchins a more complex environment, which is known to be related to better animal welfare, and the trail also gives the animals choice and control of their environment, which has been found to enable animals to better cope with stress and the presence of visitors. In conclusion, the animal trail was found to be a great extent by the capuchins and the trail could potentially provide better animal welfare, but the effect would depend on its design. Further research on animal trails’ effect of animal welfare is needed before expanding the its use.

  • 199.
    Schubert, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre. Kungliga Tekniska högskolan.
    Repelling Aedes aegypti: A sustainable plant based solution in Lao PDR2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background. Vector borne diseases such as dengue fever and malaria are spread through hematophagous insects. Aedes aegypti is a species of mosquito that transmits dengue and chikungunya in Asia. In Lao PDR the estimated direct and indirect cost of dengue fever alone is 5 million USD. Even though research and innovations in the field of vaccines are moving forward there are yet no effective treatments for these diseases. Vector control methods are in place to suppress the Ae. aegypti population but there are still more than 100,000 cases annually. However, insecticide resistance, mosquito behavioral changes, high costs and health issues make todays measures inadequate. An effective measure is to decrease the mosquito-human contact by applying topical repellents.

    Aims. This study investigates plants used traditionally for repelling hematophagous insects in Laos, with the aim of finding means to empower local communities to create their own repellents.

    Methods. After interviewing local communities in Laos and reviewing literature, 24 candidate species were compiled. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) were hydro-distilled to extract essential oils. These oils were then analyzed through GS-MS to understand their chemical composition. Finally the essential oils were formulated with soybean oil to pilot a topical repellent that was tested in vivo on Ae. aegypti under controlled conditions.

    Results. The formulations elicited about 60 minutes of full protection but when combined, a possible additive effect was noted, prolonging the efficacy by nearly 50%. The main constituents of C. citratus are neral (34.77%) and geranial (56.44%) while, in the more complex, Z. officinale the main components are β-Linalool (9.84%), Geranial (14.44%) and Zingiberene (14.43%).

    Discussion and conclusions. Botanical repellents are a viable, cheap and sustainable solution of repelling hematophagous disease vectors. The mixture of ginger and lemongrass oil can be further improved in formulation by stabilizing it, and thus prolonging the protection. Increasing yield using alternative means of extracting the essential oils would also make these oils more feasible for commercial production. 

  • 200.
    Schäpers, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Evolutionary and mechanistic aspects of insect host plant preference2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant feeding insects comprise about 25% of all animal species on earth and play an important role in all ecosystems. Although we understand that their association with plants is a key-factor driving the diversification in this group, we still have large gaps in our knowledge of the underlying processes of this relationship. Female choice of host plant is an important event in the insect life-cycle, as it is a major determinant of the larval food plant. In this Thesis I studied different aspects of insect host plant choice and used butterflies from the family Nymphalidae as my study system. I found that butterflies have a well developed olfactory system and that they use odors when searching for food or host plants. However, the information obtained from the odor of host plants does not seem to be sufficient for the studied species to make a distinction between plants of different qualities. Interestingly, even when in full contact with the leaf they do not make optimal decisions. I show for example that a sub-optimal female choice may be mitigated by larval ability to cope with unfavorable situations. Moreover, species that utilize a broader set of host plants may not be very well adapted to all the hosts they use, but at the same time they may survive in areas where there is only a subset of the plants available. Lastly, differences in the evolution of life-history traits between species can account for differences in how each species realizes its lifestyle. Thus, by incorporating findings on mechanisms of host plant choice with the ecological and evolutionary context of a species, our ability to explain the dynamics of host plant choice and insect-plant interactions can be improved.

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